Goals of criminal justice • Is system as an apparatus that society uses to enforce the standard to conduct necessary to protect individuals

and the community. • the system has three goals o • doing justice, controlling crime, preventing crime

fairness is essential, we want to have fair laws o investigate, judge and punish fairly

doing justice embodies three principles o offenders will be fully accountable for their actions

o the rights of persons who have contact with the system will be protected o like offences will be treated alike and official will take into account • Controlling Crime • criminal justice system is designed to control crime by arresting, prosecuting, convicting and punishing those e who disobey the law • this reflect tension within American values criminal agencies and processes fall short

• criminal law not only defines what is illegal but also outlines the right of citizens and procedure offices must use to achieve the system goal Preventing Crime • • crime prevention depends on the actions of criminal justice officials and citizens citizens do not have the authority to enforce the law

• citizens must rely on the police to stop criminal, they can’t take law into their own hands Criminal Justice in a Federal System • American government is based on federalism, which power is divided between  Central (National,) government and regional (state) • States have the capacity over their own affairs, but federal handles matters of national concerns. • no single level of government is solely responsible for the administration of criminal justice • constitution gives national government few powers • • • to raise and army to make treaties with foreign countries constitution does not include criminal justice among Federal government Powers

Two Justice System • majority of criminal laws are written by state legislature and enforced by states agencies Expansion of Federal Involvement • commission on law enforcement and administration of justice • emphasizes the need for greater federal involvement in local crime control

Criminal Justice as a System • assuming, criminal justice is an orderly process in which a variety of professionals act on each case • system is a complex whole made up of interdependent parts whose action is directed toward goals • criminal justice is made up of subsystems, have their own goals  other officer aren’t known and the concept is exchange  exchange allows us to see interpersonal behavior • plea bargain o deference attorney and prosecutor reach an agreement Characteristics of the Criminal Justice System • the criminal justice system has four characteristics  Discretion: official freedom to act according to their own judgment and conscience  Resource Dependence: Criminal justice system depend in others for funding  Sequential tasks: decision follow a specific sequence  Filtering: filtering process , decide how a suspects should be punished Operation of Criminal Justice agencies  the system was created to deal with people accused of violating the criminal law.  the main parts of the crimnial justice system and teri fuction is as below Operation of the Criminal Justice Agencies the criminal justice system was formed to deal with people accused of violating the criminal law its subsystem consist about 60, ::public and private agencies with an annual budget of 185:: the main part of the criminal Justice and Functions Police: is a large number of organizations engaged in law enforcement, Police agencies have four major duties Keeping peace: protecting people and rights in situations apprehend violator& combating crime: this task is done in public, police work Preventing crime: educating people about threats of crime. Providing social services: police officer recover stolen property, direct traffic, provide help

Courts are responsible for adjudication – determining whether the defendant is guilty or not guilty dual court system: consist of separate judicial system for each state in addition to National System in the dual system , law might be interpreted differently in different states the variations reflect regional difference in social and political conditions the U.S supreme court does not posses the authority to provide a final interpretation of all state laws Each state supreme law can define their own laws. Corrections American adult fall under the supervision of local, state, and federal correctional systems. Variety of agencies and programs are provide by private and public organizations Non profit organizations, such as YMCA has partner with Government Flow of Decision Making in the Criminal Justice System at each stage in the process, it is decide whether a case will move on to the next or dropped Prosecutors ca use their power to pursue cases even when victims refuse to testify many factors can influence persecutors decision to use their full power or to decline to prosecute as an alternative Steps in the Decision Making process the process may differ from stat to state investigation: the process beings when police believe that crime has been committed. Arrest: if police found enough evidence to prove particular person committed crime, they cam make an arrest – physically taking a person to custody.-- requiring warrant under certain conditions. Booking: suspect is taking to police station, which a record is made of the arrest charging : must consider the fact of the case and decide whether there is reasonable cause – police and prosecutors are linked Initial appearance: Preliminary bearing/ grand jury: decide whether there is enough evidence to proceed information: a document charging a person with a specific crime indictment The criminal Justice Wedding Cake the model show how different cases receive different kinds of treatment in the justice process Layer 1: consist of celebrated cases that are highly unusual receive much public attention serve as morality plays receive national attention case fit the ideals of American values concerning liberty,due process and constitutional rights. Layer 2: consist of serious Felonies violent crimes committed by people Layer 3: consist of felonies, bu crimes and the offenders are seen as less important than L2 Layer 4: is made up of Misdemeanor: large percentage of case fall into this category Crime & Justice in a multicultural society one important aspect of American values is the principle of equal treatment Disparity and Discrimination African Americans, Hispanics & other minorities are subjected to the criminal system at much higher rates. A disparity: is a difference between groups that legitimate factor can explain Discrimination: occurs when groups are differentially treated without regard to their behavior qualification Explanation for Disparities possible explanations for the existence of racial disparities in criminal justice People of color commit more crimes disparities in arrests and sentences may be due to legitimate factors

more people of color will end up in the courts and prisons if they more likely to commit serious crimes minorities are more predisposed to criminality people of color make up criminal class young adults , men whites & those with less than hight school diploma are more likely to use drugs. Trends helps demonstrate that criminal behavior is not liked to race minority groups suffer from poverty most crime is America is intra-racial, not interracial the criminal Justice System is Racist possible existence of racism in the criminal justice system violate important American Values about equality and fairness white drivers were more likely than minority driver to be carrying contraband o

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