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(1896) Ecclesiastical Vestments: Their Development & History

(1896) Ecclesiastical Vestments: Their Development & History

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1896 - R.A.S. MacAlister, M.A.
1896 - R.A.S. MacAlister, M.A.

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tihx<^xy of t:he t:heolo0ical ^eminarjo

PRINCETON

NEW JERSEY

PURCHASED BY THE MRS. ROBERT LENOX KENNEDY CHURCH HISTORY FUND
BV 167 .Mil 1896 Macalister, Robert Alexander Stewart, 1870-1950. Ecclesiastical vestments

-

ECCLESIASTICAL VESTMENTS

EDITED BY
G.

LAURENCE GOMME,
AND

F.S.A.,

T.

FAIRMAN ORDISH,

F.S.A.

Brass of Simon de Wenslagh

Yorkshire (showing
the Western Church).

(circ. 1360), Wensley, the Eucharistic vestments of a priest of

:

THE CAMDEN LIBR ART

ECCLESIASTICAL VESTMENTS
^hcir Bebclopmcitt anb 2|tstarB

BV

R.

A.

S.

MACALISTER, M.A.

Member of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland

LONDON

ELLIOT STOCK,

62,

PATERNOSTER ROW

1896

P

REFACE
comparatively recent years the

WITHIN
national

discovery has been

made

that

it

is

possible to treat the Bible, for critical

purposes, as though
literature,
it

it

were an ordinary item of
maintaining
a
;

while

fitting

reverence for

as the inspired

Word
is

and that

by so doing

a flood of sidelight

cast

upon

it

which illuminates the obscurity of some of its most
dlflicult passages.

So, to
possible

compare and

lesser things

with greater,
all

it

is

advisable to
(so to

discard
it)

feeling of

ecclesiastlclsm
ecclesiastical

term

when speaking of
science

antiquities.

The

of eccle-

siology
it

has

of comparatively recent growth, and hitherto suffered much at the hands of
is
it

those

who have approached
it

not so

much
it

to
to

learn the plain lessons

teaches, as to force

declare the existence or non-existence in early or

viii

Preface.
rites

mediaeval times of certain

and observances.

While we should
furniture

treat ancient churches

with

respect

and

their

a respect

which should
galleries

not be denied to the despised, though often quaint

and interesting, high pews and west
as

being

edifices or

instruments formed for the

use of the worshippers of God, yet for antiquarian

purposes they should be examined and dissected in
exactly the

same

spirit as that in

which we investithe

gate the temples of ancient Greece, or the stone

weapons of prehistoric man.
Ecclesiology, besides

In this spirit

author of the present book has worked.
its

sentimental connection

with ecclesiasticism, possesses
render
it

many

features

which
objects

the most

popular branch of the great

all-embracing science of archaeology.

The

with which
senses
;

it

is

concerned appeal strongly to the

the

finest

works of the
the

architect,

the

limner,

the

silversmith,

engraver,

the

broiderer, the illuminator,

and the musician,
all

emcome

within
live

its

scope

;

they are accessible to

who
or
a

within

reach

of an

ancient

church

moderately good museum, and the pleasant excursions and companionships with which
its

votaries

are favoured invest its pursuit with the happiest
associations.

Above
lies

all,

it

lacks

that

terrible

obstacle

which

at

the

threshold of almost

every other subject of serious archaeological study

— the

necessity of attaining perfection in at least

Preface.

ix

one foreign language.

No

one can form more
the

than the merest dilettante acquaintance with

antiquities of India, Egypt, Greece, Ireland, or any-

other country, without mastering the language in

which the records of the country are written
quite sufficient
to

;

but
is

the merest smattering of mediaeval dog-Latin

open the door to high (not, have resulted in

perhaps, the highest') attainments in ecclesiology.

These

manifold

attractions

hampering the study of ecclesiology with a serious drawback, which is wanting in nearly all the other
branches of archaeology.

The
of

investigation of the

marvellous antiquities of the four countries just

mentioned
country

— can

or,

indeed,

almost

any

other

be

undertaken by a student with
it

the certainty that if he applies himself to
ciently to master the

suffi-

many

difficulties

which

will,

no doubt, present themselves, he will be position to break ground as yet untouched

in
;

a
his

knowledge
ecclesiology.

will

enable

him
But
it

to
is

make

original

discoveries of his own.

far otherwise in

So

easily

understood are the facts of

the subject (except in a few obscure points relating
to the early

Church)

;

so definite are the statements

of the numberless records, when the vagaries of
symbolical theorizers are sifted away from them
so countless has been,
;

and

is,

the

army of students,
is

that

the scope for research-work
;

reduced to a

minimum

hardly anything

is left

for the originally-

X

Preface,

minded worker but to discover the personal names of the different artists whose handiworks he sees
before him, or else to

propound some

startling

and

revolutionary theory respecting the use of low-side

windows or Easter
this

sepulchres.

In the subdivision of ecclesiology with which

book

is

concerned, originality, whether of fact
is

or treatment,

practically impossible.

This work
it

cannot claim to be more than a compilation, but
can claim to
fill

a space not exactly occupied
it

by

any other book, in that

gives in a brief and

convenient form the principal facts connected with

vestments and their use throughout the chief subdivisions of the Christian

Church

;

it

is

not, as are

almost

all

other works on the subject, confined to

one branch only, or at most to the great Churches of the West and the East, but includes as well the
smaller and

more

isolated communities,

branches

of the

Universal

and those Church which have

undergone reformation.
Exception
in

may

possibly be taken to the

manner

which the alleged symbolism of vestments has been treated. But it is impossible to overlook the
If,

facts.

as

is

now

the opinion of every leading

ecclesiologist, the

vestments are the natural result
civil

of evolution

from

Roman

costume,

it

is

clearly ludicrous to
first

suppose that when they were
the symbolical
;

worn they possessed
alleged

meanings
is

they are

to bear

the symbolism

as

Preface.

xi

much

an accretion as are the jewels and the of
the

emso

broidery

middle ages.
attached

Moreover, the
to

symbolical

meanings
'

them

are

obviously the

private

judgments' of the

writers

who

describe them,

and are so irreconcilable and

so far-fetched, that to the unbiased

mind they do
and

not appear worthy of serious treatment.
In

some recent books on
English
characters.

ecclesiological

antiquarian matters Greek words are transliterated
into

This

practice

has not

been followed

in the present

work

because of the

unsatisfactory appearance of
dress,

Greek words in Roman
is

and because the Greek alphabet
students.

familiar

to

all

Words of
are,

other languages, such

as Russian or

Armenian,

however, expressed

in

English

letters, as their

alphabets are not so well

known, and they
type.
I

are not so easily set

up

in native

must record
to

my

indebtedness to

my

lamented

friend the late Prof.
assistance
;

Middleton for useful hints and

on-Sea, for

Dr F. R. Fairbank, of St Leonard' smany notes and references which have
;

been of great value to me, and especially for the
loan of several blocks

to

Mr W.

J.

Kaye
;

for

the loan of a rubbing of the Sessay brass

to the

Rev.

S.

Schechter for kind assistance in questions
in

which arose

the

first

chapter

;

to the Rev.

A. D. A. van Scheltema for information regarding the Church of Holland and for many helps and
;

Xll

Preface.

suggestions to

my

father, to

whom,
I

in

acknow-

ledgment of the

interest

he has throughout shown

in the preparation
it.

of the book,

wish to dedicate

A

list is

of the principal works laid under congiven in an Appendix.

tribution

R. A.

S.

M.

CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.

PAGE

THE GENESIS OF ECCLESIASTICAL VESTMENTS

I

CHAPTER

H.
VEST-

THE EARLY DEVELOPiMENT OF ECCLESIASTICAL MENTS IN THE WESTERN CHURCH

24

CHAPTER
THE FINAL FORM OF VESTMENTS

HI.
IN

THE WESTERN
60

CHURCH

CHAPTER
CESSIONAL

IV.

THE HISTORY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PROVESTMENTS
;

THE
-

ORNAMENTATION
-

OF VESTMENTS

"137

CHAPTER

V.
-

THE VESTMENTS OF THE EASTERN CHURCHES

1

75

xiv

Contents,

CHAPTER

VI.
PAGE
-

THE VESTMENTS OF THE REFORMED CHURCHES

1

92

CHAPTER
THE RITUAL USES OF VESTMENTS

VII.
-

2 11

APPENDIX
MEDIAEVAL UNIVERSITY COSTUME

I.

COSTUMES OF THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS
-

-

235

-

-253

APPENDIX
AN INDEX OF SYNONYMOUS TERMS

II.
-

-

-257

APPENDIX

III.

A LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL AUTHORITIES REFERRED

TO IN THE COMPILATION OF THIS WORK

INDEX

------

-

258
262

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
{For full
PIG.
titles

of sources follozved

see

Appendix

III)

PAGE

BRASS OF SLMON DE WENSLAGH, WENSLEY, YORKS
Fro7itispiece
1.

VESTMENTS OF THE JEWISH PRIESTHOOD.
Bock)
-

{After
_

-

-

.

-

^

2. 3.

BISHOP ADxMINISTERING BAPTISM.
ECCLESIASTICS

{Marriott)

-

37

FROM THE MOSAICS
-

IN

S
-

VITALE,
-

4.

RAVENNA. {Rock) EFFIGY OF A ROMAN MUSEUM, {B/oxam)
POPE

46 49
57

CITIZEN
-

IN

CAERLEON
-

5.

6.

THE GREAT WITH {Smith and Cheetham) STAFF. SHOWING VARIETIES STOLE-ENDS, AND ORNAMENT. {ArchcBological
GREGORY
/ourftal)
-

PASTORAL
-

IN

FORM
-

Association
-

-

-

73

7.

ARCHBISHOP
TAPESTRY.

STIGAND,
(

FROM
-

THE
-

BAYEUX
-

Willemin)

76
78 78

8.

9.

10.

DEACON IN EPISCOPAL DALMATIC. {BuHdiflg News) DEACON IN DIAGONAL DALMATIC. {Rock) SIR PETER LEGH, KNIGHT AND PRIEST. {Huines)

84

xvi
FIG.

List of Illustrations,
PAGE

11.
12.

BISHOP WAYNFLETE's EPISCOPAL SANDAL.
S

.

{Rock)

92

DUNSTAN (fROM A
library).

MS.

IN

THE COTTONIAN
-

{Marriott)

97
I

13.

MONUMENT OF ALBRECHT VON BRANDENBURG,
MAYENCE
-

01

14.

15.

BISHOP WAYNFLETE's EPISCOPAL STOCKING. {Rock) FIGURE OF A POPE {temp. INNOCENT III). {Rock)

I05

108
II7
II 7
1

16.
17.

18.
19.

A BISHOP, SALISBURY CATHEDRAL. {BloxaUl) MONUMENT OF DIETHER VON ISENBURG, MAYENCE PASTORAL STAFF AND MITRA PRETIOSA. {Bloxani) BRASS OF ARCHDEACON MAGNUS, SESSAY, YORK-

SHIRE
20.

------

20

147

21.
2 2.

ROBERT BRASSIE, KING'S COLLEGE, " CAMBRIDGE CHRYSOME CHILD. {Haities) A COPE-CHEST, YORK MINsTER. {ArchcCologLCal
BRASS

OF

^S©
1

72

Associatiofi Journal)
23. 24.

-

-

-

-

i73

ARMENIAN PRIEST. {Fortcscue) MALABAR PRIEST. {Howard)
OF

-

-

-177
1

-

-

78

25-28. ILLUSTRATIONS

ECCLESIASTICS
{King)
-

OF
-

THE
179-185

EASTERN CHURCH.
29.

A SYNOD MEETING OF THE REFORMED CHURCH

30.

DEACON

OF FRANCE. {Quick) IN FOLDED CHASUBLE, WELLS CATHEDRAL.

205

{Archceologia)

-

-

-

-

-

216

ECCLESIASriCAL VESTMENTS,

CHAPTER

I.

THE GENESIS OF ECCLESIASTICAL VESTMENTS.

THE

Study of ecclesiastical history or anbe pursued from
either

tiquities can

of

two

Standpoints.

We

may

take

into

account those essentially religious or theological
elements which distinguish this subject from
all

other branches of antiquarian science, and keep

them prominently
tions
less
;

before us during our investiga-

or

else,

disregarding those elements more or

completely,

we may

consider the subject wholly

from the point of view of the antiquary.

As
stress

a general rule, those investigators

who

lay

on the

ecclesiastical

rather

than
its

on the
various

antiquarian

side of ecclesiology and

subdivisions have been attracted to the study not
so

much by

the intrinsic interest which, in
I

some

Ecclesiastical Vestments.
degree, every branch of archaeology possesses, as

by the wish to
to

settle controversial questions relating

Church doctrine, usage, or

discipline.

This

is

especially true of the important section

of eccle-

siology with

There are two schools
and the antiquarian.

which these pages are concerned. into which the students of

Church vestments may be divided

— the

ritualistic

Each

strives to attain full

knowledge of the

subject,

and the means employed

by both schools are the same
and
artists

—the evidence drawn
But while those

from a patient comparison of the works of authors
of successive periods.
of the purely antiquarian school regard the knowledge thus gained as in
itself

the chief end of their
it

researches, those of the other consider
a stepping-stone, leading to proofs

rather as

of the Divine

appointment

of the

use

of vestments,

and

in-

dicating regulations to govern the usage of vest-

ments
It

in the

modern Church.
two
schools, having aims so diverse

is

not surprising that the results of the in-

vestigations of
in view,

should be mutually incompatible.

Accord-

ing to the views of some

members of the ritualistic school, the vestments of the Christian Church were modelled directly upon the vestments of the Jewish and as minute instructions for the priesthood
;

shapes and usage of the latter were laid
the divinely-revealed

down

in

laws

of Moses, they thus

claim an at least indirect Divine appointment for

The Genesis of Ecclesiastical Vestments.
the Christian vestments.

3

The

antiquarian party,

unanimous in holding that the vestments of the Christian Church were evolved, by a natural process, from the ordinary costume of
are
a

on the other hand,

Roman
era.

citizen of the first or

second century of

our

The
first

consideration of these

two

theories
is

must

occupy our attention.
;

Neither

absolutely

correct
is

for,

although the balance of probability
in

enormously
theory,

favour of the second view, yet
the

this

in

form in which
certain

it

is

often

stated,

does

not

cover

changes which

were made

in the textures, outlines,

and number
all

of the vestments while the Church was yet comparatively young.

These changes were and thus

intro-

duced to

assimilate, as far as possible, the Jewish
;

and Christian systems

it

may

be said

that both views contain an element of truth.

The
years

theory of a Levitical origin
;

is

the older ot

the two

in fact,

it

was the

first,

and for many

the

only,

solution

proposed.

We

shall

therefore at the outset devote a page or

considering

its

merits.

two to Very few, even among the
school,

students

of the

ritualistic

now

hold

it

absolutely.

The

weight of argument which can
it is

be brought to bear against

so great that

it is

almost universally abandoned as untenable.

For comparative purposes,
at
this

it

will be necessary

stage

to

introduce

a

short

descriptive

Ecclesiastical Vestments,
catalogue of the vestments of the Levitical priest-

hood, as prescribed in the
xxviii).

Book of Exodus
iii

(chap,
also a

Josephus

(*

Antiquities,'
subject,

7)

is

locus classicus

on the
or

and some additional
:
'

particulars
I.

from that source
'

are here incorporated

The Drawers
xxviii

Breeches
('

of Linen,

II.

The Tunic of Linen
39).

coat
tells

of
us

fine linen,'

Exod.
tunic

Josephus

that
;

this
it

was of

fine linen or flax

doubled

that

reached to the

feet, fitting close to

the body, and
It

was furnished with tight
to

sleeves.

was girded
of the

the

breast,

a

little

above

the

level

elbows, by
III.

The

Girdle.

—This

was a

strip

of linen
fingers

which, according

to

Josephus, was

four

broad

;

according to Maimonides,* three fingers
It

broad and thirty-two cubits long.

was wound
to the feet,

many
tied

times round the body

;

the ends were then

over the breast and hung

down

except

when the

priest

was engaged

in sacrifice or
it

other service, in which case he threw
left

over his

shoulder, so that

it

should not impede

him

in

his

duty.

flowers,

was elaborately embroidered with worked in scarlet, purple, and blue
It

threads.
* Mishneh
viii

Torah,

VIII,

section

de

vasts

sanctuar.,

some other particulars are to be found regarding the textures of which the Jewish vestments were
19,

where

made,

etc.

'

The Genesis of Ecclesiastical Vestments,
IV. The Priest's

5

Exod. xxviii This was an ordinary turban, fastened round 40). The description given by Josephus is the head.

Cap

('

bonnet,'

clear

and
*

detailed.
his

He

says

:

Upon

head he

wears a cap, not brought
to a conic form nor encircling the
still

whole head, but covering more than
it,

half of

which
;

is

called
its
it

mesnaemphthes

and
that

make

is

such

seemeth to be a crown [garland], being made of
thick swathes, but

the

^
Fig.
I.

contexture

is

of linen,

and

it is

doubled round

many
Vestments of the
Jewish Priesthood.

times
;

together

and sewed besides which,

a pieceof fine linencovers

the cap from the whole

upper

and reaches down to the forehead and otherwise hides the seams of the swathes, which
part,

would appear improperly.'*
* Yirlp Se
els

T?]^ Kecfidkris

4>opd ttIXov aKCOvov, ov ^uKVOvp.evov
ctt'

Tvacrav
fxlv

dvrriv,

dXX'

oXlyov,
rrj Se

vTrep/SelS-qKOTa ^fiecrrjs
^(ttlv

KaXuTcii
(1)5

fj.€(Tvaefj4e'>]S.

KaraaKevy TOLodros
Xiveov racvia

(rT€(/)av7/

SoK€lv, e^ vcfxiorfxaros,

7r€770irifM€vr]

iraxda, koI yap k-nrTva-crop^vov pdinerai TroXXaKis.

e-etra

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

These four vestments constituted the complete equipment of the ordinary Jewish priest, as prescribed in the Mosaic law.
ever,

The

high-priest,
as follows

how:

added four more, which were

V. The Tunic of Blue ('robe of the ephod,' Exod. xxviii 31). This was a long garment

which, according to some authorities, reached to
the
It
feet,

but according to others to the knees only.
in

was woven

one

piece,

with

an

aperture
;

through which the head of the wearer was passed
this aperture

was guarded by a binding or braid
from tearing.

to prevent

it

Round

the lower

hem

of

this

garment were hung golden

bells

and models
not

of pomegranates, alternating

one with another.
is

The meaning
clear,

of this remarkable ornament

and several explanations have been advanced
it
;

to account for

all,

however,

fanciful,

and not

worth recording

here.
^

VI

.

The Ephod

which was

at

once the most

elaborate and the

most important of the Jewish
fully described than

vestments,
rest.

is

more

any of the

The
is

superiority of this vestment over the
it,

others

due to the part which

and the breastplayed in the

plate intimately connected with

it,

mysterious revelations by which the children of
Israel

were guided during

the

period

of

the

cnv^uiv avioOiv
T^'jv

dvTov iKirepikpyjerai SiyKOvaa
T-qs

fJ-^xpt /xertoTrov,

T€

pa<fii]v

Taivtas kul to

drr'

avT/Js dirpeTrh KaXvTT-

Tovcra

— Translation from Whiston.

'The Genesis

of Ecclesiastical Vestments.

7

Theocracy.
irrelevant
as

For us, however, it would be as it would be futile to speculate on

the nature of the revelation, or the instrumentality

of the ephod in indicating the Divine will to the
priest.

We
as

are

here

concerned

only with

the

ephod
priest,

an element
its

in the

equipment of the high-

with

shape, and with such particulars of

its ritual

use as

we can

find directly stated in the

different authorities.
'

The

ephod,' says Josephus, was

*

woven
[gold,
in

to the
blue,
;

depth of a cubit, of several colours
purple,
it

and

scarlet

are

enumerated
;

Exodus]
it

was made with

sleeves also

nor did

appear

to be at all differently

made from
to

a short coat.'*

The vestment seems
pieces, a front

have

consisted

of two

together by
set in

and a back, which were buttoned two onyx stones, one on each shoulder,
'

bezils or

ouches,'

and engraved with the

names of the twelve
other.

tribes, six

on one,

six

on the
indeed,

Round
tells

the waist was passed a girdle, which
part

was an
Josephus

essential

of the vestment

us that the girdle and the ephod

were sewn together.

This

girdle,

which was made

of materials similar to those which constituted the

ephod, seems to have been embroidered elaborately

with coloured threads.
* Y<^av^ei5
Kal
)(^pva-ov
€7rt

(3ddos 7r7])(yaLOV eK re \pu)fxaTix)U TravTOiwv
.

a-viximroLKiXixkvov ,

.

.

xeipLcn re rjcTKrifxevos, kol

no

Travrl a-^rjixari \LT(d)V

dvai

TTiTroL-qjikvos.

8

8

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

The
its

ritual uses

of the ephod, even apart from
are
obscure.
It
is

supernatural

associations,

distinctly implied

both in Exodus and by Josephus

that the vestment was intended for the use of the
high-priest alone
;

yet

we

find allusions scattered

through the early historical

books of the Old
it

Testament which clearly indicate that by others
that
priests
as well.

was worn
1

Thus, we read
assisted

in

i

Sam. xxii
fall
.

Doeg, commanded by Saul to

on the
.

who had

David,

*

slew

.

four-

score and five persons that did

wear

a linen ephod.'

Again, Samuel,
priests,
'

when

a child in the service of the

ministered before the
(i

Lord
i8).

.

.

.

girded

with a linen ephod'

Sam.

ii

Further,

we

read that King David himself,

when he

escorted

the ark from the house of Obed-Edom

to Jerusalem,

was

'

girded with a linen ephod.'

In these three

passages

we read of an ephod being worn by the minor priest, the acolyte, and the layman, for none The most of whom it was originally intended.
probable explanation seems to be that the ephod,
originally intended as a

vestment

for the high-priest
in a less

alone,

was gradually assumed, probably

elaborate form, by the

minor

priests as well

— when
as
it

or

how we cannot

say.

This explanation assumes
laid

that the regulation

was originally
it is

down

stands in

Exodus; but

possible that the
earlier

more

stringent restrictions

may

not be

than the

recension of Ezra.

The Genesis of Ecclesiastical Vestments.

9

We
viii

learn

from the incidents of Gideon (Judg.

et

27) and of Micah (Judg. xvii 5 ; xviii 14 seq.) that the ephod, or, rather, copies of it,

early

became objects of superstitious veneration.

In the two latter passages quoted, as well as in Hos. V 4, the vestment is coupled with the

teraphim or penates, to the worship of which the
Israelites

showed marked inclination
It

at different

periods of their history.

may

be noticed in
'giver

passing
oracles,'

that
is

Ephod, which
used
as

signifies

of

a

personal name

(Num.

xxxiv 23). This was VII. The Breastplate of the Ephod. a rectangular piece of cloth of the same material

as the ephod.

That

it

might the
which
it

better hold the

precious

stones
its

with

was

set,

it

was

doubled,

shape

when

so treated being that of a

perfect square, with a side of about nine inches The stones were twelve in number, and long.
fixed in settings of gold, being arranged in four

rows of three each. On each stone was engraved the name of one of the twelve tribes. This breastplate was secured by two plaited or twisted chains of gold, fastened at the one end to
the bezils of the shoulder-pieces of the ephod, at the other to rings of gold in the upper corners

of the breastplate, and by two blue cords secured to rings of gold in the lower corners of the breastplate and in the sides of the ephod above the

lo

Ecclesiastical Vestments.
girdle.

embroidered

Josephus asserts that there

was an aperture
the breastplate.

in the

ephod immediately under For this statement there is no
;

Scriptural authority

but

it

is

possible that

it

is

the record of a modification in the details of the

vestment naturally evolved and established

at

some

time subsequent to the institution of the vestment
itself.

VIII.

The Mitre.

— This

did

not

differ

in

essence from the head-dress of the priests except
in

one important respect
set

the addition of a gold

plate,

on
'

a

lace

of blue, and
Jehovah.'

bearing

the

inscription,

Holy

to

Josephus

does

not mention this plate, but describes the mitre as
a

kind of

triple

tiara,

surmounted by
is

a flower-

shaped cup of gold,
proper."^

and covering the turban
quite at variance with

This, however,

the original laws on the subject.

In one respect these vestments are similar to
those which
it

will be

following pages.

on the subject
clearly that
'

our duty to describe in the Although there is no injunction in the Law, the Talmud states

he

who wears

the vestments of the

priests outside the

temple does a thing forbidden.'
erepo'S

*

*Y7re/)

avTov Se crvveppaixix^vos
7r€pup\€Tai
8k crT€(f)avo<s
S'
ctt'

e^ vaKivOov
IttI

tt^ttol-

KiXfJiiVos,

xpvcreo'i

t pi(TTOi\iav
xP^'^^^"^
vo<i

KexaXK€Vjxhos.

OdXXei

avno

kolXv^,

'^V

aaKxdpti) (SoTavY) irap
Kva/xov ^FiXXrjviov.

rjjjLiv

Xeyofxevrj a7ro/x€yui/x7^/x€vos,

Se

1

T^he Genesis
It
is

of Ecclesiastical Vestments.
all

1

admitted by almost

students that the

vestments during the

first six

or eight centuries of
greater simpHcity

the Christian era were of

than those of

later times.
is

much The

evidence of con-

temporary
other view.

art

overwhelmingly opposed to any
fact

This

being admitted,

we need
to trace

not be surprised by finding that until the eighth
or ninth century no attempt was

made

any connection between the elaborate vestments

which we have just described, and the vestments worn by those who ministered in the offices of
Christian worship.
It is true that until the

time we have mentioned
trouble

Churchmen

did

not greatly

themselves

with investigations into the history of the religion
they professed or the
it is

ritual

they performed.

But

also true that several authors before this date

enumerate the Jewish vestments, and enter at length into the figurative meanings which they were alleged
to bear
;

but not one of these refers to any supposed

genealogical connection
missible

— if

the expression be per-

— between
if

the

two systems.
Jewish

This would
for not only

be inexplicable

the Christian

vestments were
;

actually derived from the

would the resemblance between the two be obvious,
but the tradition of the assumption by Christian
clerics

of the vestments originally instituted for
still

the Jewish priesthood would

be fresh in the
these

minds of the authors.

Yet not only do

12
writers

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

the

two they even make
:

not point out any resemblance between use of words and phrases

which point to considerable differences between the outward appearance of Jewish and Christian vesture.

Apart from these considerations, may we not
ask with reason

how
sect,

the early Christians, a poor

and persecuted
maintain an

could possibly

elaborate

assume and and expensive system of

vestments such as the Jewish?

And

if

the as-

sumption had been made
secution

after

the days of per-

were

transaction

past, surely some record of the would have been preserved till our own

day
acts

?

We

possess a tolerably full series of the
ecclesiastical

and transactions of
that

courts in

all

parts of the

known world from
all
?

the earliest times

how

is

it

record of such an important

proceeding has perished

The

first

hint of the idea of the
is

Mosaic origin
'

of the Christian vestments

given by Rabanus
in his treatise

Maurus, Archbishop of Mainz,
850.

De

Institutione Clericorum,'* written about the year

In the

first

book of

this tract

he discusses

each Christian vestment in turn, endeavouring to
find parallels to

some of them among the vestments

of the Jewish priesthood, but without

much

success.
fruit

The seed thus sown, however, rapidly bore among subsequent writers, who expanded
theory with great elaboration.
'^'

the

I,

cap. xiv et

seq.

(Migne,

'

Patrologia,' vol. cvii, col. 306).

3

The

Genesis of Ecclesiastical Vestments,

1

Many
some of
can
be

of the identifications brought forward by
the late writers are very far-fetched,

and
that

mutually contradictory.
attributed.
It

To
is

these but

little

weight

a

significant fact

none of the writers who endeavour to

find parallels

between the two systems can discover an equivalent

among the Jewish vestments for the chasuble. Now, if for each of the Christian vestments there existed a corresponding vestment among those of
the

Jews,

it

would be singular
latter.

that the

most

important of the former should be unrepresented

among

the

The
is

maniple,

too,

has

no

equivalent

(this,

however,

more

intelligible, since
;

that ornament was certainly a later introduction)

while the amice

is

the only vestment that even the

most ingenious can produce to represent the ephod, though the similarity between the two is of the
slightest.

There

is

another important

point

which the

advocates of a Mosaic origin for Christian vest-

ments overlook.
did borrow

The
details

early Christians certainly

many
lived

of their worship from the
but

Jews who
religion

around them, and from whose
;

many of them had been converted

these details were taken not from the antiquated
ritual of the

temple worship, but from the synato

gogue worship,

Now,

the vestments

which they had been accustomed. which we have described above

were appointed for the tabernacle worship and the

14

Ecclesiastical Vestments.
its

temple worship,
vestments were
at

direct successor, whereas

no and

any time or by any authority

appointed

for use in the

synagogue worship

f
*

hence the Christian vesture cannot be said to
directly
'

come

from the Jewish.
discussed the

We
we

have

theory of a Levitical

origin on purely a priori grounds,

making only
In considering

the slightest allusion to the vestments themselves
as

find

them

in primitive times.
it is

the second view, to which

now

time to turn,
shall first

we
or

shall

adopt a different course.

We

collect

the

main

facts

which can

be discovered

deduced respecting vestments in the earliest centuries of Christianity, from the beginning till
the rupture of the East and the West, and then
discuss in detail the vestments as

we
all

find

them

in

the succeeding period, which in

ecclesiastical

matters was a period of transition, comparing each
in turn with its hypothetical prototype
civil

costume of the Romans.

among the The remainder of

the present and the whole of the succeeding chapter
will be

devoted to this investigation.
materials available for an inquiry into the
:

The

vestment usage of the early Church are twofold

the incidental statements of contemporary authors,

and the more
* Such
this
is

direct information obtained
as

from a

a

vestment
all

the talith

is

not here considered, for

worn by

the worshippers alike, as well as

hj the

officiating minister.

5

^Khe Genesis

of Ecclesiastical Vestments.

1

study of contemporary paintings and sculpture.

We

shall

now

discuss

the results which follow
sources.

from an examination of these

The
on the
and
all

references

in

the

earliest

writers

—even
;

including those which have a very indirect bearing
subject

are extremely

few

in

number

passages which

can

possibly throw any

light on the question have been eagerly sought

out and called into evidence to support one theory
or another.

statement of
habiit in

The two best-known passages are the Holy worship hath one St Jerome
*
: '

common
in

and and the yet more famous passage the liturgy of St Clement, in which a rubric
life

the ministry, another in general use
;*

directs the priest to begin the service a shining vesture.'j"
/iierev^vQ

*

girded with
eaOioTa

The

phrase Xa^Trpai^
*

has

been

translated

being girded with

his " splendid " vestment,' a translation which the

Greek cannot

possibly

bear

;

and

this

passage,

coupled with the excerpt from Jerome just quoted,

have been brought forward to
vestments were in use even
thos;e

testify that

gorgeous

at the early times

when

documents from which they have been exReligio divina alterum

tracted were written.
"'•'

Hieron. In Ezek., cap.
in ministerio

xliv.

*

habitum habet
t
Et'^a/xei/09

alterum

in usu vitaque

communi.'

ovv KaO^ eavrov 6 dpxt^^p^vs a/xa rots UpevaLV
T(^ dvcnacrTrjpLOi
Troirja-d-

Kal \afM77pav i(Tdy]Ta fierevSvs Kal crras Trpbs

TO TooiraLOv rod crravpov Kara tov parioTTOv tov X^tpl
fl€VO<i; ClTTaTO)

K,T.\.

6

1

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

Mr. Marriott has carefully examined and gommented on these and the other passages cited as
authorities.

He

proves that the
context

first

passage given

used in a is Jerome, though possibly he may have had Christian usage in his mind, was thinking primarily of Jewish usage the second (which not improbably is an

above

which shows that

;

interpolation) does not specify a

*

splendid

'

vesture,

but a

'

white

'

or

'

shining

'

garment.

Mr.

Marriott's inference
is
'

from these and similar

passages

that white
[i.e.,

was the colour appropriated
in the first four centuries]

in primitive times

Though to the dress of the Christian ministry.' preferable to the theory that the this view is
primitive vestments were of the same elaborate
description as their mediaeval successors, yet
it

does

not altogether

commend

itself as

following naturally

from

the authorities cited.

It will

be necessai y to
shall

review these passages,

for, as

we

endeavour

to show, they are quite consistent with the third
alternative
:

that no distinctive vestments

were

set

apart for the exclusive use

of the Christian minister

during the

first

four centuries of the Christian era.
is

from Jerome. another part of the same commentary as the

The

third

passage

also

In
last

he writes

'
:

From

all

these things

we

learn that
clad in our

we ought

not enter the

Holy of Holies

everyday garments and in whatever
will, defiled as they are

clothes

we

by the usage of

common

77?^ Genesis
life

of Ecclesiastical Vestments,

ly

;

but with pure conscience and in pure garments

we ought to hold the sacraments of the Lord.'* The fourth passage is from Jerome's letter
against the Pelagians,
in

which occur these resay,

markable words

:

*

You

further,
is

that

gor-

geousness of apparel or ornament

offensive to

God.
tunic,
priest,

But,

I

ask, suppose
it

I

should wear a comelier

wherein would

offend

God

?

or if bishop,

deacon, and the rest of the church officers
V'\

were to come forward dressed in white

Only one other passage remains.
account

This
against

is

the

of

the charge

preferred

Cyril,

Bishop of Jerusalem, before the Emperor Constantius.
It
is

narrated

in

Theodoret
thus

(Eccl.
at

Hist.,

ii

27), and, not

being worth quoting
:

length,

may

be

briefly stated

Constantine

had sent to Macarius, the then bishop, a sacred
Uciav aroXw made of threads of gold, to be worn when administering baptism Cyril had sold this robe to a stage-dancer, who wore it during a

robe

;

*

'

Per quae discimus non quotldianis

et quibuslibet

pro

usu vitae

communis

pollutis vestibus nos ingredi

debere in

sancta sanctorum sed

munda

conscientia et

tcnere
f

Domini sacramenta.'

— Hieron.
et
?

mundis vestibus
esse
si

in Ezek., cap. xliv.

'Adjungis gloriam vestium

ornamentorum Deo
contra
episcopus

contraiiam.

Quae sunt rogo tunicam habuero mundiorem
Candida
i,

inimicitiae
si

Deum

presbyter

et

diaconus et reliquus
sacrificiorum
Pelagianos,

ordo ecclesiasticus in
veste

administratione

processerint

?'

— Hieron.,
2

Adv.

lib,

cap. 9.

8

1

Ecclesiastical Vestments,
It

public exhibition.

was further

stated that the

stage-dancer had
fatally injured.

fallen while

dancing and been

As

the reader will see, these passages give but
as to the vestment-usage

few data for deductions
in the early

Church.

instance, in the passage

There is no indication, for from Theodoret of what
was
:

sort the sacred robe in question
as well

it

may

just

have been a splendid garment originally

from some temple or other.
early

The

fact that

the

Greek

ecclesiastical

writers

do not use the
argument.
(early

word

GToXi] to

denote a sacred vestment further
this anecdote as an

weakens the force of

Only Germanus, Patriarch of Constantinople
he says
AapCjv
aroXri tov lepetjQ

seventh century), supplies another instance, where
:

i]

.

.

.

Kara rov

no^rj^r]

;

and this latter passage can be explained
0-70X77

away, as

refers here to Jewish vesture, in
it is

which connection
Septuagint.

also

employed by the

On

a

careful
it

and unbiased reading of these
noticed that nothing
is

passages,

will be

said

which can be construed into denoting garments of
a special prescribed shape,

and that

their colour

is

only specified by such indefinite words as Xafnrpoq

and Candidas.
It
is

also

important to notice that although in
cited

the

first

and third of the passages
a

from

Jerome

more

special

mention

is

made of the

9

;

The Genesis of Ecclesiastical Vestments,
dress of the
clergy, yet
either
it

1

is

not straining the

meaning of
applying
worshippers.

of them
to

to regard
dress

them

as

equally well

the

of the lay
the

This, of course,

would preclude

supposition that they deal with any special ritual
observance.
translated into

The

second of these quotations,

if

homely nineteenth-century language,

resolves itself into a simple but strong injunction

to

all

worshippers (not the minister only) to wear

their
stress
its

Sunday

clothes.

Mr

Marriott lays great

on the passage
is

in the letter against Pelagius

testimony

one of the strongest arguments
his thesis,

which he can bring forward to support
that
it

was

specially appointed, in the primitive

church, that white vestments (something like the

modern

surplice) should be
say,

worn by
*

the minister.
displeased

But Jerome does not
veste
?'

Is

God

because the officers of the church dressed Candida

but

'

were so
thetical
;

vested.^'

would God be displeased if they The entire passage is hypothat
fast

and nothing is more clear than Jerome was not contemplating any hard and
rules.

We
tine

may

dismiss the passage

from the ClemenAa^irpog^

Liturgy with very few words.
ritualists translate
'

which the

'

splendid,' in classical

Greek always means

bright, brilliant, radiant,'*
edit,

and

* See Liddell and Scott, Greek Lexicon,

maj., sub

20
is

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

applied in

Homer to

the sun and stars.
'

It is also
;

applied, in the sense of

bright,' to

white clothes

indeed,

we

find in Polybius^ {flor, circa

150

B.C.)

this very phrase, Xajnirpa kaQiK, equivalent to the

Roman
(of

/^^<^ Candida.
'

Other meanings are *limpid'
'

water),
'

sonorous
action),
*

(of
*

the

voice),
'

'

fresh,

vigorous

(of

manifest,'

illustrious,'

'munificent,'

joyous,'

'splendid'

(generally,

in

outward appearance,
but
it

health, dress, language, etc.);

never wears the definite meaning which
expect

we
be

should

were

the

word intended

to

applied to a definite vesture.

The
in

Xa^iTrpa

kM^q

of the Clementine Liturgy
clean
robe,

is,

short, a bright,

but

no more an
nature

article

of an exthe
'

clusively

ecclesiastical
'

than

is

fair

white linen cloth

with which the rubric of the
Service directs the altar to

Anglican

Communion
passage,

be covered.

Another
to

somewhat

later in date,

may
is

be

cited as a type of a large class of passages very apt

mislead

too

credulous

students.

It

the

Gaulish description of St Berignus cited by Lipo-

manus (de
1

Vitis
vi, p.

Sancton,
4),
'

Ed.

Surius,

Venice,

58

1,

vol.

Vidi

quendam hominem
differt

peregrinum, capite tonso, cujus habitus

ab

habitu nostro, vitaque eius nostrae dissimilis

est.'

The

context, however,
is

makes

it

plain that secular,

not religious, dress

intended.
5,
I.

* Polyb., 10,

The Genesis of Ecclesiastical Vestments. 21

And when we

refer to

the few early frescoes

and mosaics which have come down to us from
the primitive epoch,

we

find ecclesiastics, apostles,

and Our Lord Himself, represented as habited in the tunic and toga or pallium of Roman everyday
life.

We gather, therefore, from
the
exclusive

these scattered shreds

of evidence that, during the first centuries of the Christian church, no vestments were definitely
set

apart

for

use
:

of the

clergy

who

officiated at Divine service

that clergy and
in

people wore the same style of vesture both
tinctions of quality and cleanliness.

church and out, subject only to the accidental dis-

Fashion

in

dress

or

ornament

is

subject

to

constant changes which, though perhaps individually trifling, in time

amount to complete revolu-

tions
false,

;

but the devotees of any religion, true or
are

by nature conservative of its doctrines Combined with the conclusions or observances. at which we have just arrived, these two universally
recognised statements yield us presumptive evidence

of the truth of the theory which views the
civil

Roman
that
at

dress

as

the

true

progenitor of mediaeval

ecclesiastical
first

costume.

We

have seen

the

both at
slowly
while

wore the same costume Fashion would worship and at home. change unchecked from year to year,
worshippers
conservatism

ecclesiastical

would

retard

22

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

such changes so far as they concerned the dress

worn
spring

at

Divine service
into

:

small differences

would
dress
differ-

existence

between

everyday

and the dress of the worshipper, and these
ences, at first
as

hardly perceptible, would increase

the

process

went on,

till

the

two

styles

of

costume became sharply distinguished from one
another.
Parallel cases are not
is

wanting to show that

this

not altogether mere

random

theorizing.

For

example, the ministers of the Reformed Church of

Holland maintained,

till

comparatively recently, a

picturesque fashion of dress over a century old,

which they wore only when conducting Divine
service.^

Perhaps, however, the objection
if

may
the

be urged against this view of the case, that
process were such as

we have

described,

it

should
:

apply as weJl to the worshippers as to the minister

that they, as well as he, should wear service-robes.
It
is

possible that this

would

actually have been

the case had the church services maintained their

most primitive form,

as St

Paul describes
'
:

it

in the

First Epistle to the Corinthians

When

ye

come

together, every one of

you hath
that
is,

a psalm,

hath a

doctrine, hath a tongue,

hath a revelation, hath

an

interpretation

'

;

f

had

all

the wor-

shippers maintained an equally prominent position
* See Chapter VI.
t
I

Cor. xiv 26.

T^he Genesis

of Ecclesiastical Vestments. 23

instead of selecting one of their

number to conhis

duct their services.

At

it

was, the outstanding

position of the minister rendered

equipment

especially liable to such stereotyping as

we have

imagined.
In the following chapter
truth of this theory to a

we

shall

submit the
of

test.

If the genesis

ecclesiastical vestments actually took place in some

such manner as
find

this,

then the vestments

as

we
civil

them

described in the earliest writers ought to

bear conspicuous points of resemblance to the

costume of the
this be so.

Roman

people during the

first

three

Christian centuries.

We shall

now

inquire whether

CHAPTER

II.

THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF ECCLESIASTICAL VESTMENTS IN THE WESTERN CHURCH.

THE
been
the
imperial

last

chapter has carried us

down

to

the end of the fourth century a. d.

For

some time back
showing
signs of

the

Roman Empire had
Already
the

disintegration.

three sons of Constantine had

divided

power among themselves
In
395,
left

;

but the rule

thus severed had again been united in the person

of Constantius.

however, the emperor
the empire of the world

Theodosius died, and
Honorius.

to be parted between his

two

sons,

Arcadius and

would be outside our scope to enter into the details of the far-reaching consequences of this
It

great event.

For our present purpose

it

is

suf-

ficient to state that, with the empire in which it had been born and nurtured, the church was divided into two parts, which were thenceforth to

Early Development of Vestments,
develop independently,
widely divergent
It will
lines.
first

25

now

in

parallel,

now

in

be convenient to regard the

chapter

as dealing with the period

between the institution of Christianity and the partition of the Roman Empire ; and in the present chapter to discuss the
interval between the latter event

and the accession
the

of Charles the Great.
history
into

We

thereby divide

two epochs of approximately four
distinguish

centuries each, with characteristics sufficiently well

marked

to

one
shall

from

the

other.

Following Marriott, we

name

the

first

the

primitive, the second the transitional period.

We

have seen that there is no evidence that vestments of any definite form were prescribed for use during the former epoch we shall see in the present
;

chapter

how

vestment-usage rapidly developed in

the churches of the

West

till it

culminated

in the

gorgeous enrichment of medieval times.

Although the difi-erences between the vestments of the Western and the Eastern churches consist
largely in matters of detail, they are sufficiently

conspicuous,

and

their

histories

are

sufficiently

divergent, to render their independent treatment
advisable.

We
and

shall therefore
till

postpone the
of

dis-

cussion of the latter

we have

investigated the

evolution
former.

subsequent

elaboration

the

The empire

to which

Honorius succeeded con-

26
sisted

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

of

Italy, Spain,
is

Gaul, and Britain.

Although

the evidence which

extant does not permit us to

trace completely the history of vestments through-

out this period, yet from scattered documents

we

are able to see that for the most part the develop-

ment of ecclesiastical costume proceeded on the same lines throughout this vast area.
Ritual
in

matters of dress
Celestine,

had rapidly been
the

growing.

Pope

who occupied

Roman

See from 423
a

till 432, found it necessary to write sharp letter to the Bishops of Vienne and Nar-

bonne
stitious

for

*

devoting themselves rather to superin

observances

dress than
it

to

purity of

heart and faith.'

Certain monks,

appears, had

attained to episcopal rank, but had retained their
ascetic costume.

Some of
this

Celestine's sentences are
;

very striking in they
refer

connection
to

and although
costume,

primarily

out-door

we
the

cannot but think

that, in

a later age,

when

regulations governing the ritual uses of vestments

had been formulated, and the vestments themselves had been elaborated to their ultimate form, the
force of his words

would have been somewhat
girdle,

modified.
says,
*

'By

dressing in a cloak [pallium'],' he

and by girding themselves with a
fulfil

they think to
the
spirit,

the truth of Scripture, not in

letter. For if these precepts were given to the end that they should be obeyed

but in the

in this wise,

why do

they not likewise that which

T^he
follows,
as well

Early Develop?nent of Vestments.
lights in
?

27

and carry burning

their

hands

as their pastoral staves

We

should be

distinguished from the
all

common

people, or from
;

others,

by our learning, not by our dress
life,

by

our habit of
purity

not by our clothing

of our

minds, not
if

by the by the cut of our
;

garments.

For

we begin

to introduce novelties,

we

shall

trample under foot the usage which our

fathers have handed

down

to us, and give place to

vain superstitions/

The

fullest

information on the subject of vestthis period

ments during

comes from Spain,

in the

oft-quoted acts of the fourth council of Toledo,

which
Seville

sat

under the presidency of St Isidore of
the year G^Zat this

in

Of

the canons which
is

were drawn up

council that which
is

of the

highest importance in this inquiry
eighth, although
it

the twenty-

is

not directly connected with
for

vestment-usage.
cleric

It

provides

the

case

of a

who had

been unjustly degraded from his
if

order,

and ordains that such a one,
'

he be found

innocent in a subsequent synod,

cannot be rein-

stated in his former position unless he regain his
lost dignities

before the altar, at the hands of a
a

bishop.

If he be

bishop, he
staff;

must

receive the

ovarium,^ ring, and
* Throughout
this

if a priest, the
I

orarium

chapter

have retained the Latin
to

words

orariu7n, planeta

and alba

in preference

the English
treating of

translations 'stole,' 'chasuble,'

and

'alb,'

when

:

;

28
and planeta
if a

Ecclesiastical Vestments.
;

if a

deacon, the ovarium and alba

subdeacon, the paten and chaHce, and similarly

for the other orders

— they must
is all

receive,

on

their

restoration, whatever they received

on their ordi-

nation.'*

On

the principle which

but universal, that

the clergy of the higher orders added the insignia

of the lower orders to those of their own,

we

are

enabled by the help of this act to draw up a table

of the vestments recognised in Spain, which shows
at a

glance the manner in which they were dis-

tributed
^/i?a

among
:

the different orders of clergy

worn by all alike. : worn by deacons, priests, and Planeta : worn by priests and bishops.
Orarium
staff : exclusively for bishops.

bishops.

Ring and

Some

letters

of Gregory the Great (Bishop of
give us particulars relating
to

Rome 590-604)

the vestments of the early church.
tical,

The two
a short

are not idendistin-

and
*

it is

convenient to have

method of
a

guishing one from the other.

*

Episcopus presbyter aut diaconus

si

gradu suo iniuste

delectus in secunda synodo innocens reperiatur
esse

non

potest

quod fuerat
episcopi
;

nisi
(si

gradus amissos recipiat coram altario de

manu
si

episcopus) orarium
;

annulum

et

baculum

;

presbyter orarium ct planetam
;

si

diaconus orarium et
;

albam

si

subdiaconus patenam

et

calicem

sic

et reliqui

gradus ea in reparationem sui recipiant quae
perceperunt.'
the

cum

ordinarentur

[The bracketed words have dropped out from
their restoration
is

MS., but

certain and necessary.]

The Early Development of Vestrnents.

29

three other vestments not in general use throughout the church. These are the dalmatica, the
7nappula,

and the pallium.
manualia^

Lastly, an

anonymous
and stola

MS.
as
It

of uncertain date* enumerates the pallium,

casula,

vestimentwm,

alba,

the vestments
is

worn

in

the Gallican Church.

to

be regretted that

none of the British

authors of the period have preserved any record

of contemporary vestment -usage in this country; we have, however, no reason to suppose that it
differed

from that of the Continent.

Let us
order,

now

and

collect
their

take each of the above vestments in whatever information is obtain-

able

upon

each in turn with
I.

appearance and history, comparing its supposed Roman prototype.

The Alba.

—This

word

is

the

abbreviated

form of the
flowing
tunic
that

full

alba, by which a of white linen was denoted. It
first

name, tunica
use

appears

the

of this word
is

as

a

technical term for a special robe

in a

passage

of Trebellius Pollio (in Claud., xiv,
* This

xvii),

who
it

MS.
vol. v,

is

edited

in

Martene's

Thesaurus Anecare

dotorum,
in

p.

86
p.

et seq.,

and extracts

made from
in

Marriott's work,

204.
at

The MS. was found
Autun, and
is

the

monastery of St Martin
tene
to

assigned by

Mar-

the
is

sixth

century,

though on doubtful grounds.
it

Marriott

probably correct in referring

to

the tenth.

As

describes rather resemble those of the final period than of the transitional, we reserve its disit
till

the vestments

which

cussion

the following chapter.

30

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

speaks of an alha suhserica^ mentioned in a letter
sent from Valerian to Zosimio, Procurator of Syria,

about 260-270 A.D.

In the 41st canon of the

fourth council of Carthage {circa

meet with the
astical

first

use of this

400 a.d.)* we word in an ecclesigovern the

connection, in one of the earliest (if not

the earliest) regulations ever passed to
ritual usage of vestments.

This ordains that the

deacon
tionis

shall

wear an alha only ^tempore ohla-

tantum vel lectionis'
constant evidence of contemporary pictures

The
vesture.
tunic,

indicates that the alha

was
it

a long, full, and flowing differed from the

In this respect

Mosaic

on the one hand, and the mediaeval alb on

the other.

Both these vestments

fitted closely to

the body for reasons of convenience, for a flowing
tunic would obviously
in the discharge

hamper the

Levitical priest

of his

sacrificial duties,

and would

not

sit
it

comfortably

under the vestments with
in mediaeval times.

which

was overlaid

Nearly two centuries after the fourth council
of Carthage

we

find the first council of
*

Narbonne

(a.d. 589) enacting that

neither deacon nor subshall
is

deacon, nor yet the
off his alba
till

lector,

presume to put

after

mass

over.'f

To

this

* Labbe, Sacrosancta Concilia (1671), vol. ii, col. 1203. t Nee diaconus aut subdiaconus certe vel lector ante*

quam

missa
i,

Narb.,

Labbe,

consummetur alba se prassumat exuere.' Concil. vol. v, col. 1030 (misprinted 1020).

The Early Development of Vestments,
canon, which was clearly framed to check

3

some

tendency to irregularity that had become noticeable in the celebration of mass, we are indebted
for two facts first, that ritual usage in vestments was now firmly established and second, that the alba was the dress of the minor orders of clergy. This latter point is not clearly brought out in the
:

;

Toletan canon already quoted.

Of the garments worn in everyday life by the Roman citizen, the innermost was the tunica talaris,
or long tunic.
usually of

This
;

wool

it

article of dress was white, was passed over the head and

reached to the

feet,

the epithet talaris

('

reaching
it,

to the ankles') being

employed

to distinguish

as

the tunic of ceremony, from the short tunics

worn
it

when freedom was required
It

for active exertion.'"'^

fitted tolerably closely

to the body,

though

was
it.

sufficiently

loose to require a girdle to confine

The

tunics of senators and equites were dis-

tinguished by

two bands of

purple, in the former

case broad {lati clavi), in the latter
clavi),

for

narrow {angusti which passed from the sides of the aperture the head down to the lower hem of the
comparison of the
civil

garment.

A

ecclesiastical

tunica alba

with the

remarkable
*
It

tunica talaris will bring out some points of resemblance. Both were
and usual
to gird

was

also possible

up the tunica

talaris

for this purpose.

32
worn
feet
;

Ecclesiastical Vestments.
in the
it

is

same manner, and both reached to the true that the ecclesiastical dress was
than the
civil,

slightly fuller
as

but this was necessary,
the alba for the

room was required underneath
Further,

wearer's everyday dress.
astics

we

find ecclesi-

represented in ancient frescoes wearing albae

which actually show ornaments disposed like the clavi of the tunica talaris. These clavi were early

employed by the Christians to distinguish, by their relative width, the representations of Our Lord from
those of the Apostles, or to discriminate between
the figures of ecclesiastics of different orders.
It is also

important to notice that the alba

is

invariably furnished with tight sleeves reaching to

the wrist.

The

tunic was originally a sleeveless

garment
favour.

;

but with the growth of luxury, a

new

kind provided with sleeves gradually came into

These two forms of
:

tunic were distin-

guished by different names

the older or sleeveless

tunic was called colobium^ a Latinization of the

Greek name /coXojSioi/ ;* and the latter or sleeved tunic was named tunica manicata or tunica dalmatica^ from the name of the province to which its invention was ascribed.

In the early days of

Rome

the use of a tunica

dalmatica stamped the wearer with the stigma of The effeminacy and utter want of self-respect.
'''

Derived from the adjective ko\o/36s,

docked, curtailed, in

reference to the shortened sleeves of the garment.

T^he

Early Development of Vestments.

33

parents of Cornelius Scipio and of Fabius are said
to have openly disgraced
as a

them
in

in their

boyhood,

punishment ad
despicable

corrigendos mores, by

comElaga-

pelling

them to appear
all

public in this attire.

The

emperors Commodus and

balus offended

persons of good taste by coming
:

out before
the
latter

all

the people in the same costume
calling

impudently

himself

another

Scipio or Fabius, in reference to the incident just
related.*

This, however, cannot

mean

that the

scandal lay in the adoption of the luxurious tunica

dalmatica in preference to the colohium (for
in the

Rome

time of Elagabalus was too deeply steeped luxury and vice to feel shocked at an Emperor in merely preferring an under-garment with sleeves
to one without those appendages)
sisted in his neglecting to
;

it

rather con-

put on his 'pallium, or
dalmatica

outer dress, over

it.

In

fact, the tunica

must have quite ousted its severer favour by the time of Elagabalus
:

rival in

popular

for

we

find that

in 258, only thirty-six years after the death

of that

emperor, St Cyprian of Carthage wore a tunica
dalmatica,

over which was

a

hyrrhus, or cloak,
It
is

when led out to martyrdom. f
* Lampridius
xxvi. t
col.

absurd to

suppose that Cyprian, on such a solemn occasion,
in

Commodo,
Jin.

cap. viii

;

in

Elagab.,

cap.

Acta
1504).

S

Cyp., prop.

(Migne, Patrologia,

vol.

iii,

3

34

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

would have assumed a merely luxurious garment, and equally absurd to imagine that he would have worn ecclesiastical vestments at the time, as some commentators on the passage have held. There remains only one other alternative that the tunica dalmatic a was the form of tunic which was

in regular use at the time,

and

this

seems quite

the most

satisfactory hypothesis.

The most important mention of
dalmatica in connection with
is

the

tunica

ecclesiastical

matters

in

the decree of Sylvester,

Bishop of Rome,
'that deacons

253-257.

That

prelate ordained

should use the dalmatica in the church, and that their left hands should be covered with a cloth

of mingled wool

and
'

linen.'*
;

Various authors
the

supplement

this

passage

thus,

anonymous
formerly
*

author of the tract
attributed

De

Divinis
us

Officiis,'

to Alcuin, tells

that

the use of

dalmaticae was instituted by

Pope

Sylvester, for

previously colohia had been worn.'f

Much
decree.

importance
It
is

has

been attached to this
vestments

regarded as an additional and in-

controvertible
*
*

proof that
tegeretur.'
;

ecclesiastical
in

Ut

diaconi

Dalmatica uterentur

ecclesia et pallio

linostimo laeva

eorum

— Anastasius
Migne,
a

Bibliothecarius

de Vit. Pontif.,
J514.

§ 35 (S Sylv.)

Patrol., vol. cxxvii,

t
tutus

'

Usus autem Dalmaticarum
est:

B. Sylvestro

Papa

insti-

nam

antea colobiis utebantur.'

— Pseudo-Alcuin

de Div.

Off., cap.

xxxix

;

Migne,

vol. ci, 1243.

The Early Development of Vestments,
were
in use
in

35

the

primitive
it

church.

But on

examination, however,

will

be found no more

to bear such a construction than St Paul's request for his f^aiKovx). The ordinance merely shows that
Sylvester had a laudable desire
aesthetics

to improve

the

of public worship, and, with this end in view, decreed that thenceforward ecclesiastics

should
quite

all

wear the tunica dalmatica
its

— which

had and

outgrown

early

evil

reputation,

must be admitted
fied

to have been a better-lookino-

garment than the scanty and somewhat undignicolobium.
It
is

not at

all

improbable that
the edict

many of
have
All
the

the clergy wore dalmaticae even before
edict
:

Sylvester's

in

this

case

would

additional advantage of securing uni-

formity.

attempts

to

set

up the dalmatica
fail

as

a

separate vestment in early times
It
is

hopelessly.

unknown

to

the drafters of

the

Toletan

canons, and no early representation of an ecclesiastic is extant having two vestments visible under the

planeta*
St

This would certainly be the case if the two were independent vestments. It is true that
Isidore

Dalmatica vestis Dalmatia provincia Graecia texta est sacerdotalis, Candida cum clavis ex purpura
'

of Seville wrote,

primum

in

;'t

(the dalmatica

is

a priestly

vestment
of Rome.

first

made
p. 54.

in

* This does not apply
t

to the city

See

Etymologiae,

lib.

xix, cap. xxii

(Migne, Ixxxii 635).

36

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

Dalmatia, a province of Greece, white with purple clavi) ; but the concluding words show that he

was merely thinking of the alba under its more specific name, dalmatic a, A brief recapitulation of this somewhat lengthy

argument may not be out of
of tunic

place.

Two
people

forms

may

be said to have contended one with

another for the favour of the
sleeveless colobium
latter

Roman

the

and the sleeved dalmatica.
gained
the

The
eccle-

ultimately

victory

;

and the
all
it

decree of
siastics

Pope

Sylvester,

commanding
assume
its

under

his authority to
finally

in place

of the former,
church.
centuries

established
find

use in the

Now, when we
after Sylvester's
ecclesiastics

that,
a

two or three
vestment was

time,

worn by

in

Divine service identical

with the tunica dalmatica in almost every respect,

even to the presence of the clavi^ which (in the secular dress) indicated the rank of the wearer, it
is

only natural to regard the one as directly derived
in the

from the other. There is one other point of importance

history of this vestment in the transitional period.
It

was found that such
seriously

a flowing

garment
priest

as the

alba

incommoded the

on some

occasions, particularly in administering baptism by

immersion.
to the

Accordingly, an alba fitting closely
for use

body was invented

on such occasions,
illuminations,

and

is

represented in certain

MS.

T^he

Early Development of Vestments,

i^j

particularly a ninth-century pontifical

now

in the

St

Minerva Library

at
is

Rome.

The

special

im-

portance of this point

due to the

fact

that this

baptismal alba was probably the immediate parent

of the mediaeval alb

;

the closer vestment being

found more convenient on other occasions as well as that of baptism, and having gradually become

Fig.

2.— a Bishop administering Baptism.

adopted
well.
II.

in all the other offices

of the Church as

The 07'arium.
it

—Both
The

this

vestment and the
of the

name by which
trouble
to

was known have given much
following
list

scholars.

various derivations which have been suggested for
the
is

word orarium (arranged
:

in order

of probability)

not uninteresting

38
1.

Ecclesiastical Vestments.
Ora, because used to wipe the
Orare, because used in prayer.
wpa, because
it

face.

2.
3.

indicated the time of the different parts

of the service.
4.
5.

iopaL^€Lv,

because the deacon was beautified with

it.

Ora

(a coast),

because (alleged to have been) originally

the edging of a lost garment.
6.
6/)a(o,

because the

siglt

of

it

indicated whether a priest
(!).

or deacon

was ministering
little

There can be
true etymology.
;

doubt that the
others are
all

first

is

the

more or less certainly employed fanciful and the orarium was Ambrose speaks of the face originally as a scarf of the dead Lazarus being bound with an orarium; and Augustine uses the same word to indicate a bandage employed to tie up a wounded eye. Numerous effigies of late date are extant which

The

exhibit

a

kind of

scarf,

passing

over the

left

shoulder diagonally downwards to the right side,

and fastened under the right arm.

As

Albertus

Rubenius long ago pointed out, these scarves must
not be confused with the clavi which ornamented
the tunics of senators and equites
;

for they are

worn over the pallium^ or outer garment, and are disposed in a manner quite different from that in
which the clavi
fall.
}

What,

then, are these scarves
is

The answer
'

to

this question

supplied by Flavius Vopiscus in his

Life of Aurelian, who, he says,

was the

first

to
as

grant oraria to the

Roman

people, to be

worn

'The

Early Development of Vestments.

39

favours/"^

Now,
to

the references which we have

just

made

Ambrose and Augustine
which might
equally

— not
well

to

mention

others

be

quoted

— show that the oraria, whatever may have
to be seen

been the method in which they were worn, must
have been narrow strips of some kind of cloth.

These peculiar scarves, which are
certain

on

monuments, do not appear on any
;

effigy

dating before the time of Aurelian
inference, therefore,
is

the natural

that the scarves which

we

see thus represented are actually the oraria^ granted

successors.

and his argument be not valid, then it is impossible to say either what these scarves really are, or what was the true appearance of the civil
to

the

Roman

people by that emperor

If this

ovarium.
It
is

probable that considerable laxity existed in

the manner of wearing the ecclesiastical orarium,
for

the

fourth

Council

of

Toledo

thought

it

necessary to enact a special canon to regulate the

method

in

which

this

vestment should be disposed.
assembly
restricts

The

fortieth

act

of this

the

number of

or aria to one,

and enjoins that deacons
left

should wear the orarium over the

shoulder,

leaving the right side free so as to facilitate the
* 'Sciendum
ilium

.

.

.

.

,

.

primum

donasse oraria populo

Romano

quibus uteretur populus ad favorem.'

Flav.

Vop.

in Aur., 48.

40

Ecclesiastical Vestments,
service.'"*

execution of their duties in Divine

This

act also provides that the diaconal ovarium should

be plain, not ornamented with gold or embroidery.
It

will

be

noticed

that

this

Toletan council

favoured the derivation of the word or avium from
or are.

The wearing
Braga.

of the ov avium was

still

flirther

regulated by two of the councils which met at

The

decreed
province

second council of Braga (563 a.d.) that since in some churches of this
'

the

deacons wear

their

ovavia

hidden
distin-

under the tunic, so that they cannot be

guished from the subdeacons, for the future they

must be placed over
"*
'

their shoulders. 'f

The

fourth

Orariis duobus nee episcopo
;

quidem

licet

nee presbyest.

tero

uti

quanto

magis diacono qui

minister eorum
in

Unum

igitur

orarium oportet Levitam gestare

sinistro

huraero propter quod orat, id est, praedicat ; dextram autem partem oportet habere liberam ut expeditus ad ministerium
sacerdotale discurrat.

Caveat

igitur

amodo gemino

uti orario

sed uno tantum et puro nee

ullis

eoloribus aut auro ornato.'

Aeta Coneil. Tolet. IV, cap. xl. This rule does not seem to have been always obeyed.
the Pontifical of Landulfus (ninth century) there
sentation of an ecclesiastic wearing
is

In

a repre-

two

oraria,

one over each

shoulder.
t
*

This, however, must be regarded as exceptional.
in

Item placuit ut quia
differre a

aliquantis

huius provlnciae
orariis

ecclesiis diacones {sic) absconsis infra
ita ut nihil

tunicam utuntur

subdiacono videantur de cetero super-

posito scapulae (sieut decet) utantur orario.'

— Acta Coneil.
The
eleventh

Braear.

II,

cap. ix

:

Labbe,

vol. v, col.

841.

1

The Early Development of Vestments.
council

4

(675

A.D.)

made an

important decree

regulating the wearing of the orarium by priests,

The which has been since followed universally. vestment was to be passed round the neck, over
each shoulder, crossed in front, and secured in this
position under the girdle of the alba.^

enactment of importance is that of the council of Mayence (813 a.d.), which ordered that priests should wear their oraria 'without

The

last

intermission.'t

canon ordained
ornati

'

ut

Icctores in ecclcsia in habitu saeculari

non

psallant.'

*

*Cum
;

antiqua ecclesiastica noverimus institutione prae-

fixum ut omnis sacerdos

cum

ordinatur orario utroque

humero

ambiatur

scilicet ut qui imperturbatus praecipitur consistere

inter prospera et adversa,

virtutum semper ornamento utro:

bique circumseptus appareat

qua ratione tempore

sacrificii

? non assumat, quod se omnibus convenit ut quod quisque percepit Proinde modis

in sacramento accepisse non dubitatur

in consecratione,

hoc

et retentet in oblatione, vel

perceptione

sude

salutis

;

scilicet ut

cum

sacerdos ad sollennia missarum

accedit aut pro se

Deo

sacrificium oblaturus, aut sacramentum
Christi sumpturus,

corporis et sanguinis

Domini Nostri Jesu

non
turus

aliter

accedat,

quam

orario

utroque humero circum-

septus, sicut et
:

tempore ordinationis suae dignoscitur consecra-

uno eodemque orario cervicem pariter et utrumque humerum premens, signum in suo pectore praeSi quis autem aliter egerit excommunication! ferat crucis.
ita

ut dc

debitae

subiacebit.'

— Concil.

Bracar. IV, cap.

iv

:

Labbe,

vol. vi, coll. 564, 565.

f

'

Presbyteri

sine

intermissione

utuntur orariis propter

42
The

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

orarium^ then, was a narrow strip of cloth,

disposed about the persons of the clergy in various

manners according to their rank.
sponded
tion,

To
the

it

corre-

in

name, shape, and method of disposi-

Romans, though admittedly rather an honourable ornament than an actual article of clothing. Yet when we remember how the clavi were employed to disa

garment

common among

tinguish rank
fact

among

the earlier clergy, this latter

may

be regarded as strengthening the evidence
in all salient

of identity which the correspondence
features affords.
will

be discussed

Some other theories of its origin when we have treated of the

pallium.
III.

The Planeta.

— In
the

the

earlier

and purer

days of the

Roman
as

people, the dress which alone

was recognised
citizen

proper

costume for the

was the

toga.

This was one of the most
fifteen feet

inconvenient and cumbrous articles of dress ever

invented


in

a great
a

oblong cloth,

by

ten,

thrown
the
feet.

complicated

shoulder, folded in front,

manner over the left and hanging loose about
to regard comfort

We

can hardly feel surprised at finding
citizens

that,

when

the

came

before appearances to such an extent as to adopt
sleeved
tunics,

a

more convenient form of

this

difFerentiam
xxviii
:

sacerdotis dignitatis.'
vol. vii, col.

— Concil.

Mogunt.

cap.

Labbe,

1249.

The Early Development of Vestments.
outdoor costume was adopted.
varieties
its

43

of this
;

There were three new* garment, each of which has

own name

these were the paenula, the casula^

and the planeta.

The paenula was
slave
'

a

garment which

in the early

days of the Republic was allotted to slaves.

A

wearing this dress
'

is

introduced into the
of Plautus.

Mostellaria

(IV

iii

51)

Indeed,
vii

according to Julius Pollux ('Onomasticon,'
the dramatist Rhinthon,

61),

who

lived in the fourth

century b.c, introduced a mention of this garment
into his
'

Iphigeneia in Tauris,' a fact which would

seem to indicate that the dress was much older
than
his

own

time,

as

otherwise

his

audience

would be unfavourably impressed by the anachronism.

Numerous allusions
that
it

in classical
as

Latin authors
dress

show

was adopted

a

travelling

because

of

its

warmth

and

comparative

con-

venience ^^ but on no account was it worn within the walls of the city. Gradually, however, the use

of the garment

spread,

till

Alexander Severus
tells us,

(222-235

A.D.), as

Lampridius

permitted

elders to wear the paenula within the city in cold
* Or,
garment.

to speak

more

accurately,

new

adaptation of an old

The
it

paenula, for instance, had long

been worn by

the lower classes, being cheap and t

warm.
to active exertion.

Though

was by no means adapted
x, xx.

See Cicero, pro Milone, capp.

44
weather,

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

though at the same time he forbade women to do so except when on a journey.* The casula was a poor and inferior variety of
the paenula^ which,
to be the

when

the latter was

promoted

costume of senators and emperors, sucas the

ceeded
original

it

garb of the poorer
is
*

classes.

The
'

meaning of the name

little little

a diminutive of casa

—and

house

there

is

evidence

to guide us

as
it

to the exact appearance

of the
lead

garment which
entire

denoted.

The name would
it

us to infer that, like the paeniila,

enveloped the
it

body

;

but

it

is

probable that

was made
fact that

of coarser and cheaper material.
it

The

was early adopted

as the distinctive
;

dress of

monks would
this there
is

in

beyond no reason for supposing that it differed outline from the paenula. Thtplaneta first appears in the fifth century a.d.
lead us to this conclusion

Cassianus (De Habitu
tions
a
it

Monachorum,
St
Isidore,

i

7) men-

as a dress

whose
;

price prevents its use as

monastic habit

and

two centuries

later,

expressly forbids
it.

members of

religious orders

to

wear

The

planeta

must therefore have

been more costly than the casula^ and, as
it

we

find

mentioned
^
*

in the sixth

century as the dress of
lit

Paenulis intra

urbem

frigoris causa

senes uterentur
fuisset

permisit,

quum

id vestimenti genus
intra
in

semper itineranum

aut pluviae.

Matrones tamen

in itinere permisit.'

— Lamprid.

urbem paenulis

uti vetuit,

Alex. Sev., cap. xxvii.

T'he

Early Development of Vestments.
it

45

nobles and of senators,

was probably the most
as

expensive of the three.

The general shape Roman paintings or

of the garment,
effigies,
is

shown

in

that of a

cloak

enveloping the body, sewn in front, and put on

by being passed over the head, for which a suitable aperture was provided. And this shape is identical with the outer vestment which we see in early
representations of clerics.

The

modification which

was

early adopted, that

of making the vestment

oval in form, so as to lessen the width over the

shoulders and

so

to give

more freedom

to the

arms, was obviously regulated by convenience.

Thus we have seen that the three principal vestments, as we find them detailed in the earliest
lists

and depicted

in

the earliest monuments, are

identical in shape, disposition,

and name with the
second
or
third

Roman

civil

costume

of
era.

the

century of the Christian

in

Three additional vestments are found enumerated the letters of St Gregory the Great and else-

where which were not worn universally throughout the church, but were either carefully confined to
the clergy of the city of the
gift,

Rome

itself or

were in
are the

so to speak, of the Pope.

These

pallium^ the mappula^ and the dalmatica.
I.

The

F allium. — In

classical

Latin this word

is

used either as the equivalent of toga or in the

general sense

of the English

*

robe.'

It

is

also

46
used in the

Ecclesiastical Vestments.
earlier ecclesiastical writers

of the casula^

or coarse outer garment of monks, as in the passage from Celestine quoted on p. 26. Yet another use

Fig.

3.

Ecclesiastics from

the Mosaics Ravenna (Sixth Century).

in S Vitale,

of the word pallium is found in the expression pallium linostimum, which denoted a cloth, the use

of

which was

ordained

to

deacons

by Pope

;

The

'Early

Development of Vestments,
shall presently see

47

Sylvester, as

we

when

discussing

the maniple.

The
in
its

pallimn^

when used by

ecclesiastical writers

proper and restricted sense, denotes an ornaspecially

ment

appropriated to archbishops.

Its

earliest

form

is

shown

in

the Ravenna mosaics

that of a narrow strip of cloth, passed over the
left

shoulder, looped loosely round the neck, and
left

then passed over the

shoulder again, so that

the two ends hang free, one in front, the other
behind.

This method of

disposition

seems

to

indicate an identity of origin with the ovarium

indeed,

it

is

sometimes

difficult

to

distinguish

between these vestments in early representations.

A

desire for

symmetry, probably, decided the next
;

step in its evolution

this

consisted in bringing
it

the free end to the middle and knotting the
lowest
point

into
find

of

the

loop

:

this

we

exemplified in

monuments of the

eighth,

ninth,

or tenth century.

From

this the transition to the

form which became universal
easy,

in later

times was

The

and the two are found contemporaneously. final form which will be more fully de-

scribed in the third chapter

is

that of an oval
its
it

loop with a long
that

tail

pendent from
is

ends, so

when

the ornament

in position

presents

the appearance of a capital the back.

Y on

the front and on

The

early history of this

vestment

is

involved

48

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

in deep obscurity.

As

already hinted,

it

is
;

not

improbably a modification of the ovarium
there
is

but

no evidence, further than general outward
is

resemblance, that this

actually the case
its

;

nor

is

there any apparent reason for
archbishops.

appropriation to
till

The

question must remain open

further research either reveals

the missing links

in the chain of connection, or elicits
satisfactory solution of the question.

some more

The
pallium

idea of
is

Dr Rock,
'

according to which the

viewed as

the true and only representa-

tion of the

Roman

toga,'

He
the

thinks that the toga,
left

most unsatisfactory. which was folded over
is

shoulder, under the right arm, over the

right shoulder, and again over the left shoulder,
'

dwindled down to
the same

a
;

much
was
posed

way

mere broad band,' folded and that this broad band

the early pallium.
is,

The

evolution here sup;

however, most unnatural
it

there

is

not

time for
stitution

to have taken place between the in-

of Christianity

and
less

the

date

of

the

Ravenna mosaics

— much

between the time
their

when
latter

ecclesiastical

vestments and

develop-

ment began
date
;

to receive special attention and the

the toga, as

was

itself

practically

obsolete

we have already seen, when Christianity

began to make itself felt, and still further removed from the current fashion of the time at which
archbishops began
to

require distinguishing in-

The Early Development of Vestments.

49

signia; and, lastly, the connecting links between

the blanket at one end and the narrow strip of cloth at the other, which Dr Rock adduces and
figures, are too

few in number to be convincing,
as the

and quite explicable on other grounds, such
unskilfulness of the ancient
artist

a

fruitful

source of
re-

error
search.
It

in

archaeological

is

not

inconceivable

that

the

origin

of
is

the

honourable -pallium

to be

sought in
orariuyn,
'

the

honourable

distributed as
to

favours
;

'

the

Roman
for a

people

in

which case we

must seek elsewhere
tical

prototype to the ecclesiasovarium,
fall
*

We

should

then
idea,

back on the old

which has by no means
in the
is

been disproved, that

clavi of the tunica alba

to

^'^'-

be found the true original.

4.-Effigy of a Roman in Caerleon Museum.
Citizen

We

reproduce
citizen

here

a figure

of an efHgy of
view
here
all

a

Roman

at Caerleon,

near Newport, which
;

certainly seems to warrant this

is

to be

seen a tunica, a clavus, and.'a paenula,

very sug-

4

;

50

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

gestive of the alb, stole,

and chasuble of later

times.

Duchesne,
regards
all

in

his

*

Origines

du

culte

chretien,'*

the orarium-Y\^t vestments which appear

in contemporary

documents
the

as in reality pallia;

the ovarium proper he does not consider to have

been introduced
as

till

tenth

century.

The
to

ovarium which appears before this date he regards
simply
a

napkin,

or

sudarium^

designed

protect the alha.

He
civil

further states that in the

fourth century the
to wear

law required

all
;

officials

some distinctive badge of office that the Eastern Church complied with this law throughout,
<l)ino(f)opiov,

assigning the

kiriTpayriXiov^

and wpapiov
to the

respectively to bishop, priest,

and deacon, while
it

the Western Church only complied with

extent of assigning a pallium to the bishops.
confess that this elaborate

We

argument does not appeal to us any more than the theory which regards
the stole as the orphrey of a degenerated vestment

but while professing our

own

belief in Marriott's

view, stated above (pp. 38-9), we have given these several theories, leaving it to the reader to make

own choice. From the earliest references which we can find, it is clear that
his
first

to
it

the pallium

regarded as a distinctive
Rev O.
J.

was from the vestment to be worn
in
his
'

* Quoted by the

Reichel

'

English

Liturgical Vestments in the Thirteenth Century

(London,

Hodges, 1895).

1

The Early Development of Vestments.
by archbishops only.*
early period

5

The

archbishops of this

had not the right, any more than their mediaeval successors, of assuming the allium on f
their

consecration

;

it

was necessary

to

apply to

the Pope for a grant of the vestment, which was

only bestowed on the permission of the reigning
sovereign being obtained.

The

earliest

document

unquestionably relating

f allium
in

to the bestowal of the of Pope Symmachus, bestowing the pallium on Theodore, Archbishop of Laureacus,
is

a letter

Pannonia,

514 A.D.f

Instances of the royal

assent being considered necessary are found in the
letters

of Pope Vigilius,

who

delayed the grant of

the f allium to Archbishop Auxanius of Aries for two years, -pending the consent of Childebert I, King of the Franks ;J and in the letters of Pope

Gregory the Great,

who

at the request of Childe-

bert II bestowed the pallium on Virgilius, a later

Archbishop of the same province.^ In 866 Pope Nicholas I declared that no archbishop might be enthroned or might consecrate the
Eucharist
till

he should receive the pallium

at the

hands of the Pope.||
* Some exceptions
chapter.
to this rule will

be noticed in the next

t

Symmachi Ep.
Epp.

xii in

'

Patrologia,' Ixii 72.
'

X Vigilii
§
II

vi, vii in

Patrologia,' Ixix 26, 27.

Gregorii Ep. v 53 ; * Patrologia,' Ixvii 783. sane interim in throno non sedentem et praeter corpus Christi non consecrantem priusquam pallium a sede
'
.

.

.

.

52
II.

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

The Mappilii.

—We have seen
the
substitute

in discussing

the

j//'j that

Pope

Sylvester, in the middle of the

third
city

century, decreed that

deacons of the
dalmaticae
for

of
;

Rome
he

should

colobia

further

charged

them

to wear a

It is clear gallium Unostimum on their hands. mappiiki (little that this cloth, as its proper name,

napkin), demonstrates, was designed to serve the
utilitarian

purpose of a handkerchief, either
vessels

to

wipe the Communion
minister — probably

or the face of the

the

latter.*

This

cloth,
as

however,

must early have become regarded a sacred vestment by its wearers, and the
clusive privilecre
it

ex-

of the

Roman

priests to

wear

was jealously guarded. bv the deacons of the neighbouring churches of Ravenna to assume the vestment, and St Gregory
found
Romana
aliarum
it

Attempts were made

necessary to

interfere, w^hich

he did in
Germaniae

percipiar, sicuti

Galliarum omnes
agere

et

et

regionum
Papae
I,

Archiepiscopi

comprobantur.'
Ixxiii,

Nich.
:

Responsa ad consulta Bulgar., cap.

Labbe, vol. viii, col. 542. ad fin. * The notion prevalent nowadays, that the mappula was
exclusively intended to cleanse the sacred vessels,
is

thus

bluntly negatived by

St-

Ivo of Chartres

:

'

Unde

in sinistra

manu

ponitur quaedam mappula quae saepe fluentem oculorum

pituitam tergat et oculorum lippitridinem removeat,'

And

Amalarius of Metz
proprii corporis.'

testifies

to the same effect

:

'

Sudarium
ex labore

ad hoc portamus ut eo detergamus sudorem qui

fit

The Fjarly Dei:elopment :^/>.
several letters to that

m-:

somewhat
a

recalcitant prelate,

John, the Bishop of Ravenna.
peace,

For the sake of

Gregory admitted

compromise whereby
but the glamour

the

principal

deacons of Ravenna were allowed

to wear the coveted

ornament

;

of carrying a vestment, however inconvenient,*

which was theoretically confined to the holy city
itself,

proved too strong
privilege was

a

temptation

for

the

deacons of other places, while the
exclusive

Romans (whose

gone once Ravenna was
it)

admitted to a share in
to prevent
its

took no further steps

assumption.

As

a natural conse-

quence, the use of the vestment spread over the

whole of the Western Church, and by the time

when
III.

the period at present engaging our attention

ended, had become universal.

The 'Dalmatica.

—We
was

have already entered

at length into the history

of this word and of the
applied.
It

vestment to which

it

does not
;

seem to have differed

essentially

from the alha

but it appears that twoj vestments were worn Rome, an all?a and a dalmatica, though it

at
is

evident from the Toletan canons and other sources
that at this

early period such was not the case

elsewhere.
*

In early pictures the two vestments
little

The
Civil

modifications which the discomfort of this

vestment necessitated will be described in the next chapter.
t

dress

presented

parallel

cases

:

the

Emperor

Augustus wore four tunics in cold weather.

54

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

are rarely represented side

by

side

;

it is

probable

that the dalmatica

was so long

as to conceal the
effigies

alba^ just as the dalmatic

on mediaeval
It

of

Bishops often hides the tunicle.
ever, to

seems,

how-

have been shown on the ancient picture of

Gregory the Great, described by Joannes Diaconus and we find that Gregory granted its use
;

to Bishop Aregius of

Gap and
Ixxvii

to his

Archdeacon
the letter.

(Ep. ix
the

107

:

Migne,
at

1033), forwarding
as

vestments

the

same time

Clearly the

Pope does not denote the alha by the

Seville do,

word dalmatica^ as we have seen St Isidore of for Aregius would naturally wear an

alba without papal interference.
in

The vestment

question must, therefore, have been another,

resembling the alb in outline, but only worn either
at

Rome
it.

or

by those on

whom

the

Pope saw

fit

to

confer

The

history of the spread of the dalmatica

must
the

have been similar to that of the mappula.
time the third period begins we
as
find
it

By
from

established
its

an

independent vestment,

difi^ering

parent, the alba, in one important respect,
will be detailed in the following chapter.

which

the word,

Although not vestments in the strictest sense of we must not conclude this chapter without a brief notice of the two exclusively episcopal
of Toledo, namely, the ring and
staff.

insignia noticed in the canons of the fourth council

Rings have

I'he

Early Development of Vestments,

^^

been found in the tombs of bishops of the third
century.

This, however, proves nothing, as their

use

was universal

among both

Christians

and

heathen.

Nor

can anything

definitely ecclesiastical

be tortured out of the

many

descriptive notices

which have come down to us of the rings in the
possession
fourth,
{circa

of

individual
fifth

bishops

of

the

third,

and

centuries.

Isidore

of Seville

600) lands us on firmer ground ; he dis' To the bishop at his consecration tinctly says
:

is

given a staff ... a ring likewise

is

given him
the
;

to signify pontifical honour, or as a seal for secret
things.'"'

We

need not, perhaps, discuss
gift as

esoteric

meaning of the

here set forth

but

the fact clearly remains that by Isidore's time the
gift

of a ring and a staff had become an essential

part of the

ceremony of
tells
is

episcopal ordination.

The
;

Toletan canon
that time there
it is

us the same thing.

Before

no

clear indication of the gift

not mentioned in ordination services of earlier

date

than the sixth century, one of the oldest references to it being in the sacramentary of

Gregory the Great
this

{circa

590
as

a.d.)

;

and even

passage

is

rejected

an interpolation by

Migne.f
* Huic
secretorum.
t

dum

consecratur datur baculus

....
v.

datur et

annulus propter signum pontificalis honoris vel signaculum

Isidorus de OfF. EccL,
:

lib.

ii,

cap.

Ad

annulum digito imponendam

Accipe annulum

fidei,

56

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

The Pastoral

Staff,

Isidore says, in the passage
is

already quoted, that the staff

given

*

that

he

may

rule or correct those set under him, or support

the weakness of the weak.'^
It is

strange that even the pastoral staff has a

prototype
priesthood.

among the insignia of the heathen One of the emblems of the Roman

augurs was a lituus, or crook, resembling almost

we find them shown in the monuments of early Christian art. It was used inter alia for dividing the sky into
exactly the earliest pastoral staves as

regions for astrological purposes.
staff,

The

pastoral

as

represented

in

early

monuments, was
;

much

shorter than the mediaeval crozier
all

and

it

seems not at

improbable that the pastoral
'

staff

was originally a
implement.

Christianization

'

of this pagan

Other writers have argued
pastoral
staff

in

favour of the

being simply an adaptation of the

common
seats.

walking-sticks, which were certainly used

in churches as a
It

support before the introduction of

has been pointed out, however, that the

pastoral staff

had become and
this,

a special

member of

the

insignia of a bishop bef3re the general abolition

of
is

these crutches

;

it

must be

confessed,

scilicet

signaculum quatenus sponsam Dei, videlicet sanctam

ecclesiam, intemerata fide ornatus illibate custodias.
''^

Ut subditam plebem

vel regat vel corrigat vel infirmi-

tatem infirmorum sustineat.

The Early Development of Vestments.

57

force against such a an argument of considerable

hypothesis.

Narof Celestine to the Bishops of quoted on bonne and Vienne, part of which we probably about the earliest available pp. 26-7, is
'

The

letter

pastoral staff by memreference to the use of the This brings the bers of the episcopal order.

history of pastoral staves

back to the

early part of

the

fifth

ment

special ornacentury, and shows that this symbols was one of the earliest of the external

which the church has prescribed

for its officers.

with a head either of one of the precious crutched or crooked, usually

The

staff

was a rod of
sug-

wood

metals.

The name
shepherd

gests that the symbolism

of

the

had

entered largely into the ideas connected with it.
It

was
till

carried

by abbots

and
and,

abbesses,

by bishops,
the

about the tenth

century, by

Pope

;

but with the rapid growth of the temporal sovereignty of the Papacy, the
Fig.

5.— Pope

Gregory

the

Great with Pastoral Staff.

emblem purely

associated

of spiritual pastorate was In the old pre-scientific days it used abandoned. to be stated that the Pope at no time carried

with the special idea

58
2L

Ecclesiastical Vestments.
staff,

pastoral

though he did bear a ferula^ or
rule ;* but this
is

straight sceptre

—the symbol of

at variance with the evidence of

We

contemporary art. must not leave the subject of the earliest
ecclesiastical

form of
decorated.

vestments

without

briefly

noticing the ornamentation with which they were
In
the
oldest

representations

of

ecclesiastics

which we
pure

possess, their vestments

were
the
St

represented
clavi
;

white,

ornamented
black,

with

these

were

generally

though

Isidore refers to purple clavi.

But other colours

appear in very early frescoes and mosaics. These, however, are apparently arbitrary, the result of
the notions of the painter on the subject of the
artistic

combination of colours.
*

Nothing analogous
late times is trace-

to the

liturgical

colours

'

of

able

in

the early or transitional

period of the

history of vestments.

Some ornamentation
found
period.
lies

other

than
in

the clavi

is

in

vestments of late date

the present
rule

Leo

III,

the date of

whose Papal

just on the border-line between the transi-

tional and the mediaeval epoch, presented to the

Church of

St Susanna a

vestment with four gamPastorali virga

* Romanus autem Pontifex
Innoc. Ill Papa,
795).

non

utitur

De

Sacr. Altar.

Myst.

i

62 (Migne ccxvii,
incurvatam

Ideoque

summum

Pontificem eiusmodi
nullis

virgam non gererc quia eius potestas
circumscribitur at ubiquepatet.

locorum limitibus
Cleri-

—De Saussay, Panoplia

corum

(Paris 1646), p. 102.

:

The Early Development of Vestments.
madia
-•

59


we

that

is,

ornaments shaped like crosses
metal
or

formed by four gammas placed back to back, thus
^
;

also

hear of calliculae,

em-

broidered ornaments, for the alba.

A

singular

method of ornamentation is exemplified by numerous frescoes and mosaics, and has been a
fruitful

source

of

perplexity

to

ecclesiologists.

This consists in the use of

letters

(sometimes of

monograms or
outer

letter-like arbitrary signs)

on the

hem of

the garment.

No

connection can

be traced between these letters and any circumstances

known concerning
;

the persons

whose

vest-

ments they decorate

and wide differences be-

tween the times and places of individual examples
of the same character preclude their explanation as
the faithful copies of weavers' marks.

We

can

only say that their use

is

inexplicable

on such

practical or esoteric grounds, and that, therefore,

some simple explanation, such

as

the arbitrary
is

selection of a letter as an elementary ornament,

the only satisfactory means of accounting for their
presence.

Even now we
circles,

daily

employ rows of
etc.,

0-shaped
ments,

S-shaped curves,
the
slightest

as orna-

without
simple
is

reference

to

the

sounds which those symbols denote.
to
exalt
little

The tendency
into

contrivances

hidden

mysteries

ever with us, especially in ecclesiology,
all

and

it

should on

occasions be repressed.

CHAPTER

III.

THE FINAL FORM OF VESTMENTS WESTERN CHURCH.

IN

THE

HITHERTO, to
and shattered sculptures.

a great extent,

we have

been groping in the dark, guided only

by the dim light yielded by obscure
passages in early writers or

by half-defaced

frescoes

Much

is

conjectural,

much

uncertain

;

and often the shreds of informadifferent sources appear con-

tion obtained

from

tradictory, requiring patient thought

and investi-

gation to unravel the entanglement and reconcile
the inconsistencies.

The

progress of Christian literature and art had

been retarded

and tumult.

by persecution, then by war This partly accounts for the comfirst

parative scantiness
history of the

of the material extant for a
first

Christian antiquities of the

eight centuries.

new

era

But with the ninth century a began, which lasted unchecked all through

1

The Final Form of Vestments.
the Middle Ages.

6

The

military genius of Charles

the Great effected a general peace in the year 812;

and under

his enthusiastic

patronage a true renaisart.

sance took place in learning and in

Archi-

tecture and manuscript illumination were carried

to a high degree of perfection, and for the

first

time active and systematic researches were made
into the details of the doctrine and ritual of the

church

in the preceding centuries.

As
and

a natural consequence of the inquiring spirit
itself felt,

which thus made
tracts

the

number of books
multiplied

on

ecclesiastical

matters

enormously.

Among
are

which were and
ecclesiologist,

the many branches of study open to the inquiry of the

ninth-century writers more

few occupied the attention of these than the vestments

worn by
service.
It

the priests

when ministering

in

Divine

has been reserved for the antiquaries of our
to formulate the true principles of scien-

own day
tific

archaeology.

We
;

smile at the childish fancies

which
than

are gravely put forward in

works not more

fifty

years old

small

we

find these early treatises

wonder is it, then, that on vestments disapimpressed
with
the

pointing.

All

are

firmly

Levitical origin of the usage
tian vesture
;

and shape of Chris-

and the majority are occupied with vague speculations concerning the symbolic mean-

62
ing

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

of the

individual

items in an ecclesiastical

outfit.

Mr. Marriott
astical

assigns

a

reason

for the then

universal belief in the Levitical origin of ecclesi-

vestments which
I

is

highly ingenious, and
cite his

probably correct.

cannot do better than
:

words on the subject
'

Churchmen who had
did, in

travelled widely, as then

some
fail

East as well as West, could hardly

to notice the remarkable fact, that at

Con-

stantinople as at

Rome,

at

Canterbury

as at Aries,

Vienna or Lyons, one general type of ministering
dress

was maintained, varying only
;

in

some minor
in their time

details

and that

this dress

everywhere presented

a

most marked contrast to what was
prevailing
dress of the
laity.

the

And

as

all

classical antiquity had for three more been well-nigh extinct in the church, it was not less natural that they should have sought a solution of the phenomenon thus presented to them in a theory of Levitical origin, which from that time forward was generally

knowledge of

centuries or

accepted.'"'

Rabanus Maurus,

as

we have
first

already stated
to

{supra^ p. 12), was the

who endeavoured

draw the
Jewish

parallel

between the Christian and the

vestments.

The

older writers
p. Ixxviii.

saw the

* Vest. Christ.,

'The Fifial
difficulties

Form of Vestments.

63

in the

correspondence.

way of establishing Thus Walfrid Strabo
'

a 'complete
{circa 840),

in chapter xxiv of his

De Rebus

Ecclesiasticis/

merely says
dent
'

:

*

Numero autem suo

antiquis responto

(In their

number they correspond
;

the

ancient vestments)

and he further admits that
priest

mass was formerly celebrated by a
everyday dress.*

robed in

But, as the desire to prove the

correspondence grew more widespread, changes and
additions

were rapidly made in

the

vestments

themselves, with a view to assimilating the
systems.

two

In the interval betv/een the ninth and

eleventh centuries the

number of

recognised vest-

ments was doubled by the accretions thus made
to the original
set.

As

the simplest and most intelligible

method of
I

exhibiting

the extent of these changes,

have

drawn up
the
lists

the subjoined table, in which are given

of vestments

known

to writers on ecclesi-

astical matters
lists are

during this interval of time.

These

placed in parallel columns, and a uniform

system of nomenclature has been adopted, so that
the reader can see at a glance the date of the
various additions
:

* Vestes etiam sacerdotales per incrementa ad

eum

qui

nunc habetur auctae sunt ornatum. Nam primis temporibus communi indumento vestiti missas agebant, sicut et hactenus quidam Orientalium facere perhibentur. Walafrid Strabo

De

Reb. Eccl., cap. xxlv (Migne cxiv 952).

64
Rabanus
Maurus,
circa 820.

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

The Final Form of Vestments.
I.

65

^rhe Alb.

— We have traced the
its

history of this

vestment from
till

use as a purely secular garment

the ninth century, and have seen
at first
fitted

how

its
till

prothe

portions,

ample, were contracted

vestment

with comparative tightness to the

body, on account of the greater convenience which
the less flowing form of the vestment offered for
active administration in Divine service.

The
we

material of which the alb was

made was
;

usually linen, of

more or

less

fine

quality

but

often meet with

entries in old inventories of

church goods which
material.

enumerate
velvet

albs

of

other

Silk

and cloth of gold are very comis

monly mentioned, and Thus we have
*

not unknown.

Albe sunt

viginti

de

serico

principales.'

Inv.

West-

minster Abbey, 1388.
*

30 albes of old cloth of Baudkyn.'

— Inv. Peterborough,
St

1539'

One

olde aulbe of

whyte

velvyt.'

— Inv.

Martin Dover,

1536.

The

proper colour of the alb was white

;

but in

England coloured albs were sometimes worn, and we meet with such vestments in inventories passim.

The
*

following

is

a selection

:

Red

albes for Passion w^eek, 27.
albes of divers sorts.

'40 Blue
*
*

7 Albes called Ferial black.'

Inv. Peterborough, 1539.

Alba de rubea sindone brudata.'

Inv. Canterbury.

The ornamentation of

the alb, in

the earlier
5

66

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

years of the third period, sometimes consisted of

round gold
the

plates, just

above the lower hem of
side.

vestment, one on either

Occasionally

there were rows of small gold

plates

arranged
first

round the lower edge.
were called albae

Albs of the
from the

kind

sigillatae,

seal-like ap-

pearance of the gold plates.

Albs of the second

kind were named albae bullatae.
the following
*
:

Dr Rock

quotes

Camisias albas

sigillatas

holosericas.'

— Record
a.d.

of

gift

of
in

King -^thelwulf
Vita Benedicti

to

St Peter's,
t.

Rome,

in Liber

Pontiiic.

III,

iii,

p.

i68, ed. Vignolio.
1189.

*Alba bona

et buUata.'

— Peterborough,

The more
sisted in

usual ornamentation, however, and

that which became universal in later years, con-

ornamental patches of embroidery, tech-

nically called apparels^

the vestment.

sewn on to various parts of There were two such rectangular
similar patches, one on the back,
;

patches just above the lower hem,"^ one in front,

one behind

;

two

the other on

the breast

two small

patches, one

on

each cuff; a narrow strip encircling the aperture
for the head,

more
for

for use (as a binding to prevent

tearing)

than

ornament
strips

;

and,

in

earlier

examples, two narrow
* Very often
running
nental

running down

in

perhaps more often than not
a

— the

lower

hem was ornamented with
all

narrow edging of embroidery
as

round.

In some albs
there
is

represented on Conti-

monuments

a

considerable distance between

the apparel and the hem.

The Final Form of Vestme?its,
front
tunic.

67

and two behind,

like the clavi of the

Roman

In the earliest representations of albs, as seen on
sculptured

monuments, the vestment
the

is

left

plain;

one of the earliest apparelled albs being on an
effigy

to

memory

of

Bishop

Giffard,

at

Worcester, 1301.

This, however, does not imply

more than that the apparels were originally painted on, and that the paint has worn off. Another difference is observable between the
cuff-apparels of early effigies and of those of later
date.

In the early albs the cuff-apparel invariably

encircles the

whole wrist
it

;

but in later specimens

we

find that

has shrunk to a small square patch,
is

sewn on the part of the sleeve which
the back of the hand.

toward

Dr Rock
that

has

shown some

reason for believing

the

apparels

were occasionally hung loose
;

over their proper place
being suspended

the lower
girdle,

hem

apparels

from the

and those on

the breast and back being fastened together by

two

cords,

between which the head was passed,
consequently,
shoulders.

and which
across

when
for

in

position, ran

the

This was obviously sug;

gested

by

convenience

the

entry

in

the

accounts of St Peter's, Sandwich
'

for

vestments of the garters and flour de
of the parelles of the same, v^
'

washing of an awbe and an amyce parleying to the lice and for sewing on

68

Ecclesiastical Vestments. us what

tells

we

should

have expected, that

the apparels

had to be removed from the vestit

ment when
afterwards.

It

was washed, and sewn on again was only natural that some such
for

plan as the loose suspension of the apparels should

be

followed

;

the constant

ripping off and

sewing on of the embroidery must have been not
only laborious, but ultimately detrimental to the
vestment.

This entry gives us an instance of another
that
after

fact,

vestments and suits of vestments were
the

named

pattern

which was embroidered upon
occurs in the

their apparels.

A singular collection
'6 albes with Peter keys.
*

Peterborough inventory, including
6 albes called the Kydds.
7 albes called Meltons.

*

'

6 albes called Doggs.'

Albs were sometimes worn
apparel.

plain,

/.^.,

without
example,

The
and
it

Salisbury
alb
all

Missal,
to be

for

forbids the apparelled

Friday

;

is

not at

worn on Good impossible that some

of the plain albs, as represented on early
ments, are
really intended
for

monu-

unadorned vest-

ments.

Some
this

difference of opinion seems to exist

among
to in-

the authorities about the mystical signification of

vestment.

Rabanus Maurus holds
of
life.

it

culcate purity

Amalarius of Metz, contrasting Jerome's description of the tight-fitting

T^he Final

Form of Vestments,

69

Jewish tunic with the flowing alb of his own day, considers that it denotes the liberty of the New

Testament dispensation as contrasted with the Pseudo-Alcuin thinks that servitude of the Old. means perseverance in good deeds, and that it
therefore Joseph
talaris
is

described as wearing a tunica
'

among
all

his brethren.

For
is

a tunic
a

which

reaches

the

way

to the ankles

carried out to the end, for

good work the ankle is the end
asserts

of the

body.'

Ivo of Chartres

that

it

the signifies the mortification and chastisement of members. Honorius of Autun agrees more or less

with Rabanus Maurus but Innocent III regards because it is it as symbolical of newness of life, skins as unlike as possible to the garments of
;
'

which are made from dead animals, and with which Adam was clothed after his fall.'

The following dimensions are among those given by Mrs Dolby as the correct measurements of an alb for a figure of medium height and ordinary
proportions
:

Length behind when made

-

-

-

4
4 o o

9
5

Length before

-

-

-

Depth of shoulder-band Width of same

-

-

8|
^i
\\

Length of sleeve, outside of

arm
in
-

-

-

z

Width of sleeve at wrist folded Width of sleeve half-way up
Length of neck-band Width of same
-

two
-

o o
2

6\

-

9^
2o

-

-

-

o
^

ij
^
i>

Opening down

front

-

-

-

:

JO
II.

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

The Girdle, with which the alb
silk,

is

secured,

is

a narrow band, usually of

the ends of which

terminate in a

tassel.
is

The
the day.
is

colour of the girdle
it

properly white,
colour of

though occasionally

varied with the

Though
the

(as stated) properly

of

silk, it

sometimes made of cotton.
Occasionally
girdle

was

embroidered

in

colours.

In the Westminster inventory of 1388

we have
'

Zone

serice sunt

septem

diversi

operis

et

diversorum

colorum.*

The
mentis
;

following

is

a

selection
this

of the
:

esoteric

meanings
tinentiae

ascribed

to

vestment
;

custodia

discretio
;

o'mnium

virtutum

virtus con-

perfecta Christi caritas.
is

The
yards.

length of the girdle

stated at about four
it

The

length of the alb,
it

should be noticed,

was so considerable that
it
it.

was necessary to draw
let
it

through the girdle and
It is therefore

hang over above
(if

extremely rare

not

unknown)
which the

for the girdle to be visible
for

on mediaeval monuments,
the latter vestfalling over
it.

even

in those exceptional effigies in

whole length of the

alb

is

visible,

ment

entirely conceals the girdle

by

III.

The Amice.
in the

— This

vestment was quite un:

known

earlier

period

it

was a mediaeval

invention.

The Final Form of Vestments,

ji

amice was clearly originally intended to serve as a hood and a survival of this use remains

The

;

in the ritual of vesting, in

which the

priest first

places the vestment on his head, with the prayer

Impone Domine capiti meo galeam salutis ad expugnandum diabolicos incursus,' before adjusting
'

it

round

his neck.

In several dioceses of France the amice was worn
as a

hood upon the head from All Saints' Day till Easter, and something of the same kind may have
;

been the practice elsewhere

thus,

we find an effigy

of a priest
in

Towyn, Merionethshire, and another Beverley Minster, in which the amice is drawn
in

over the head hoodwise.
In shape the amice was a rectangle (the dimensions are given as thirty-six inches by twenty-five
inches).

At

each end strings were sewn, which
cross over the breast

were of

sufficient length to

and encircle the body.

An

apparel of embroidered
;

work ran along one of the long sides so that when the vestment was in position it was turned
down,
like a collar, over the other vestments

round

the neck, and so far open as to leave the throat of the wearer exposed.

A

small cross was marked in

the centre of the upper edge of the vestment. So much of this vestment was concealed that
there appears to have been
little

or no scope for
material.

variety of treatment, either in

form or

The

Jatter

seems alwavs to have been

linen.

The

72

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

orphreys (embroidered edges), of course, are subject to the

same unlimited
is

variation of design as
;

the corresponding ornaments on other vestments

but the shape

constant.
is

The same uniformity
able
in

not, however, observthis

the

symbolism of
is

vestment.
is

The
it

variety of

meanings

even greater than

the case

with the alb and
signifies

its girdle.

We

are told that
;

{inter alia)

the

Holy

Incarnation

the

purity of

good works;

the subjugation

of the

tongue

;

the earthy origin and heavenly goal of the
;

human body
in

the necessity of justice and mercy

addition to
;

temperance and

abstention from

evil

and the endurance of present hardships.
The
Stole.

IV.

—The
in

early history of the stole

has been discussed

the preceding chapter, in

considering the orarium.

Why,
It is

or when, the proper
*

name of the
does

vest-

ment became

stole,'

or

stola^

not appear.

named
which

stola in the later ecclesiastical
;

canons

of our second period
stola^

but

it

is

not clear

how

in its original significance
like

flowing tunic,

the

denoted a under-garment of the

Roman
period,

or the alha of the priests of the second

came to
It
is

signify a narrow strip of orphreyit

work.

quite certain that

cannot be ex-

plained (as
as

some

writers have attempted to do)

the orphrey of a lost vestment which has surit

vived while the bulk of

has disappeared

;

for

'

The Final Form of Vestments,
the continuity of the stole and the orarium

73
is

a

matter of historic certainty, and

we have already

shown reason

for

assigning an entirely different

origin to the latter vestment.
too, as that of a

Such an evolution,
from
a

narrow

strip
is

large vest-

ment

is

not natural, and

contrary to our ob;

servation in the history of other vestments

and

it

assumes the existence of embroidered
at a

'

orphreys

time far too remote for such ornamentation

Fig.

6.— Stole-ends, showing Varieties
ment.

in

Form and Orna-

to be found.

This hypothesis has suggested one
probable etymologies which have been

of the

less

proposed for the word orarium.

The

stole

is

a

narrow

strip

of embroidered

work, nine or ten feet long and two or three inches
wide. In
its
;

original

form

it

was of the same width

throughout

but about the thirteenth or four-

teenth century

we

find its ends terminating in a

rectangular compartment, giving each the appear-

ance of a tau cross.
extra

This was
cross with

in order to secure

room

for the

which every

stole

74

Ecclesiastical Vestments.
at the end.

was supposed to be marked
same purpose the modern
from the middle
embroidered.
Priests

For the
a

stole

expands gradually
also

point,

where

cross

is

wear the stole

between the alb
alb

and

chasuble, crossed over the breast, and secured in
that position

by the girdle of the
officiating
at

— nowadays
all

only

when

mass,

formerly on

occasions on which the stole was worn. generally secure
it

Deacons

over the

left

shoulder and under

the right arm, thereby approximating the disposition of the vestment to that of the ancient

Roman
origin.
tunicle"^'^

ornament from which the vestment takes
pendent
breast
;

its

Bishops wear the stole between the alb and
perpendicularly
the
to

on

either

side

of

the
is

pectoral

cross

which they wear
place

supposed
stole.

supply

the

of

the

crossed

The embroidery and
it

material of the stole were
alb,

supposed to tally with that of the

with which
to

was worn.

The same

rule

applies
in

the

maniple,

and we commonly find
trust

inventories

that the three vestments are catalogued together.

But

if

we can

the evidence of brasses and

other monuments, the vestments of different suits

were worn together in a very haphazard manner,
*

The

late brass

of Bishop Goodrich, in Ely Cathedral,

represents the stole
is

between the tunicle and dalmatic.

This

exceptional, and probably an engraver's error.

The Final Form of Vestments,
and
it

75

any defidoes not seem possible to extract of different vestnite rule as to the collocation patterns of ments embroidered with different
orphreys.

embroidered ends of the stole— below the terminated in a fringe cross when such existed— years for and it was not uncommon in earlier

The

;

little bells

to be included in this fringe.

Thus we

have
'

:

Una

stola

cum

frixio

Anglicano

cum pedis

albis et endicis
cit. ap.

etcampanellis.'-Inv. Vest. Papae Bonif. VIII,
'

Rock,

Church of our

Fathers.'
'

The
Christ.'

stole is said to signify

the easy yoke of the
twelfth

Authorities
are

earlier

than
point,
in the

century
differ

agreed

on

this

though they
subordinate
etc.

on some minor
its

details

symbolism of

length,

disposition,

But

'inHonorius of Autun asserts that it signifies to the nocence,' and makes some vague and,

Esau's present writer, unintelligible allusions to
sale

with a of his birthright while Innocent III, declares exegesis, faint reminiscence of the earlier servitude which Christ underthe
;

it

to

signify

went
Phil,

for the salvation of
ii

mankind— referring

to

5-8.

developV. The Maniple.—Tht history of the that of the ment of the maniple follows closely on
stole.

With

as a very few exceptions, the maniple,

differs from represented on mediaeval monuments,

76
the
stole,

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

with

which

it

IS

associated,

in

size

alone.*

The maniple was
most inconvenient,
slip off,

originally

worn over the
liable to

fingers of the left hand.
as
it

This arrangement was

was constantly

and the

fingers

had to be held

in a con-

FiG.

7.— Archbishop Stigand.

(From the Bayeux
fingers.)

tapestry,

showing

maniple carried over

strained attitude throughout the service.
early found

It

was

more

com^fortable

and convenient to
;

place the vestment over the left wrist
*
of a

but no

One

of these exceptions

is

presented by a small brass
at

priest

(Thomas Westeley, 1535)

Wyvenhoc, near

Colchester.

•The
definite rule

Final

Form of Vestments.

JJ

seems to have been formulated, and, the earlier custom indeed, in some parts of France the middle of the seems to have survived till When placed on the wnst it century.
eighteenth
to form a perwas either buttoned or sewn so as slip off the manent loop, so that it should not

arm
is represented on In a few effigies the maniple For this there is no hturgical the right wrist. be attributed to the authority, and it can only

sculptor.* blundering of the engraver or

In reference to

its

original utilitarian purpose,

significance Amalarius assigns to the maniple the Pseudo-Alcmn of the purification of the mind.' (in qua superto denote this present life
'

holds
fluos

it

denote humores patimur). It is also said to racecourse. in the penitence, caution, and the prize is the same as that of width of the maniple

The

given at from three feet the stole— the length is to three feet eight inches.
-

There

is

a

remarkable

statuette

of alabaster in

the

which originally formed Cambridge Museum of Archaeology, Cambridgeshire. in Whittlesford Church, part of I retable which is clad in Eucharistic vestments, the In this figure, seems to be supplied by a maniple is absent, and its place This may, however, right wrist. chain suspended over the emblem is a some such saint as St Leonard, whose
represent

chain and manacles

:

in

which

case

it

is

just possible that

maniple to avoid the inartistic symthe sculptor omitted the

metry which would result from

its

insertion.

78

Ecclesiastical Vestments.
VI. The Dalmatic.

I

am

unable to find any
older

representation

of this vestment

than

the

ninth century, showing the special features
distinguished
it

which

from the other vestments of the
Before that date the dalmatic

mediaeval period.
it
v!^

The Final Form of Vestments,
from
all

79

others by being
side.
;

slit

up

a short distance

on either
distinction

These

side-slits

were decorated

with fringes
of a

but here an important theoretical

must be observed between the dalmatic bishop and that of a deacon. This was often
is

neglected in mediaeval times, and

consequently

frequently
present
bishop,

overlooked
In
the

by ecclesiologists of the
dalmatic,
the
as

day.

worn by

a

the

side-slits,

lower hems, and the
;

ends of the sleeves were fringed

in the dalmatic

of a deacon there were also fringes, hut only on the
left sleeve

and along

the left

slit.
is

The

true reason for this distinction

probably

to be sought in the

same direction as that which prompted the peculiar diaconal method of wearing convenience. The deacon, who was the ovarium

practically the

servitor at

the altar, required to

have his right side free and unhampered as
as possible
;

much

the heavy fringes, which might have

impeded him, were therefore dispensed with upon But such an explanation would by no that side.

means
the
that
left

satisfy the

early mediaeval writers

on vestas

ments, and

we
is

are accordingly

informed that

side typifies this present life

and the right

which

to come, so the fringes

on the

left

which we must pass in this world, while their absence on the right symbolizes our freedom from care in the world to
indicate those cares through

come.

Why

the

bishop

was not regarded

as

8o

Ecclesiastical Vestments.
in the

exempt from care
appear.

future world does

not

at

Another singular piece of blundering meets us Here we have two St David's Cathedral.
representing
clerics,

effigies

wear the dalmatic,
the presence
stole

yet

who, though they show the stole disposed
Either

symmetrically, in the manner of priests.*

of the dalmatic or the presbyteral must be incorrect but in our ignorance of
;

the identity of the persons

whom

these effigies

commemorate we cannot decide which.
idea,

Bloxam's

that

these

figures
is

represent
;

archdeacons,
is

though ingenious,
deacon

untenable

for there

no

authority for assigning the dalmatic to an arch-

of priestly grade

;

and we have other

figures of priests
in various parts

known

to have been archdeacons

of England, none of which show

the dalmatic.

The ornamentation of
(like

the dalmatic before the

twelfth century consisted either of vertical bands
the clavi) or else of horizontal bands, of

orphrey-work.

After that date the plain white
all

vestment was superseded by one covered with elaborate embroidery.
case

over

This

is

especially the
is

with the episcopal dalmatic, which

only

what we should have expected.

We

have already stated one symbolical meaning
is

* This description

given on the authority of Bloxam,

companion volume,

p. 64.

1

The Final Form of Vestments,
attaching to the dalmatic and
its
:

8

appurtenances.
the Passion of
as

A

few more
;

may
*

be of interest
religion
;

Christ

the

pure

and undefiled,'

described by St

James

the

Old and New Testa;

ments

;

the crucifixion of the world in the wearer

the wide mercy of Christ, etc.

All of the early writers are misled by the decree

of Pope Sylvester into imagining that Sylvester
first

instituted this

astical

vestment
a

assigning

garment as a purely ecclesisome even go the length of mystical meaning to the colohium,
;

which
in

it

superseded.
respects
is

Even Walafrid
ecclesiastical

Strabo,

who
is

many

the least mystical of the early

mediaeval writers

on

vestments,

deceived, though he wisely contents himself with
stating the fact that Sylvester

had so commanded,

without attempting to assign any reason for his so
doing.
VII.

The Chasuble.

—The

variety of materials

of w^hich the chasuble was made

may

be gathered

from the following extracts from the
Inventory of 1536
'
:

Lincoln

Imprimis

a

Chesable of rede cloth of gold w* orfreys

before and behind sett w' perles blew white and rede w^
plaits of gold enamelled.'
*

Item
Item

a

Chesuble of Rede veivett w' kateryn wheils of
chesuble of

gold.'
*

a

Rede

sylk

browdered w' falcons

&

leopardes of gold.'

6

;

82
*

Ecclesiastical Vestments.
Item
gold.'
a

chesable of whyte damaske browdered w' flowres

of
'

Item

a

chesable of

whyte tartaron browdered w*

trey-

foyles of gold.'
*

Item a chesable of purpur satten lynyd w' blew bukerham
scripturs.'

havyng dyverse
'

Item
Item

a chesable

of cloth of tyshew w' orfreys of nedyll

wark.'
'

a

chesable of sundon browdered w^ mones

k

sterres

lyned w' blew bukerham.'

Of the

materials here mentioned the
silk,

commonest

were velvet,

or cloth of gold.

In the latest days of the transitional and the
earliest

days of the mediaeval period, there were
in use, the eucharistic

two kinds of chasubles
the processional.

and

The

distinction between
ritualistic
;

them
and

was
in

utilitarian rather

than

it

consisted

a

hood sewn to the back of the
in

latter,

designed as a covering for the head during out-

door processions

inclement weather.

But the

processional chasuble early gave place to the cope

and

a

hooded chasuble does not appear to be

extant in representations of date later than the

tenth century.

The manner
made seems
was to
to

in

which the early chasubles were have been as follows A semi:

circular piece of the cloth of
consist

which the vestment
a

was taken, and
in

notch cut

at

the

centre, so that the

shape of the cloth resembled
the annexed diagram
;

that of the figure

the

The Final Form of Vestments,

83

two and

straight edges corresponding to the lines

AB
;

CD

were then brought together and sewn

the result was a vestment

somewhat of extinguisher shape, with a hole in the middle for the neck, and enveloping the body all round to an equal depth The result was that when the priest each way. had to raise his hands the vestment was gathered
inconveniently on
injured by
either

shoulder, and probably

being crushed, certainly
its

hampering the

wearer by

weight.

This

difficulty

was

sur-

mounted by

a

very simple expedient.

The

cloth,

instead of being shaped as before, was cut into an

oval form, and an opening was

made at

the centre for

the wearer's head, the consequence being that
in position the

when

vestment hung down over the front and back to some distance, and covered the upper
part of the arms,

though not
all

sufficiently

so to

interfere with their free action.
is

The

latter

shape

that

which meets us

through the mediaeval

period throughout the Western Church.

84

Ecclesiastical Vestments.
has
it

The modern Roman Church

made yet
has
its

another innovation which, although

dis-

advantages, certainly reduces the inconvenience of

the vestment to a

minimum.

Two

fairly large semicircular

pieces are cut from each side

of the front of the vestment,
thereby permitting the hands
to be brought together

when

necessary without crushing the

vestment between the forearms,

which was
form.

inevitable in the old

But the wasp-waisted
is

appearance of this chasuble

ugly, and attempts are being

made

to

abolish

it

and to
distinc-

return to the mediaeval pattern.

Yet another small
tion
is

to be found in the shape

of individual examples of the
mediaeval
Fio.
10.

period.
n•

We

find

— Sir
in

Peter

Legh, Knight and Priest. (From his brass Winwick. at
Vested
chasuble

many made
, ,

of these vestments to be
,

Circular or elliptical,
, i

i

so

11 that the lower Dorderis rouiided
j

^^

.

^j^-j^

^^^^^^

^^^^^^
in the

^^^

found to be made

shape

known
sharp.

as

the

vesica piscis^
in

so

that the lower

extremities

terminate

a

point

more or
content

less

Writers

who

cannot

be

with

The Final Form of Vestments.
simple
or

85
of
^

commonplace

explanations
in

such
to
will

phenomena as this have laboured invent some esoteric signification
account for
guess
is
it.

vain

which

Perhaps the most common-sense
thinks that

that

made by Dr Rock, who

the period the rounded chasuble was used during Norman of rounded architecture— the Saxon and

—and

pointed the pointed chasuble during the which we a suggestion periods of architecture accepting at once, should have no difficulty in of brasses and were it not for the fact that scores and Rectiother monuments of the Curvilinear
:

linear

periods

in

architecture

exist

showing
the

rounded
effigy

chasubles;

while

(among

others)

Bathampton of Bishop John de Tour, at pointed vestment. near Bath, a.d. i 123, shows a particulars of the have no space to enter into of the vesica other suggestions— the symbolism

We

circle, etc. piscis, the perfection of the

that the simple explanation seems to be the taste and fancy difference depended merely on of the monuof the seamstress or of the engraver possible to draw up It would be perfectly ment. which the point of the a list of monuments in extreme sharpness chasuble shows every stage from

The

to extreme bluntness, and so,
into a continuous curve.

by one

step further,

I'his demonstrates that

no rule was

the necessarily followed in choosing that of making a shape of the chasuble, beyond

86
fairly

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

symmetrical
in front

vestment which

should hang

down
in

and behind, and should have a hole the middle through which the priest's head

should be passed.

Nor

can

we even

say that fashion
;

affected the shape of the vestment
a list as I

for

were such
it

have mentioned to be printed here,

would be seen to consist of the most haphazard and random series of dates and names of places
thrown together without the
slightest regard to

chronological sequence or geographical position.

The dimensions

of a pointed chasuble (circa

fourteenth century) at Aix-la-Chapelle, which has

been accepted as a standard for modern imitation,
are given as follows
:

ft.

in.

Depth of shoulder, measuring from neck Length of side, from shoulder to point Depth from neck to point in front


-

2

9

411
4
6

behind

-

-

4 ic
at

The
shape,

chasuble of St

Thomas of Canterbury,
is

Sens Cathedral, which
is

of the old extinguisher
In the

three feet ten inches in depth.

oldest chasubles the length of the vestment behind

was greater

often

much

greater

— than

in front.

There

is

a

more even balance between back and

front in later mediaeval times.

Passing

now from

the

manner of making the
it,

chasuble to the manner of ornamenting
just the

we

find

same divergence, with apparently just

as

The Final Form of Vestments,
little rule.

87

It

is

probable that, as the decoration

was the most costly part of the manufacture of a chasuble, the amount of it was regulated by the
resources available to pay for
it.

We

propose to consider at the end of the next

chapter the classes of patterns with which vest-

ments generally were decorated
ages
;

in

the

middle

at

present, therefore,

we

shall confine ourin

selves

to noticing briefly the positions

which

these decorations were placed on the chasuble.

The groundwork of

the vestment was either

plain (invariably so in the older examples) or else

embroidered or woven with a pattern, according
to taste and

means; the ornamentation proper conof embroidered or
'

sisted of strips

orphrey

'

work,

as

it is

technically called,
strips

sewn on to the vestment.

These

were sewn either on the edge or crossthe more frequently met
it is

wise on the front and back of the chasuble.

The edge orphrey

is

with in the brasses of parish priests, "and

rarely

so elaborately decorated as are the central orphreys.
It

usually consisted

of some simple pattern of

flowers or geometrical figures recurring at regular
intervals

round the edge.
is

Greater variety

seen

in

the

shape of the

central orphrey, which, being the

more elaborate
and
of

and expensive,
sented in the

is

almost invariably found reprebishops, abbots,
in the efligies of priests

monuments of

other dignitaries, and

88

Ecclesiastical Vestments.
It
*

the richer churches.

sometimes, though rarely,
pillar
;
'

consisted of a simple

on front and on

the back of the vestment
tion

usually this ornamenta-

was extended by the addition of branches of
off

orphrey work given

on

either

side,

which

passed over the shoulder

and joined the correpillar,

sponding branches of the other
appearance of the Greek

the result

being that the orphrey on front and back had the
S',

or of a Latin cross

with oblique arms.
posed,
the
pillar

When

the bands were so dis-

on the front was called the pectoral, the pillar on the back the dorsal, and the auxiliary bands, which passed over the shoulders, the humeral orphreys. Very frequently this design was varied by omitting the part of the
pectoral and dorsal bands above their intersection

with the humeral

;

this resulted

in the

*

Y

cross,'

which we
inverted,

find in so

many
some

effigies in

our cathedrals

and churches.
and

In a few examples the
in
it

Y

or

M' is

gives
{e.g,')

off

auxiliary

branches, so as to resemble
It

the figure >|<.

would, however, be waste of time and space to

enter further into a discussion of what was not

regulated by any definite rule, but depended on
caprice, or, at most,

on pecuniary
the

considerations.

More
and
is

often

than
is

not

central

orphrey,

of

whatever form,
In

combined with the edge orphrey,
it.

usually of a different pattern from
early chasubles the front

many

and back are

'The Final

Form of Vestments,

89

charged with an embroidered Latin cross. This is also the case with the back of the modern Roman
or
slit

vestment.
the

When

Y

orphrey

was
it

placed

on

the

chasuble, the space between

and the neck on
floral

the back was usually

filled

with an elaborate

design embroidered in gold or crimson.

Some-

times (not always) this extended round the neck,

and was repeated
special

in front.

To

this

ornament the
the

name of

'

flower

'

has been attached.
all

The
other
love,

chasuble surmounts and safeguards

vestments

;

hence
all

the

chasuble

signifies

which surmounts
and
;

the other virtues, and
their

safeguards
protection

illumines
says

beauty

with

its

so

Rabanus Maurus,
;

prettily

enough.

Amalarius disagrees
is

he holds that as
clerics, so it

the chasuble

common

to

all

ought
all
:

to set forth the works which are
fasting,

common

to

thirsting,

watching,

poverty,

reading,

singing,

praying,

and

the

rest.

The pseudoIII,

Alcuin and Ivo of Chartres agree with Rabanus,

though

for difi^erent reasons.
it
'

Innocent

how-

ever, holds

to signify the virtue of apostolical

succession

:

For
his

this

is

the vestment of Aaron, to
oil

the skirt of which the

ran
his

down
as

;

but

it

ran

down from
of His
rest.'

head to

beard and from his

beard to the
spirit,

skirt.
first

Forasmuch

we

all

receive

the Apostles,

afterwards the

Further, he goes on to say that because the

go

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

stretching out of the hands divides the chasuble

two complete and similar parts, so that vestment typifies the old and new church before and
into
after the

time of Christ.

VIII.
citizens

The Sandals,
are

well

—The known — mere

sandals of the
soles,

Roman
secured
leather,

across the instep by one or

more thongs of

and

clearly designed to protect

the wearer from

stony

roads

without

unnecessarily

cramping or

confining his feet
a hot climate.

— an

important consideration in

Such a sandal must have been worn by the early
clergy as

Roman
and
still

citizens,

and probably long cononly foot-covering
of

tinued in use
It

among
is,

the lower orders of clerics.

w^as,

the

certain

monastic orders, and in some cases was

retained even by

monks who had

attained to epis-

copal rank.

In St Canice's Cathedral, Kilkenny,
a unique collection
slabs, superior in

which contains
efRgies

of mediaeval

and incised

merit to
art,

many
there

better-known specimens of mediaeval
exists a

most interesting

effigy

of a former bishop,

de Ledrede,

who

died

ci'rca

1350.

He

is
;

repre-

sented fully vested in Eucharistic dress

but in

place of the episcopal sandals, which an ordinary

bishop would have worn, he wears the simpler

monastic sandal, which covers only the sole and
instep
;

and shows the cord of St Francis hanging

below

his alb.

1

The Final Form of Vestments.

9

The

extension of the Church into more northern

and colder regions, and the importation of foreign
customs into the southern metropolis itself, probably suggested the transformation of the some-

what scanty sandal into a more appropriate and The traditions of the more comfortable shoe. old custom were, however, long maintained in a
curious

way
being

:

the upper leathers of the shoe were
into

fenestrated
result

or cut
that

open-work
bare
surface

patterns, the

the

of the foot
in

showed through and displayed the decoration
light flesh-tint against the

dark leather of the shoe.

When
scarlet,

the episcopal stocking was

added to the
the same.

equipment of the bishop, the colour became bright

though the

efl^ect

remained

much

The
very

fenestrated sandals were

abandoned about
It

the fourteenth century in favour of shoes, in shape

much

resembling the modern ankle-shoe.

would have been
spirit

inconsistent, however, with the

of the fourteenth century to have abandoned

the decorative effect produced by the open-work,

and neglected to
stitute

find

some

substitute.

This subin

was found

in

lavish

embroidery and

ornamentation with jewels and spangles of gold.

The

sandals, in fact,

became

as elaborate as did

the rest of the ecclesiastical vestments.

The
and

sandals, as above described,

were worn by

bishops only, at the Eucharistic service.
priests appear to have

Deacons

worn simple everyday

92
shoes,

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

without ornamentation of any kind.

The
the
to

fenestrated shoes (which were popular

among

dandies

of the day as well

as

consecrated

the bishops) were expressly forbidden to them, as
also

were coloured shoes, or shoes of the preposshapes occasionally in vogue

terous
laity
'

among

the

of the middle ages.
the sandals partly cover the feet and leave
'

As

them

partly bare,' says Rabanus,

so the teachers

Fig.

II.

Bishop Waynflete's Episcopal Sandal.

of the Gospel should reveal part of the Gospel

and should hide the rest, that the faithflil and pious may have enough knowledge thereof, and the infidel and despiser may find no matter for
blasphemy.
wise that

And

this

kind of shoe warns us likea care to

we should have

our

flesh

and

our bodies
of
lust.'

in matters of necessity, not in matters

Amalarius of Metz enters into further
incidentally touching on

details,

some points of difference which obtained between the sandal of the bishop

:

The Final Form of Vestments,
and that of the
of
his
*

93
half of

priest in his

day

— the
is

first

the ninth century.

The

following

a translation

words
difference in the sandal sets forth a differ-

The

ence in the minister.

The

ofBces of the priest and
;

of the bishop are almost identical
there
is

but because

a distinction

in their titles

and honours

there

is

a distinction in their sandals, that

we may

not

fall

into error upon beholding them, which we

might well do, owing to the similarity of their The bishop has a band (ligaturd) in his offices.
sandals,
It is the which the presbyter has not. the length duty of the bishop to travel throughout and breadth of his diocese {^parochid) to govern

the inhabitants
feet, his

;

and

lest

they should

fall

from

his
is,

sandals are bound.

The moral
mind

of this

that he

who mingles with

the vulgar crowd must
{gressus mentis).
offers the

secure

fast

the courses of his

The

priest,

who remains
office
is

in

one spot and

sacrifice there,

walks more securely.
different

The
;

deacon,

because

his

from that of the
he therefore

bishop, needs not different sandals

wears them bound, because it is his to go on The subdeacon, because he assists attendance.
the deacon, and has almost the same
office,

must

have

different sandals, that

he be not thought a
is

deacon.

The
is

inner
the

meaning

this

:

Because the
sole,

sandals set forth

way of

the preacher, the

which

underneath, warns the preacher not to

94

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

The tongue of mingle with earthly matters. which is under the " tread "* of the white leather,
foot,

shows that there ought to be the same

separation, guiltless

and
let

guileless

;

that

it

may be

said of him, " Behold an Israelite indeed, in

whom
were

there

is

no guile

;"

him not be such
preached
in

as

the false apostles,
disputation.
is

who

malice and

The

tongue, which

rises thence,

and

separated from the leather of the sandals, sets

forth the tongue of those

who ought

to bear

good

testimony to the preacher, of whom Paul said, " He must have a good report of them that are
without."

These are
are

in

the lower rank, and to

some extent
course.
spirits

separated

from

spiritual

inter-

{spiritalium),

The upper tongue is who lead

the tongue of the the preacher into

These search into the the work of preaching. But the sandals are past life of the preacher. with white leather so must bound round within the desire of the preacher be pure before God, out
;

and without appears the of a clean conscience black, since the life of the preacher seems despised
;

by them that
afflictions

are worldly

on account of the myriad
life.

of this present

The upper
enters,

part ot
is

the sandal, through which the foot

sewn

together with

many

threads, that the
;

two

leather

bands be not separated
should apply

for at first the preacher

himself to

the

many
is

virtues

and

* So Mariott.

The

original

word

calcaneum.

The Final Form of Vestments.

95

sayings of the Scriptures, that his outward acts may not be at variance with those which are secret

The tongue of the and known to God only. sandals, which is over the foot, sets forth the tongue of the preacher. The line made by the
craft

of the shoemaker, stretching from the tongue of the sandal to its end, sets forth the perfection of
the lines proceeding from either side, the law and the prophets, which are repeated in the Gospels ; they are repeated at the middle line, which stretches to the end. The bands denote the
the Gospel
; .' mystery of Christ's Incarnation have given this strange mixture of mysti. . .

We

cism and observation at length for several reasons. First, it emphasizes a curious distinction between
the shoes of different orders of clergy which is not Secondly, it gives a often brought into notice.

very

full,

though somewhat obscure, description of

And thirdly, it the sandal in the author's time. to which an author exemplifies the absurd lengths
can go

who endeavours

to extract

hidden meanings

Here facts. from simple and easily Amalarius endeavours to extract solemn truths even from the seams which the maker found necessary If some in joining two pieces of leather together.
explicable

modern

writers on archaeological

subjects

took

timely warning from such a melancholy example, we should have fewer wild theories and more facts.
It
is

sad

that most

of Amalarius' successors

96

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

quietly put aside his elaborately argued piece

of

symbolism.

Pseudo-Alcuin

is

content with the old

idea of Rabanus, that the Gospel should be kept

from what

is

earthy as the feet are kept from the

ground, but not otherwise covered.
cally quotes

Ivo practi;

Rabanus word

for

word

and even
little
*
:

Innocent
further

III,

who

is

usually original, has

to

offer

beside
feet

the

quotation

How

beautiful are the

of them that preach the
a symbol of juris-

gospel of peace

!'

IX. The Pall.
diction,

—The

pall

is

which

is

worn by

the Pope, and by

him

bestowed upon

all

archbishops.

The
wool.

material of

which the

pall

is

made

is

white
its

Both the shape of the vestment and

ornamentation have undergone modifications since
it

was invented, even during the mediaeval period
Its

itself

earliest
its

appearance,
is

and

all

that

is

known of
chapter.

origin,

described in the preceding

The
little

folding of the pallium must have
it

given a
this

trouble whenever

was put on

;

and

must before long have suggested the shape which meets us in the mediaeval pall that of a
:

loop of cloth with two tails projecting from opposlight differsite points in its circumference.

A

ence

is

observable between palls represented early

and those represented late in the mediaeval period. In the former the branches are almost horizontal, passing round the arms between the shoulder and

The Final Form of Vestments,
elbow
;

97

in the latter they pass over the shoulder.

In the former case the pall resembles a T, in the

Fig.

12.— St Dunstan.
Library
;

(From a manuscript
pall

in

the

Cottonian

showing early forms of

and mitre.)

latter a Y,

whether seen from before or behind the
appears, however, the pall

wearer.

In whichever form

it

was secured

in its place

by

pins.

At

first,

when

the vestments were

of simple description, these pins could be run through pall and chasuble with7

98
out doing

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

much damage; afterwards, however, when enrichments were heaped upon the chasuble,
these pins were not

run into that vestment

at all,

It but through loops provided for the purpose. was discovered, however, that the pall in its latest

development would stay in its place quite as well without pins as with them, and the loops were
therefore abandoned.

As

the pins were generally

made of

gold, with heads of precious stones,

some

reluctance

was

felt at

abandoning them altogether,

the maniple and other vestments assumed

and accordingly they sank into the position which that of

being ornaments.

The

length of the
variety
at

pendent

tails

shows con-

siderable

different

times.

extremely long

— often extravagantly —
so

They are in monu-

ments dating between the eleventh and fourteenth
centuries.

After that date they were curtailed,

and

more than a foot long. There is a little button of lead sewn into the ends of the tails to make them hang properly.
at

present are not

The

pall

never

displayed

that

tendency to
Doubtless the

elaborate

adornment which distinguished the other
were made
at

vestments of the mediaeval age.
fact that all palls

Rome, and but few

were made
in fashion.

at a time,

prevented any great change

Some
In

differences are, notwithstanding,

noticeable.

the

earliest

representations

of

tailed palls there is to be seen a single cross at the

The Final Form of Vestments.
end of each
tail
;

99

the same cross

is

to be seen

worked on

early oraria

and mappulae.
is

But

in

mediaeval and modern times there

a difference.

At
tail

present the pall

has six crosses, one on each
in black.

and four on the oval, worked

In

we find sometimes four, sometimes many as eight, worked in purple. The history of each individual pall is curious. On the morning of St Agnes's Day (January 21)
the middle ages
as
in each year,

two lambs are sent
are chosen

into

Rome

each in

a basket, the baskets being slung over a horse's back.

These lambs

with

special reference to

whiteness and goodness.
the palace of the Pope,

The horse is who comes to

driven to
a

window

and makes the sign of the cross over the lambs, which are then conducted to the church of St
Here, gaily adorned with flowers and ribbons, they are brought up to the altar, and kept there till mass is sung. After
walls.

Agnes without the

mass (formerly

at

the

Agnus Dei)

the celebrant

which are then handed over to the charge of the canons of St John Lateran, by whom they are sent back to the Pope. The Pope hands them on to the dean of his subdeacons,
blesses the lambs,

who
are

delivers

them up to
fed.

a nunnery, where they

kept
is

and

When

they are shorn, the
into
palls.

wool

woven by the nuns

On

the

eve of the day of St Peter and St Paul
palls are

these
blessed

taken to St Peter's, and there

loo

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

after evensong, after
silver-gilt

which they
till

are shut

box to

vt^ait

they are

up in a wanted for
to

bestowal on a

new

archbishop.
election

Each archbishop on

must go

Rome

in person to receive the pall, unless prevented by when the latter is the case it serious obstacles

is

solemnly sent to him by the Pope.

He

is

not

permitted to engage in any episcopal duty before receiving the pall ; afterwards the vestment is

worn only
Nativity,

at

High Mass on
Stephen,
St

the following days

:

St

John,

Circumcision,

Epiphany,

Palm

Sunday,
Easter

Holy

Saturday,

Sunday,

Maundy Thursday, Monday and

Tuesday, Ascension, Pentecost, Feasts of the Virgin, Nativity of St John the Baptist, all days
of Apostles, All Saints, Dedications of Churches, principal local feasts in the diocese. Consecrations

of Bishops, Ordinations of Clergy, Feast of the local Dedication, and the Anniversary of the
wearer's consecration.

The Pope,

however, wears

the
*

pall at all

times

when he
it

says mass.

The

pall is

the symbol of the archiepiscopal

authority, therefore

may

not be worn without

express papal permission outside the limits of the
jurisdiction of the archbishop.*"

When
it

he dies,

the pall
*
the

is

buried with him, but

is

only placed

We

give a figure of an effigy in

memory
effigy

of Albrecht von Brandenburg,

Mayence Cathedral to who died in 1545.

This

is

remarkable, and probably unique, in represent-

T^he Final

Form of Vestments.
buried within his

i

oi

on

his shoulders if he be
it is

own

province, otherwise
his head.*

folded and placed beneath

The

pall

is

the only vestment which

may

not be lent by one

cleric to another.

ing the archbishop as wearing two Although this is a conpalls.

venient method of informing the world of the fact that the person

commemorated held two archbishoprics (Mayence and Magdeburg),
as
it is,

of course, of
the

a

solecism,

the

pall

one

could
the
z'ice

not

legally be

worn within
is

precincts of the other, and
versa.

This monument
it

espe-

cially valuable, as

clearly dis-

tinguishes between the cross-staff

and the pastoral
often confused.

staff,

which
on

are

See the account
staff later

of the pastoral

in

the present chapter.

*

It is

well

known

that ecclesi-

astics
ristic

were buried

in their
a

Euchachalice
filled
is

vestments, with

and paten, the former often
with wine.

Much

nonsense

talked nowadays of the piety of the mediaeval builders and undertakers, who put their best work where no human eye

could see

it.

"Unfortunately for this theory, the chalice and

paten were usually cheap base metal (Canterbury affords one notable exception), and the vestments were often an inferior Economy was considered then, as now. or worn-out set.

I02

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

We
of the

now come
pall,

to a singular point in the history
far

and one which has so
to explain.

baffled
pall
is

ecclesiologists

Although the

generally regarded as the peculiar

emblem of archrites

bishops, and seems to have been kept for their
especial

and peculiar use by the

which we
wear
this

have described, yet a few favoured bishops have

from very early times been
vestment.
privilege

entitled to

The
are

bishoprics

which

possess

this

those

of Autun,

Bamberg, Dol,

Lucca, Ostia, Pavia, and Verona.

The

pall

is

represented on several
e.g.,

monuments
the
slab

of bishops of these dioceses,
Bishop Otto

of

(1192) and the brass of Bishop Lambert (1399), both in Bamberg Cathedral. In
illuminated manuscripts and elsewhere
find figures of clerics of episcopal
pall,

we

often

rank wearing the
staff,

but holding the crook-headed

commonly

supposed to be the insignia of a bishop as distinguished from

an archbishop

;

but as numerous
latter

examples exist to show that the

notipn (like
is

the majority of popular ideas in archaeology)
erroneous, this combination proves nothing.

The
pall

peculiar circumstances

distinguishing the

from the rest of the ecclesiastical vestments would lead us to expect some remarkable disquisitions on its symbolism. This expectation is not disappointed. The cross on the back and
front reminds the wearer to reflect piously

and

in

The Final Form of Vestments.
a

103

worthy manner on the Passion of the Redeemer, and holds up before the people the sign of their Redemption. Such is the old view, and it has at
least

the merit of simplicity and religious feeling.

But, unfortunately, Amalarius, in his dissecting manner, draws a parallel between the pall and
the golden plate of the Levitical
this clears the

High

Priest

;

way

for the extraordinary disquisi-

tion of the pseudo-Alcuin

on the Tetragrammait),

ton

T\'\T\'^

(as

he inaccurately writes
*

wherein
'vita,'

Jod

signifies
'

principium,' //^
'

'iste,'

Vau

and Heth

passio

'

id

est,

iste

est

principium

passionis vitae.'

the four letters

Honorius thinks, however, that typify the four arms of the cross.
tell

Innocent
signifies

III

and others
discipline

us that

the

pall

that

should rule

which archbishops themselves and those set under them.
with
full

As
its

Innocent's account of the pall gives as
as can

an account

be obtained of the vestment and ornamentation and fastenings, we give an
it

abstract of
'

here

:

The

pall

which the
discipline

principal

bishops wear

signifies

which archbishops should rule themselves aud those set under them. By this the golden chain* is obtained which those
the

with

receive
saith,
''

who

strive

lawfully,

of which Solomon of thy father

My

son, hear the instruction

and forsake not the law of thy mother, for they
*

A

not

uncommon comparison

for the loop of the pall.

I04
shall

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

be an ornament of grace unto thy head and

chains about thy neck."

For the pallium
circle

is

made

of white wool, woven, having a
straining

above con[lineae)

the

shoulders,

and two
;

tails

hanging down on either

side

moreover, there are

four purple crosses, front and back, on the right

and on the

left.

On

the left side

it

is

double,

and
tion

single

on the

right.'*

After a long moraliza'
:

on these facts, he goes on The three pins which are fixed in the pallium over the breast, on
neighbour, the administration of his
office,
is

the shoulder and in the back, denote pity for his

and the

meting out of

justice.

.

.

.

There

no pin
is

fastened in the right shoulder,' because there

no

trouble in everlasting

rest.

'

The

needle

is

golden;

sharp below, rounded above, enclosing a precious
stone,'

which bears

a variety of meanings.

If

we

may

believe the Elizabethan reformers, the pall

was an expensive item in an archbishop's insignia. Although Gregory I ordained that it should be
given to the archbishop-elect freely. Jewel speaks

of the Archbishop of Canterbury giving
florins

5,000

(^1,125

at 4s. 6d. the

florin) to the

Pope
being

for his pall, in addition to the first-fruits of his

province

;

and Bullinger speaks of the
'

pall
'

so dear that

in gathering

money
buskins,

for

it

the arch-

bishop often

'

beggared his whole diocese.'
or

X. The
*

Stockings,

seem to have
it.

A

survival of the old

method of wearing

;

The Final Form of Vestments.

105

been originally appropriated to the Pope alone,
bishops being content with the somewhat scanty
sandal already described.

But by the time of Ivo
had taken their place

of

Chartres

the

caligae

among
is

the articles in an episcopal wardrobe,
writer

H(

the

first

who menthe other

tions them.

In the middle
all

ages they, like

vestments of which we have
been treating, forsook their
primitive simplicity and be-

came enriched with elaborate
ornamentation.

They

sig-

nify the need of framing the

courses of their feet aright

and

in

that they reach to

the knees, they indicate that

the wearer should strengthen
the feeble

knees weakened
Fig.

by heedlessness, and hasten
to preach the Gospel.

flete's

14.— Bishop Episcopal

Wayn"
Stock-

XI. The Subcingulum.
vestment will be more
other

— The

discussion of this

difficult

than that of any

among

the equipment of the clergy of the

West.

It is all

but obsolete at the present day

;

more than one representation of it extant, and that only shows a small portion of it in an unsatisfactory manner and the
there does not seem to be
;

io6
references

Ecclesiastical Vestments,
to
it

in ecclesiastical

writers are

few
it

and

far

between.
is

In antiquarian or any other investigations
invariably the best rule,
solution, to

when

a

puzzle
the

is

set for

work backwards from

known
course

to
in

the

unknown.
it

We
as

will

follow this

speaking of this vestment, and commence with a
description of

worn

at the present day.
is

The modern suhcingulum
exclusive use of the Pope.
girdle, passed
left

reserved for the

It

takes the

form of a

round the

alb,

and having on the

side a

maniple-like appendage.

This seems
in the

to have been the

form which

it

had
'

end of

the fourteenth century, for in an
Pontificalis,'
*

published

Ordo Missae by Georgi,* we read
:

Primo induit (pontifex) sibi albam, deinde cinctorium cum manipulo ad sinistram partem.* In
the century before this Durandus, in his
'

Rationale

Divinorum Officiorum,' writes
latere

:

'

Sane a sinistro

pontificis
'f

ex cingulo duplex dependet suca

cinctorium
left


;

doubled

'

apron
it

'

hangs on the
the

hand

side

and he likens
elaborate

to a quiver, in the

course

of an

comparison between

episcopal vestments of his time and the spiritual

armour of the Christian.

The

succinctorium must have adopted this form

* Liturgia

Rom.

Pont., vol.

iii,

p.

556

;

cit,

ap.

Rock,

Church of Our Fathers,
t

Rationale, III 4.

The Final Form of Vestments.
about the middle of the thirteenth century.
the beginning of that century
its
*

1

07

At
had

we

find that

it

use,

and was not
'

a

mere ornament.

In the

Ordo Romanus

of Cencio de

Sabellis, written
is

at the

end of the twelfth century,*

a description

of the new Pope's taking possession of the Church

He is there described as of St John Lateran. being girt with a belt of crimson silk, hanging
'

from which
had

is

a purple purse (bursa)

containing

twelve precious stones and some musk.'
their symbolical

These
stones

all

meaning

:

the belt denoted
the
the

purity,

the

purse

almsgiving,
'

apostles, the

musk
III,

a

good odour

in the sight of

God.'

Innocent

writing at the

commencement of
it

the thirteenth century, describes the vestment as
peculiar to
peculiar
bishops^
;

but does not refer to
neither,
restriction
after

as

to popes

be

it

noticed,

does
in

Cencio.

The

last

may

have crept

one or two centuries
not enter into

Innocent.

He
it,

does

many

details
it

concerning

but he
girdle,

clearly distinguishes

from the zona^ or

which denotes continence,
nifies abstinence.!

as the subcingulum sig-

About
t

this

time a fresco was executed on the
Ital.,
ii,

* Printed in Mabillon, Musei

p.

212.

Were

it

not for

this,

we might

infer

from the other

passages quoted that the succintoriura was simply
the ordinary girdle.

hung on

io8

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

wall of the Sagro Speco at Subiaco, which remains
till

the present day.

It

represents a

Pope

fully

vested,

but under the folds of the chasuble on
either side
is

a fretted ornais

ment which
part of any

certainly

not

of the ordinary

vestments
clergy.

of

any
is

rank

of

There

no alterna-

tive

but to regard

Dr Rock

as correct

in considering this
as part

ornament
cingulum.

of the sub-

This being granted, the sub-

cingulum

is

seen to be a girdle,
side

from

either
a

of

which

depends
'

lozenge - shaped
shall

lappet.'

We

meet with

a similar lappet in the eniyovaTiov
Fig.
15.

Figure of a
{Temp. InnoIII.)

of the Greek Church. Only portions of these lappets
seen in the
fresco
is

Pope.

cent

are to be
in

question,

but

enough

apparent to show them to be lozenge-shaped.

The
being,

testimony of Cencio points to these lappets
not

hung
stage

to the belt
in

mere ornaments, but bags or purses and this brings us to another
;

the

evolution

of this vestment. of

We

know

that through the middle ages a bag called a

gypciere

hung

at the belts

civilians,

and served

T^he

Final Form

of Vestments,

109
It
is

the double purpose of purse and pocket.

but natural to suppose that the early clergy found such

appendages useful even
further,

in

divine service.

Let us now go yet

and

see

whether con-

firmation of these theories awaits us.

Honorius of Autun

in

1130 writes: 'The subis

cingulum, also called perizona or subcinctorium,

hung doubled about the
in almsgiving,' etc.

loins

;

this signifies zeal

hung Note, in this passage, the expression This can only refer to the lappets doubled.'
'
'

'

being hung one on each
giving,'

side.

And
this

the

'

alms-

which Honorius

asserts

vestment to

signify, suggests a purse.

Other
rius,

writers, in the century preceding
;

Honoas early

write to the same effect

and even

as the tenth century, in a manuscript
w^e find a distinction

of the mass,
'

drawn between the
'

cingu-

lum

'

and the

'

baltheum

in the prayers said while

vesting.

In short,

it

seems probable that the subcinguappendages,
is,

lum, with

its

like

several

other

sacerdotal vestments, a modification into an orna-

ment of something which had been designed for When the maniple some natural requirement.
became too narrow and too richly embroidered to
be of the slightest use as a handkerchief,
it

cannot

be supposed that the priest did entirely without

some resource

;

some

plain piece of cloth

must surely

1 1

o

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

have been employed in its place, and some pocket must then have been required in which to place it. Again, some receptacle must have been wanted in which to place those comforting metal apples in
'
'

cold

which hot water was placed when the day was and the thumbstall or ponser, the thimble
;

designed to keep the

oil

which adhered to

his

thumb

had been dipped in the chrism, from greasing any of his vestments. It seems only
after
it

natural

to

suppose

that

the

subcingulum was

originally designed to supply fhese wants.

This ornament, obsolete XII. The Rational. now, was assumed by the bishops of the early
years of the middle ages, in direct imitation of the
breastplate of the
Priest.
It

ephod worn by the Jewish High

consisted of a

wooden brooch,

overlaid with

enamelled metal, which was fastened high up on
the breast of the chasuble, and seems
to

commonly

have been worn when there was no central

orphrey on that vestment.

The shape and ornamentation of
varied altogether with the
caprice

the rational

of the

artist

who designed
at
all.

it.

Examples

are extremely rare in
if,

inventories of cathedral goods,
It
is

indeed, they occur

probable that they were catalogued

together with the morses

of copes, with
in appearance.

which

they were practically identical

The word

*

Rationale

'

first

meets

us in the

1

;

T^he Final

Form of Vestments,

1 1

expression 'rationale judicii/ used in the Vulgate
-passim as a translation of the ro \o^{iov
rr]q

KpiaewQ,

by which

the Septuagint expressed the breastplate

of the ephod.

In the early Church writers the

word

'judicii'

was dropped and 'rationale' used
in

alone, but always to denote the Jewish ornament.

When
eleventh
quite

pseudo-Alcuin wrote,
century,
the
for he says

the

tenth

or

ecclesiastical
'
:

rational

was

unknown,
quos

Pro

rationali

summi
pallio

pontifices,

archiepiscopos

dicemus,

utuntur'
not have

a statement
if

which he would certainly
less

made

anything

unlike the rational

Ivo of than the pallium had been known to him. knows nothing of the Christian Chartres, too,

ornament, for although he does not say definitely that the Jewish rational corresponded to the
pallium, he says that
it

corresponded to an orna-

ment
his

conceded {concessum) to the chief bishops of

time

—an
is

expression which

would
first

define the

pallium, but certainly not the rational.

Honorius

of Autun

the writer in

whom we

meet with

direct and unequivocal mention of the ornament and he begins his remarks upon it by definitely

stating

:

'

Rationale a Lege est

sumptum '—Lege,

This gives us of course, being the Levitical law. between which the very closely the limits of date some time between iioo rational was assumed

and

1

1

30.
rational, if

The

we may

accept the testimony

112

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

of the monuments, gradually died out about the
fourteenth or fifteenth century.
It

seems never to
is

have been universal, and an actual rational
of the rarest ecclesiological treasures
can possess.
Xlll. The Mitre.

one

a collector

— Like
all

that of the subcinguis

lum, the history of the mitre

a curious piece of

evolution

;

but, unlike the suhcingulum^ the mitre
its

can be traced through

history in an un-

broken chain of
effigies,

literary references,

monumental
is

and actual specimens.
7nitra

The word

(Gk.

/iiVoc,

ci

thread^

applied

in the transitional period to a female head-dress,

and even St Isidore of

Seville

makes use of the

word

in

that

sense.

The
;

Septuagint, however,

occasionally translates the expression for the cap

of the high priest by ^aV^a
use the

at

other times they

word

Ac/Soptc,

which they also apply to the
the

cap of the second order of the Jewish priesthood.

The Vulgate
tiara.

follows

Septuagint,

sometimes

using mitra^ sometimes cidaris^ and occasionally

The

advocates of an origin in primitive anti-

quity for Ecclesiastical Vestments

make much of
obscure,

two passages which
'

are

certainly

and

would seem to indicate that in apostolic times bishops wore a gold -plate upon their heads. These passages are in a letter sent by Polycrates of Ephesus to Victor, bishop of Rome, about the
'

3

'

'The

Final Form of Vestments,

1

1

year
'*

200

a.d., in

having become a

which he alludes to St John as priest wearing the gold plate
7re(j>of)r]fC0JQ

iyevi]Or]

up^vg to 7reTa\ov

;*

and

in the

writings of Epiphanius of Salamis (circa
in

400

a.d.),

which he says of James, the brother of Our
priest after the ancient rite,

Lord, that he was a
Kara

and was permitted to wear a gold plate
(jai'Ta auTOi'

hparev.
.

rrjv

iraXaitiv Upuxjvvi]

evpOjLUv

.

Ka\ TO TreTaXov

eirl rfyg

K£(paXr}Q £$^7^ civtm (pEpeiu^'T

Cltmg

the authority of Eusebius, Clement, and others.

These statements
confused that very

are
little

so

hopelessly

vague and
the passages
(ii)

can be

made out of them,
(i)

but

it

has been pointed out that

in which they occur are largely allegorical,

that the iriTaXov seems to refer to the gold plate of

Jewish priesthood, and that the expression priest with the iriTaXov probably was used currently in
'
'

the early years of Christianity,

much
day.

as

'

mitred

abbot
as

'

is

by us

at the present
it
'

In any case,
that if St

Dr

Sinker says,J

is

plain

enough

John and
this

St James, or either of
it

them, did wear
'

ornament,

was an ornament

special

to

themselves and ceased with them, affecting in no
sense the further use of the church.'
* Ap.
Eusebius,
Hist.
Eccl.,

v

24.

;

Migne,

Patrol.

Graec, xx 493. t Contra Haer.,
xli 396.

I

xxix 4

;

Migne,

Patrol.

Graec,
Christian

X

In

Smith and Cheetham's
r/!/tre.

'Dictionary

of

Antiquities,' s.v.

114

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

Other passages, supposed to refer to this or similar practices, bearing dates between the fourth
and sixth have no
centuries, are
real

found on examination to

bearing

on

the

question.

The
which

number of extracts from

writers of that time

have been brought forward to prove the antiquity of the mitre is considerable ; but those which can
at all bear consideration apart

from their contexts
;

are

all

vague, unconvincing and inconclusive

some,

indeed, are so obviously figurative that their pro-

duction
straits to

is

only an amusing illustration

of the

which the

believers in the elaboration of

primitive ritual are reduced.

And
is

the evidence of

Tertullian on the other side

very clear

'

quis

denique patriarches, quis prophetes, quis
aut

levites,

aut sacerdos, aut archon, quis vel postea apostolus

evangelizator aut

episcopus invenitur

coro-

natus.^'*

In the face of this quotation

it is

not easy to see
St

what to make of the passages
elsewhere, in which a bishop

in
is

Jerome and

addressed by the
as

expression
*

*

corona

vestra,*
'

much

we

use the

Dr Rock argues words your lordship now. this that bishops, even so early as the fifth from century, wore a circlet or crown of gold at Divine If so, the use must have been confined service.
to

Rome,

for

otherwise

the
cap. ix.

Toletan or other
Migne,
ii

* *De Corona Milids,'

88.

5

The Final Form of Vestments,
councillors

1

1

would surely have given us
it.
'

definite

information concerning

St Isidore of Seville, in his treatise
Ecclesiasticis,'

De

Officiis

book

ii,

chap,

vii,

describes

the

tonsure as indicative of the priesthood and the
regal nature of the church, the shaven part of the

head representing
Jewish
priests,

the hemispherical
circlet

cap of the

and the

of hair representing

the coronet of kings.

It is true that he is not speaking definitely of bishops, but the fact that he
is

absolutely silent

respecting

a

kind other than the crown of hair
expressly uses the

word

corona

crown of any for which he
at

is

least

pre-

sumptive evidence that the crown of gold was not worn in his day. The prophecy of King Laoghaire's druids affords a very curious corroboration

of this; sttpost,

p.

128.
that

The

earliest

representation

Dr Rock

can

adduce of an

ecclesiastic

wearing this

circlet is a

figure in the Benedictional of St Aethelwold, an

MS. of the tenth century at Chatsworth. Here we have a figure, the brows of which are certainly
encircled
stones.

with

a

gold

band

set

with precious
is

As

Marriott points out, however, this

probably more of a secular than an ecclesiastical
nature, and

may
after

indicate the royal rank to which

bishops at that time frequently laid claim.

Menard,
liturgies,

a

careful

study

of

ancient

came

to the

conclusion that the mitre

6

1 1

Ecclesiastical Vestments.
in use in the church prior

was not
looo.

to the year

Contemporary
earliest

art bears out this statement.

Probably the

genuine representation of a

bishop wearing a head-dress to which any import-

ance can be attached from a liturgical point of

view

is

an illumination of St Dunstan* in an

MS.
This
It

(Claud.
is

A

3)

in

the

British

Museum.

of the early years of the eleventh century.

shows us a simple cap, low and hemispherical
shape, without the least trace of the cleft

in

now

in-

variably associated with the episcopal headgear.

The
make
blunt,

fashion seems to have changed with con-

siderable rapidity,
its

and the

cleft

very soon began to

appearance.

Its

first

beginning was a

very shallow, blunt depression between two low,

rounded points, one over each ear in a depression such as would naturally be made
soft

fact,

in a

by passing the outstretched hand gently across the crown. This change was not
cloth cap

long in giving place to another and more important

modification.

The

mitre

was

turned

so

that the horns appeared one in front, one behind,

and they were raised a
triangular form.

little

higher than before,

and, instead of being rounded, were

made of
is

a

The

mitre in this shape
in

that

universally represented

MSS. of the twelfth
is

century.
Little

difference
*

in

shape

traceable

in

the

See

fig.

11, p. 97.

7

The Final Form of Vestments.

1
1

or mitres of the thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth four hundred During these sixteenth centuries.

but years the mitre increased considerably in size,

Fig

16

-\

Bishop,

Salisbury
Twelfth

Fig.

17.-AN

Archbishop;

^CATHEDRAL
Century).
it

(Jocelyn,

^-^^^^^.''^IZ'^ll? ther von Isenburg, 1482).
seventeenth

was reserved

for

the

century to

Hitherto stereotype the final modification in form. general rule the two horns of the mitre had as a

8

1 1

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

been in the shape of plain triangles, bent round so
as to adapt

themselves to the outline of the head

;

the mitre was thus cylindrical in outline.

By

the

seventeenth century, however, the triangles had

been made spherical, so that the mitre assumed the

form of a pair of parentheses, or of a
it still

barrel,

which

possesses.*

By

this

time

it

had grown to a
inches.

considerable height

—some eighteen

it was was kept in position by two ribbons, which were The end of knotted at the back of the head. these ribbons are well shown in the figure of St Dunstan. But the ribbons very early lost their usefialness and became simple ornaments, and the ubiquitous embroiderer was not long in seizing on these infulae, or lappets, and enriching them with

When

the mitre

a plain cloth cap

needlework to the best of her

ability.

The
linen,

mitre was originally

made of

plain

white

and until about the twelfth century continued
;

to be so

it

was occasionally, though by no means
decorated

always,

elaborately

with

needlework.

Such simplicity, however, was not consistent with
the spirit of the age which followed, and
that in the thirteenth century the mitre
silk,
'''

we find was made of

and invariably overlaid either with embroidery
Traces of a slight
*

bulge

'

are

discernible

in

a

few
It

examples of even so early
is

a date as the fifteenth century.
effigy,

well developed in

von Brandenburg's

figured

on

p. lOI.

!

9

The Final Form of Vestments.
or pearls and other jewels.
this

1

1

To

such a length was

enrichment carried at last in England, that we read that Henry VIII removed from Foun-

tains

Abbey, among other

treasures, a silver-gilt

mitre set with pearl and stone

—weight

seventy

ounces

Although properly belonging to the seventh chapter, in which the ritual uses of the various
vestments which
discussed,
classes
it

we have

been describing will be

is

necessary here to detail the three
are

which mitres vestments, which are other
into
in their

divided.

Unlike

classified

accordmg to accordmg
all,
is

the particular liturgical colour which predominates

embroidery, mitres are

classified

to

the

manner

in

which they are ornamented.
it

The background, when
white.

can be seen at

A

mitre which
little

is

simply made of white
is

linen or silk, with
a mitra

or no enrichment,

called

simplex

;

one ornamented richly

with

embroidery, but without precious metals or stones, one in which is called a mitra aurifrigiata ; and
precious metals

and stones

are

employed

in

its

decoration

is

called a mitra pretiosa.

The

different

are times at which these different kinds of mitres worn will be noted in their proper place in

Chapter VII.

The
place.

papal tiara
It
first

be briefly described in this appears about the eleventh century

may

as a conical cap, encircled with a single

crown

at

Fig.

iS. — Pastoral Staff and Mitra Pretiosa (the Limerick Mitre).

The Final Form of Vestments.
the

121

brow

;

assumed about the time of the growth
it

of the earthly power of the papacy,

may

well be

regarded as symbolical of spiritual and temporal
rule.

The subsequent
it
:

modifications

through

which

passed were few in number, though con-

siderable in character

they consisted

in the addi-

tion of a second
A.D.),

crown by Boniface VIII (1300

Urban V (1362-70), and the swelling out of the body of the head-dress into a bulging form about the sixteenth century, much about the time when the mitre assumed the same
of a third by
shape.

XIV.

'[he

Episcopal

Gloves.

— These

un-

doubtedly owe their invention to the coldness and
cheerlessness of the early churches, and were in-

vented simply to keep the hands of the wearer

warm.

But about the ninth century they, with so
similar

many
them

vestments, assumed a more

sacred

character, anci a prayer

was prescribed

for putting

on, as

was the case with the other and

better

established vestments.

They do

not appear to be
till

formally mentioned as vestments

the time of
lessons

Honorius of Autun, from them.

who draws

moral

Throughout the middle ages the gloves were often a large richly embroidered and jewelled stone is to be seen on the back of each hand. The gloves (cldrothecae^ or manicae) must be
;

carefully

distinguished

from

the

manicae

or

122

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

brachialia^ the sleeves of coarse cloth

which the

bishop used to draw over his arm to protect the
apparels of his alb

from the water when administer-

ing baptism by immersion.

As

the hands are sometimes covered with gloves

and sometimes bare, so good deeds should be sometimes hidden to prevent self-sufficiency, and
sometimes revealed
near us.
this
is

as

an edifying example to those
;

So says Honorius of Autun

perhaps

as satisfactory

an exegesis as has ever been

given of the gloves or any other vestment.

XV.
special

The E-pis copal %jng.

— Although,
as

as

we

have seen, the ring was recognised

one of the

marks of
of

a bishop at the time of the fourth

council

Toledo,
of

and

was

regarded

by

St

Isidore of Seville as a special article used in the
investiture
a

bishop, none of the liturgical

writers of the earliest years of the mediaeval period
notices
it
;

not

till

we come
it

to

Honorius of

Autun

is

any mention of
is

to be found.

The
Ivo,
less

reason of this

not far to seek, and has been

given by Marriott.

Rabanus,

Amalarius,

and the

rest,

occupied themselves more or

with the supposed connexion between the

liturgical

and the Jewish vestments, and therefore, as they were not writing treatises dealing solely with Christian vestments, they omitted all mention of ornaments which had no direct bearing on the
questions with which they were engaged.

Hence,

'The Final

Form of Vestments,
staff

1

23

both the ring and pastoral
thing in the Levitical
portant insignia.

suffered, as the

most ingenious torturing could not extract anyrites

analogous to these imconclusive on

The
two
the

evidence of the monuments

is

points.

First, that the episcopal ring

proper

was only one of a large number of rings worn by
bishop,

the

others
;

being

probably
it

purely

ornamental and secular

second, that

was worn

on the third finger of the right hand, and above
the second joint of that finger, not being passed,
as

rings are now,

down

to the knuckle.

It

was

usually kept in place with a plain guard

ring.

The
pass

ring was always a circlet with a precious

stone, never engraved,

and

it

over
a

the

gloved

finger.

was large enough to The stone was
an emerald or a

usually

sapphire,

sometimes

ruby.

Although the ring
circumstances, from

is

distinguishable,
as

by

its

position on the right hand

well as by other

the wedding-ring,

Honorius

of

Autun

(after referring to

the ring placed on

the finger of the Prodigal Son and the wedding
ring of iron

with

an

adamantine
called

stone

forged
')

by

*

a

certain wise

man

Prometheus

has

been trapped into saying that the bishop wears a
ring that he

may

declare himself the bridegroom

of the church and

may

lay

down

his life for

it,

should necessity

arise, as did Christ.

124

Ecclesiastical Vestments,
briefly

XVI. The Pastoral Slaff.—Wt have
in the

sketched the probable origin of the pastoral staff

preceding chapter, and come
it

now

to discuss
in

the

forms
it is

presented

and the connexions
ages.

which
there
tical

was used during the middle

As

no department of the study of Ecclesiasexists,

Vestments about v/hich so much popular
it

misconception

will

be necessary to enter

into these details at considerable length.

As
effigies

utterly
'

unfounded
that

as the
'

common

notions

concerning
is

low-side windows
the

and crossed-legged
differences
as
in

the idea

the
in

positions

of

pastoral

staves

represented

sculptured

monuments have any meaning whatso-

ever, secret or personal.
a
is

A

pastoral staff remains

pastoral

staff,

and nothing more,
side
its

whether

it

on the right
and whether

of the
is

bearer or

on the

left,

crook

turned inwards or

outwards.

Synonymous with
crozier or crosier
;

'

pastoral staff'
it

is

the

word
cross-

but

is

frequently ignorantly

applied to a totally different object
staff

the

borne before an archbishop.
see in

The

statements
treat

which we so often
being
crozier

works professing to
as to the

on ecclesiological subjects

pastoral staff

crook-headed and borne by

bishops, the

cross-headed, and borne (instead of the
/?y

pastoral staff)

archbishops, are derived from a

misunderstanding of the

evidence

of mediaeval

'The Final

Form of Vestments,
truth
is,

125
pastoral
is

monuments.*
staff,

The

that

the

with which the crozier

is

identical,
;

borne

by bishops and archbishops alike but archbishops are distinguished from bishops by having a staff,
with a cross or crucifix
in
its

head, borne hefore
it

them

in

addition.

In

many monuments,
the
brass

is

true, archbishops are represented as carrying the
cross-staff,
as,

for

instance,

of Arch;

bishop Cranley in

New

College, Oxford
in

but

it

was obviously impossible

a

monument

of this

kind to represent a cross-bearer preceding the
archbishop, and the slight inaccuracy was, therefore,

perpetrated of
cross,

making the archbishop bear
person represented was of
It

his

own

thereby substantiating the evidence
the

of the

fall^

that

higher rank than that of a bishop.

was better

managed
of

at

Mayence, where,

in

the

monument

Albrecht von

Brandenburg,
is

above

(p. loi), the figure

1545, figured represented as bearing

both the crozier and the

cross-staff,

one

in

each

hand
city

;

and
a

at

Bamberg,
he

in the cathedral

of which

is

brass to Bishop

Lambert von Brunnf
holding the
in

(1399),
crozier
right.

wherein
in
his

is

represented

left

hand, the

cross-staff

his

* This blunder has even crept into the ninth edition of
the
*

Encyclopaedia Britannica.'

t

The

bishops of

Bamberg had
See p. 102,

a right to
afite.

wear the

archi-

episcopal pontificalia.

126
In the
there
is
;

Ecclesiastical Vestments.
earliest representations

of a

staff

of

office

a considerable variety in the shape of the

head
us.

knobs, crooks, and even

Y -shapes,

all

meet

The
much

shape probably depended on the shape
staff

of the branch of the tree from which the
cut,
as

was

does the shape of an ordinary walk-

ing-stick.

By

St

Isidore's

time,

however, the
;

crook-head had become stereotyped
of exceptional forms which
is

the

number
staves

we

find after that date

small.

There

is

a considerable

number of

of about the eleventh century, either represented

on monuments or actually existing, of which the
heads
are

tau-shaped

;

these

possibly

betray

Eastern influence.
bishops

A

few
a

effigies

or pictures of
staff
;

remain
is

with

knob-headed

an

example

to be seen in a ninth-century

Anglofar the

Saxon

pontifical at

Rouen.
staff
is,

The crook-headed

however, by

commonest, and p only, form in which the bishop's crozier
after

the eleventh

century the
is

found.

Some
in

variety

is is

discoverable

in

the

— notably

extent to which the staff
Irish

crooked.

specimens

— the

In some

head

is

shaped like an inverted U, the form of the whole staff being that represented in the annexed diagram;
but in the great majority of instances the head
recurved into a
spiral or volute.
is flat,
is

In the Irish form of crozier the front

and

shaped like an oval

shield.

This

is

often

move

The Final Form of Vestments,
able,

127

disclosing

a

hollow behind

it,

which was

almost certainly used as a reliquary.*

The
usually

materials of which the pastoral staff was

made were very diverse. The stick was of wood, some precious wood, such as cedar, cypress,
This wood was often
plates.
gilt

or ebony.

or overlaid

with
staff

silver

In the twelfth century the

was shod with iron and surmounted with a knob of crystal, above which the crook proper

was attached. was of bronze

The
;

crook-head of the Irish crozier
the process of elaboration

that of the other form generally

of carved ivory.

When

was

felt in this as

in all the other sacerdotal orna-

ments, the stick as well as the head was often

carved from
heavily,

ivory,
set

and

either

gilt

or

silvered

and

with precious

stones.

Beneath

the crook were often niches or shrines, containing
figures

of

saints.

was decorated with the marvellous interlacing knots and bands which are
Irish crozier

The bronze

the special glory of early Irish Christian art.
the
flat

On

front

is

often to be seen a plain cross, at
is

the centre
stone,

of which
in

a setting

for a precious

and

each quarter an interlacing band.
the surface was not
not
is

In the volute form of crozier a different style of

ornamentation was adopted
*

;

The
;

ordinary form of crozier was
the well-known

unknown
a

in

Ireland

crozier of Cashel

beautiful

specimen.

The

crook form was, however,

earlier.

——

128

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

ornamented, but the head was carved into solid
forms
;

in the

centre of the volute was usually

represented some sacred person or scene, real or
legendary, or else

some symbolical device or conIt
is

ventional patterns.
these

hard to say which of
is

two forms of crozier
point of view.

the better from an
graceful curve of

aesthetic

The

the volute certainly compares favourably with the

somewhat
at

stiff

outline of the Irish crozier

;

but

the feebleness of even the best mediaeval attempts
representing

the

human
a

figure

in

miniature
value of
is

considerably detracts

from the

artistic

the volute crozier

when

human

figure

intro-

duced

;

while,

on the other hand, the incomparable

excellence of the Irish metal-workers transformed

the U-shaped crozier into an object of great beauty.

The

lines

of the knots are always faultlessly exeis

cuted, and the ornamentation
taste.*

invariably in

good
in

* This form of crozier

is

no doubt contemplated

the

prophecy attributed

to

the

druids of Laoghaire, King of

Ireland, as cited in the law- tract
*

known

as the Senckus

Mor

Tiucfaid Tailginn tar muir meirginn

A A
that
sea,
is,
'

croinn cromcinn, a cinn tollcinn

miasa in airthiur atighe,'

etc.

the

Tonsured ones

shall

come through
It
is

the stormy

their

staves

crook-headed, their heads tonsured, their

tables in

the east of their houses,' etc.
p.

worth noting,
'their
a

apropos of what was said on
coro?2a,

115 respecting the bishop's
tollcinn'

that

the

words

'a

cinn
the

heads

tonsured,'

are
'i.e.,

thus glossed in
their crowns

MS.

'.i.

coirne ina

cennaib'

on their heads.'

'

The Final Form of Vestments,

129

The

following copy of the Lincoln Inventory
illustrates

of pastoral staves (1536)
points already noticed.

some of the
the

It also indicates that

head and

staff

of the crozier were separable, and,

when

stored in the vestry, kept apart from one
:

another
*

In primis

a

hede of one busshopes

stafFe

of sylver and

gylte w' one

knop and perles

&

other stones havyng a Image

of ow"" savyow'' of the one syde and a Image of sent John
Baptiste of the other syde wanting xxj stones

&

perles

vv*

one

bose [boss] and one sokett

weyng

xviij unces.

*Item one other hede of
*

a stafFe

copo^

&

gylte.

Item

a staffe

ordend for one of the seyd hedes the vvyche

ys ornate w' stones sylver

and gylte and

iij

circles,

a

boute

the StafFe sylver and gylte
*

wantyng

vij stones.

Item

a stafFe
j

of horn and

wod

for the

hede of

copo'.

*

Item

staff

covered w' silver w^^out hceid.'

In

the corresponding inventory of Winchester
pastoral a
*

Cathedral we find entered three
silver-gilt,

staves

one pastoral

staff

of

unicorn's

(presumably a narwhal's) horn and four pastoral
staves of plates of silver.

Suspended to the top of the
called the infula.

staff

was

a streamer

or napkin, which, like the lappet of the mitre, was

This was originally introduced

to keep the moisture of the hand from tarnishing

the metal of the
a
'

staff.

The

symbolists think

it

is

banner
It will

'

of some sort or other.

be convenient, before proceeding to the

discussion of the next vestment

on our

list,

to give

9

130

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

a few particulars regarding the archbishop's cross.

This
cross

is

necessary owing to the confusion already-

noticed, which exists between the crozier and the
;

but as the cross cannot strictly be included

in a catalogue of ecclesiastical vestments,

we

shall

make The custom of
a

our notes as brief as possible.
preceding an archbishop with

cross

was introduced throughout the Western
century.

Church about the beginning of the twelfth
It

was carried by one of the archbishop's chap-

lains,
*

who

in this

country received the name of

croyser,'

or cross-bearer, for that reason.

The

was usually richly ornamented with metalwork and jewels, and often, if not always, bore a figure of Our Lord on each face, so that the eyes of the archbishop were fixed on the one, those of
cross

the people on the other.

The

circumstance of highest importance con-

nected with the archbishop's cross, so far as it the prelate concerns our present purpose, is this
:

never bore the cross himself, except on the one
occasion of his investiture.
cross into his
it

He

then received the

own

hands, but immediately passed

on to

his cross-bearer.
is

The Pope
illustrations

often in mediaeval
as

monuments and

represented

preceded by a cross

with three transoms of different length, the upper-

most being the shortest, the lowermost the longest. This is simply the result of a desire on the part of

1

The Final Form of Vestments.
the artist to improve

1

3

upon

the patriarch's cross of

the Eastern Church, which appears to have

two

transoms, the upper transom being in point of fact
a representation

scription

of the board on which the superon the cross was written.
staff

One more
tion

may

be worth a passing

the staff borne as an

menemblem of authority
after

by the ruler of the choir, who looked
singing and behaviour of the boys.
silver,

the

This was of

with a cross-head.
false

The

conceptions

about the crozier have

probably arisen from an inaccurate etymological
analogy with the word
connects
crook.
it

cross.

The
as

true derivation

with such words

our crotchet and

The symbolism of the
It

shepherd's staff

is

naturally

the leading thought in the minds of the mystics.

and they

was probably, however, considered too obvious, cast about to find yet further secret

meanings.

Thus, Honorius
the apostles to

notices that the
'

Lord

commanded
staff

take nothing save a

only

'

when they were going
'

out to preach,

and then says that
feeble
signifies

the staff which sustains the

the

authority of teaching,'

and

much more

to the
is

same

effect.

Innocent III says

that the point

sharp, the middle straight, the
priest

top curved, to indicate that the

should spur

on the

idle,

rule the weak, collect the wandering.

He

flirther explains

the fact that the Pope does

132

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

' not bear the pastoral staff by telling us that the blessed St Peter sent his staff to Eucharius, the

first

bishop of Treves,

whom

he had

sent, to-

gether with Valerius and Maternus, to preach the

Maternus succeeded Gospel among the Germans. him in the bishopric ; he had been raised from the
dead by the staff of St Peter.
St

And

this staff is

preserved with great reverence in the church of
Treves.'
piece

Thomas Aquinas
carries the

supplements this

of information by telling us that for this

reason the

Pope

pastoral

staff

when

pontificating in Treves."^

The

episcopal staff

is
:

alleged to have borne the

following inscriptions
iratus fueris
ball

round the crook,
'

*

Cum

misericordiae recordaberis
'

;

on the
at the

below the crook,
*

Homo

'

;

on the spike

bottom,

Parce.'

By

these inscriptions the bishop
a

was warned that he was but

man

himself
;

;

that

and that he in wrath he should remember mercy should spare, even when administering discipline.

Whether
is

these warnings were invariably effective

a matter into

which we

will not inquire.

XVII. The

Tunicle.

—This was

simply a small

variety of the dalmatic, appropriated to the use of

subdeacons and bishops.

from the dalmatic merely in being somewhat smaller. It was made of silk or of
It

differed

* Sentent. IV,
(1873), vol.
vii, p.

dist.

24, quaest.

3, art. 3,

ad jin.

ed.

Parmae

913.

The Final Form of Vestments,
wool, and
first

1

33

appears about the year 820 as a

considerably later subdeacon's vestment ; but it is bishop's garment. than this that it appears as a appear with but In the ninth century bishops under the chasuble; the alba

one vestment

between

the

ninth
its

dalmatic makes

and eleventh centuries the and it is not till appearance
;

tunicle illustrated about 1200 that we find the reference bishops. in paintings or effigies of of the present the table given in the early part

A

to

evidence points chapter will show that the literary
in the

same

direction.

The
all

tunicle did not escape the

common

fate

of
it,

church, and the vestments of the mediaeval

too,

became overlaid with needlework,

first

in a

subdeacon, then (as strip across the breast of the the vestments of the this would not show under
bishop) on the rest of the surface.

The

tunicle

on

Bishop Goodrick's brass

at

Ely Cathedral— one of

vestment in Engthe latest representations of this richly embroidered as the dalmatic.

land— is
In
a

as

few episcopal

effigies

of the

thirteenth
tunicle

century the dalmatic alone appears. being worn beneath the dalmatic,
naturallv smaller, was hidden.
cess of shortening the dalmatic.

The
and

being

This

difficulty was,

simple prohowever, very soon surmounted by the

Properly,
tunicle

the

dalmatic

only

is

fringed;
if ever,

the

of the subdeacon seldom,

shows

134
this

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

manner of ornamentation. But in the later episcopal effigies it is by no means uncommon.
XVIII. The Orale^ or, as it is now called, the Fanon^ is described by Dr Rock as an oblong
'

piece of white silk gauze of
across
its

some length,

striped

width with narrow bars, alternately gold,

blue, and red.

...

It

is

cast

the Pope like a hood, and

its

upon the head of two ends are wrapped

one over the right, the other over the left shoulder, and thus kept until the holy father is clad in the chasuble, when the fanon is thrown back and made to hang smoothly and gracefully above and all around the shoulders of that vestment,
tippet.' like

a

From
on,
it

the orale being supposed to represent the
as

ephod, as well
is

from the manner of
it

its

being put

probable that
It
is

was an evolution from
mentioned by
liturgical

the

amice.

not

writers before Innocent III, and does not appear in

paintings or

monuments of much

older date

;

it

therefore seems to have been assumed about the

twelfth or thirteenth century.

XIX. The
to

Pectoral Cross.
this

— We must not omit
episcopal
is

mention
an

important
it

ornament.

As
late

official

ornament
;

of comparatively
in

introduction
III

it

first

appears

the pages

of Innocent

and Durandus,

and

from

the
to
it,

references which these
it

liturgiologists

make

was evidently regarded by them

as exclusively

The Final Form of Vestments.

1

35
:

Thus, Innocent says confined to the Pope's use. cingu'Romanus autem pontifex post albam et

lum assumit
replicat

orale,

quod

circa

caput involvit et
certain

super
'

humeros'
pontifex
iste

for

symbohc
cessit

reasons

;

et quia signo crucis auri

lamina

pro lamina

quam

ille

[Judaeus] gerebat
gerit in pectore.'

in fronte, pontifex

crucem

trace of has been unable to find any on the breast of an the pectoral cross appearing sixteenth century. ordinary bishop before the this time Even by the Popes it appears before Probably chasuble. to have been covered by the

Dr Rock

the cross was originally a reliquary.

On
which
gives a

p.

date in

of uncertain 29 we referred to a MS. at Autun, the monastery of St Martin

details the vestments

worn

in the Galilean

church in

(probably) the

tenth century.

This

somewhat

of the rest some Eastern influence.

from the lists displays of the Western Church, and
different catalogue

The

pallium, casula, alba,

and
tical

they appear idenstola are described so that
;

elsewhere with the corresponding vestments under the name vestithe maniple also appears, addition the mentum parvolum ; and we have in any manicae, which do not appear in

mamalia
to

or

other Western

lists

;

they are

said in the

MS.
and

have

been regularly worn

'like
'

bracelets,'

and to have covered This points to vestments priests.'

the arms of

kings

after the style

136
of the

Ecclesiastical Vestments,
tTTijiiaviKia

of the Greeks, which will be
described the vestments

noticed in their proper place in Chapter V.

We

have

now
and

worn by

the priests of the Western Church at the Eucharistic service,

are thus in a position to give a satis*

factory answer to the question,

Were

they adap-

tations of the Jewish, or natural evolutions of the

Roman
make

costume?'

We

have seen that the jeweller,

the goldsmith, and the embroiderer conspired to

the vestments of the middle ages as gorgeous

as possible,

and that therein, and

in

some few other
;

particulars, they resembled the

Mosaic costume
glitter
till

but as
ages

we go back

nearer and nearer to the
all

first

of Christianity

the

drops

off,

vestment after vestment disappears,
the
three
plain

we

reach

white vestments of the
it is

fourth

century, from which

but a step to the ordicitizen

nary costume of a

Roman

of good position
era.

during the second or third century of our

We

have also seen that

all

attempts at drawing
fail
;

hidden
results,

meanings from the vestments

the

when not

far-fetched,

are

contradictory

and unconvincing.

CHAPTER
THE
;

IV.

HISTORY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PROCESSIONAL VESTMENTS THE ORNAMENTATION OF VESTMENTS.
addition to the garments already described,
are

IN which
are

more properly appropriated to the

Eucharistic service, there are a few which

assumed on other occasions by the clergy of

the Western Church.

The

occasions

upon which
accordingly

these particular vestments are

worn belong properly

to the province of Chapter VII.

We

postpone the discussion of them until that chapter
is

reached,

concerning ourselves

here with

the

development, shape,
vestments themselves.

and

ornamentation of the

The
this

vestments which we have to describe in
the
cassock,

chapter are

surplice

(with

its

modifications, the rochet and cotta), almuce, and
cope.

These

constitute the so-called processional

138
vestments
;

Ecclesiastical Vestments.
a

misnomer, because they are not ex-

clusively appropriated to processions.
besides, certain others of a

There

are,

more general

character,

not strictly falling under the head of either Eucharistic

or Processional vesture, and they will be more

conveniently described in this chapter also.
are

These

the

canon's

cope, the

mozetta, the

Roman

collar,

and the various types of sacerdotal headCassock,

dress.
I.

The
lay,

— The

cassock was the

long

outer

gown which was worn by

everyone, clerical

and

male and female, during the eleventh,

twelfth, and succeeding centuries.

When
in

it

was

abandoned
short
coat,

for

the very

much more convenient
ecclesiastical
ecclesi-

that

conservatism

matters,
astical

to

which the very existence of
is

vestments

due, prevented the clergy from
laity,

following the example of the
cassock
as the

and
still

left the

distinctive

outer garment of the
it

clergy on ordinary occasions, as

remains.

The

dignity attaching to a long garment was also
its

probably a factor in causing
tention.

ecclesiastical

re-

The

Eucharistic vestments were placed over the

cassock, as the cassock was placed over the under-

garments of the wearer.

But

it
it

was so

entirely

concealed by the long alb that

could scarcely

be regarded as an essential part of the vestments
for the Eucharistic
office.

The

case

was

different.

'

History of the Processional Vestments.
however, when the
sional
attire,

139

priest

was vested

in

proces-

for

the

lower

end of the cassock
the
surplice,
essential

appeared very prominently under

and

its

presence

was consequently
outfit.
'

to

complete the processional
discuss this

We

therefore

vestment under the head
*

Processional

rather than under the head

Eucharistic/

Cassocks were originally invented for purposes

of warmth, and hence were lined with
exclusively a clerical dress, and

furs.

This

custom was retained when the cassock became

we

often find in

monuments of

ecclesiastics indications at the wrist

that the cassock was so lined.

The
for

colour of

the vestment was invariably black
ecclesiastics,

ordinary

scarlet

for doctors

of divinity and
prelates,

cardinals, purple for bishops

and

and on

high occasions for acolytes

;

for the

Pope, white.

The
taries

fur with which the or

cassock was lined was
for

ermine
;

some other precious kind

digni-

to

but ordinary priests were strictly forbidden wear anything more costly than sheepskin.
cassock as we find
it

The

represented on mediaeval
to the breast
;

monuments was probably open
do not
to the

I

recollect having observed

any counterpart
by

modern

cassock, with a

row of buttons from
Lord

neck to hem

(humorously compared
boiler with a close

Grimthorpe to a
is

row of
is

rivets!).

In some parts of France and in

Rome

the cassock
a

kept in place by a sash

;

this also

modern

140

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

innovation probably suggested by the custom of

members of
II.

the monastic orders.
Surplice.

The

— From

its

fur

lining,

the
;

cassock was called in mediaeval Latin the pellicea
the

name

superpellicea

was accordingly given to

the vestment which was

worn immediately over

it

a

name which
will

has passed by natural phonetic
*

modifications into
It

surplice.'

remembered that the alba of the second or transitional epoch was a very much more ample vestment than its successor in mediaeval
be
times.

The
all

chasuble, tunicle, or dalmatic (some-

times

three) had to be put
it

on over
its

it

—an im-

possibility if
It

had maintained

original size.

accordingly was contracted in size in order to
itself to the

adapt

new requirements

;

but in so

doing

the

needleworkers went to the other exintractable every time the attempt
it

treme, and produced a vestment which threatened
to

become

was
fur.

made
article

to put

on over the cassock when the

latter

of dress was thick and lined with
difficulties

These

resulted in the invention of a

new garment, which

retained the amplitude of the

old alba^ and was worn only

when no vestment of

importance (except the cope, which was adaptable)

was put on over
alb

it.

This was the surplice.
over

The
as

was retained

for

the Eucharistic service,
lie
it

the upper vestments would
veniently.

more con-

History of the Processional Vestments.

141

The

surplice

was

a sleeved

vestment of white

linen, plain, except at the neck, where there was occasionally a little embroidery in coloured threads.

The

and hung down to a considerable length when the hands were conThe joined, as they generally are in monuments.
sleeves were very
full,

surplice

was put on by being passed over the head, the modern surplice, open in exactly like the alb front, and secured at the neck with a button, was
;

invented within the

last

two hundred

years,

and

was designed to make the assumption of the vestment possible without disarranging the enormous wigs which were worn during the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries.
III.

The %ochet

is

a

still

further modification of

the alb.

The

sleeves are reduced to a
It

minimum

or totally absent.

appears to have been worn,

though not always, by choristers, and there is also evidence that it was the form of surplice favoured

by bishops.
'

Thus we

read

:

Item

8 surplices for the quere.
3 rochets/i?r children'

*

Item

— Inventory of
summum

St

Mary

Hill,

London.
'Bis adiit [Richardus de Bury]

pontificem Jo-

hannem et recepit ab eo rochetam in loco bullae pro proximo episcopatu vacante ex post in Anglia.'— Will, de Chambre,
'Continuatio
p.

Hist.

Dunelmensis,'

Surtees

Society,

1839,

127.

IV. The Cotta.

—This

is

a surplice, considerably

modified, which has the advantage of being cheap,

142
and
is

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

accordingly worn as a substitute for the
It is a sleeveless

longer surplice in poor parishes.

vestment, of crochet

work

or crimped linen, which
It

reaches to the middle of the back.
effective appearance.

has not an

V. 'The
the

Almuce^''''

which

is

also variously styled

Amys,

or Amess,t was a hood lined with fur,
cassock,

and, like the
priest

designed

to

protect

the

from

cold.

In winter-time the churches

never very

warm

— would

have been uninhabitable

before the invention of heating stoves,

had

it

not

been for comforting articles of apparel such as
these.
It

was shaped so that
hood, and
it

it

could

lie

over the

shoulders as a tippet, or be
as a

drawn over the head

must have been very necessary
almost always of black cloth, as

during the protracted services of the middle ages.

The vestment was
was the cassock
of the wearer.
;

and the fur with which

it

was

lined varied in quality

and colour with the degree
fur,

Doctors of divinity and canons
the former

wore an almuce lined with gray
* This word
is

a curious hybrid.

tonic for a cap or

hood
is

The word
Arabic
f

moxetta

The muce is the TeuGerman Miitze). connected with this. The al is the
{cf.

Scottish mutch,

article,

probably attached

to

it

at

some time

in Spain.

Both objectionable terms, as they lead to confusion with the amice, the sound of all these words being practically
indistinguishable.

'

History of the Processional Vestments.

143

being further distinguished from the latter by the scarlet colour of the outside cloth ; all others wore
ordinary dark brown
fur.

A

singular embellish-

ment
the

of this vestment consisted in the addition of

of the animals from which the fur lining was taken sewn round the border of the vesttails

ment.
about the year 1300 the almuce, as a hood, was superseded by a cap, which will be described

At

in its proper place.

It

was therefore thrown back,

and suffered to fall behind, somewhat after the fashion of the hood worn in our modern univerIn order to prevent it from slipping off sities.

when

was sewn in front, so that an aperture was made through which the head of During the fourthe wearer had to be passed.
in this position,
it

teenth century

it

gradually almost entirely lost

its

hood shape, and became more and more like a being the tippet, the only relic of its original form
two long
which hung in front somewhat like the ends of a stole, and which were doubtless the remains of the strings with which the original hood was fastened. The row of cattes tayles them) was (as the Elizabethan reformers called
tails
'

also retained.

the almuce was in position on the head, Obviously, the fur was inside, the cloth outside. thrown back over the the vestment was

When

when

shoulder,

the

fur

would be

outside,

the

cloth

144
inside.

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

This

is

a perfectly natural

and

intelligible
it,

transformation.

Mrs

Dolby,

in

noticing

speaks of

it

in a

most misleading manner.
it

After
under-

describing the various changes which
'

went from hood to tippet, she says, By this time, too, what was originally the outside of the garment had become the lining, and the fur the only material rendered visible,' as though some ecclesiastical

ordinance or the freak of some
this

clerical

tailor

had brought about
says
' :

transformation.

And Dr Rock
he
calls
it] is,

Not

the least remarkable

thing in these changes of the "furred
that
it

amys"

[as

became, as

it

were, turned

inside out.'

The remarkable
else

thing would have

been

if

anything

had happened.

At Wells Cathedral is the monument of Dean Huse [ob, 1305, but the tomb is a century and
half later), on which are sculptured, besides the
principal efBgy, a series of small figures of canons

holding books.

The almuces of
peculiarity
:

these figures
are fastened

show

a unique

the

tails

the breast by a cord which passes them and hangs down with tasselled ends. through Mr St John Hope, in a paper in Archaeo-

together on

*

logia,'

vol.

liv,

p.

81, has traced the history

of

the appearance of the almuce during the thirteenth

and fourteenth centuries by reference to sculptured From this paper effigies and brasses in England.
I

extract the following illustrative examples

:

History of the Processional Vestments.
I.

145
1,

An

effigy in

Hereford Cathedral,
'

circa 131

shows the almuce

like a short cape

down

to the

elbows, with long and broad pendants in front,

and turned back round the neck
standing
ever,
is

like a loose, high-

collar.

The

chief point to notice,
is

howit

that the vestment

quite open in front

and not joined on the
2.

breast,

showing that

was

put on like a woman's shawl.'
1320,

Another shows

effigy

in the

same

cathedral, circa

a

similar

arrangement

with

the

addition of a large morse to fasten the almuce.
3.
tails

In the fifteenth century,

when

the pendent
brasses
at

became common, we find two Cobham, Kent, one showing the almuce

clasped on
it

the breast by a brooch, the other showing
all

open

down
4.

the front under the cope.
a

In

drawing

at

New

College,

Oxford,

executed about 1446, the
College
is

Warden of Winchester
who
stand near him wear

represented in a furred almuce not open

in front, but the Fellows

almuces laced up the

front.

This drawing
liii,

is

re-

produced
5.

in

*

Archaeologia,' vol.

plate 14.

An

effigy dating

from the very end of the
St

fifteenth

century

in

Martin's,

Birmingham,

illustrates the

almuce

as

it

appeared when the cape
that as a general

was joined completely

across the breast.

To

these facts

we may add

rule the

two

front tails in the earlier representa;

tions of almuces have plain ends

in those of later

10

146

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

representations (from circa 1450) the tails have a
small ornamental tassel, or tuft, attached to their
ends.

VI. The Cope.

—The

cope

may

date back, as a
it is

vestment, to the ninth century, but in that form
certainly not older.

Before that time

it

was nothing

more or

less

than an overcoat, which the clergy
represented in an Anglo-

kept on in their cold and draughty churches or in
open-air processions.
It is

of circa 900 as a plain cloth vestment, fastened at the neck by a brooch or morse the shape is similar to that which we find in later
pontifical
;

Saxon

times.

The

shape of the cope was very
It

much

that

of half the chasuble.

was secured

at the

neck

by a brooch, and suffered to drape on the person.

The

material, at least in mediaeval times,

was

silk,

cloth of gold, velvet, or other precious stuffs.

It

was magnificently embroidered, jewelled, and enriched with precious metals, the embroideries consisting

either of strips along the straight edges,
in front, or else

which hung down

of these

strips

History of the Processional Vestments.

147

combined with
border.
It
is

patterns running over the entire

surface of the vestment, or confined to the lower

hard to say whether the cope or

the chasuble was the richer vestment in the four-

teenth and fifteenth centuries.

The
;

cope, being originally a costume for out-

door processions, was furnished with a hood at the back but when the almuce took its place, it
degenerated, like so

many other

vestments, or parts of vestments,
into a mere ornamental append-

age

;

it

lost its

hood form (which
interfered

would somewhat have
with
the

appearance

of

the

almuce) and became a triangular
flap,

usually

embroidered

with

some
ary
these

scene in sacred or legendhistory.

In

many copes
absent, while

hoods were
there
that

to

others
so

were

several

hoods,
priate

subjects

approbe
flap
Fig.
19.

to
on.
,,

the

day
,

could
...

hooked
,

This triangular assumed
ultimately the
altogether o
semicircular.

Brass

of

gradually
sides,
till

curvilmear archdmacon Magnus,
angle ?55T[s'hoJnT''pres:
eluding r^'TT^' hooded cope).
•'^i°"^^
^'''"

disappeared rr
flap

and the

became
*

The
was

morse,' or brooch, with which the cope

fastened,

was the counterpart of the

rational.

148
It

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

was made of gold or of silver, or else of wood It was often overlaid with one of these metals. enamelled and jewelled, and was of a great variety
of shapes.
VII.

The Canons
It

Cope,

—This

vestment must
serica,

be carefully distinguished
or ordinary cope.

from the cafpa

was

a simple choir robe,

worn

at ordinary services,

of black cloth, permanently

sewn at the neck, though open from the breast downwards, so that it had to be passed over the It was not ornamented in any way, and head. probably for this reason was not popular as an
object for treatment

among manuscript

illuminators

or

monument

sculptors

and engravers.

A

hood

was appended, which usually hung on the back. This is a cape worn over VIII. The Mozetta.

the cope by the Pope, cardinals, and bishops in the

Roman
silk,

Church.

It

is

of white fur or coloured
;

Pope wears a red mozetta bordered with ermine when holding
according to the season
the

receptions

;

canons in choir wear a black, bishops

and (on penitential seasons) cardinals a violet on ordinary occasions cardinals wear a mozetta The vestment is probably a mozetta of red. descendant of the almuce, and kin to the chimere.
;

IX. The Roman modern vestment,
It
is

Collar.
is

—This being an

entirely

properly outside our range.

an embroidered imitation of the turndown

shirt-collar of ordinary dress.

History of the Processional Vestments,
In
priest

149

mediaeval
is

monuments

the

throat

of the

exposed, as are also those of present-day
religious
orders.

members of the older
siderations
to

Con-

the adoption
It

of comfort and appearance have led of this collar for the ordinaryshould be
'

clergy.
*

made/
piece

says

Mrs. Dolby,

of a

perfectly

straight

of fine linen or

lawn,'

and
its

*

bordered on the turnover side and

along

short ends by a neatly-stitched

hem of

half an inch.

Opened

out,

when made,
wide
;

and three-quarter

inches

the

it is two turndown

should be not more
deep.
is
.

than

one and a half inch

.

.

The Roman

coJlar

worn by

a bishop

violet, that

of a cardinal

is scarlet.'

X. Ecclesiastical Head-dress.

— Pseudo-Alcuin
This gives us
In

expressly contrasts the Churches of the East and

West
at the

in this

that the Western clergy officiated

mass bareheaded, which was not the practice

of those of the Eastern Church.

information as to the usage of the Western Church
at

about the tenth or twelfth century.
is

the

following century a cap

noticed

*

as

one of the
'

marks by which a Churchman might be known ;* and it appears in inventories, classed along with
mitres.

The

use of a cap at Divine service was a matter

of special

papal

permission

:

thus,

Innocent

IV

issued an indult in 1245 ^^ ^^^ Prior and
* Rock.

Convent

>

150

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

of St Andrew's, Rochester, permitting them to wear caps [pileis uti) in the choir, provided that

due reverence be observed at the gospel and the Two forms of cap are to be seen elevation.
in

mediaeval

monuments
called

:

one a
;

simple
the

domeother
a

shaped skull-cap,
^

hirettum

circular cap, with a point in the centre, of this

shape

'

,

which was
dignitaries.

peculiar to university-

The

latter

is

pro-

bably the ancestor of the modern
biretta
;

and, indeed, in a brass
in King's

of Robert Brassie

Cola

lege Chapel, Cambridge (1558),

appears a head-dress which

is

connecting link between the two.

The
black,

head-dress

was

always

except for cardinals

and had

a few bishops and others to

whom
These

the

privileges of

cardinals

been especially granted.

wore
FiG.

scarlet.

We
20.— Bkass of Robert Brassie,
College,
and

have reserved for the conof this chapter a more
,

elusion
,

.,

King's
ing

detailed account of the subjects

^

,

Cambridge (showalmuce
biretta-like cap).

with which, and the manner in
articles

which these various sacred apparel were decorated.
or illuminations, the

of

Vestments, as represented in mediaeval sculptures
testimony of which
is

con-

History of the Processional Vestments,

151

firmed by the examples which actually exist, are not as a general rule ornamented in a haphazard

manner over the whole
tion
is

surface.

The ornamentaemare

usually concentrated into patches of

broidery or jewel-work, which

sewn on to

certain definite places in the vestment.

In

describing

the

vestments singly
positions
in

we have
these
will

already

noticed

the

which
It

patches of embroidery were placed.
convenient, however, to bring
all

be

these particulars

together and briefly remind the reader of them.

The

alb was decorated with a rectangular patch
;

on the breast
small patch

another on the back

;

two more
;

above the lower hem, one in front, one behind

a

on

each cufF (entirely encircling the
;

and a narrow binding round the neck. The patches on the hem were sometimes suspended loose from the belt, and the
wrist in older examples)

patches on the breast and back fastened together

and suspended loose over the shoulders.

The

amice

was

decorated
side,

with

a

band of

embroidery along one
in position.

which was practically the only part of the vestment visible when it was

The
their

and maniple were embroidered along whole length they usually ended in a
stole
;

rectangular or

trapezium-shaped piece of cloth,

embroidered

with

a

different

pattern

from

that which ornamented the rest

of the vestment

152
(usually

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

some form of

cross),

and fringed along

its

lower border.

The

dalmatic^ besides the peculiar arrangement

of fringes already described, was ornamented with
a series of horizontal bands of embroidered work,

running right across the body of the vestment.

The
over.

bishop's dalmatic

was usually embroidered

all

was almost invariably adorned with an edging of embroidered work, and when the body of the vestment was adorned it was

The

chasuble

usually with

some of

the

many

modifications of

the

4^

or

Y

cross.

The
over,

sandals

were sometimes ornamented

all

sometimes decorated with a

^

cross,

the

upper part
the toe.

of the cross being turned towards
except

The fall properly had no ornamentation
its crosses.

The

stockings

were either not embroidered

at all

or richly embroidered over the whole surface.

The

rational

was decorated with enamel, goldwork.
little

smith's or jewelled

The
no

mitra simplex was decorated with
;

or

adornment

the
all

mitra
over
it
;

aurifrigiata

with

embroidered

work

the mitra pretiosa

with embroidery combined with jewels and goldsmith's work.

The

gloves

do not appear

to have been con-*

History of the Processional Vestments.
spicuously ornamented.

153

They

often bore a large

jewel set against the back of the hand. The tunicle was generally quite simple

;

the

bishop

differed from tunicle, however, in no wise

the dalmatic.

Of
given

the orale a
;

full

description has already been
refer to
it.

we need not again

vestments, Passing to the Processional and other to mention any but the it will be unnecessary a little trifling for, with the exception of cope
;

the embroidered work in coloured threads round other vestments neck of the surplice, none of the The cope was ornaany ornamentation.

showed straight mented with embroidered work down the bottom edge edges in front, and often round the
and the
neck
as

well;

often

also

the
all

whole
over.

vestment was elaborately embroidered The hood, too, must not be forgotten.

For some inscrutable reason a ornaments drawn in name between the embroidered the remainder of of the alb and amice and those of
the
ecclesiastical

distinction

is

dress.

The

former are

called

apparels, the latter orphreys.

which these vestments are attention for a embroidered must next engage our broad These fall naturally into three s^hort time.

The

subjects with

gi

pups \ Conventional and meaningless devices. of Divine or beatified 2. Symbols or figures
:

154
persons,

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

or

passages

of

Scripture

and

other

religious inscriptions.
3.

Personal devices.

The number of conventional patterns which meet us embroidered on ecclesiastical vestments is endless, and to attempt to catalogue even the most striking would be an undertaking the magnitude of which would only be equalled by its uselessness.

A

small

collection

of rubbings of monumental
Floral

brasses will convince the reader of this.

devices are the most

common,
are

either in continuous

scrolls or in repetitions

pattern

;

and

these

and variations of the same found combined with

patterns of the other two groups to fill up the gaps and spandrels between different figures or

But grotesque and real animals, wild men, and various other objects of natural history, all have their place though, if the evidence of the
letters.
;

monuments be
in

reliable, these

were not so common

which yielded Western Church. It is, of course, possible that some of these figures may have been intended as emblems of saints,* and
as in the other countries

England

allegiance

to

the

others

may have

been heraldic

;

but
its

it

is

probable
signifi-

* For example, the lamb (besides
cance)

more sacred

may

possibly be taken as symbolical of St Agnes, the

dragon of St George or St Margaret, the lion of St Jerome, the lily, sun, moon, stars, or rose of St Mary the Virgin, md so on indefinitely.

History of the Processional Vestments.
that the majority of

155

with no other
effectively.

them were simply ornaments intention beyond filHng up space
or beatified persons are

The symbols of Divine
of more
interest.

These

are usually found

on the

centre orphreys of the chasuble, on the edges and

hood of the cope, on
usually

mitres, and on rationais or

morses, the orphreys of the other vestments being

conventional,

floral,

or

animal

devices.

The hood

of the cope almost invariably bore some
else

emblematic or sacred device, or
sacred or "traditional history
;

some scene

in

the edge of the cope

and the centre of the chasuble often bore figures
of saints
in

niches,

one above another, or
life

else

connected scenes from the
the rationais

of a saint

;

while

and morses, which were under the

province of the enamellers (and were consequently

more

easily

decorated than the embroidered vestdisplayed

ments), usually

some more

elaborate

design in miniature.

Of the
initials,

greatest importance, however, are devices

of the third order

— those which display the name,
In

rebus, or coat-of-arms of the wearer or

the donor of the vestment.

monuments

these

designs invariably are connected with the

name

and family of the wearer, while the
^devices recorded
in

personal

inventories are

usually conis,

lected with the donor.
tjhat

The

reason
in

probably,

the

vestments

catalogued

inventories

156

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

originally were

made

for,

and worn

by, the

donors

thereof

;

during their lifetime the devices showed

forth the wearers'

names
:

;

after their death, the

names of the testators which were supposed
represent
the

while

the
as

monuments,
possible

as

nearly

to

commemorated as they appeared while they lived, would naturally pourpersons
tray
the vestments which they wore, or might have worn, when celebrating mass or conducting

the other offices of church service.

Mediaeval priests and embroiderers seem to have shrunk from placing these personal devices on the
chasuble, though such ornamentation
is

not alto-

gether

unknown even

in that

most reverenced of
is

vestments.

Thus, at Arundel, Sussex,
initials

a brass

representing a priest in ecclesiastic vestments, in

which the
chasuble.
initials

of the wearer occur on the
cope,

The

however,

often

shows

or other designs'^

which serve

to identify

* Examples of an entire name occurring on copes are extremely rare. I only know of one the brass of Thomas


;

Patesley (1418), at Great Shelford, Cambridgeshire.

Initials

are

common

in

almost every county

rebuses not quite

so

common, though we have the famous
with M's)
in the

;z?^/>/^-leaves

(alternating
as

cope of a priest called Mapleton,
Broadwater, Sussex
;

shown

on

his brass at

while heraldic devices

are fairly frequent, either as complete shields or selections

from the charges borne by the
of

priest's family.

The

brasses

de Fulbourne, at Fulbourne, Cambridgeshire, and of Thos. Aileward, at Havant, Hampshire, give us examples of

Wm.

both these methods of ornamentation.

'

History of the Processional Vestments,
the wearer.

i^j

The same

chariness does not seem to

have been

felt

with regard to the other Eucharistic

vestments, possibly because they were not so exclusively appropriated to the Eucharistic service.

Thus,
effigy

at

Beverley Minster there

is is

a sculptured

of a priest whose entire stole

covered with

a series of coats-of-arms.

As

I

have already
is

said,

this

group of orphrey

patterns

of considerably greater importance than
generally

the other two, which cannot be regarded as other

than

mere

artistic

curiosities.

It

is

possible to identify the personality of the priest

commemorated by
scription be lost

monument, even if the inor defaced, when these convenient
a

symbols enter into the composition of the orphreys on his vesture. This helps us in assigning the

monument and every monument of which we know the date exactly adds something
date of the
;

to our stock of knowledge respecting the chron-

ology of mediaeval art. As giving an idea of the number and variety of the designs employed by the embroiderers and
enamellers to decorate the vestments of the church, it has been thought that the following table will not
^be

found uninteresting. It is a classified catalogue of the designs enumerated in a single inventory of
a single collection of vestments, the inventory of

the commissioners of

Henry

VIII, drawn up in

1536, of the property of Lincoln Cathedral.

158
It

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

has not been considered necessary to preserve

the uncouth spelling of the original, especially as

some words

are scarcely spelt the

same way twice
has
it

in the course

of the document.

Nor

been
list

thought worth while to swell the bulk of the

by giving details as to the parts of the vestments on which the various objects are represented, or the frequency with which those occurring more than
once
are

found, the

purpose of the

list

being

simply to show

faintly the variety of designs at
It

the disposal of the embroiderer or enameller.

should be premised that this

is

by no means a

complete
little

list

;

in

many

cases the inventory gives

or no information concerning the decoration

of the vestment catalogued.
ever, all

Most probably, howimportance are

ornaments of
:

interest or

here included

Group
Flowers
:

I

Fleurs-de-Iys (possibly heraldic).
.

J

'[-possibly

emblematic of St

Mary

the Virgin,

Biriis

and

beasts, or parts thereof:

Leopards.
Harts.

Falcons.

Falcons bearing crowns of gold in their mouths;
(probably heraldic).

Swans.
Ostriches.

:

History of the Processional Vestments.
Ostrich feathers.
Popinjays.
Lions.

159

Owls.
Black eagles.
Peacocks.

Gryphons.
Dragons.
Phoenix.
Miscellaneous
:

Knots.
Clouds.

Crowns.
(Also
a

few
II.)

others,

properly

included

under

Group

Group
Divine Persons
:

II

The Holy Trinity, Our Lord. The Majesty. The Holy Ghost, Crucifix, and
Incidents in the
life

St

Mary

the Virgin.

of

Our

Lord^ and His emblems

Our Lord with the Cross. The Passion, in scenes. The Crucifixion. Ditto, with SS Mary and John on
Ditto, ditto, the Father above.

either side.

The

Ascension.
sitting

Our Lord

on the rainbow.

The root of Jesse. The vernacle. The Holy Lamb.
Crosses,

i6o

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

Members of the Holy Host of Heaven : [Archangels, angels, and images, passim.]

Two Two
An

angels singing. angels incensing.

angel bearing a crown.
angels bearing St

Two
An

John

Baptist's

head (properly

heraldic).

angel with a harp.

Scenes in the Hfe of St

Mary

the Virgin

and her embkfns

:

Salutation.

St

Mary on
;

the left side three kings, on the right two
'

shepherds, and an angel with
St

Gloria in excelsis.'

Mary with

Ditto, and St
Burial.

Holy Child. Mary Magdalene.
the

Assumption.
Coronation.
*

Our

lady of pity.'

Wm.

Marshall (donor of vestment) kneeling to the

Virgin.

Suns, Moons, Stars.

Roses,

lilies.

(See

Group
:

I.)

Other Saints and

their

emblems

'History of Apostles and Martyrs.'
St Peter.

St Catherine. St Catherine (the

tomb springing

oil).

John Baptist. St Bartholomew.
St

History of St John Baptist, ^ Probably in different
scenes. / Wheels (St Catherine), Keys (St Peter). The Majesty, SS Mary the Virgin, Peter, Paul, the four evangelists, and a man kneeling to them.

History of St Thomas,

:

History of the Processional Vestments.
Various Scenes in Sacred History
:

i6i

Eve eating of the

tree.

The The

massacre of the innocents.
last

judgment.
:

Uncertain and Miscellaneous Subjects

A A

bishop (probably some saint).
king (perhaps

King David).

Kings and prophets.

Two
Inscriptions
:

kings crowned.

The hye wey

ys best.

'Divers verses.'

Da

gloriam deo.
etc.

Gracia dei sum,

Vox domini super
Cena
dni.

aquas.

Also the following, which form a connectinglink between the second and third groups, being
requests for prayers for the donors of vestments
Orate pro anima Magistri Willelmi Skelton.


J,

Willelmi Spenser capellani.
Magistri Ricardi Smyth vycar de

Worseworth,
„ „ Memoriale Willelmi Marshall olim
ecclesiae.

Roberti Dercy.

virgarii

hujus

Group
Heraldic
:

III

Leopards powdered with black
ermine).

trefoils (?

leopards

'White harts crowned with chains on
full

their necks

of these letters S.S.'

II

1

62

Ecclesiastical Vestments.
Orphreys with diverse arms.
Mullets. 'All

may God amend' (Rudyng

motto), together

with Rudyng arms and badges.

*A shield paled.' Arms of Lord Chadworth.
Names,
Initials ,

and Dedicatory

Inscriptions

:

Ricus de Gravesend.
T.S., I.e., O.L., P.D. (on different vestments).

Ex dono Johannis Reed

Capellani Cantar'

quondam

cantarie Ricardi Whitwell.

Southam ex dono Johannis Southam.

Ex dono
In
early

M"

Willelmi Smyth archidiaconi Lincoln.

many
date,

vestments, especially
the

among
of
a

those of
distinctly

embroidery

is

Oriental character, which, if not actually Byzantine,
is

founded

on Byzantine models.
throughout
in
Sicily.

These
by
the

were

popularized

Europe

Mohammedan

weavers and their successors of the

royal establishment

Often vestments
like the

are found bearing Arabic or other Oriental inscriptions
;

these are

sometimes meaningless,
with Arabic
letters

patterns

formed

on many

Eastern shawls and cloths of modern times, but
occasionally they give important information as to

the date and origin of the vestment which they
decorate.

The coronation vestments of the German Emperors, now at Vienna, are of entirely Eastern
and the cope bears inscriptions
it

character,

in Cufic

characters, telling us that

was made

at

Palermo

!

History of the Processional Vestments,
in
1

163

133.

Occasionally

the

Eastern
for

ornaments
mediaeval

and

inscriptions

are forged (alas,

morality!), in order to counterfeit the

ship of the highly popular Eastern looms.

workmanSome-

times

we

find

clumsy imitations of Arabic words
correctly,

treated ignorantly by the forger as ornaments, the

word being written
replica

though

in an obvileft,

ously amateurish manner, from right to

and a

reversed
it

set

opposite to

it,

in

order to

balance

symmetrically
in

No

country excelled England

embroidered

work in the middle ages. Matthew Paris's story of Pope Innocent IV's admiration of some English
vestments
is

well

known.

His

holiness,

*

seeing

some

desirable orphreys in the copes and infulae of

certain English ecclesiastics, asked

where they had

England," was the answer. been made. " Truly is England our garden of delights," said he
*'
;

" In

truly
is,

is

it

a well inexhaustible

;

and where

much

thence can

much

be extorted."
lust
all

Where-

upon the Pope,

allured

by the

of the eyes,
the abbots of

sent his sealed letters to nearly

the Cistercian order in England (to whose prayers

he

had just

been

committing

himself

in

the

chapter-house of the Cistercian order) that they

should not delay to send those orphreys to himself

getting

them

for

nothing,

if possible

to

decorate his chasubles and choral copes.'

Matthew

Paris concludes his narrative by telling us that the

164

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

London merchants were gratified enough, but that many were highly offended at the open avarice of
the

Head of the Church.* This leads us to another point to be noticed

with regard to mediaeval vestments
articles


*

their value as

of merchandise.

In the

Issues
i

of the

Exchequer/ 24, 25 Henry
purchasing vestments.
to

III (a.d.

241-1242),

there are several entries of expenses involved in

Thus we
*

find 4I. 19s. paid

Adam

de Basinges

for a gold cope

purchased

by our
feast

command and
:

placed in our chapel at the

of the Nativity of our Lord in the 25 th year
also to the

of our reign

same

24I.

is.

6d. for a

cope of red silk given to the Bishop of Hereford

by our

command

in the

same year and day
in

:

also

* Eisdemque diebus dominus papa videns

aliquorum

Anglicorum ornamentis
facta puissent.

ecclesiasticis, utpote in capis chorali-

bus et infulis aurifrisia concuplscibilia, interrogavit ubinam

Cui responsum

est

In Anglia.
;

At

ipse, \'^ere

hortus noster deliciarum est Anglia
est
;

vere puteus inexhaustus

et

ubi multa abundant de multis multa possunt extorqueri.

Unde idem dominus papa
ordinis abbates in Anglia
se

concupiscentia illectus oculorum

literas suas bullatas sacras misit

ad omnes fere Cisterciensis

commorantes quorum orationibus
ut
ipsi

nuper in capitulo Cisterciensi commendaverat
si

aurifrisia ac

pro nihilo ipsa possent adquirere mittere non

different pracelecta ad planetas et capas suas chorales

adom-

andas.

Quod

mercennariis Londoniae qui ea venalia habe:

bant non displicuit, ad placitum vendentibus

unde multi

manifestum avaritiam Romanae

ecclesiae

detestabantur.

M.

Paris,

'Chronica Majora' (Rolls

Series), vol. iv, p. 546.

:

History of the Processional Vestments.
to the same 17I. i8s. lod. for

165

two diapered and

one precious cloth of gold, for a tunic and dalmatican entirely ornamented with gold fringe purchased by our

command and
:

placed in our chapel

the same year and day

also to the

same

47s. lod.

for a chesable of silk cloth without gold purchased

by our command and placed in our chapel also to the same 7s. 2d. for an albe embroidered with gold fringe purchased by our command and placed in our chapel: also to the same 17I. i mark for two embroidered chesables purchased by our command and placed in our chapel.'* The same year the enormous sum of ^82 was given by the King
:

for a mitre.
It

has been calculated that the present value of
is fifteen

money

times greater than

it

was

in the

thirteenth century.

Applying this principle, we obtain the following results, which give a clearer idea of the value of the vestments purchased by
the

King
cope costing
5s. 4I.

A
X74

19s.

would be worth,
6d.

at present rates,

A
rates,

cope costing
;f36i
2s. 6d.

24I.

is.

would be worth,

at

present

Tunic and dalmatic

costing 17I. i8s. lod. would be worth,

at present rates, ^^269 2S. 6d.

A

chasuble costing
17s. 6d.

2I. 7s.

lod.

would be worth,

at

present

rates, £t,^

* 'Issues of the Exchequer'

(ed. Dover), p. 16.

1

66
An

Ecclesiastical Vestments,
alb costing
7s.

2d.

would be worth,
13s. 4d.

at present rates,

£S

7s. 6d.

Two

chasubles costing 17I.

would be worth,

at

present rates, £26^.

A

mitre costing 82I. would be worth, at present

rates,

^1,230.

Even

if

we
it

allow that these vestments, being

royal gifts, or royal furniture, were of larger price

than usual,

still

remains evident that a set of

vestments was an expensive luxury.

And when

we

consider the enormous number of vestments which were existing in the different cathedral establishments, we can hardly wonder at the

cupidity
St

of Henry

VIII

being

aroused.

Mr

John Hope has calculated that in Lincoln (of which we possess perhaps the fullest set of inventories)

the
copes,

commissioners
7

of

1536
1^6

found
blue,

125

red

purple,

20 green,
16
5

9 black,

60 white,
6

2 yellow, 2 various, and perhaps
in
all
;

4 for
3
I

choristers

— 265
11

red chasubles,
black,
;

purple,

green,
i

blue,

9

white,

yellow and
tunicles,

various

— 52

in all

2

dalmatics,

94

property
frontals,
It is,

in

and 131 albs, not to mention other embroidered work, such as altar
as
chalices.

or in precious metal, such

of course, impossible to assign an estimate of

the value of this vestry, but even if

we reckoned

the copes at ^^^50 of our money a low estimate in the majority of cases these vestments alone would

History of the Processional Vestments,

167

be worth ^13,250 together. But this is pure guesswork and of no practical value ; of more importance is such an entry as the following, from the
old

Durham

'

Book of
:

Rites

'

(printed

by the

Surtees Society)
*

Prossession of Hallozve

Thursdaie,

Wkitsondaie

Sonday, by the Prior and the Monnckes.

—The

^

Trinitie

next morninge,

being Hallow Thursdaie, they had also a generall Prossession, with two crosses borne before theme, the one of the crosses,
the staff and
.

all,

with

all

of gould, the other of sylver and parcell gilt the riche Copes that was in the Church, every

Monnke had

one, and the Prior had a marvellous riche cope on, of clothe of ffyne pure gould, the which he was not able to goe upright with it, for the weightines thereof, but as men

did staye

it

and holde
his

it

up of every

side

when

he had

it

on.

He

went with
gilt,

crutch in his hand, which was of sylver
a rich

and duble

with

myter on

his head.'

In the private account-book of the last prior but one of Worcester* is given the following interesting bill for a mitre
*Item
to
:

John Cranckes gold smyth of london for al maner of stuff belongyng of the new mytur, with the makyng of the same as hit apereth by parcelles foloyng
:

In primis for v grete stones

-

-

-

xvis viijd.

Item
Item

for

j^]

&

vj

stones prece viijd apeece to
Ivijs iiijd.

the frontes
for xxj

stones sett in golde,

weyng

di.
'

vnces

xiijs

iiij^i-

Item

for xl

medyll

stones,

prece vjd a stone xxs.

* Quoted

in the Builder, 7

July 1894..

1

68
Item for
Item
at

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

" &
iij

xv smale stones prece

stone, to garncsshc
for
iij

----iiijd a

xxvs.

vnccs

&

a quarter of fyne peerll,
iij* at xs the
li

li.

the vnce

xvs.

Item for
vnce

xij

vnces of medull peerll,

vj

li.

Item the selver warke weys,
w^hich
is

in all ," xiij vnces,

with the fassheon

&

all

-

-

xxiiij

li

xvjs.

Item

to the broderar vj

wokes
to

(? zvekes)
-

xijd
-

a day, besydes

mete

&

dryncke

xxxvjs.

Item payd
with

for

lynnen cloth

covvech ytt on
vijd.

peril

Item

for sylke to thred the seid peril
j

&

steche
-

the peerll

vnce

&

di
-

-

-

-

xvd.
jd.
viijd.
ijd.

Item
Item Item

for yalovv thred

Item for Rybande of
for
for

iiijd

brcde

ij

yeards

Reband of
Rovvnde

ijd

brede

A

yearde

selk

about the bordure

jd. ob.

Item
Item

for red selke to

quarter the vnce
for past

---------sow hytt with
all,

di.

ijd ob.
iiijd.

(Item) for

a quarter of sarcenett to lyne hytt

xiiijd.
iiijs.

Item

for a case to the

mytur of Icthur

-

-

Summa

xlixli. xvs. the costc

of the mytur.'

Before parting with the ancient vestments of
the Western Church,
let

us spend a few

moments

on another, and to the antiquary a melancholy, subject, namely, the fate which has befallen them. The number of actual vestments which survive Notwithto our own day is comparatively small. standing the scrupulous care with which they were
* Sic, should be
viiij

or

ix.

History of the Processional Vestments,
kept, the action of time

169

and probably of moths
and
as so sacred

could not but destroy the perishable material of

which they were made

;

were

they regarded that when a vestment was worn out
it

was burnt, and the ashes thrown into and washed
the drain of the piscina, or font
;

down
it

so, at least,

was ordered by the ninth canon of the Synod
11 86.*

of Dublin,

In France and in

England,
in

however, far

the greatest havoc was wrought

the religious and political troubles of the eighteenth

century in the former
preceding in the
latter.

case,

of the two centuries

The

destruction of churches and church pro-

perty in France at the hands of the atheistical

mobs of

the Revolution was incalculable.

Monu-

ments, glass and fabrics were broken and ruined, if not utterly destroyed, and the vestments and Processional crosses were torn

from the

treasuries
in

and

heaped up in the
In

streets to be

burnt

bonfires.

England the damage was perhaps even more
it

considerable, though

was executed in a quieter
In the reaction after
faith

and more deliberate manner.
the revival of the

Roman

under Queen Mary,

were sent to the churchwardens of the different parishes requesting returns from them as
orders
to the relics of popery, if any, which remained in

the churches under
"

their

care,

and the manner
for the inter-

Worn-out vestments were also found useful ment of ecclesiastics, as we have seen, supra p.

loi.

170
in

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

which such superstitious objects had been disof,

posed
very

whenever they had been removed.
series

A
for

perfect

of

these

returns

exists

Lincolnshire,

and they have been edited by
'

Mr

Edward Peacock,
volume
entitled

F.S.A., in a highly-interesting

English Church Furniture and
In each return
is

Decorations,' published in 1866.
a note describing

what was done with the vestments
relates.

and other pre-Reformation furniture of the church
to

which the return

the following entries,

From them we extract which may serve as speciof vestments, not only in
:

mens of the varied

fate

the county of Lincoln, but throughout the country
Jllford.

Itm one cope whearof

is

made

a clothe for the

colon table [a frequent entry].

Itm one vestment [chasuble] sold and dcfacid
entry].

[a

frequent

Ashbie iuxa Sleford.

Itm vestmetes copes

crosses
all

aulbes

phanelles crosse clothes banner clothes and

such lyke

ymplements

stolle

out of or churche in quene maries tyme.

Ashbie iuxa

Spillisbie.

Itm one vestmt with crose clothes
iij°

— geven
entry].
Itfn

to the

poore

Ao

Regine Elizabth

[a

frequent

an alb

—whearof wee have made
Thomas

a surples [a

frequent

entry].

iAswardbie. Itni

two vestmentes were cut
vse.

in peces

yester-

daie and sold to

waite and george holmes and the'

haue put them
such

to

prophane

Bomnbie. Itm a vestm* and ye rest
like

as fanells, stooles

and

— brent

iiij

yeare ago pte of the same and the rest

hath made quishwines of John Michill and James Totter then

churchwarden.

History of the Processional VestmeJits.

171

Braceby an alb made a covering At Castlebytham we find one cope one vestment and one albe were sold to Thomas

So we

find at

for the font.

'

'

'

Inma' for the some of Vs.
Elsewhere, a vestment was
others into
for a bedd.'
*

Vpon
made

sondaie was a
peces.'

sevenighte wch he haith defaced and cutt in

into a 'dublett,'

clorvtes

for

children,'

or

'

hangings

Some churches had

lost their vest-

ments

in the

Edwardian Reformation, and consein

quently,

when they were required again
These were
a
*

Queen

Mary's

reign, substitutes

had to be borrowed from
restored
'

private owners.
possessors
;

to their

in

few cases the churchwardens
so.

thoughtfully cut them in pieces before doing

There

is

one other

series

of vestments which
in

deserves a passing notice

— the vestments

which

the newly-baptized were clothed.

In the sixth or

seventh century these consisted of the alha^ the

sabanum, the chrismale, and the garland.
;

The

the alba was probably similar to the clerical alba form of the sabanum {aa^avov) is uncertain, but it was possibly not more than its name implies simply a towel. The chrismale was a piece of

white linen tied on the head, intended to keep the chrism in its place during the week in which
these vestments were worn.

The

garland was a

chaplet of flowers with which the baptized were

crowned There

after baptism.
is

a

rite

in

the

Armenian Church

in

172
which the
one red,

Ecclesiastical Vestments,
priest twists

two threads, one white and them up under the cross, and then lays them on the person to be baptized. The white and red is obviously symbolical of the mingled blood and water which flowed from our
lifts

Lord's side, but there are obscure traces in early
writers which seem to indicate that this observance was ot more general acceptance, and that the

present rite
different.
Off.,'
vi,
c.

is

a

corruption of something quite
in

Durandus,
82,
it

the

'

Rationale

Div.

speaks of the alba of baptism
a red

havin

band

like a

'

corona,' and

elsewhere

we

find a combination of

red and white mentioned in connection

with

the

robes

of

the

neophytes.

These

vestments

were

worn

throughout the week

after baptism,

and put off on the Sunday following,

hence called Dominica in albis

depositis.

They were

either

re-

tained after baptism as a memorial

of the sacrament

— and

often used
else pre-

as shrouds after death

— or

sented to the church by the baptized.

In
Fig. 21.

the

mediaeval

church
suit

this

comparatively

elaborate

was

reduced to
cloth, in

one cloth, the chrysome, or chrism

which the body of a newly-baptized infant

History of the Processional Vestments.

173

was swathed. This cloth was kept upon the child for a month, and if it died within the month the
child

was buried
brasses

in

it

as a shroud.

Several

monu-

mental

are

extant in which children are
;

we reprorepresented in their baptismal robes duce an example in Chesham Bois Church,
Buckinghamshire.
the white cloth
is

In the

modern Roman Church
;

merely placed on the head

it is

now

too small to cover the body.

Fig.

22.— a Cope Chest, York Minster.

child chrism cloth was taken off if the and returned survived till the end of the month,

The

to

the

church, in

whose custody

it^

was kept.
of vest-

These cloths were used for the reparation sacred textile ments and altar hangings, and other Thus in the fabrics connected with the church. read (1470-71) Treasurer's Rolls for Ripon we
the following entries
:

174
'

Ecclesiastical Vestments.
cc'^^Ixvj

Est de

veslibus

crismalibus de reman,

ultimi

compoti praedicti.
tot pueris

Et de

c'^^iij

vestibus crismalibus rec. de

baptizatis

hoc anno.

Summa
Et
in

ccciiij-'^'^ix.*

De

quibus.
*

In

sepultura
xiiij.

puerorum

viij.

reparacione vestifiendis,

mentorum,
ordinatis

Et liberantur pro manutcrgiis inde
ecclesiae,
aliis
ix.

pro

expensis

Et

liberantur

pro

calicibus involvendis et
vj.

necessariis

ejusdem ecclesiae,

Summa
* There

xxxvij.

Et reman.

ccc"^^lij vestes crismales.'f

is

an error of twenty somewhere in

this calcula-

tion.

t

'

Memorials of Ripon,'

vol.

iii,

p.

219 (Surtees Society).

CHAPTER

V.

THE VESTMENTS OF THE EASTERN CHURCHES.

THE
will
is

proverbial

conservatism of the un-

changing

East,

which

is

felt

in

all

ecclesiastical as well as in social matters,

make our The lighter.
hardly
rather,
felt

task in the present chapter
action of evolution,

much

which makes
mediaevalism,
shuts

the history of the Western vestments so complex,
in the East.

The
which

or,

primaevalism,

out

in-

strumental aid from the musical portions of the Eastern service acts upon vestments in minimizing the profusion of ornamentation which plays

such an important part in the externals of Western
ritual.

One
(circa

of our

earliest authorities
is

on the subject of

Eastern vesture

St

Germanus of Constantinople
into a discussion

715

a.d.).

In his treatise Mvcttikyj Qewpia

he enters

at considerable length

of Ecclesiastical Vestments and also of Monastic

176

Ecclesiastical Vestments,
details,

Costume, giving
little

which are curious, but of

or no value, concerning the alleged

sym-

bolic

meanings which they bear.

In the present chapter

we have

to discuss the

vestments of the principal Eastern Churches
'
'

—the

Orthodox Greek Church, so called, the Armenian Church, and the remote body of Christians on the The general appearance and coast of Malabar.
style

of the vestments of these churches

is

similar

;

there are, however,

minor

differences,

which

will

appear as

we proceed. The vestments and

personal ornaments of the
are as follows
:

Orthodox Greek Church
I.

The (Troiy6.pLov. The eTTiiiavLKLa. III. The e7rtT/3ax>yAioi/. IV. The (hpdpLov. V. The ^a>vrj. VI. The cfyaLvoXtou. VII. The eTTtyovaTtcv. VIII. The (j!)/xo(f>6piov. IX. The fxdvSvas. X. The x^H-"-^^^XVXI. The €^(x})(^aiJ.aXav)(7j, XII. The Traripeorcra. XIII. The lyKoATTtov. XIV. The craKKos.
II.

The Armenian vestments
I.

are as follows

:

II.

III.

The Vakass. The Shapich. The Poor-ourar.

The Vestments of the Eastern Churches, 177
IV.

V.

VI.
VII.

The The The The

Kodi.
Pasbans.

Shoochar.
Sagavard.

Fig.

23.— Armenian Priest.

The Malabar vestments
I.

are

178

Ecclesiastical Vestments,
identical

I. The GToiyapiov was, and is, Roman alba. The word is of

with the

uncertain etymo-

logy, and none of the guesses which have been

made

are at all satisfactory.

Like the alba,
;

it

was

originally a

garment of secular use

this

we

infer

Fig. 24.

Malabar

Priest.

from the Apologia contra Arianos,^ where we read that one charge (among others) which was brought against Athanasius was that he had required the
Egyptians to furnish linen (sroiyapm.
says of the vestment,
'

Germanus

being white, the aroiyapiov

* 'Patrol. Graec./ xxv, 358.

Fig. 25.

Deacon

in

<XTOLX<^P'-oi' ,

uipapioi',

AND

eTTifxauLKia.

i8o
signifies the

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

glory of the Godhead and the bright

citizenship of priests.

The

stripes

of the aroiyapiov
;

stripes

on the sleeve signify the bonds of Christ the which run across signify the blood which
cross.'

flowed from Christ's side on the
aside the symbolism,
in

Setting

we

learn that the vestment

the time of
stripes,

Germanus was white, ornamented

with

probably red, upon the sleeves and

across the body.
is still

At

present, while the vestment

white on ordinary occasions, on certain days

coloured aroiyapia are worn, as will be shown in
the

chapter

on Ritual

Use.

The

Xiopla,

or

stripes, are

now

confined to the aroiyapia of bishops.

In

Russia,

and elsewhere to some extent, the

GToiyapia are often

made of

silk or velvet,
;

though
see a

linen remains the proper material

here

we

notable correspondence with Western usage.

The

shapich of the Armenians and the cuihino

of the Malabar Christians correspond to this vest-

ment and do not differ from it. It goes by other names in other parts of the Eastern Church these
;

are set forth in the appendix.

Deacons, members

of

the

minor

orders,

and choristers wear the

shapich ungirded.
II.

The

tTTi/j-aviKia.

These correspond to the
they
differ

Western maniple, but
several

from
is

it

in

notable respects.

First,

one

provided
only.

for each

arm

instead of for the left

arm

Secondly, they are not worn pendant on the arm,

Fig. 26.

Priest in

cttolxo-Plov , e-mTpaxv^i-ou, (paLVo\LOV, idovrj,
CTTi/iaj't/cta.

AND

1

82

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

but are drawn round, so that they rather resemble
cufFs

than napkins suspended on the wrist.

In

some early mosaics they are shown not so much as Something similar cufFs, as large false sleeves. seems to have been worn in the Gallican Church,

we may accept the testimony of the MS. already referred to on p. 135. This vestment for the two pieces may be said was for a long technically to form one vestment
if

time restricted to bishops only, but priests and,
since

1600, even deacons have had the right to
it.

wear

Bishops only, however, are allowed to

have the kirmaviKia embroidered with the ukwv of
Christ.

The
The

kiTiixaviKia

are alleged to signify the

bands
the

with which Christ was bound.

Armenian
;

pasban

corresponds

to

Malabar Christians. Both pasban and zando are worn one on each wrist but whereas the Armenian vestment is more like the Western maniple, the zando is a false sleeve, fitting the arm tightly and extending some way above the elbow.
ETni^iavLKiov

so does the

zando of the

;

III.

The

imTpayriXiov

is

in

essence

identical

with the stole of the Western Church, but in form
it

differs

widely.

Instead of being a long narrow
it

strip passed

behind the neck,
at

is

a short broad

band with an aperture
the wearer's head
is

one end, through which

passed, so that instead of

two

Fig. 27.

Archimandrite

in ^aLv6\Lov, i-myovdrLov, iyKdXTnoi', etc.

1

84

'Ecclesiastical Vestments.
side, there is
It is
;

ends pendant, one at each

but one,

hanging down in the middle.
richest of all the
silk

probably the
it is

Eastern vestments

made of
is

or brocade,

and

in

large churches

orna-

mented with jewels
seam
runs
dividing the band into

and

precious

metals.

A

conspicuously

down
;

the

middle,

two

this gives the vestit

ment

a

more

stole-like appearance than

would

otherwise possess.

The Armenian foor-ourar and
orro
are

the

Malabar
are

the
it

equivalents
in

of this vestment, and

resemble

appearance.

Both

names

evidently corruptions of the

Greek

wpapiov.

IV.

The
and,

tjpdpiov is the
It
is

Diaconal substitute for

the ewiTpayrjXiov.
stole,

identical with the Latin

like

that

vestment when worn by
left

deacons,

is carried on the Germanus informs us that it it

shoulder.

St

typifies the ministry
;

of angels, in that
this, like

resembles a pair of wings

many
the

other similar statements,
it

may
in in

be

taken for what

is

worth.

The
the
is

sole difference
lies its

between

wpdpiou
;

and
latter

stole

ornamentation
perfectly

the

ornamented

a

unrestricted
it

manner, the former bears

embroidered upon

the rpiadyiovy

Anoc Anoc Anoc,
and
the

Armenian

Church

as

a

general

rule

dispenses even with this inscription.

Fig. 28.

Bishop in

(patuoXiou, iTn-yovaTiov, d}/xo<p6pt.ou,

etc.

1

86
V.

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

The

Z^vt) is

simply a girdle which keeps the
kiTiTpayJiXiov

cToiyapiov

and

in

place.

To

it

answers the Armenian kodi and the Malabar zunro.

The Armenians suspend
wipe the hands or the
old Western maniple.

a

large white

napkin to
is

the kodi on the left-hand side, which
vessels

used to
necessary

when

during the service, and thus takes the place of the
VI.

The
in

(^iaivoXiov
;

answers in

all

respects to the

Western chasuble
to see
its

and

it

is

evident that

we

are

appellation the old

name paenula.
called

The Malabar
cope
;

Christians have a vestment

the phaino^ which in appearance corresponds to the

but

its

use assimilates

it

to the (^aivoKiov^ as

we should expect from the identity of name. The phaino is made of more or less costly
materials,
it

is

square (not semicircular) in shape
corners.

with

rounded
be
here

A

button

and

loop
It

ansv/er the

purpose of the Western morse.
stated

may

that

the

embroidery and
worn.

material of the

zando usually corresponds with
it is

that of the phaino with which
priests

The

of the Armenian Church also wear a cope-

Small bells are sometimes hung round the lower edge. The <^aivo\iov of bishops was formerly distinguished from that of priests by

shaped chasuble.

being covered with crosses
TToXvaravpiov,

;

hence called

(jiaiuoXiov

VII.

The

iTTiyovaTioif

is

a lozenge-shaped orna-

a

The Vestments of the Eastern Churches, 187
ment, made of brocade, and suspended by one corner on the right side of the eirirpay^riXia of bishops. It
is

ornamented with embroidery on

its

surface,

and
It

with

tassels attached to the three free corners.

was originally a handkerchief, and it remained in in fact, it this form for some considerable time
;

remains a handkerchief in the Armenian Church.

Although properly
VIII.

peculiar
it

to

bishops,

certain

other ecclesiastics wear

as a special privilege.
is

The

dj/Liocpopiov

equivalent

to

the

Western pall (though it is worn by all prelates, not by archbishops only), and similar to it in it is, however, rather wider, and is worn shape
;

round the neck
the
lost

in a knot.

sheep

— presumably
is

It is said

to symbolize
its

from

being

carried on the shoulder.

IX.

The

indv^vaQ

a

vestment similar to the

cope, worn on

certain occasions

by Archimandrites

and the higher orders of the Hierarchy. The between it and the Western cope difference consists in its being rather fuller, and fastened at
the lower ends in front as well as at
the top.

Small bells are hung round
jLiaif^vag

its
is

lower edge.

The
;

of an archimandrite
is

not ornamented

that of a prelate
called
TTOTafjia

decorated with
'

wavy

stripes

Ka\

irw^ara,

rivers

and cups'*


in

* The assonance cannot be
translation.

satisfactorily

preserved
is

Perhaps

'rivers

and

lavers

*

the

nearest

approximation our language

affords.

1

88

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

fanciful

method of expressing

the

*

rivers of grace

which flow from him.'*

X, XI. The yai^LoXavyy] is \avyj) a hood worn over it.
of a Metropolitan
is

a cap, the k^tiyyafxa-

The

k^uyafjiaXavyji

white, signed in front with a

black cross, that of other prelates black.

XII.
staff,

The
it

naTtpecraa corresponds to the pastoral
is

but

shorter and

is

used as an ordinary
in

walking-stick,
particular.

which
handle

it

resembles

every

The

is

usually an ornamental

modification of the crutched or tau cross.

The
in

bishops of the Eastern Church wear no ring.

XIII.

The

eyKoXiriov

is

a pectoral cross,
all

worn

the East, and similar in

respects to the cross

worn

in the

West.

XIV. The aa/c/coc is the equivalent of the Western it is now worn by all metropolitans. dalmatic The Armenian vestments which have not been
:

described

in

the

above conspectus are
cap
;

(i)

the
a

sagavard^

or

priest's

(ii)

the

vakass^

vestment which corresponds to the Western amice,

and

is

nowhere
it

else

worn

in the East.

It

differs

from

in the collar standing upright instead

of

being turned down.

Attached to the vakass of
of precious metals twelve
the

high dignitaries

is

a breastplate

and stones,
apostles.

bearing
is

names of the

This

as obviously

borrowed from the

Jewish

*

breastplate of the Ephod,' as the vakass
* Neale.

'The Vestments
itself is

of the Eastern Churches.
;

189

borrowed from the Western amice but the Armenians deny any Western influence in the
dress, asserting the entire

vestment to be of Jewish
(iv) the sandals,

origin

;

(iii)

the shoochar, which answers in every
;

respect to the cope
are

and

which

worn during

service, are kept in the church,

and may not be used on other
Vartabeds
the
(/.^.,

occasions.

priests especially entrusted with

work

of

preaching

and

instructing

the

ignorant in

the principles of the religion)

and

bishops substitute a mitre for the sagavard, and

wear a pectoral cross hanging by a gold chain round the neck. The copes of bishops are
ornamented
survivals

by two

strips

of brocade, of
saints;

usually
are

embroidered with
of the

figures

these

infulae of the

mitre,

but

are

attached to the shoulder of the cope.
are

Vartabeds

distinguished

by

a staff of

which the head
it.

consists of a cross

with two serpents turned round

The Armenian Church
married
if

permits clergy to remain

the

ordination.

The

marriage hath taken place before ordinary dress of unmarried

priests consists

with a broad

belt,

of a black or dark purple cassock over which is worn a gown, of the
offices)

and

(at

the

recital

a cope.

In

Persia and

Armenia they wear

a

cap with fur
priests

border called the kulpas.

Married
Nestorian

wear a

blue cassock, a black gown, and a blue turban.

The

vestments of the

Church are

190

^ecclesiastical Vestments.

perhaps the

simplest

of the forms of dress in

vogue

in

the

various

non-reformed

Churches.

They

number, and are respectively called the frazona^ peena^ zunndra^ hurrdra^ estla or These correspond reshorshippa^ and msdne.
are six in

spectively

to

breeches,

surplice,

or

alb,

girdle,

stole, chasuble,

and shoes, but they
the

differ in

some
use

degree

from
the

analogous
are
all

vestments in

elsewhere.
calico,

They
stole,

made of white
employed being
(to

linen or
in

only colour

the

girdle and

which

use

the convenient

heraldic terms) are
blue, bearing crosses

cheeky

in squares white

and

of the same colours counterhas a Latin cross
latter
is

changed.

The

chasuble, too,

worked on the back.
vestment, being

The
a

a

clumsy

simply

square

cloth,

thrown
reach

over the shoulders and held in position with the
finger

and

thumb.

The
is

stole
its

does

not

below the
girdle.

waist,

and

kept in

place under the

It is

remarkable that the vestments of the
of clergy
differ

different orders

only in the quality
;

of the material, and not in elaboration or form

and

that they are,

as a

general rule, only

worn

during the celebration of the
the administration

Holy Eucharist or of Baptism. At other services

the priests usually wear their ordinary costume,

which

differs

only slightly from that of laymen.
list

The

following

will

show the

parallelism

existing between the vestments of the East

and of

)

:

1

The Vestments of the Ka stern Churches.
the

1

9

West

;

it is

useful as showing that the differconsist entirely in matters

ences between
detail,

them

of

and not

in essentials

[vakass]

(noi\a.piov
€-n-LfiavcKia

= amice. — alb. = maniple.
J

(jOpdpLOV
^<x)V7]

(jiaLVoXtov

= girdle. = chasuble.
may
be

cTTtyovariov

compared

with

appendages

of

subcingulum.
(x)ixo(f)6piov

=pall.

}j.dvBva^

=cope, approximately.

Xai^aXaixv^
€^u)xaixa\av)(rj
TraTepecrcra

U

mitre

iyKoX-Tiov
(TOLKKOi

= pastoral staff. = pectoral cross. = dalmatic
eTriyovariov,
fiavcvac;,
'y^a/.iaXavyj]

Thus, the
s^txy-^^afxaXav^v

and

West

;

while,

represented
tunicle,

have no exact equivalent in the on the other hand, the amice is onlyin one provincial church, and the
gloves,
ring,

dalmatic,

stockings

and

sandals,

have no Eastern vestments to correspond

with them.

This

is

just
all,

what we might expect,
comparatively speaking,
application,

for these vestments are

of mediaeval invention or
Eastern Church, as

and the
at

we

said in other

words

the

commencement of
the primitive rites
less altered

this chapter, preserves
in a
its

and usages by time than does

many of condition much
sister.

Western

CHAPTER

VI.

THE VESTMENTS OF THE REFORMED CHURCHES.

ONE

of the

main

differences
a

between
church

a
re-

church

unreformed and
lies

formed

in this

:

that in the former

the externals of public worship are magnified in

importance even to the minutest

detail,

while in
is

the latter the weight attached to such matters

diminished in a greater or less degree.
Considerable variety
is

apparent in the import-

ance attached by different reformed churches to
these
variety
matters,
is

and, in consequence, considerable

apparent in the extent to which they are

elaborated.

Those churches which
less

at

the

Reit,

formation retained the episcopate, retained with
in a

more or
;

usages

modified form, many of the old while those churches which abolished the

and restored the democratic system of church government, for the most part abolished the customs of their pre-reformation predecessors.
hierarchical

"The Vestments

of the Reformed Churches.

193

Perhaps among no bodies of Christians are the externals of worship so little heeded as among the
English dissenting sects
;

these, being

composed of
be said to

seceders from a reformed church,

may
last

have undergone a double reformation, which has

had the
ritual

effect

of expunging the
services.

traces

of

from

their

In

the

consequent

neglect of order, the wearing of robes of office

has

become

entirely

optional,

not

only

with

the different sects, but even with the individual
ministers
;

and where a gown

is

worn, as

no

definite shape of

gown

is

prescribed, the choice of

robe remains optional.

Hence, these bodies need

not concern us further, as the discussion of their

vestments would be merely an uninteresting and

morotonous account of the practice of isolated modern congregations. The four churches whose usage must occupy
our attention in
the
present

chapter

are

the

Lutheran churches of Germany and Scandinavia,
the Episcopal churches of England and of Spain,

and the Presbyterian churches, with ence to the church of Scotland.
§
I.

especial refer-

The Lutheran Churches.

Of
as

all

reformations, the least thoroug'h, as far

outward observance was concerned, was the reformation in which Martin Luther pl-ayed the
leading
part.

In

Liibeck

is

the

brass of the

13

194

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

Lutheran Bishop Tydeman,
representing him

who

died in

1561,

in full Eucharistic vestments, in

no wise

differing

from the vestments of

his

nonGer-

reformed predecessors.

At

the present day the
in

predominance of the Evangelical church

many

(as distinguished

from the Lutheran) has
exception of the

abolished vestments,

with the
attendants,

Geneva gown and
testants
;

its

among

the Pro-

but in Sweden and Denmark, where the
is

Protestant Episcopal

still

the national church,

the old vestments, with
omissions, are retained.

some modifications and

The Lutheran

minister of the present day in
as

Sweden and Denmark is described ample cassock, or black gown, and
ruff,

wearing an

a white frilled
life

or collar, both in

his

outdoor

and

at

morning and evening prayer.
a white, ungirded garment,

At

the

Communion

Service he assumes an alb, or, rather, surplice

open down the front

over which

is

placed a chasuble with a large cross

on the back.

The Swedish Kyrko-Handbog
vestments
sjorta
:

recognises there
messe-

the chorkappa^

messhake and

— answering
\ II.

to the cope, chasuble, and sur-

plice, respectively.

The Anglican Church.

The history of vestments and their usage in England subsequent to the reformation is not

The Vestments of the Reformed Churches,
lacking in complexity, and

195

is rendered harder to unravel by the heated discussions carried on, and

the

contradictory assertions brought forward, at

the present day by the various parties within the

English church.

It is

no part of our duty here

to give an account of the different recensions of

the liturgy published and approved in the years
after

the

reformation
the

;

we

are

here only con-

cerned with

rubrical

directions

which they

contain to regulate the use of vestments permitted
in the English church.

The

first

English

Prayer-Book, published
:

in

1549, contained the following injunction
*

Upon

the day and at the time appointed for the ministra-

tion of the

the holy ministry shall put upon
for that ministration, that
is

Holy Communion, the Priest that shall execute him the vesture appointed
to
say, a

white alb plain with

a

vestment or cope.

Deacons there

so

And where there be many Priests many shall be ready to help the Priest
;

or
in

the ministrations as shall be requisite

and

shall

have upon

them
is

likewise the vestures appointed for their ministry, that

to say, albes

with

tunicles.'

It is quite clear,

even without the documentary
forthcoming,
that
as,

evidence

which

is

this

was
was

merely intended
Fagius

as

temporary,

indeed,

the whole 1549 Prayer-Book.

In a letter which
to
their
Strass-

and

Bucer

addressed

burg

friends, describing their reception
is

by Arch-

bishop Cranmer, there

given a short account

:

196

Ecclesiastical Vestments.
in use.

of the ceremonies then
this letter, they
say,
*

In the course of
that

We

hear

some con-

cessions have been made both to a respect for

antiquity and to the infirmity of the present age,
such, for
instance,
as

the vestments

commonly
that
it

used in the Sacrament of the Eucharist.'

An

inspection of the rubric will
please

show
all

was ingeniously designed to

parties.

The word

*

vestment,'

of

course,

means

the

chasuble, the vestment

par
'

excellence^

and therefore

often spoken of in that apparently general way.

The

'

alb

and vestment
all

being specified did not

necessarily exclude

the other vestments which

Hence those clergy were worn between these two. who preferred the old rites and ceremonies might
read the rubric into permitting, or even enjoining,
the maintenance of the old vestments,* while those

who

subscribed to the principles of the reforming
all

party might set at defiance

old usages by wear-

ing the cope while celebrating the

Communion.
the
first

Another rubric
the
first

relating to vestments appears in

Prayer-Book.

This

is

rubric

printed after the order for the

Communion, and
shall

runs thus
*

Upon Wednesdays

and Fridays the English Litany
.

be said or sung
to

in all places

.

.

and though there be none
these days (after the

communicate with the

Priest, yet

* With one modification only.
ordered
to be

The

albs are expressly

worn

plain.

The Vestments of the Reformed Churches,
Litany ended) the
or surplice, with
a

197
albc
altar

Priest shall put

upon him
all

a plain

cope, and

say

things at the

Supper) (appointed to be said at the celebration of the Lord's
until after the offertory.
.
.

.'

Finally,

in
:

this

Prayer-Book

also

occurs the

following
'In
the

or singing of Mattins and Evensong, burying, the minister in parish churches and baptizing and
saying

And in surplice. chapels annexed to the same shall use a deans, cathedral churches and colleges the archdeacons, all
provosts, masters, prebendaries,

and fellows, being graduates,

may

such use in the quire, besides their surplices,

appertaineth to their several degrees.

hood as whensoever the And

in the church, or bishop shall celebrate the Holy Communion shall have upon execute any other public ministration, he albe, and a cope or him, beside his rochet, a surplice or hand, or else borne vestment, and also his pastoral stafF in his

or holden by his chaplain.'

The

revised

Prayer-Book of 1552

is

much more

It vestment-use. strino-ent in its reformation of in a condescends to mention vestments but once,

prohibitory rubric,
in the

which

reduces

vestment-use

English Church to an almost Presbyterian

simplicity.
*

This rubric
it

is

as follows

:

And

here

is

of the communion, and at cope shall use neither albe, vestment, nor

at the time to be noted that the minister in his ministration, all other times
:

but being arch-

a rochet: and being bishop or bishop, he shall have and wear have and wear a surplice only. a priest or deacon, he shall

is to be In the Prayer-Book of 1559 a rubric vestments found requiring the restoration of the

igS

Ecclesiastical Vestments,
first

and ornaments of the

Prayer-Book, thereby-

setting aside the order of the second Prayer-Book.

At we

the consecration of Archbishop Parker in 1559,
are told that at

morning prayer

the archbishop-

elect

wore

his academical robes.

After the sermon,

the archbishop-elect and the four attendant bishops

proceeded to the vestry, and returned prepared for
the

communion

service, the archbishop in a linen
in a silk cope, in

surplice, the

Bishop of Chichester

the Bishops of
surplices,

Hereford and Bedford

linen

but the Bishop of Exeter (Miles Cover-

dale) in a woollen cassock only.

Two

chaplains

of the

archbishop,

who

assisted

the Bishop

of

Chichester at the
silk copes.

communion

service, also

wore
pro-

After the

communion

service they again

ceeded to the vestry and returned, the archbishop
in
'

episcopal alb,' surplice, chimere of black silk,
a
;

and
neck
in

collar

of

precious

sable-fur

round

his

the Bishops of Chichester and

Hereford

episcopalia,

namely,

surplice

and chimere.

Coverdale and the Bishop of Bedford wore cassocks only.

This passage shows us that the right of private judgment was exercised, even at such an important

ceremony
1559
as

as the consecration

of an archbishop, in

now.

The

Puritan principles of Cover-

dale were given full

sway even when acting

in co-

operation with his less austere brethren.

The Vestments of the Keformed Churches,
It

199

also introduces
is

us to a

new

vestment, the

chimere, which

one of the greatest puzzles to be
of vestments.
Since

found

in

the
it

subject

the

Reformation,

has continued ever since as a dress
its

peculiar to bishops, but

origin and the exact

date of

its

introduction are uncertain.
is

The
sleeves
;

chimere

a short coat, properly without
tailors of the Stuart

but in

England the
the

period transferred the sleeves of the rochet to the
chimere.

Hence

modern English
chimere
is

bishops wear

sleeveless rochets

and sleeved chimeres

— both

sole-

cisms.

The

English

black,

though

from the reign of Edward VI to that of Elizabeth but the form current on the Contiit was scarlet
;

nent, a large cape called the mantelletmn,

is

scarlet,

and the chimere worn England is purple. It is not unlikely, from the appearance of the
by the
prelates in

Roman

vestment, that
or almuce
vestments.

it

is

a a

modification of the cope

possibly

combination of the two

1560 Thos Sampson writes complaining to Peter Martyr that three of our lately-appointed
In
'

bishops are to officiate at the table of the Lord,

one

as

priest,

another as deacon, and a third as
crucifix, or at

subdeacon, before the image of the
least

with candles, and habited in This seems the golden vestments of the papacy.' to indicate that at Court (where this was to take
not
far

from

it,

200

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

place) the old vestments were kept up.
letter

From

a

of Miles Coverdale's written in 1566, we learn that the square cap, bands, and tippet were enjoined to be worn out of doors (* Zurich
Letters,' vol.
i,

p.

6^, vol.

ii,

p.

121

;

Parker

Society).

In

all

the subsequent Prayer-Books, the
as
it is

'

Ornaof our
re-

ments Rubric,'
information

called, is the source

with

respect

to

the

vestments

quired to be worn in the English Church.

This

famous rubric runs thus

(as

given in the Prayer-

Book of 1662)
*

:

And

here

it

is

to

be noted, that such ornaments of the
at
all

church and of the ministers thereof,

times of their

ministration, shall be retained and be in use, as

were in

this

Church of England, by

the authority of Parliament, in the

second year of the reign of King Edward the Sixth.'

The
'

indefiniteness observed in the

Edwardian
vagueness

rubrics, to

which

this injunction refers, invests the
'

Ornaments Rubric
this
is

with a

certain

;

and

responsible for the long and violent
it,

strife that

has waged around

and

for the chaotic

condition

of modern Anglican

order,

both

in

vestments and other observances.

Recent attempts have been made on the part of individual clergymen to introduce certain details of the
services
ritual

of the Western

Church
as

into the

of the Church of England.
are,

All

such

innovations

however,

regarded

illegal,

The

Vest?nents

of the Reformed Churches. 201
lay

and clergymen attempting to introduce them
themselves open
in

to

prosecution.
as

The

rulings
ritual

the

case

known
such

the

Folkestone
is

case

(Elphinstone v. Purchas)
matters.

the standard of other

reference in
details,

Among many

the use of the following vestments

was

declared absolutely contrary to the Ecclesiastical

tunicle

The biretta, chasuble, alb, and Holy Communion the cope at Holy Communion except on high feast days in
of England
at
:

Law

the

;

cathedrals

and collegiate

churches.

On
is

other
to be

occasions a decent and comely surplice

used by every minister saying the public prayers
or administering the sacrament or other
the Church.*
rites

of

This tendency to elaboration and to revival of
mediaeval practices
is

not, however, altogether of
is

modern growth.

In Wells Cathedral

the effigy

of Bishop Creighton,
cassock, amice, alb,

who
his

died in 1672, clad in
latter

and cope, the
head
is

with a

jewelled border.
flaps,
still,

On
is

a cap with side-

over which

^imitrapretiosa.

More singular

considering that

the person commemorated

was an ardent reformer, is the brass of Bishop Goodrick at Ely Cathedral, who died in 1554.
* For
a

complete analysis of the

'

Ornaments Rubric with
'

elaborate historical and legal disquisitions, reference should be

made

to the published report of the Folkestone case

(Kegan

Paul, 1878).

202

Ecclesiastical Vestments,
is

He

represented in full Eucharistic vestments of

the pre-Reformation period.

Both these apparent

anomalies are probably to be accounted for by the

Romanizing tendency of the reigning monarchs under whom both these persons lived.

The
lash

vestments of the clergy did not escape the
satirists

of the

of Queen Elizabeth's reign.
a tract

About 1565,
entitled
'

for instance,

was published

A pleasant Dialogue between a Soldier of Berwick and an English chaplain wherein are
:

largely handled and laid open such reasons as are

brought

for

maintenance of Popish Traditions in

our English Church.'
Bernard, the priest
tell
'
:

The

soldier speaks thus to
I

But, Bernard,

pray thee,

me

of thine honesty what was the cause that

thou hast been
this forenoon,

and gold,

many changes of apparel now black, now white, now in silk and now at length in this swouping
in

so

black gown, and this sarcenet

flaunting tippet.'
in his ordinary

This describes Bernard
cassock or clerical dress
;

as

first

then in his surplice for
;

morning prayer
and, lastly,
in
is

;

then in the cope for communion
the

preaching
it

gown and

tippet.

The

passage

interesting, as

brings the practice

of wearing a black gown at the sermon, once universal in the English Church, but

now

fast

dying

out, back almost to the reformation.

One more
be noticed

English church vestment remains to

—the scarf

This

is

a broad black

band

The Vestments of the Rejormed Churches.
of
silk,

203
round

which

is

worn
is

like a stole, passed

the back of the neck and allowed to depend on
either side.
It

worn by doctors of
authorities
Its origin is possibly

divinity

and by the
in the stole,

clerical

of collegiate and
to be found

cathedral bodies.

but

it is

more probably
of

a modification

of an

article

of University costume.
the
the

During
Scotland in

imposition
Stuart

Episcopacv

upon

period

the dress of the

clergy was of a form designed by no less a person

than his Sacred Majesty King James

I

himself

At

that monarch's

own

request the Parliament of
so,

1609 passed an Act authorizing him to do
assigning in
its

preface the reasons for this step to

be

'

that

it

had been found by daily experience
of his Majesty's empire, the

that the greatness

magnificence of his Court, the fame of his wisdom,
the civility of his subjects, were alluring princes

and strangers from every part of the world, and
that
it

was

fitting

that

bishops and

ministers,

judges and magistrates, should appear before those
in

becoming apparel

;

it

was therefore referred to
to devise appropriate
for these

his Majesty's serene

wisdom

garments and robes of
functionaries.'

office

different

The
gowns
;

result of this

was an order

'

that ministers

should wear black clothes and in the pulpit black
bishops and doctors of divinity " black cassikins syde to their knee " should wear
that

204

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

[equivalent to the " bishop's apron " of the

modern
about

English prelate and the short Presbyterian cassock],
black

gowns above, and

a black craip [scarf]

their necks.
their

The

bishops were ordained to have
sleeves,

gowns with lumhard

according to the

form of England, with tippets and craips about
their craigs [necks]/

In

1

63

1

Charles

I

directed the surplice to be
visited

worn.
bishops

In

1633,

when he

Scotland, the

and

chaplains

officiated

before

him

in

surplices.

He

induced Parliament to pass an Act
but

like that of
late
clerical

1609, giving him the power to regu-

costume

;

this

was so

much

objected to

by the clergy themselves (some of
wear
hoods and
bells

whom

expressed a fear that his Majesty would
'

order them to

'),

that in

with

1634 they petitioned the King not to interfere the arrangements of his predecessor and
;

their request

seems to have been granted.

§

III.

The Reformed Churches AND Portugal.

of Spain

The

practices of both these churches are
:

comand

mendably simple
at

a white tunic, or surplice,

a white stole, are the only vestments or

ornaments

any time to be worn, except

in

sermons or at

funerals,

when

a

black

gown may be assumed.

Deacons wear their

stoles in the ancient diaconal

The Vestments of the Reformed Churches, 205
fashion,
right
i.e.,
;

over the

left

shoulder and under the

arm

presbyters wear theirs round the neck

and hanging straight down.
§

IV.

The Presbyterian Church.

have already shown that in Apostolic times, and the first few years of the post-Apostolic

We

Fig.

29.-A Synod Meeting of the Reformed Church of
France.

period,

robes

of

office

officiating

minister.

were not worn by the Vestments do not meet us
of
the
Ecclesiastical

until

the

moderatorship

Assemblies had crystallized into the Episcopate. The oldest Christian organization now existing

2o6
in

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

which the diordinal system of government has been restored is undoubtedly the Waldensian

church.

Although

this

church

has

not

been

proved to be older than the thirteenth century, it cannot be asserted that its foundation is not
anterior

to

that

date

;

an impenetrable mist
it

rendered more obscure,

must be admitted, by

the doubtful authenticity of

many

of the church

documents
it

— shrouds

its

early years. Unfortunately
its

cannot be discovered whether

clergy

wore

any distinctive robes when conducting its services. The chroniclers have not thought it worth their while to tell us, but it is improbable that anything
very elaborate was worn, as a church which made a change so drastic as the abolition of the Episcopate would be unlikely to maintain the elaborate
accessories of the

non-reformed church.

At
in

present

the simple black

gown

is

worn, as

all

other

branches of the Presbyterian church throughout
the world.

The

task

of compiling details regarding the
is

vestments of the Presbyterian church

rendered

easy by the small account which that church, in but the all its sections, takes of ritual matters
;

same

cause also increases

its

difficulty in

another

direction.

Paradoxical

as

this

statement

may
it

appear,

it

becomes

intelligible

when we

reflect that

but few Presbyterian assemblies would consider

consistent with their dignity to take any notice of

The Vestments of the Reformed Churches,
matters of dress, personal or
official
;

207

while on the

other hand few Presbyterian writers have thought

such matters worthy of their notice.

The

writer

has referred to liturgies in the English, French,

German, Roumanian, and other languages, representing the chief reformed Churches of Europe
holding the Presbyterian system, but has failed to find any rubrical direction or reference containing

any information.
actually
available,

The

collecting of material

is

thus simplified by the small amount of material but rendered
difficult

by the

baldness of the records in which the materials have
to be sought.

The

vestments worn by clergy of the Presby-

terian Churches are not so

much
like
in

ecclesiastical as

professional

or

academical,
at

the

barrister's
:

gown.

They

are

most four
added.

cassock, scarf, bands, and

number the gown, to which the hood

of the wearer's degree

is

The
black
it

cassock

silk,

is a somewhat ugly garment of which resembles an ordinary short coat
;

rarely reaches as far as the knees.
it

There can be
clergy of

no doubt that

is

a modification, for conveni-

ence' sake, of the long cassock

worn by

the Episcopal Churches, which was the inner gar-

ment, university and

clerical,

of the middle
cloth,

ages.

The

scarf

is

a long strip of black

wound

sash-wise round the waist and knotted in front.

The bands

are

two short pendant

tails

of white

2o8

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

lawn, hanging in front,

now

neck by an

elastic

cord.

fastened round the These survive in the

universities as well as in the Presbyterian Church.

The name was
bethan
type of
ruff, in

originally

applied

to the Eliza-

which must be sought the protobands
;

the ecclesiastical

and the use of a

box to keep the ruff in has caused the survival of the old meaning of the word in bandThe stiff starched of propped band passed box.'
cylindrical
*

at the

commencement of

the seventeenth century

into xhQ falling band (not unlike a
lace collar),

modern
*

child's
'

of which the ecclesiastical
of the
a

bands

is

the diminution.

The gown Geneva gown

is

pattern
silk

black

known as the gown with ample
is

sleeves and faced with velvet. It should be here remarked that there

con-

siderable laxity in individual usage.

The

cassock

and scarf are almost universally discarded, and, in fact, they were probably never very generally worn.

For the Geneva gown

is

often

substituted

the

gown proper

to the university degree of the wearer.
affecting robes

Very few regulations

have been

passed by any of the assemblies of the churches in
the Presbyterian Alliance.

The General Assembly
in

1575 passed an important injunction, which, however, refers rather
to personal than to
official

of the Church of Scotland

attire.

As
full
:

it

is

a

curious document,

we

give

it

here in

;

"The Vestments
'For
requisite
as

of the Reformed Churches. 209
as

muche
all,

a

comelie

and decent apparrell and suche
as
all

is

in

namelie,
first,
;

ministers,

beare

functioun in the kirk,
[broidering]
velvet,

we thinke
all

kinde of browdering
stripes]

unseemlie

begaires [coloured
all

of

in

gowne, hose, or coat, and

superfluous and
silkes, all

vaine cutting out, steeking [stitching] with

kinde
large

of costlie sewing on pasments
steeking with silkes
;

[laces], or

sumptuous and

all

kinde of costlie sewing or variant

hewes

in

sarkes

;

all

kinde of light and variant hewes in

clothing, as reid, blew, yellow, and suche like,

which declare

the lightnesse of the

minde

;

all

wearing of
;

rings, bracelets,

buttons of
fluiteis

silver, gold, or

other mettall
;

all

kinds of super-

of cloath in making of hose

all

using of plaids in the

kirk

by readers or

ministers, namelie, in the time of their
their
office
;

ministrie

and using
and

all

kinde of gownning,

cutting, doubletting, or breekes of velvet, satine, taffatie or

suche

like
;

;

costlie giltings

of whingers and knives, and
light colours
as blacke,

suche like

all silk hatts,

and hatts of diverse and

but that their whole habite be of grave colour,
russett,
lett,

sad

gray,

sad

browne

;

or searges, worsett,

chamgood

grogram,

lylis,

worset, or

suche like; that

the

Word

oi God, by them and their immoderatenesse, be not

slandered."*'

There
tion,

is

one

rule, or rather

unwritten conven-

affecting

the wearing of vestments in the
least, in

Presbyterian Church, at

the British Islands.

The
tion

bands are regarded as an indication that their
is

wearer
;

the minister of a recognised congrega-

hence,

when an ordained minister of

the

Presbyterian Church
"^

who

does not hoJd such an
'

Calderwood, 'Historic of the Kirk of Scotland (Wodrow
iii,

Society), vol.

p.

354.

14

2IO
office

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

happens to be conducting a service, he does
has not always been

not wear bands.

The Geneva gown
Church of Holland,

worn

in

the Presbyterian Churches abroad.
till

Thus

in the

recently, the official

costume

of a minister was a picturesque uniform, consisting

of the old three-cornered
long pleated

hat,

and a coat resemcoat,
'

bling the ordinary evening-dress
strip called the
*

having a

mantle

hooked on

the neck, obviously a survival from an earlier and

more ample gown of some kind, knee-breeches,
buckled
This costume was worn only when the minister was
at

the knees, and buckled shoes.

officiating at service.

It

has nov/, however, been

universally abandoned for the

Geneva gown.
or

The gown and
cassock and
Service
;

bands,
are

with

without the
at

scarf,

now worn only

Divine

but in the early part of the seventeenth

century (in Britain as on the Continent) they were

worn by
which
in

ministers sitting in assembly as well, in

accordance with the decree of the Synod of Fife,

i6it

ordained

that

ministers

should

attend meetings in the exercise of Synodal assembly
in black
in

gowns and other abul^iements* the Act of Parliament.
elders never
so.

prescribed

The

wear any insignia of

office,

and

never have done

^ Habiliments.

CHAPTER

VII.

THE RITUAL USES OF VESTMENTS.

WE
chapter.

have

now

described

the form and

ornamentation of the different vestments worn by the clergy of the
of Christendom
;

principal sections

but

we have
these

only Incidentally touched upon another and equally

important matter, namely, when and
connected with them.

how

vestments were worn, and the liturgical practices

A

more extended account

of these matters will be the subject of the present

non -reformed Western and Eastern Churches alone need occupy our attention. The
vestment uses of the various reformed churches
are practically nil^

The

and

all

available details concern-

ing these Churches have already been given in the

preceding chapter.

Vestments were obtained by
cathedral in

a

church
often

or

a

many

ways.

They were

em-

broidered for presentation to the church by ladles,

:

212

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

who found in the work of embroidery an easy and or else by the pleasant way of passing the time Some of nunneries as a religious work. inmates
;

stricken

were presented as expiatory offerings by consciencelaymen ; others bequeathed as a perpetual
Others, memorial by incumbents or prelates. again, were purchased with money mulcted as

compensation for

sins.

The

first

sacred function in which any vestment
its

took part was
prayers
said

own
all

benediction.

This was
of a
suit

always spoken by a bishop, and was in form of

over

the

vestments

together, and the individual vestments separately.

The

following

may
all,

be taken as specimens of these
;

dedicatory prayers
space in giving
in

it

is

unnecessary to occupy
sets

as

complete

can be found

any Pontifical
Benedictio
07?iniu7?i

vestit?ientorum simul.

— Omnlpotens

Deus

qui per

Moisen famulum tuum

pontificalia et sacerdotalia ac

levitica vestimenta

spectu tuo, et ad

ad explendum ministerium eorum in condecorem tui nominis, per nostra humilitatis

servitutem pontificare

J* benedicere f* consccrare
et
sacris

digneris

f<

ut

divinis
;

cultibus
sacris

misteriis apta et benedicta
pontifices,

existant

hiisque

vestibus

sacerdotes

seu

levite tui induti

ab omnibus impulsionibus seu temptacionibus

malignorum spirituum
in hiis placide tibi et

muniti

et

defensi

esse

mereantur,

tuisque ministeriis apte et condigne servire et inherere, atque

devote perseverare

tribue.

Per Chris-

tum.

Oremus.
invicte virtutis auctor, et

Deus

omnium rerum
et

creator ac

sanctificator,

intende propicius ad preces nostras,

hec indu-

The Ritual Uses of Vestments.
menta
levitice et sacerdotalis glorie ministris tuis

2

1

3

sumenda tuo

ore proprio benedicere i^ nerls omnesque eis utentes,

sanctificare
tuis

J^

et

consecrare dig-

misteriis aptos, et tibi in eis
effici

devote et amicabiliter servientes grates

concedas.

Per

Christum Dominum.
Bejiedictio

omnipotens Deus
officii et

posuerit

Oremus. Benedic Domine quesume amictum istum levitici seu sacerdotalis concede propicius ut quicumque eum capiti suo imbenedictionem tuam accipiat sitque in fide solidus
Amicti.
;

et sanctitatis

gravedine fundatus.

Per Christum.

Etc.

The vestment The
ritual

thus dedicated was sprinkled with

holy water after each prayer.
uses

of vestments
in
;

may

be

con-

two parts discussing in the first the persons by whom they were worn, and, in the second, the occasions upon which, and
veniently

described

the

manner

in w^hich, they were worn.

The vestments
that in

were

distributed

among

the

different orders of clergy in a

manner

similar to

period were allotted (see

which the early vestments of the second p. 28), but on a more
as befitted their greater elabora-

complex system,
tion.

Some

hints of this system have already been
;

given in the preceding pages

it

will be convenient

here to amplify this information.

orders of the Western Church are minor orders [ostiarius^ lector^ acolytus)^ and the four major orders (subdeacons, deacons,
the three
priests,

The seven

and bishops

;

we may

divide the last into

three

subdivisions, ^bishops

proper,

archbishops,

214

'Ecclesiastical Vestments.

and the Pope).

All ranks wore the
maniple.
.

alb^

and

all

the major orders the

All those
stole^

above

the rank of subdeacon wore amice and

and

all

above the rank of deacon the chasuble. Subdeacons were distinguished by the tunicle^ deacons by the
dalmatic
;

both vestments were added to the outfit
Tho. stockings^ sandals^

of bishops, the latter with a remarkable distinction
already described (p. 79).

suhcingulum (originally), mitre, gloves, ring, and
staff WQvt peculiar to bishops

and to certain abbots
had been
expressly

to

whom

these pontificalia

granted by the Pope.^

Archbishops added the

pall to this lengthy catalogue, and the

Pope (who
the
for his

dispensed
orale,

with

the

pastoral

staff)

reserved

and

in later times the suhcingulum,

exclusive use.

We
sions

now

turn to the consideration of the occain

upon which, and the manner

which, these

vestments were worn.

The

vestments worn at the mass by the cele-

brant and his assistants were those which
described under the heading of
'

we have

Eucharistic Vest-

ments,' and of these one, the chasuble,

was worn

exclusively at this service and at no other.

In

Advent,

and

Easter, the deacons
*
prior

between Septuagesima and and subdeacons were directed

When
had
absent.

the abbot of a monastery was also a bishop, the

also the right to

wear

pontifcalia

when

his superior

was

'The Ritual Uses

of Vestments,
for

215
or

to

substitute
;

chasubles

their

dalmatics

tunicles

and these chasubles were ordered to be worn, not in the usual manner, but folded, and
stole.

passed across the breast like the diaconal

That
as

is

to say,

the

chasuble, which must have

been of a

flexible''''

material,

was folded

into a strip

narrow

as possible,

and secured over the shoulder

and under the girdle of the alb. These were not to be worn during the whole service, however
;

the subdeacon had to remove his folded chasuble
at the Epistle
;

at the

Gospel the deacon had to
it till

cross his over the left arm, and so keep

after

the post-communion.

There
vested
series

is

but one representation of a deacon so
to exist in

known

England.
of

It is

one of a

of sculptured

effigies

ecclesiastics

on the

north-west tower of Wells Cathedral.

These

have been described by
'

Mr

St

John

Hope

in

Archasologia,' vol.

liv.

We
is

give here the figure

to which special reference

at present
is

being made.

Besides the chasuble, the effigy

vested in cassock,

amice,

alb,

and girdle

;

and a book, probably
represented as carried in

meant
It

for the Gospels,

is

the hand.

should be observed that
difficulty oi folding the

at

the mass of a

* The
it

chasuble without injuring

has led to the substitution of a broad purple stole-like vestlike the folded chasuble.

ment, worn exactly
the
St ohm.

This

is

called

2l6

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

feast falling within the limits

of time prescribed,

the ordinary dalmatic and tunicle were worn in

the ordinary way.

Fig. 30.

Deacon

in

Folded Chasuble, Wells Cathedral.

This peculiar custom was
Franciscans.

unknown

to

the

The

deacons of this order put o.T

The Ritual Uses of Vestments,

217

fast-days, and did not the dalmatic entirely upon for it ; a similar substitute any other vestment tunicle, was observed practice, with respect to the deacons wore alh by the subdeacons, so that the alb and maniple. and stole only, the subdeacons not observed at the Vigils of

This practice was
Saints,

or of the Nativity,

and on
rank

a few other

occasions.

When

a cleric of sacerdotal
at

'ministered (as

opposed to celebrated)

the mass, his dress was

and the cope. The the amice, the alb, the stole, at the mass same vestments are worn by the priest
Friday. of the pre-sanctified* on Good put on for the mass Before the vestments are and prepare the the priest must wash his hands, purificator or napkin chalice, placing over it the

Above vessels. used for wiping the sacred with an unbroken purificator he places the paten, small linen cloth, over host, and covers it with a
the

which he puts the burse. the vestments one by one
amice, takes
it it

This done, he takes
;

he

first

receives^ the

by

its

ends and strings, and kisses
is

the middle of
it

where there

a cross.

A

prelate,

a surplice should be noticed, always puts on The amice being put in its place, before vesting. assumed, then the the alb and girdle are then Each vestment is kissed maniple and chasuble.

*

The Sacrament when
is

used on a day
its

when

the Eucharist

service

not gone through in

enurety.

8

21

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

before being put on, and a prayer said with the

assumption of each
style

;

these prayers differ

little in

from those

said in the similar
it

ceremony

in

the Eastern

Church, and

has therefore been

thought unnecessary to give them here.
In an inventory of, the Vestry of Westminster Abbey,* the following directions are given in a late fifteenth-century hand
:

The Revestpg of the abbot of Westnf
in

att evensong.

fFyrst

the westerer shall lay the abbots cope lowest opon the awter
vv'^

the sayd westre, nex opon hys gray

Ames, then hys

surples, after that hys

Rochett and uppermost his Kerchure.

Hys Myter &
fycalls.

crose beyng

Redy w^ hys

glovys and ponty-

The Revesting of the sayd abbot

att syngyng hy

Masse.

Fyrst the westerer shall lay lowest the chesebell. a bove that

the dalmatyke and the dalmatyk w' y^ longest slevys upper-

most

&

the

other nethermost then hys stole

&

hys fanane

and hys

gyrdyll,

opon

that his albe

theropon his gray

Ames

a

bove that hys Rochett and uppermost hys kerchur w'
gyrdyll to tukk up his cole.

a vestry

Hys Miter Sc crose beyng Redy w"^ hys glovys and pontyAnd a fore all thys you muste se that hys sabatyns & syndalls be Redy at hys first cuyng whan he settyth hym downe in the travys.
fycalls

This direction is important in one respect. It shows us the order in which the vestments were put on, it is true that, however, one would naturally infer from the order in which they are
;

* Edited by Dr Wickham Legg
p. 195.

in

'

Archaeologia,' vol.

lii.,

9

"The

Ritual Uses of Vestments,
But
it

2

1

seen in the
a canon

monuments.
his
at

tells

us also that

wore

canonical habit underneath his

mass habit
should

be, as far as possible,
'

high mass, but so arranged that it out of sight ; hence
a vestry girdle to tuck

the direction to have
his

cowl.'

At

Wells, Hereford,

and

up Norwich

Cathedrals are to be seen figures of canons, the almuce or amess appearing at the neck, although

they are vested in eucharistic habit.

The

duty of

the

minister,

as

far

as

the

vestments of the celebrant are concerned, consists in seeing that the vestments are laid out in their
proper order on a table in the vestry,
there be no vestry, on
or,

should

a side-table near the altar
;

(never on the altar

itself)

the vestments for the

assistant should be on the right-hand side of those
for the celebrant, the

vestments for the deacon and

subdeacon on the
each
is

left.

He

should also see that
is

properly put on, especially that the alb
girdle so as
finger's
is

drawn through the
to

to overhang

it

and
the

be

raised

about a

breadth from
straight.

ground, and that the chasuble
especially

He must

put on
chasuble.

be careful that the assistant does not his cope before the priest puts on his

During the
is

celebration he has to see

that the chasuble

not disarranged by genuflexions,

and to
host.

raise the

chasuble so as to give complete

freedom to the
After

priest's

arms

at the elevation

of the
are

the

celebration

the

vestments

220

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

taken off with similar ceremonies in the reverse
order.

days, Rogations, in processions, and Sunday or Saint's day mass is said in the chapter house, on Ash Wednesday, Good Friday, and Palm Sunday, albs and amices only are to be worn by the ministers.

On Ember
the

when

The
etc.)
is

dress at the ordinary offices (mattins, lauds,

amice,

alb,

stole,

and cope
the

;

a

brass at

Horsham
the

represents a priest so vested, and has

merit"

of
stole

showing

exact

which the
tions,

should be crossed.

manner in This comat benedic-

bination of vestments was also
at

worn

absolution after a

mass for the dead,

and, as just remarked, by the assistant at
if

mass mass

a

priest,

and by the celebrant

at

the

of the pre-sanctified.
us,
'

'The

cope,' the rubric tells
it

is

not strictly a sacerdotal vestment, but
rulers of the choir and others.'

is

worn by the

The
falling

clergy in choir wear black (choral) copes,

except on principal doubles,* and on the doubles

on Sunday, when

silk

copes of the colour

of the day are worn.

On

the vigil of Easter, and

^ Feasts were divided into Doubles, Simples, and Sundays.

Doubles were so-called from the anthems being doubled,
said

i.e.,

throughout
office,

at

the beginning and end of the Psalms in the
first

breviary

instead of the

words only being

said.

The

principal

doubles were Christmas, Epiphany, Easter,

Ascension, Whitsunday, Assumption, the Local Anniversary,

and the Dedication of the Church,

'The

Ritual Uses of Vestments,

221

through and on the octave, they wore surplices
only, as also on doubles occurring from Easter to

Michaelmas.
If a bishop celebrate,

and

if

it

be

Maunday
other
at

Thursday, or Whitsunday, he has seven deacons,
seven subdeacons, and
three acolytes
feasts

—on

doubles only
least
;

five.

On

with Rulers, two

on Good Friday only one.

The
it

rulers of

the choir were those

whose duty

was to chant

the office and Kyrie at mass, and to superintend
the
choristers.

On

doubles these were four

in

number, on simples two.
silver staves as

Rulers wore silk copes

of the colour of the day over a surplice, and had

The Roman
of his position.
Confirmation.
aurifrigiata.

emblems of office. Pontifical lays down
These
are as follows
stole,

succinct rules

for the vesting of a bishop for the different duties
:

— White
for

cope and
high mass

amice, rochet, mitra

Ordinations.

—As

:

colour according to the

day.
Consecration of a Bishop.

— The consecrator
day
;

as for

high mass

:

colour according to

the

each

of the

two

assistant-

bishops in rochet, cope, amice, stole, and mitra simplex.
Profession of a

Nun.

— As

for

Coronation of a Sovereign.

— As

high mass.
for

high

mass

:

colour
rochet,
all

according

to

day

;

each of the assistant-bishops

in

amice, white stole and cope, mitra simplex.
the bishops used to

In England

wear

full pontificalia.

Laying the Foundation of a Church.

— Rochet, amice, white
staff.

stole and cope, mitra simplex, pastoral

222

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

Consecration of a

full pontificalia (white).

Reconciliation of a

— The same Church. — The same.
Church.
Holy

till

the mass, then

Consecration of the

Oil on

Maun day

Thursday.

— Full

(white) pontificalia, mitra pretiosa.
j4t a

Synod held in a Cathedral Church.

— Rochet, amice, red
stole,

stole, red cope, mitra pretiosa.

Procession of Palms.

mitra simplex.
Procession

—Alb, amice, purple —Alb, amice, of Corpus
Christi.

purple cope,

stole, tunic, dal-

matic, white cope; a mitra pretiosa borne behind. In England

and

in

France red was the colour.
Days.

Rogation

— Alb,

amice, purple

stole,

purple cope,

mitra simplex.

In

occasional

services,

such

as

baptism,

a

surplice

and

stole

are

worn.

At

baptisms two
is

stoles are used,
first

one of

violet,

which

worn

at the

part of the service,
is

and the other of white,
first

which
the

substituted for the

in the course

of

ofiice.
;

This

observance

has

a

symbolical

meaning violet being the colour which typifies and penitence, and white being associated with ideas of purity, the change in the stole is
sin

emblematic of the regenerating change which the rite of baptism is supposed to work. A reversible
stole, violet
is

on one side and white on the other,
In procesblessings

sometimes used for this service.
the

sions and benedictions at the altar

(/.^.,

of wax, images,

etc.)

cope

must be worn.

In other benedictions stole and surplice are sufficient.

T^he

Ritual Uses of Vestments.

223

The
after a

cope must also be worn at an absolution

mass for the dead
is

;

the colour of the cope

for such a service

black, the ministers lay aside

their dalmatics,

and when the celebrant assumes
maniple.
If for

the cope he must lay aside his

any reason a cope be not obtainable, these rites (benedictions, absolutions, etc.) must be performed
in alb

and crossed

stole only,

without chasuble or

maniple.

Should

it

be found necessary to celebrate high
aid of a

mass without the
the Epistle
is

deacon or subdeacon,

ordered to be sung by a lector vested

in a surplice.

must now approach an important branch of the varieties in the colour of this complex subject the vestments depending on the character of the

We

day, in other words, the liturgical colours of the

vestments.
It

does not appear that the definite assigning of
is

particular colours to particular days

of older

date than Innocent Ill's time

;

but before him,

and even

as far

back

as the

time of the fathers of

the church,

we

find that the early Christians

had

symbolical associations with colours, which have

formed the foundation on which the elaborate structure of later times was built.
It is a

matter of

common knowledge
Black

that there
are

are associations of sentiment
practically
indissoluble.

and colour which

and sorrowful,

224
white (or

Ecclesiastical Vestments.
bright)

and joyful,

are

synonymous

terms, and similar expressions are universal.

White^ in the
typified purity

first

ten centuries of Christianity,
Saints, angels,

and

truth.

and Our

Lord
white.

are for that reason

represented clothed in
earliest

As we

have seen, the
;

vestments

were probably white

the newly-baptized

wore

white during the week after baptism, and the dead

were shrouded probably more
bolic reason.

in

white

;

the

latter,

however,

for convenience than for

any sym-

%ed, the colour of flame, was associated with Our Lord is someideas of warm, burning love.
times represented in red

when performing works

of mercy.
Green^ the colour of plants, was regarded as
typifying
life,

and sacred or beatified persons are
as clothed
life.

sometimes depicted
Violet^

in

this

colour in

reference to their everlasting

Lastly,

which

is

and black, was
love and

said to

formed by a mixture of red symbolize the union of
'

pain in

repentance.'

It

also
its

typifies

sorrow, without any reference to sin as

cause

;

thus the Mater Dolorosa
in a violet robe.*

is

occasionally represented

Further than

this

we cannot
It is

go, and perhaps

we

have said too much.
*

quite possible that these
are taken from Smith and

These explanations of colours
*

Cheetham's

Dictionary of Christian Antiquities.'

The Ritual Uses of Vestments.
theories

225

may have been put forward
painters.
It is

to account for

phenomena which depended
and whim of the
were vague,

entirely on the taste

well

known

that

Christianity ideas of colour in the early ages of and yellow and green, dark blue and

were black, light blue and violet,
being the same colour.
century,
it is

all

regarded as

Previous to the tenth quite true that coloured vestments

are to be

seen in mosaics

and fresco-paintings

;

colours are such as to but the combinations of were simply adopted by leave no doubt that they aids to distinguishing the painter as convenient the surrounding backthe various vestments from ground and from each other.

Coming now

to Innocent III,

we

find that he

colours, white, red, black prescribes four liturgical principal or primary and green. These were the secondary colours ; but there are others,
liturgical

modifications in tmt of the to these, which were of Thus, properly, red is the colour primaries. virgins ; but there is martyrs, white the colour of the saffron, for confessors, and a secondary colour, are considered intersecondaries, rose and lily, changeable with red and white.

the practices throughand we will not attempt out the Western Church, outline of the general to give more than a brief those who desire fuller informa-

Hopelessly

at variance are

principles

For
is

tion reference

made

to a paper

by Dr Wickham
15

226
Legg
less

Ecclesiastical Vestments.
in the first

the St Paul's

volume of the Transactions of Ecclesiological Society, in which no
'

than sixty-three different

uses

'

are analyzed

and tabulated, or compared. The rules to which we have just referred

are

almost the only regulations respecting which uni-

form use
is

prevails.

For obvious
black
;

reasons,

white

appropriated to feasts of St
;

Mary and

of the

other virgin saints
office

is

appropriated to the
feasts

of the dead
Usually

and red to the
is

of

martyrs.

white
for

used for

Christmas

and Easter, and red
Apostles.

Whitsuntide and Feasts of

As

a general rule, however, the

same

sentimental associations are to be seen with colours
in the

middle ages as
:

may

possibly be traced in

earlier times
its

violet

being essentially penitential in
fire,

character, red being indicative of

blood or

love, white of purity and joy, black of mourning,
Tind green

of

life.

Hence

violet

is

the usual colour

for

Advent and Lent, red for apostles and evangelists, and
Easter
;

feasts

of martyrs,
for

in

some uses

Passion-tide and
feasts

white for Christmas,

of virgins, Easter, and sometimes MichaelSaints
;

mas and All
offices

black for

Good

Friday and

of the dead green from the Octave of Epiphany to Candlemas, and from Trinity to
;

Advent.

The
;

use of the last colour
it

is,

however,

very arbitrary

only occurs at one or two seasons

The Ritual Uses of Vestments.
in

227

the year in

each diocese, and these are very
the

diverse.

The
of
all:

following

is

for the year,

and

it

Roman sequence of colours may be taken as an example
black or violet.
:

Advent

to

Christmas Eve
if a
:

:

Christmas Eve,

Sunday

rose.

Christmas
St Stephen
St

Day
:

white.

red.
:

John the Evangelist
:

white.
;

Holy Innocents
Circumcision
:

violet

red

if a

Sunday.

white.

Epiphany

:

white.
:

Candlemas

violet for the procession of candles before

mass, then white.

Septuagesima to

Maunday Thursday

:

violet.

Good Friday
Easter
:

:

black.

white.
:

Ascension

white.
:

Rogation Days
Pentecost
:

violet.

red.
:

Trinity Sunday

white.
white.
:

Corpus Christ!

:

Trinity to Advent

green.

Feasts of the Virgin
St
:

Mary

:

white.

John Baptist white. white. St Michael
:

All Saints

:

white.

Martyrs
Apostles

:

red.

:

red.
:

Evangelists

red.

Confessors

:

white.

228
Virgins
:

Ecclesiastical Vestments,
white.
:

Transfiguration

white.

Holy Cross

:

red.
:

Confirmation
Dedication of

white.
a

Church: white.
:

Harvest Festivals

white.

Requiem

:

black.

One

or

two miscellaneous points may be worth

a passing notice before

we

bring our account of

the vestments of the Western Church to a close.

During Lent
images
in

was the practice to cover up the the church with a curtain called the
it

velum

quadrigesimale.
for instance,
1

In

the

Fabric

Rolls

of

York,

we read
:

the

following entry

(Anno
'

518,

1

5 19)

pro

Pro coloribus ad pingendum caminos dc novo factos et c fauthoms cordarum pro suspensione pannorum quadriivs.

gesimalium ante novum crucifixum
*

Pro pictione unius panni pendentis coram novo crucifixo in tempore quadrigesimali, et pro les curtayn ringes et pro les
laic ac

pro suicione alterius panni

xiis.'

is worth mention. Doctors of Divinity and bishops only may wear a

A

point respecting the ring

ring in the Western Church, and the former

must

take

it

off

when celebrating mass.
and Diaconal dalmatic^ which allusion must be

Besides the Episcopal
there
is

a third kind, to

made:

the Imperial

dalmatic, which from time

immemorial has been placed on the sovereigns of Europe at their coronation.

:

T^he

Ritual Uses of Vestments,
Dalmatic
is

229

The
*

Imperial

in

the treasury of St

Peter's at
It
is

Rome
upon

thus described
deep blue
silk,

laid

a foundation of

having four
in front, ex-

different subjects

on the shoulders behind and
different actions

hibiting

—although taken from
body of our Lord.

— the

glorifica-

tion of the

The whole
silk,

has been carefully

wrought with gold tambour and
figures (as

and the

numerous
display

many

as

fifty-four)

surrounding our Redeemer,
in

who

sits

enthroned

on

a

rainbow

the

centre,
field

simplicity and

gracefulness of design.

The
a

of the

vestment
silver,

powdered with flowers and having the bottom enriched with
is

crosses of gold

and

running

floriated

pattern.

It

has also a representation of paradise, wherein

the flowers, carried

by

tigers of gold, are of

emerald green,

turquoise blue, and flame colour.

Crosses of silver cantonned
tears of silver

with

tears of gold,

and of gold cantonned with

alternately, are inserted in

the flowing foliage at the edge.

Other
rule,

crosses within circles are also placed after the in medallions of silver,

same
silver

when of gold

and when of

in the reverse order.
*

This vestment

is

assigned to the 12th century.
this dalmatic

It

has

been conjectured that

was formerly used by the

German emperors when they were consecrated and crowned, and when they assisted the pope at the ofiice of mass. On
such occasions the emperor discharged the functions of sub-

deacon or deacon, and, clothed with
Epistle and Gospel
;

a dalmatic,

chanted the
it

in illustration of this

custom

may

be

remarked that several of the German Emperors took part in the service, even so late as Charles V, who sung the Gospel at
Boulogne
as
it

in 1529.
at

The

dalmatic was, in

fact, in

those times,

continues

the present day, both a regal and ecclesiastical

habit,

and

it

has constantly been the custom of European

kingdoms

for the sovereigns to

wear

it

at their

coronation.'*

* Rev. C. H. Hartshorne

in Arch. Journal.

230

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

But the Ecclesiastical nature of the regal costume of the middle ages does not end with the dalmatic.
Thus, the
tunic,
effigy

of Richard

I.

at

Fontevraud wears
costumes of

a cope-like mantle, a dalmatic, and a white sub-

answering to

the

distinctive

bishop or priest, deacon and sub-deacon respectively.

body of Edward I was exhumed at in 1774, he was found to wear among other garments a dalmatic and a stole^
the

When

Westminster

crossed on the breast in the priestly manner.

The

body of John,
on
his effigy,

in

Worcester, was found

in

1797 to

be habited in costume similar to that represented

with the addition of a monk's cowl,
in order to safeguard his prospects
in the

no doubt adopted

of future happiness, as death

monastic habit

was regarded as ensuring a passport to heaven.

The

vestments of the Eastern Church are

much

simpler, and the rites connected with

them have

nothing like the complexity associated with those

of the Western

Church.

They have but two

colours, for instance

violet for fast-days (including

Lent),* and white for the rest of the year
ridicule the elaboration to

— and
This

which
if

liturgical colours

have been brought in the Western Church.
fact

might be indicated,

any disproof of the

existence of a primitive system of liturgical colours

were needed.
* Violet or purple (noi\6.pia are worn throughout Lent, except on Annunciation Day, Palm Sunday, and Easter Eve.

T^he

Ritual Uses of Vestments.

231

The
in the

following are the rubrical directions and

prayers used at vesting for the Eucharistic servict

Greek Church

:

Being then come within the altar [after
church^ they [the priest
holy table,

the procession up the

and deacon] make
and

three bows before the
:

and

kiss

the holy gospel

the holy table

then each^

taking his (rroL\dpiov in his hand, makes three bows and s ait h softly
to himself:

O

God, purify me,
right

a sinner,
to

and have mercy upon me.
his

The Deacon comes
dypdptov in his
saith
:
sir,

the priest, holds his ajoiyo-piov and

hand,

and bowing down

head

to

him,

Bless,

the a-roixd.piov

and the

(LpdpLov.

The

priest.

Blessed be our
ages.

God

always,

now and

for ever,

even unto ages of

The deacon then goes apart on one
his (noi\a.piov, saying
:

side

of the altar ana puts on

My

soul shall rejoice in the Lord, for

He

hath put on

me

the robe of salvation, and clothed

me

gladness

:

as a

bridegroom hath
like a bride.

He

with the garment of put a crown on my head
shoulder.
his

and decked

me

Then, kiising the cjpdptov, he puts

it

upon

his

left

Then he puts
hand, he saith
:

on his kTTip.<xviKio.

:

putting on that on

right

Thy

right hand,

right hand,
greatness of

O

O Lord, is glorified in strength ; Thy Lord, hath destroyed the enemies, and in the
glory hast

Thy

Thou
left

put

down
:

the adversaries.

Then, putting the other on his

hand

Thy
[He
The

hands have made
I

understanding that

me and fashioned me. O may learn Thy commandments.

give

me

then prepares the sacred vessels.]
priest puts on his sacred vestments in the following manner.

First, taking up his o-rotxa/otoi/ in his left hand,

and making three

bows

towards the east,

he signs

it zvith the

sign of the cross, saying:

232
And

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

Blessed be our

God
it

always, etc.

then he puts

on, saying.

My

soul shall rejoice, etc., as

the deacon said above.

Next

he takes up the CTrcTpaxyj^i-ov, and, blessing

it,

he saith

:

Blessed be

God who poureth

out His grace on His

priests,

like the precious

ointment upon the head that ran down unto

the beard, even unto Aaron's beard, and went
skirts of his clothing.

down

to the

He

then takes the ^wvr;,

and girding himself therewith,
hath girded

saith

:

Blessed be

God who
set

me

with strength, and

hath put
feet,

me

in the right

way, making
high.

my

feet like harts'

and hath

me up on

He

next puts on his eVt/xai^iKta, saying as zvas said above by

the deacon.

After which he takes up his k-Kiyov6.riov, if he be of
to

such dignity as

wear

one,

and

blessing it

and

kissing

it,

saith

:

Gird thee with thy sword upon thy thigh,
mighty, according to thy worship and renown.
truth, of meekness,

O

thou most

Good
right

luck

have thou with thine honour, ride on because of the word of

and righteousness, and thy
:

hand

shall teach thee terrible things

always,

now and
kisses
it,

for ever,

even unto ages of
Let thy

ages.

Amen.
and
blesses

71;en he takes his <f)€\(^viov,
priests,

and

saying

:

O

Lord, be clothed with righteousness,
:

and

let

thy saints sing with joyfulness

always,

now and

for

ever, even unto ages of ages.

Amen."^

When

the vestments are put off after the
priest says

com-

munion, the
It

Nunc

Dimittis, rpiaayiov,

and Paler Nosier.
does not appear that any complex rules hold
in the

good
to be

Greek Church respecting the vestments worn on certain days in the Church's year.
*

* Translation from King's

Rites and Ceremonies of the

Greek Church

in Russia.'

The Ritual Uses of Vestments.

233

The

following synopsis of the vestment uses in

the ordination service will

show most

clearly the

nature and distribution of Ecclesiastical vestments
in the

Eastern Church.
:

Ordination of a Reader

A

short (^awokiov put

on by the bishop, which
the sub-deacons
;

is

presently removed by
is

the aroiyapiov

then blessed and

put on by the bishop.
Ordination
of a

Sub-deacon

:

The
;

candidate

comes dressed
the cross the the

in the aroiy^apiov

the subdeacons
signs
it

hand the wpdpiov to the bishop, who
;

on
and
the

new sub-deacon

kisses the cross

bishop's

hand, and girds himself with

(jjpapiov.

Ordination of a Deacon
before the altar
;

:

The

candidate kneels

the bishop, at the beginning of
o)/uo(popiov

the service, puts the end of the

upon

him.

After the service the bishop takes the topapiov
it

and puts

on the new deacon's
is

left

shoulder,
;

saying aSioc, which

repeated thrice by the choir

then the bishop gives him the kmiiaviKia, and a^ioc
is

repeated as before.
is

The

fan (for blowing
this,

flies

from the table)

presented after

with the

same words.
Ordination of a Priest
puts the
(Jpdpiov
:

At

the

commencement

the candidate kneels at the altar, and the bishop
(oiuo(i>opLov

on

his head.

At
it
;

the end the

is

taken from him, and the

kirirpayjikiov is

received by the bishop,

who

kisses

the newly-

234
hand

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

ordained priest kisses the vestment and the bishop's
;

the bishop puts
is

it

on the

priest,

saying

a&oc, which

repeated as at the ordination of a
t^vr)

deacon.
in

The

and

<^aivo\iov is

then conferred

a similar manner.

Ordination of a Bishop

:

The new

bishop comes

to the service in all his sacred vestments.

At

the

end the

widO(j>6piov

is

put upon the
the

elect,

except

when

the consecration takes place in the see of the
da/c/cot

bishop, in which case
episcopal

and the other

garments are given
is

first.

The same
of

ceremonial

repeated as at the other ordinations.
at the administration

The vestments worn
baptism are the
(paivoXiov

and

e-mfxaviKia.

There

are three orders

of devotees

in the

Greek
black

monasteries.

The

probationers

wear

a

cassock or vest called shaesa^ and a hood (Russian

kamelauch^ yafxaXavyri).

The

proficients wear,

in

addition, an upper cloak [fxdvlvaq).
are

The
vail,

perfect

distinguished

by

their

hood or

which

perpetually conceals their faces from sight.

APPENDIX

I.

ORDERS. COSTUMES OF THE RELIGIOUS

THE
A
loosely

not profess to furnish following appendix does of the extensive subject niore than an outline as further details, as well with which it deals; for orders the of members of each of
for illustrations

reference must be

made

to the great

work of Bonann>,

cited

p ndix III. nomenclature in the main his ; uniform system. brought to a more

us rather Bonanni names the different ha followed, but has been

Monks.
a .cpuhr, roughly speakmg, and back porttons recthe front chasuble like dress, with one or more open throughout and of uniform width

The

dress of

monks
the

r.Hs, turnc o. usually consists of the

narrow,

closed

gown;

;:

;

gowns it""'"-

capable of bemg astened at the back and be taken 'Discalced- is not always to head. more than simply Jnificance, or as signifying worn by individual orders fferent vestments are from their will be self-evident the nature of these both vestis and pallium,

-

'"fP")-'

^"^

*\-^«7- "'1°"^, ^^^--^"^^
m
us fu lies
san
or
al

ho

ses

,

D

names.
reaching a

,.

little

ALEXiANS.-Black below the knee caputium.
:

236
2.

Ecclesiastical Vestments.
Ambrose, St.

—Dark-coloured gown with cappa and Antonius, St {Armenia). — Ample black and caputium. mantellum, Antonius, St {Canons — Black gown signed with
scapular.
3.

Discalced.

tunic, girded,

cuculla,

4.

of).

a

blue

T

;

girded white collar, black mantle, also signed with

T.

Others,

who

are devoted to
in colour.

manual
is

labour,

wear

a similar

dress, but

tawny

The T

a representation of a

crutch, the symbol of sustaining and power.
5.

Antonius, St {Egypt).

round caputium.
6.

Discalced.

Antonius, St {Syria).

— Black — Long

tunic and scapular, with

black
;

gown with
all,

short

round caputium, black leather girdle
mantle,
7.

over

long black

Apostoli.

— Tawny tunic with girdle of
Cappa, and
regular
:

leather, scapular

with caputium attached.

in

winter short and

narrow mantellum.
8.

Aubert,

St {Canons

of;

Cambrai).

—Violet
and

cassock, and cap or biretta
9.

white surplice.
tunic girded, black cape

Augustine, St.

— Black

hood.

White may be worn

indoors.
tunic, scapular, azure

10. Avellanans.

— White

pallium,

square biretta in place of mantellum.
11.

Basil,

St {Armenia).

scapular black.
12. Basil,

St

— Tunic and caputium {Germany). — Tunic, long
a biretta
'

white,

scapular,

long

broad cappa, caputium on shoulder, and
outline resembling the
13.
*

on head in

Tarn

o'

Shanter

cap.

Basil,

St {Greece).

— Black woollen

tunic, over

which
dark)

another with sleeves about three palms wide, open in front,

with woollen
colour,

fringes or

loops of another (but

still

which can be fastened with small buttons. always covered with a cap, which conceals the ears.
tium with
vittae or

Head
Capu-

streamers attached, which hang over the

shoulders, and are said to typify the cross.

Costumes of the Religious Orders.
14.

237

Basil,
dress

St

{Italy or

Greek

(No.

13).

Till 1443 resembling the Spain). After that date, tunic, leather girdle,

scapular, cuculla, caputium^
15.

Basil,

St {Russia).

— Like
is

all

black.

Greece (No.

13),

with the

addition of a small cuculla.
16.

Benedict, St {St Justina of Padua).

— Black
;

woollen

tunic to

which

a

caputium

sewn.

Scapular

cuculla from

shoulder to feet with very wide sleeves.
17.

Benedict, St {Clugniacs).

— Black

cappa clausa with

rude sleeves or hood.
18.

Benedict, St {India).

— Black
which

tunic

somewhat

short,

white scapular, mantle, and caputium.
19.

Bethlehemites.
;

— Black
at

woollen

tunic

with leather

girdle

cappa, on left side of

a pannula

with

a

repre-

sentation of the

manger
St.

Bethlehem.

Discalced.

Black

cap on head.
20. BiRGiTTA,

— Gray

tunic and cuculla, to

which

a

caputium
having
a

is

sewn, gray mantellum, signed with red cross,
scapular. tunic,
in

white roundle or plate at the centre.

21. Caelestines.
22.

— White, black caputium and Camaldulenses {Hermits). — White woollen
and

scapular
service.

round

caputium

;

cuculla

(also

white)

Black shoes.
(M^///^j).

23.

Camaldulenses
is

—As Benedictines, but

white,

and the scapular

girded round the loins.

Tunic with very

wide

sleeves,

caputium, etc.

24. Capuchins.

— Rough black

woollen tunic girded with

coarse rope

;

hood and cape.

Discalced.

Tunic, girdle, scapular, caputium, 25. Carmelites. brown cappa or mantle white. Hat on head black, except in Mantua, where it is white. Cappa shorter than 26. Carmelites a Monte Sacro. that of the other Carmelites, and no cap on head at any
;

time.

238
white gown
loops. 28.

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

27. Carthusians.

— Black

woollen pallium,

over

which

passed over the head, and scapular with side

Cistercians.
;

— Benedict
;

XII decreed brown

as

the

Cistercian colour
interpretation
black

but there was an uncertainty

as to the

of this decree
in the

some, alleging that gray or
*

were included

term

brown,' wore those colours.

To

remedy

this confusion, Sixtus

IV

decreed black or white
loins
;

:

black

caputium and scapular girded round
In choir white.
{Fogliantino).

black

cuculla added out of doors.
29. Cistercians

— Like

the Benedictines

in

shape, white in colour.

Formerly discalced everywhere, now
Italy.

only in France.

Black wooden sandals worn in

30. Cistercians [La Trappe). sleeves, girded ; caputium.
31.

—White

cuculla with ample

Chariton, St.

— Lion-coloured
regular

tunic,

with

black

cuculla and caputium.
32.

Choors
vestis,

{Canons

of;
;

Bordeaux).
linen

— White

woollen

white linen scapular
in

cotta in choir.

Almuce, worn over the arms
winter.
33.

summer, round
tunic, with

the neck in

CoLORiTi {Calabria).

— Long

round capu;

tium and mantellum from rough black natural wool
girdle.

woollen

34.

CoLUMBA, St {Avellana).

— White
;

woollen tunic or

caputium, over which a scapular
out of doors.
35. Cross,
surplice,

a

narrow pallium added
Coimbra).

St {Canons
;

regular of;

— Cassock,

and almuce

the ordinary canonical dress.

36. Crucifers {Italy).

— Blue tunic (formerly ash-coloured,
Silver cross constantly

or uncertain), scapular, and hood.

borne in the hand.
37.

Crucifers {Belgium).
;

— White

tunic,

scapular,

and

caputium
white

black mozetta, signed in front with a red and

cross.

Costumes of the
38. Crucifers [Lusitania).

'Religious Orders,
tunic, over

239

—Blue

which gown,

mozetta and hood.

A

pallium added out of doors.

39. Crucifers (Syria).
4.0.

— Black.

DiONYSius,

surplice,
holes.

St (Canons regular of; Rheims). Long over which (in winter) a cappa clausa without arm-

Biretta.

Almuce worn over arm.

Tunic, scapular, and broad round 41. Dominic, St. Black cappa, shorter than the of white wool. caputium
tunic,

added out of doors.

42. FoNTis

Ebraldi

{Fontevraud).

— Black

tunic

girded,

scapular, caputium.

43. Francis, St.

—Ash-coloured
;

tunic girded with a cord

divided by three knots
44. Francis, St (de

round caputium and mozetta. Woollen tunic girded observantia).

with cord

;

cape, hood

;

colour formed by mixture of two
Discalced, in

parts of black wool to one of white.

wooden

or leathern sandals.
45.

patched

Rough and Franciscans {of St Peter of Alcantara). Feet tunic girded with cord ; cape and hood.

entirely unprotected.

46. Francis de Paul, St (Fratres minimi).

—Woollen

tunic,

dark tawny colour with round caputium, whose ends hang

below the
free

loins before
is

and behind, both girded by
knotted with
five

a rope, the

end of which

knots (novices knot

three knots only).

Pallium reaching a

little

below the knees,

worn

in winter both indoors

and
;

out.

Formerly discalced,

with sandals of various materials
practice was dispensed with.

afterwards, however, this

White vestis and 47. Genovefa, St (Canons regular of). In winter a rochet, black biretta, fur almuce over left arm.
long black pallium
is

added

to the vestis

and rochet, and

a

black caputium or hood.

George in Alga, St (Canons over which a blue gown.
48.
49. Gilbert,

regular of).

—Cassock,

St (Canons regular

of).

— Black

cassock and

240
hood,

Ecclesiastical Vestments,
and surplice lined with lamb's wool.
at service.

Linen cappa

added
50.

Gramontans.
'

—Any
;

dress,

very rough.

The

*

re-

formed
51.

dress

is

a

rough w^hite linen tunic, over which
scapular and caputium.
tunic, black pallium.
of).

another, thinner, of black

Hermits {Egypt).

— Tawny

52.

HippoLYTus, St {Brothers of Mercy
HuMiLiATi.

— Brownish

tunic, scapular, hood.
53.

—White

tunic, scapular, mantle, cape, and

cap.
54. James,
vestis

St {Canons regular of; Spada).

—White woollen
:

and rochet.

55. Jerome,

scapular with round

White woollen tunic, St {Hermits of). all caputium, cappa open in front

black wool.
56. Jerome,

St {Hermits of; foundation of Lupo Olmedo). White tunic girt with black leather girdle round loins; small round caputium and tawny cuculla. Black biretta worn at

home.

57. Jerome,

Tawny
58.

tunic girded with leather girdle,

St {Hermits of ; foundation of Peter Gambacortd). tawny crimped St

cappa, round and narrow caputium, square black biretta.

Jerome,

{Fiesole).

— Tawny

woollen
girdle.

vestis

with
;

crimped cappa open

in

front.

Leather

Discalced

wooden

sandals, afterwards

abandoned.

59. Jesuati.
(after 1367).

—White
A

tunic, square caputium, gray cappa

white appendage, like a sleeve, worn instead

of caputium, changed by

Urban VIII

for a

caputium of the

same colour
scapular

as the

mantle.
St.

60. JoHANNis

Dei,
to

— Dark
-,*

ash -coloured tunic with

reaching

knees

round, pointless

caputium.

Black cap added out of doors.

* So Bonanni's text

;

it

reaches to

x.h.Q

feet in his plate.

Costumes of the Religious Orders,
61. John, St {Canons regular of; Chartres). and rochet ; almuce over left shoulder. 62. John, St [Hermits
cloth, tunic
of,

241
vestis

—White

de Poenitentia),

— Rough woollen
— Black
signed

and cappa with hood, feet entirely unprotected,
cross

heavy wooden
63.
or

suspended in front from neck.
regular of; England^.
clausa,

John Baptist, St {Canons brown vestis, scapular, cappa
cross.

and mantle,

all

with a black
64.

surplice

Klosterneuburg {Canons regular of; Austria). White and black cappa, for which latter an almuce is subLiRiNENSEs {Lerina Island, Tuscany).
scarf,
all

stituted on festival days.
65.

— Tunic and mantle

girded with

over this sleeved cappa aperta with small

caputium
6^. Lo,

:

black.
of;

St {Canons regular

Rouen).

— Violet
;

cappa,

violet mozetta or cape,

and hood in winter

white cassock

and rochet. 67. Macharius, St {Egypt).
small cuculla
;

—Violet
of;

tunic, black scapular,

cap on head covering hair, forehead, temples,

and

ears.

68.

Mark, St
and
a

{Canons regular

Mantua).

—White woollen
is

vestis, rochet, pallium, for

which

latter a

mozetta

substituted

in choir
left

white biretta added.

Sheepskin almuce on
Campanid\).

arm.

69.

Martin, St

{Esparnai

\_Aspreniacum,

Vestis talaris of white, above
ligium,

which

a sarrocium or scor-

which

is

a

species

of rochet, described

by Mau-

burnus.*

Quidam enim ap, Bonanni, vol. iv. No. xvii integrum cum manicis integris habent, quidam autem deferunt hanc lineam vestem in formam longi et lati scapularis sine manicis in lateribus apertam quidam circa tibia ad latitudinem palmae Carthusiensium more consutam, alii scapulare latum cum rugis habent aliis est forma parvi scapularis ctbrevis cum rugis et plicis e collo pendentis quod Scorligium
Cit.
:

*

subtile

16

242
70.

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

Mary,

St

{de

Mercede Redemptionis

Captivorum).

White tunic, scapula, short caputium, and cappa.

A

small

shield bearing party per fess in chief gules a cross pattee argevt of the in base three pallets (the base charge is the arms

Kingdom of Arragon), is worn in front. 71. Mary, St {de Mercede Redemptionis Captivorum^
dress).

another
feet

— In
:

this

the caputium

is

prolonged and

the

discalced.

72.

Mary, Sr
all

{Servants of).

— Coarse

tunic, scapular,

cappa

and hood
73.

black.
of).

Maurice, St {Canons regular
biretta.

— Cassock,
hat,

rochet,

purple cape or mozetta,
74.

Monte Luca
;

{Hermits of).

— Tunic,

short chasuble-

like scapular, mantle

and hood and cap or

the latter

optional

all

tawny

colour.

Some

are discalced, others

with

shoes or sandals.
75.

Monte

Senario {Hermits

of).

— Black
;

tunic, scapular,

pallium extending below knees, caputium.
76.

Monte Vergine
and cucuUa
;

{in

Avellina

?nonks

of).

— Tunic,
caputium

scapular,

out of doors pallium and cap sub-

stituted for cuculla.

All white.
vestis

—White with wide crispatum on shoulder. — White woollen and Pachomius, signed with Pamplona {Canons — Cassock, ash-coloured mozetta. — White woollen Paul, St
77. Olivetans.
78.
St.

sleeves,

tunic

cuculla, the

latter

a violet cross.

79.

regular of).

alb, sleeveless

rochet,
80.

{Hermits).

vestis,

rather
;

short,

with short mantellum over,

and

short

caputium

discalced.
81. Paul,

St {Monks).

—White

tunic sleeved, caputium.

dicunt quibusdam ex latere linea hasta
linea.

aliis

area collum pecia

Costumes of the Religious Orders.
and
collar

243
and

round shoulders.

Out of
of;

doors, black cap

cloak (white in Hungary).
82. Peter,

St {Canons regular
rochet, and

Monte Corbulo).

—At
;

first

gray cassock and
1

almuce or caputium

after

52

1

black cassock, white-sleeved rochet, and black cloak.

83.

Poland (Canons regular ^).— White tunic and linen
reaching
to

surplice

about

the

knees, fur

almuce about
rochet

shoulders, dark-coloured skull-cap of wool edged with fur.
84.

Portugal {Canons regular
tawny almuce, and pallium.
Premonstratensians.
front,

of).

— White

and

tunic,
85.

up

in

biretta,

White tunic and scapular, sewn white sleeveless cappa without girdle, white almuce, white shoes. (The white is all natural^ not
regular of the Priory of the

dyed.)
86.

Rouen {Canons

Two

Lovers).

—White
87.

tunic or alb and rochet, almuce.
France).

RuFus, St {Canons regular of;
Sabba, St.

— White cassock

buttoned up in front, white girdle, black
88.

biretta.

— Tawny tunic

girded, with black scapular.

Discalced.
89. Saviour,

St {Canons regular

buttoned cassock, linen rochet.

White of; Laterans). Out of doors black pallium

and

biretta.

90.

Saviour, St {Canons regular of; Lorraine).
linen rochet hanging

— Black tunic
;

with

little

down from
in

the neck to the left

side, five

inches broad, like a girdle, over which in choir a cotta,

and gray almuce carried on the arm
a
full

summer

in

winter

sleeveless

rochet with cappa reaching to the ankles

of black linen, whose front edges are decorated with red
cloth about a foot wide.

Caputium, whose front edge sur-

rounds the face like an almuce, with fur about two inches
wide.
91. Saviour,

St {Canons regular of; Syha Lacus

Selva).

White woollen

tunic, rochet and scapular, black cappa.

92. Sepulchre,

the Holy {Canons

regular of).

— White

244
cappa
93.
a

Ecclesiastical Vestments.
and caputium.
At the
left

rochet, black cappa

side

of the

Greek cross cantoned by

crosslets in red.

Sepulchre, the

Holy
vestis

{Canons regular of;

Bohemia^
a

Poland, Russia).

telletum

— Black
the
left

and rochet, over which
vestment,
to a little

manabove

a

waistcoat or

rochet-like

sleeveless,

but rather long, open in front, and reaching
the knees
cross.

—on

side

of which a double-transomed
scapular, cuculla of

94. Sylvester, St.
blue.
95.

—Tunic, caputium,

worn on sacred occasions. Trinitatis, SS {Redemptionis Captivorum).
Biretta

— White

tunic, scapular, and cappa, with red and blue cross flory on the scapular and left side of the cappa. 96. Trinitatis, SS {Redemptionis Captivorum; Spain).

Cappa brown, otherwise as above described. By others in Spain a tawny cappa is worn, and the feet are discalced. Round black caputium added. 97. Trinitatis, SS {Redemptionis Captivorum ; France).
All

white,

the cross plain

;

feet discalced

;

caputium

also

white.
98.

UsETz {Canons regular

of).

—White buttoned tunic and
ietween

surplice, extinguisher-shaped, like the ancient chasuble.

99.

Valle

de

Choux

{Burgundy,

Dijon

and

Autun, Canons regular of).

—White,

black scapular, girded

with black girdle.
100.

Valle Ronceaux {Canons

regular of).

— Black,
of).

with
pall.

white scapular, very small, and resembling archiepiscopal

Black cappa added in service.
1

01.

Valle

di

Scholari
;

{Canons

regular

—White

woollen tunic and scapular
wool, biretta.
102.

black cappa lined with lamb's

Valley of Jehoshaphat {Canons
(;?-f^r

regular of).

red cuculla and caputium.
103. Vallis Viridis

Brussels; Canons

— Full — regular
of).

Black tunic and cassock, white rochet, black caputium.

' ;

Costumes of the Religious Orders,
104. Vallumbrosans.

245

Identical with the Sylvestrines, but

grayish-black instead of blue.
105. Victor,
of; Paris).
biretta.

St,

Without the Walls

(Canons regular

— White

tunic and wide-sleeved surplice, almuce,

106.

ViNDESHEiM (Canons regular

of).

—White
union

tunic and

rochet, biretta, fur almuce added on shoulders in winter.

107.

William, St (Hermits

of).

— Tunic,
after

over

which
the

another sleeveless, girded.
tected.

Scapular, feet entirely unpro-

At

first

white,

but

black

with

Augustinians.

Nuns.

The

dress o^ nuns, as a general rule, consists of a vestis
tunic), girt at the waist,

(gown or

and

a scapular.

To

these

various orders the following
cloth
is

add
list.

pallia, mantella^ etc., as will

appear from

Asa

general rule, a white^r^^Tz/Wor breast-

fastened over the head and round the throat and breast

over this two loose vela or cloths are placed on the head, the
inner white, the outer black.

The

feet,

even of *discalced

nuns, are protected at least by wooden, bark, or leathern
sandals
1.
;

very rarely are the feet entirely unprotected.
(or

AcEMETAE

VigHants).

— Uncertain;

according

to

some authorities, green vestis, signed with a red cross, above which a mantellum or cape. Black velum on head. 2. Agnes, St (Dordrecht), White vestis and scapular, black velum on head, ruff round neck.

3.

4.

on breast,
5.

— White, velum on —White and of ring on with any Antonius, St — No
Ambrose, St.
black head.

Angelica, St (Milan).
finger,

vestis

scapular, cross
a jewel.

cross in place

(Syria).

definite rule,

dress suit-

able to monastic

life.

Black; Gregory IX 6. AvGVSTi'tiE^^T (Solitaries of 1256). gave licence to wear white, with black scapular and velum on
head.

246
7.

Ecclesiastical Vestments.
Augustine, St
reaching
{ancient habit).

— Black

tunic,

white linen
of red

rochet,
crosses,
8.

on head a cloth, ornamented with semee

down

the back like a cloak or cope.

Augustine, St (discalced ; Spain). Augustine, St
a black vestis

— Similar

to the corre-

sponding monks, but with the usual vela on the head.
9.

(discalced ; Lusitania).
is

—White
;

vestis (to

which

added on

feast days)

girded with black

leather girdle, white scapular, black

mantellum

on the head

a rough white linen cloth hanging before the face to the eyes,

but behind to the waist.

On

this

white cloth another, black,

about
10.

five

palms in breadth.
of).

Augustine, St {Penitents
;

— Black
;

vestis

and cappa,
a

reaching to knees
black
11.
12.
veil.

scapular white

face covered with

Augustine, St {Venice).
Basil,

St {Eastern).
(narrow

—White black — Natural (undyed)
;

veil

on

face.

black dress;
;

black
sleeves

mafors

scapular-like

pallium)
as

gloves

or
;

covering the arms and hands

far as the fingers

black velum covering the whole head.
13.

Basil,

St {Western).

—As

in the East

till

1560.

After

that date, black vestis, scapular
to

and velum reaching from head

knees

;

black gremial or breast-cloth.
services.

A

cassock

with

ample sleeves added for church
14.

Begga,

St {Antwerp).

— Black

vestis,

black

pallium

from head downwards,
across breast.
15.

a cap (biretta),

resembling in outline

an inverted saucer, on head white velum round head and

Benedict, St.

—As monks, but with velum

in place of

caputium.
16.

Benedict, St {de Monte Cahario).

scapular, with black
17. BiRGiTTA, St.


'

White tunic and velum on head. Discalced. White camisia, gray tunic, cuculla with
middle
finger,

sleeves reaching to tip of

gray mantellum.

On

the head a

*

garland

or 'wreath* concealing the
at

forehead

and cheeks, and secured

the back of the head by a pin

Costumes of the 'Religious Orders.

247

On

this

is

placed a black velum fastened by three pins, one on

the forehead and one over each ear.

Above

this

is

a

corona of

white cloth consisting of a

Greek

cross passing over the

head

from forehead
by

to

back and from ear to

ear, the ends joined

a circle that passes

round the temples.

intersections of the cross
circle
is

At each of the arms with each other and with the

fastened a small piece {gutta) of red cloth

— the

total

of

five doubtless typical

of the Five Wounds.
vestis,
;

18.

head.
19.

cross flory, usual
20.

girdle
21.

velum on girded —White with red Calatiavans. — White; white scapular on head. white and black Camaldulenses. —White scapular confined with white on head. —White Canonesses regular {Belgium,
Caesarius, St.
black
signed

vela

;

;

usual vela

Lorraine, ^ic).

tunic girt at waist, mantle over

;

black velum on head

;

a

rochet

is

worn

in

some houses.

22. Canonesses regular [Rouen).

— Originally white
as usual

;

now

black tunic, black mantellum lined and edged with white

mouse-fur

;

black and white vela disposed

on head.
;

23. Canonesses (Mons).

— Black

vestis

with white sleeves
half-way
;

black velum on head reaching

down back

pallium

or mantle on shoulder hanging to ground, black lined with

white.

In church service the dress consists of white linen

surplice or cassock reaching to feet, braided with a cord

sewn

upon

it

arranged in ornamental knots and

scrolls

;

peaked
pendant

head-dress,

from the point of which hangs
Pallium or mantle of black
silk,

a long

streamer.
fur,

lined with mouse-

white with black

24. Capuchins.

— Rough
(ancient).

spots.

woollen

vestis,

scapular,

manwhite

tellum, white gremial cloth, black
25.

Carmelites

pallium or mantle, white velum encircling head. Tawny tunic and 26. Carmelites (modern).

— Tawny —

and white

vela on head.
short

tunic,

scapular,

white pallium reaching to

feet,

usual vela on head.

;

248

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

27. Carmelites (^France).

— Brown

habit, white

mantellum

lined with fur, white gremial cloth covering head and breast,

black velum above
28. Carmelites

this.

(discaiced).

— Like

ordinary
;

Carmelites,

but with somewhat long cappa of coarse cloth
vela

two black
and
bark

on head

;

feet

shod with woollen

cloth

sandals.
29. Carthusians.

— White

tunic and scapular; cloth on

neck and
30.

breast, usual

velamina on head.
tunic and linen rochet, with black

Cassian.

—White

velum on head.
31. Cistercians.
lar,

— White

;

gray (sometimes black) scapu-

girded

;

in choir a

white cuculla added.
tunic,
;

32. Clugniacs.

black
33.

;

cloth,
34.

— Black girded ample Columbanus, — White and velum on head. Cross, St —White
usual vela on head.
St. tunic,
{Penitents
of).

scapular, also

cuculla,

gremial

tunic,

another, black, girded with leather girdle.

over which White gremial

cloth and velum.
35. Dominic, St.

—White

vestis,

girded; scapular; black
at

and white vela on head. cappa is added.

In choir or

the Sacrament a

36. Dominic, St {Penitents of). White tunic and scapular white gremial cloth and velum, over which a flowing black pallium is placed which hangs down to the feet.
37. Eligius, St.

— Black tunic, white mantle, white gremial
which black velum.

cloth on head and breast, over
38. 39.

FoNTEVRAUD.

— Black

tunic, white gremial and velum.

FoNTEVRAUD {reformed).

— Black

pallium added

to

previous dress.
40. Francis of Assisi, St.

— Rough

tunic girt with a rope,
cloth.

scapular and mantellum
feet in

;

white gremial

Discaiced

;

wooden

sandals.

41. Fructuosus,

St.

— Cuculla,

pallium, and

tunic,

all

Costumes of the Religious Orders.
gray
in
;

249

girdle securing tunic black.

Discalced (sandals worn

summer,

shoes in winter).

42. Genovefa,
plice, black fur
at se'rvice over
'

St
left

[Canonesses

almutia,'

./).—White tunic and surornamented with white spots, worn
a long maniple).
it on head. and hood, the mantle,

White gremial

cloth,

arm (something like and black velum over

Black tunic, 43. Gilbert, St.— lined with lamb's wool.
44. Hilary,

last

St.— Gray
;

tunic, not long, over

tawny pallium
forehead
;

black velum on head, with white

which a short band round

upward. shoes with pointed toes turned
of St John of Jerusalem. white cross

sewn on breast. White velum on head. tunic with of Jerusalem {France).— 46. Hospitalers of St John
Black
vestis signed

45. Hospitalers

— Tawny

with

similar cross on left

with white cross fourchee ; pallium on head. shoulder ; white and black vela
a

into eight parts, Fastened to the pallium a rosary divided symbolical of the instruments of the Passion.

P^nV).—White vestis, linen 47. Hospitalers (C^;/.;/m./,usual vela on head. rochet, pallium from shoulders to feet, Ghost (5^;r.;.j).— Black 48. Hospitalers of the Holy the cross fourchee in white on
vestis,
left side

49.

with double-transomed Usual vela on head. of breast. (M/^;^).-White tunic girded HuMiLiATi
white velum. ; Infant Jesus, Virgins of.— Woollen

;

loose white

scapular
50.

vestis

of dark
reach-

tawny colour.
ing nearly to

On
feet.

certain days black

velum on head

51. Isidore, St.

— Uncertain
Discalced.

;

probably gray tunic

and

cappa with hood.
52. James,
flory fichee

St, de

Spatha.— Black

vestis

with red cross

ing to
53.

feet.

on the right on the breast. Usual vela on head.
St.

White cappa reachgray
scapular,

Jerome,

— White

tunic,

black

pallium, black

velum on head.

250

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

54. Jesuatae.

—White
A

tunic

and brown scapular

;

cappa

of the same colour added at service.
55.

Usual vela on head.

Lateran
;

Canonesses
cloth

Regular.

—White
surplice

tunic
breast,

and
over
for

rochet

white gremial

over head and

which black velum.
service.

wide-sleeved

added

56. Laurence, St {Venice). Black vestis with white velum on head, not altogether covering the hair. A long flowing

cassock added for a service-robe, and a long black

velum

placed over the white velum.
57.

Macharius, St.
it.

— Tawny

vestis

with black cappa, or a

sheepskin over
58.

Malta, Knights of. Black tunic and scapular, black and supported over the arms to keep it from the ground ; white Maltese cross on left shoulder of
pallium, very long

pallium.

Black and white

silk

chain hanging from neck

supporting
59.

wooden images of

the instruments of the Passion.

Maria,

St, in Capitolio {Canonesses of).

Silk vestis,

above which a white rochet.

Head covered with long
first a

black

velum reaching round the neck
60.

to ground.
;

At

crimped, rufF-like collar

this

was afterwards abandoned.

Maria

Fuliensis, St.

— Rough

white vestis

;

white

gremial cloth on head and breast, loosely covered with black velum. Discalced.
61.

Mary the

Virgin, St, Annunciation

of.

— Gray

tunic,

white chlamys or cloak, red cross-shaped scapular, usual head
coverings.
62.

—White

Mary the
vestis,

Virgin, St, Annunciation of {another order).

black girdle, white scapular, blue gown, white

gremial on head and breast, black velum.
63. Mary the Virgin, St, Assumption of. Blue, secured with white girdle, white scapular, white gremial cloth, white velum (very long) on head. In choir a pallium of mixed
silk

and blue wool

is

added.
of).

64.

Mary the

Virgin, St {Canonesses regular

— Black

Costumes of the Religious Orders.
tunic, over

251
;

which

a

long black cappa

is

girded in choir

usual gremial cloth and vela.
65.

Mary the

Virgin, St, Daughters of {Cremona).


Black.

Resembling the habit of the

priests of the Society of

Jesus, but u^ith black

velum

in

place of biretta.
is

An

extra

black velum and an extra black mantle
66.

added out of doors.

Maria, Sta
vestis

{de

Mercede Redemptionis Captivorum).
;

White

and scapular

usual vela on head.

In centre of
a cross

breast a shield bearing party per fess in chief gules
pattee argent, in base three pallets.

6j.

Mary the
monks,

Virgin, St, Servants of.

— Same

as

corre-

sponding

with

velum

instead

of

caputium.

In

Germany
68.

certain of this

order wear a white velum with a

blue star on the forehead.

Mary the
vestis

Virgin,
girdle,

St,

Seven Sorrows

of.

— Black

woollen

and

head and breast with white linen

covering, long black head-covering put on out of doors.
69.
vestis,

Mary the

Virgin, St, Purification
cuffs,

of.

white collar and

black velum on head

— Simple black — much
vestis,

like ordinary

mourning

dress.

70.

Mary the

Virgin, St, Visitation of.

— Black

pectoral cross of silver with figure

and monogram of

Christ.

Usual vela on head.
71.

Mary

of the Rosary, St.

— Black

;

image of the Conwith figures of

ception, surrounded

by

a rosary embellished
;

the instruments of the Passion, on breast
cloth and white 72.

white gremial

velum on head. Olivetans. White cuculla and

tunic

;

usual vela

on

head.
73.

Pachomius, St.

— Black tunic and gray hood
— Black
black cross in centre.

;

a

row of

small white
74.

Greek

crosses along every edge.

Philippines of Rome.

woollen tunic, white

sleeveless surplice

with

Usual vela on

head.
75.

Premonstratensians.

—White

vestis

and pallium, white

252
velum.

Ecclesiastical Vestments,

scapular girded.

On

the forehead a cross signed on the white

76. Peter of Alcantaria,

St

(Solitaries of),

— Rough
No

vestis

girded with a rope

;

scapular, mantle,

and velum.

cover-

ing on head.
yj. Sacrament,
vestis,

Adoration of the Most Holy.

—Black

black velamen over head and shoulders, golden figure

of the Host on breast.
78.

Mary the

Virgin,

St,

Presentation

of.

— Black,
tunic,

white scapular, usual vela on head signed with cross in the
centre of the forehead.
79. Sepulchre,

Canonesses of the Holy.

—Black

over which a white sleeveless surplice reaching to knees.

Usual vela on head.

Mantellum, on the

left

shoulder of
the left side

which
are

is

a

double transomed cross in red.

To
five

the Five

two ropes sewn, knotted together by Wounds,

knots to typify

80. Stephen, St.

— White woollen

vestis

and scapular with In choir

red cross fourchee on breast.
a

Usual vela on head.
full sleeves

white cuculla

is

added with

of red

silk.

81. Sylvester, St.

— Similar

to

monks, but with usual vela

on head.
82.
vestis

Trinitatis,

SS {Redemptionis Captivorum),

— White

a

and scapular, black pallium. On pallium and scapular red and blue Greek cross fourchee. Usual vela.

83. Trinity, Most Holy. White tunic and scapular, tawny cappa signed with Greek cross fourchee in red and blue. Similar cross on scapular. Black sandals.

84. Urbanists.

—Blackish
— Black

vestis

and scapular, tawny man-

tellum at service, white gremial cloth, white and black vela

on head.
85.

Ursula,

St.

vestis girded

with cord, white
of mingled black

gremial cloth, long black
86.

velum on head. Ursula, St {Rome). Woollen vestis

and

violet,

with

black tunic

fastened

by black

leather

Costumes of the Religious Orders,
girdle.

253
to the

Usual vela on head, the black one reaching

knees.
87.

Ursula, St {Parma).

— Black
up

vestis,

very long dark

violet pallium, the

hem

girt

in the girdle,

and that part
black cuculla

over the head concealing the eyes,
88.

usual vela on head.
89.

scapular
90.

—As monks, but with MiNisTRANTES Infirmis — Black white velum over head and MiNisTRANTEs Infirmis {Libumi). — Blue
Vallumbrosanae.
[Belgium).
;

dress

and

shoulders.

dress with

long and wide sleeves, white velaraen over head and breast,

another white velamen loose on head girded with rope round
waist.

91. Sacrament,

tawny tunic

girt

with rope.

Poor Virgins of the Holy. Woollen White velamen on head.

Mediaeval University Costume.

The

details

here

given

respecting

mediaeval

university

costume are abridged from a long and exhaustive paper by
Prof. E. C. Clark in vol.

There
ages
is

is

50 of the Archaeological Journal. no doubt that the university dress of the middle

an adaptation of monastic costume.

The

original

schools from
a clerical

which the universities were developed were of character, and their members wore clerical dress.
mediaeval universities was international,

The

dress of the

unlike

the

costume

worn

to-day

;

hence

the

following

account, while primarily concerned with the English universities, will serve as a description

of Continental university

dress as well.

The
first,

system of degrees was developed in France by the

end of the thirteenth century.
the

There were
undergraduate
;

four grades
;

:

ordinary
;

scholar

or

then

the

determinant

thirdly the licentiate

and fourthly the master,
in

professor or doctor.
lectures,

The

undergraduate resided, attended
questions
the

and argued on

schools

;

the

254

Ecclesiastical Vestments.

determinant 'determined' or decided on questions upon which

he had previously merely argued
the
chancellor's
*

;

the licentiate received
{i.e.y

licence

'

to

incept

take

the

steps

necessary for obtaining the master's degrees), to lecture, and
to

dispute

in

school
it

exercises.

The

mastership w^as the

highest grade, and

included the regent,

who was engaged
ceased to teach.
;

in teaching, and the non-regent,

who had

From

the second grade probably sprung the baccalaureat
first

the

bachelor was at
lectures

a kind of

supernumerary teacher, whose
his

were probably recognised only within
robes are thus described
or roba
talaris,

own

university.

The
1.

:

Toga

the

simplest and most general

form of university dress, probably originally derived from
the

Benedictine habit.

It

was

full

and flowing, open

in

front,

with wide sleeves through which the arms passed their

whole length.
and
(in

Subsequent modifications curtailed the sleeves form
for mourning),
for the various

for undergraduates (retaining the fuller

England) introduced distinctive marks

colleges.

The modern Bachelor and Master
colleges in

of Arts

gown

is

derived from this dress combined with other garments.
certain

In

Oxford

it

was directed
the ground.

to be

sewn up

from the wearer's middle to

In Clare Hall,

Gona Cambridge, fellows were permitted to line it with fur. and Epitogium, which we meet with in certain mediaeval
statutes, are
2.

probably synonyms of

this.

Hood.

The hood

{^caputium)
;

was

originally

the

head-

was afterwards dropped on the A shoulders, and then assumed the form of a small cape. large tippet is sometimes seen beneath this cape in representacovering in bad weather
it

tions of academical costume.

The
it

Undergraduate's or Scholar^s
a longliripipe or streamer

hood was black, not lined, and to

was sewn

at

the back

;

the

Graduate's was furred or lined, various degrees were indicated

with a short liripipe. by differences of lining

The
;

bachelors wore badger's fur or lamb's

Mediaeval University Costume.
wool
;

255

licentiates
;

and regents wore minever or some more
silk.

expensive fur

non-regents wore

When

the under;

graduates abandoned hoods (before sixteenth century
date uncertain) they

exact
attain-

became

a distinctive

mark of the

ment of

a degree.

The liripipe was also called tipetum or cornetum. The latter may be the origin of the French cornette, a silk band
formerly worn by French doctors of law, and a possible origin
for the
to

modern English
false

scarf.

The word
and
lies

liripipe is also

used

denote pendant

sleeves,

also

the

tails

of long-

pointed shoes.

This, however,

rather in the region of

everyday costume.

In

1507,

at

Oxford,

we
is

find

typet

or

cornetum used to denote an

alternative for the

toga talaris

allowed to Bachelors of Civil Law.
tail

This
is

clearly not the

of a hood, but Mantellum.

its

exact significance
origin and

uncertain.
this

3.

alike uncertain.

The The

meaning of
fellows

use o^

'

mantelli ov liripipia^
to

word are commonly

called

typets,' was prohibited Magdalen College, Oxford, by

and scholars of
1479, except

a statute dated

injirmitatis causa.

From
or

this

we may

infer that the mantellus

(also

called

mantella

mantellut?i)

was something akin

to

the liripipe.
cappae
:

In another notice (1239) they are coupled with

certain riotous clerks had to
*

march
that

in

a

penitential

procession

sine cappis et mantellis.^

Prof. Clark infers

from
or in

these passages

and from other sources
not a hood, but
is

the academical
of,

mantellum
addition
to,

'is

worn

either instead

the hood, with the cope, or else instead of the

cope or long tabard.'
4.

Cassock,

This was
under
laws,

at

one time worn by
gowns.

all

members of
of
divinity,
scarlet.
'

universities

their

Doctors

doctors

of

cardinals,

and
called

canons
*

wore

Certain days at present
English universities, on
scarlet.
5.

are

Scarlet

Days

in

the

which doctors

in all faculties

wear

This may be a survival of the ancient
^

scarlet cassock.

Surplice.

A

dress

of ministration,

used

in

college

256
chapels

Ecclesiastical Vest?nents.
by non-ministrants,

more

as

a

matter

of college

discipline than as academical costume.'
6.

Almuce.

Distinctive

of masters and doctors,

distinct

from the hood.
7.

Cope.

Another possible origin of the English hood. There were two kinds of cope in use at the

English

universities

— the

cappa manicata

or

sleeved cope

;

and an uncomfortable contrivance called the cappa

clausa,

which was sewn all the way up, passed over the head when put on, and was not provided with sleeves or other openings
for

the arms

save a

short longitudinal

slit

in front

The

Archbishop of Canterbury prescribed
for Archdeacons,

this as a

decent garb

Deans and Prebendaries

in

1222.

Regents
in
a

in

arts,

laws,

and theology were permitted

to lecture

cappa clausa ox pallium only.

The

cappa manicata was probably

worn
8.

generally, as being a sober

and dignified

dress

;

it

very

rarely occurs in

contemporary representations.

The
;

tabard or colcbium was a sleeveless

gown

closed

in front

but ultimately

it

was

slit
it,

up, the

sleeves of the
latter

gown proper were
discontinued.
statutes

transferred to

and the use of the

All not yet bachelors were required

of Trinity

Hall, Cambridge (1352), to

by the wear long
to

tabards, while Clare Hall, the adjoining foundation, required
its

Master (Head), masters, and Bachelor Fellows

wear

and other robes, in 1359. every scholar to wear a rcba
this

Kings' Hall (13S0) required
talaris,

and

ever}'

bachelor a

robe with tabard suited to his degree.
9.

University Head-dress.
to protect the

A

skull-cap

was early allowed to
the only head-dress

ecclesiastics

tonsured head in cold weather,
this
is

and, except the

ordinary hood,

recognised

by the early university
as

statutes.
,

This
^
n

pileus,

however, soon assumed a pointed shape, thus
this

and in

form was recognised
;

part of the

insignia of the
it

doctorate

doctors only

are

represented wearing

upon

monuments.
the

The
tassel.

central point developed afterwards into

modern

Bachelors wore no

official

head-dress.

Index of Sy?ionymous Terms.

257

APPENDIX
AN INDEX
Alba
(Lat.), alb.

II.

OF

SYNONYMOUS TERMS.
Ephod
(Lat.,

from

Heb.),

A.vaSoXdbLov (Gk.), amice.

amice.
k-LjiavLKa (Gk.), maniples.
€77Lfj.avLKLa

Anabolagium
Anagolaium

(Lat.), amice.

XvafSoXalov (Gk.), amice.
(Lat.), amice.

(Gk.), maniples.

i-LTpax'i]Xiov (Gk.), stole.

Aurifrigium (Lat.), orphrey.
Baltheus (Lat.), girdle.
Bitarshil (Copt.), stole.

Faino (Syr.), chasuble.

Fanon

[a), (Lat.),

maniple.

Fanon
staff.

[b), (Lat.), orale.
staff.

Caligae (Lat.), stockings.

Ferula (Lat.), pastoral

Cambo

(Lat.), pastoral

Fourevre

(Fr.), mozetta.

Cambutta (Celto-Lat.), head
of pastoral
staff.

Humerale (Lat.), amice. Hure (O.-Eng.), ecclesiastical
skull-cap.

Campagi (Lat.), stockings. Cappa (Lat.), cope.
Capuita (Lat.), pastoral
Cassacca (Lat.), cassock.
')(^afiaX.av\Lov
staff.

Jabat (Copt.), alb.

Kerchure (O.-Eng.), amice.
Koutino
(Syr.), alb.
(Lat.), gloves.

(Gk.)

=

X^H-^'

Manicae

Xavxi^
Chirothecae (Lat.), gloves.
Chrysoclave
(O.-Eng.,

fxavLKia (Gk.), maniples.

Mantile (Lat.), maniple.

from

Mappula
Orarium Oururo

(Lat.), maniple.

Lat.), orphrey.

ujpdpLov (Gk.), stole.

Cingulum
Clappe
staff.

(Lat.), girdle.

(Lat.), stole.

(O.-Eng.),

pastoral

(Syr.), stole.

Pedum

(Lat.), pastoral

staff.

Cleykstaff (O.-Eng.), pastoral
staff.

TrepLTpdxrjXi (Gk,), stole.

7repLrpaxi)XL0v (Gk.), stole.
(^aiXovLOv (Gk.), chasuble.
(^aivoXi (Gk.), chasuble.

Cleystaff (O.-Eng.), pastoral
staff.

Cruche (O.-Eng.),
staff.

pastoral

(^aivoXiov (Gk.), chasuble.
(^aKeuiXiov (Gk.), stole.

17

258

Ecclesiastical Vestments,
Superhumerale
(Lat.), alb.

Phrygium (Lat), orphrey.
Pluviale (Lat.), cope.

Tibialia (Lat.), stockings.

Poderis (Lat.), alb.

Tilsan (Copt.), chasuble.

Poruche (Rus.), maniple.

Regnum

(Lat.), tiara.

Roba (Lat.), university gown. Roc (A.-S.), tunicle or dalmatic.

Toga = university gown. Toumat (Copt.), alb. Triregnum (Lat.), tiara.
Tunica alba
Tunica
(Lat.), alb.
talaris (Lat.),

cassock

;

Sabatyns

"1

(O.-Eng.), stockings.
staff.

also university

gown.

Sabbatoncsj

Tunicella (Lat.), tunicle.
vTTOjiavLKLa (Gk.), maniples.

Sambuca

(Lat.), pastoral

Varkass
(TTOlXapLOVJ
^

= vakass.
(Lat.),

'

Vestment(0.-Eng.), chasuble.
Virga
subpastoralis

Subtile (Lat.), tunicle.

pas-

Succinctorium
cingulum.

(Lat.),

toral staff.

Sudarium

(Lat.), maniple.

Zendo (Syr.), maniple. Zona (Lat.), girdle.

APPENDIX

III.

A LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL AUTHORITIES REFERRED

TO IN THE COMPILATION OF THIS WORK.
is intended as a guide to the student rather of the labour involved in writing this volume, it has been reduced by the omission of classical and other texts from which casual quotations have been made, and of many books which the author consulted without obtaining any information of value.

*^* As

this list

than

as a criterion

Badger (G.

P.),

The

Nestorians and their Ritual.

2

vols.

London, 1852.

Bloxam (M. H.), Companion
Ecclesiastical Architecture.

to

the Principles of

Gothic

London, 1882.

Bock

(F.),

Geschichte der liturgischen Gewander des Mittel3 vols.

alters.

Bonn, 1859.

List of Principal Authorities,
Bona
y.)'

259
Turin,

Rerum

liturgicarum

libri

duo.

3

vols.

1747-

Bonanni, Catalogo degli ordini Rome, 1722. 5 vols.

religiosi della chiesa militante.

Calderwood
Carter

(D.), Historie of the Kirk of Scotland.

8 vols.

Wodrow
(J.),

Society, Edinburgh, 1842-49. Specimens of English Ecclesiastical Costume.

London, 18 17. the Law relating to Cripps (H. W.), A Practical Treatise on and Clergy. 6th edition. London, 1886. the Church their Origin, Use, Dolby (Anastasia), Church Vestments
:

and Ornament.
Fabric Rolls of
1859.

London, 1868.
Surtees Society,

York Minster.

Durham,

publications (Also several other volumes of the

of

this Society.)

Church, founded Fortescue (E. F. K.), The Armenian London, 1872. Gregory the Illuminator.
Haines (H.),
1861.

by St

A

Manual of Monumental
historical

Brasses.

Oxford,

Harrison (B.),

An

Enquiry Into the true Interpre-

Book of tation of the Rubrics in the
London, 1845.
Hart
(R.), Ecclesiastical

Common

Prayer.

Records of England, Ireland, and till the Reformation. Scotland from the Fifth Century

Cambridge, 1846.
Embroidery. ArchaeoHartshorne (C. H.), English Mediaeval 3i8-335» vol. ii, pp. 285-301. logical Journal, vol. I, pp.
1845-47.

Hefele (C.

und

Archaologie Beitrage zur Kirchengeschlchte, Tubingen, 1864. 2 vols. Liturglk.
J.),

Howard

(G. B.),

The

Christians of St

Thomas and
2

their

Liturgies.

tssaverdens

(J.),

Oxford, 1864. Armenia and
RIchter.

the

Armenians.

vols.

Venice, 1874.
Josephus,

Works

of, ed.

Leipsig, 1826.

26o
King
(J.

'Ecclesiastical Vestments,
G.),

The

Rites

and Ceremonies of the Greek
concilia ad regiam

Church in Russia. London, 1772. Labbe (P.), and G. Cossart, Sacrosancta
editionem exacta.
18
vols.

Paris,

1671-72.

Lanigan

(J.),

An

Ecclesiastical History of Ireland.

4

vols.

Dublin, 1822.
Marriott (W. B.), Vestiarium Christianum.

London, 1868.

Martene (E.) and U.
torum.
Maskell,
5 vols.

Durand, Thesaurus novus anecdoParis, 17 17.

Monumenta

ritualia ecclesiae anglicanae.

Oxford,

1882.

Migne, Patrologia (almost all quotations from the early Paris, church writers are taken from this edition).
1

849-64.
(le

Moleon
Neale
4

Sieur de), Voyages liturgiques de France.

Paris,

1718.
(J.

M.),

A

History of the

Holy Eastern Church.
the Papal

vols.

London, 1850.
Registers
Bliss).

Papal Letters (Calendar of Entries in

relating to Great Britain and Ireland, ed.

W. H.
7 vols.

London, 1893. Paris (M.), Chronica majora.
Series.

Ed. Luard.

Rolls

London, 1872-1883.

Pugin (A. W.), Costume.

Glossary of Ecclesiastical Ornament and London, 1868. Quick (J.), Synodicon in Gallia Reformata ; or the Acts, Decisions, Decrees, and Canons of those Famous National Councils of the Reformed Churches in France. London, 1692. 2 vols.
Reichel (O.
J.),

English Liturgical Vestments in the Thir-

teenth Century.

London, 1895.
orientalium
collectio.

Renaudot
1716.

(E.),

Liturgiarum

Paris,

Rock

(D.),
52.

Church of our

Fathers.

3 vols.

London, 1849-

1

List of Principal Authorities.

26

Rock

(D.), Textile Fabrics

:

a Descriptive Catalogue of the
[etc. in

Collection of

Church Vestments,

South Kensing-

Row

London, 1870. ton Museum]. The History of the Kirk of Scotland from the (J.)> Wodrow Society, Edinto August, 1637.
Year 1538
(A.),

burgh, 1892.

Rubenius
clavo.

De

re vestiaria

veterum, praecipue de

lato
J.

In the Thesaurus Antiquitatum
vol. vi, col.

Romanorum of

G. Graevius, Paris, 1649. libri xv. Saussay (A. de), Panoplia clericalis Dresses and Decorations of the Middle Ages. Shaw (H.),
2 vols.

913.

Leyden, 1697.

Smith (W.) and
Antiquities.

London, 1853. Cheetham, S.

A

Dictionary of Christian

London, 1875.

Stothard (C. A.),
2 vols.

Monumental
17.

Effigies

of Great

Britain.

London, 18

Webb,

Sketches of Continental Ecclesiology.

London, 1848.
vols.

Wey

(F.),

Rome.

London, 1872.

Willemin (N.

X.),

Monumens
been made

fran9ais

inedits.

2

Paris, 1839.

Reference has

also

Builder, and the principal publications of archaeological societies.

Church Times, the archaeological periodicals and
to the

INDEX
Absolution, vestments worn
223
Acolytes, cassock of, 139 insignia of, 213, 214 Aethelwold, benedictional of, 115 Aix-la-Chapelle, chasuble at, 86 Alb. See also Alba, 64 noaterial and colour of, 65 ornamentation of, 66, 151 plain, when worn, 67
at,

Almuce, evolution of, 143-146 worn under Eucharistic vestments, 219
in the universities, 256 Amalarius of Metz quoted, 52,

68,

T], 89, 92-95, 103, 122

Ambrose

cited,

38

Amess. See Almuce Amice, 64
origin of, 71

symbolism of, 68, 69 dimensions of, 69
modifications
of, 140,

how, by whom, and when worn, 71, 214
141

description of, 71

contrary to English Church law, 201 by whom worn, 214 Alba. See also Alb, Dalmatica,

symbolism of, 72 ornamentation of, 151 vakass borrowed from, 188

Roba
by
28,

Talaris

Amys. See Almuce Anastasius Bibliothecarius
quoted, 34 Anglican church, vestments 194 et seqq.
in,

whom

and when worn,

30
origin of, 29, 31 description of, 30

canons respecting, 30 ornamentation of, 32, 59 baptismal, 36, 37 of newly baptized, 171 sigillata, bullata, dd in Gallican church, 135 Eastern equivalent of, 178 Alcuin (pseudo-) quoted, 34, 64,
69, 77.89, 96, 103, III, 149 Almuce, description of, 142 distinctions of ecclesiastical

Apparels, 153 Aquinas, St Thomas, cited, 132 Archdeacons, supposed, in St David's Cathedral, 80 Aregius, Bishop, receives dalmatica, 54 Armenian church, baptismal rite
in,

171

Augustine

vestments cited, 38

of,

176 etseqq,

rank

in,

142

derivation of name, 142

Aurelian, his grant of oraria to the Romans, 38 Autun, MS. at, on vestments of the Gallican church, 29, 135

1

Index,
Autun, Honorius of. See Honorius Bishops of, their privileges,
102 Auxanius,

263

Cap, Malabar, 177 university, 256 Cappa, monastic, 235
serica, 148 manicata, 256

circumstances

of

his

receipt of the pallium, 51

clausa,

256

Bamberg, Bishops

of,

their privi-

See also

Cope

leges, 102 Bands, origin and development of, 208 when worn in Presbyterian church, 209 Baptismal vestments of administrator, 36, 122, 222 ; of baptized,

Caputium, 235, 254 Cardinals wear scarlet cassock, 139
Carthage, Council of. Cashel, crozier of, 127 Cassianus quoted, 44
Cassikin, 204 Cassock, description
distinction
6"^^

Council

of,

138

171
alba, 36
stole,

of

ecclesiastical

Bells

222 and pomegranates, 6

rank in, 139 modern, 139
in Presbyterian church,

207
29,

Benedict III, life of, quoted, 66 Benediction of vestments, 212 Biretta, birettum, 150, 201 Bishops, insignia of, 27, 28, 213
stole,

in universities, 255 Casula in Gallican church,

135
secular, 43, 44 See also Chasuble

how worn

by, 74

dalmatic of, 79 wearing archiepiscopal insignia, 102 subcingulum once worn by, 107 vestments worn by, on different occasions, 221. See also under the names of different vestments Bloxam quoted, 80 Bonanni quoted, Appendix i Boniface VIII adds crown to tiara, 121

Celebrant, vestments
Celestine,

of,

214
letter

on vestment ritual, 26, 46, 57 Cencio de Sabellis quoted, 107, 108 Chain, golden, 103 Xa/iaXai;x'7. 1 76, 1 88, 234
Pope,
his

Chambre,
Charles

I, his

Will, de, quoted, 14 ordinance respect-

ing vestments, 204 Charles the Great, 60

Chasuble

{see also
of,

materials

Planeta), 64 81

Bonnet of Levitical

priest, 5

eucharistic

and processional,

Brachialia, 122 Braga, Councils of. See Council Breastplate of the ephod, 9 Breeches, 4 Bucer quoted, 195 Bullinger quoted, 104 Buskins. See Stockings Byrrhus, 33

82
description and varieties of,

83,84
dimensions of, 86 ornamentation of, 86, 152 symbolism of, 89 forbidden in English church, 201 folded, when worn, 215 Childebert consents to bestowal of
pallium, 51

See Stockings Caligae. Calliculae, 59 Canons. See Council

Chimere, 148, 199
Chirothecae. See Gloves Choir, vestments of, 148, 220

Canon's cope, 148, 220 Cap, Levitical, 5 ecclesiastical, 149

Chorkappa, 194

264
Chrismale, 171

Index
Dalmatic
{see also Dalmatica), 64 derived from alba, 78 episcopal and diaconal, 79,

Chrysome, 172
Cicero quoted, 43 Cidaris, 112 Clark, Professor E.

214

C, quoted,

253, ^/ seqq. Clavi, 31, 32, 42, 49, 58, 80 Clement, liturg>' of, 15, 19 Coat of fine linen, 4
Collar,

ornamentation of, 80, 152 symbolism of, 79, 81 by whom worn, 214 imperial, 229 Dalmatica, a vestment in Rome,
29. 45. 53 secular, 32 Sylvester's ing. 34

Roman, 148

Colobium, 32-36
in the universities, 256 Colours, liturgical, unknown Early church, 58 in Western church, 223 in Eastern church, 230

decree

concern-

in

Isidore on, 35

Commodus,

t,t,

Consecration of Archbishop Parker, 198 Constantius, 17 Cope, origin of, 146
description and material of,

David wears ephod, 8 Deacon, insignia of, 28, 34, 214 when to wear alba, 30
vestments
stole,
of,

52,

Sylvester's decree respecting
34, 52 by, 74 dalmatic of, 79 folded chasuble, when worn

how worn

146

hood of, 147 morse of, 147
canon's, 148, 220

by, 215 Degrees, Mediaeval university, 253

how

distinguished by dress,

ornamentation of, 153 for most part forbidden in English church, 201 worn by minister, 217 university, 256
Corinthians, First Epistle to, quoted, 22 Cornette, Cornetum, 255 Coronation robes, 162. See Dalmatic, imperial Cotta, 141 Council, second of Braga, 40 fourth of Braga, 40, 41 fourth of Carthage, 30 of Mayence, 41
first of Narbonne, 30 fourth of Toledo, 27, 31, 35, 39» 53. 55. 64, 114, 122 See also Synod

254 De Saussay quoted, 58
Destruction of vestments, 168

Development of vestments, chaps.
i-iii passim Doctors of Divinity wear

scarlet

cassocks, 139

wear gray almuces, 142

Doeg, 8
Dol, Bishops of, their privileges, 102 Dolby, Mrs, quoted, 69, 144, 149 Dominica in albis depositis, 172 Dorsal orphrey, 88 Doubles, 220 Drawers, 4 Dublin, Synod of. See Synod Duchesne quoted, 50 Dunstan, St, figure of, 97, 116, 118 Durandus quoted, io5, 134, 172 Durham Rites quoted, 167

Coverdale, vestments worn by, 198
cited,

200
130

Cross-staff, 125,

Crozier.

See Pastoral staff

Cuthino, 177, 180 Cyprian, St, of Carthage, 33 C3'ril, Bishop of Jerusalem, 17

Eastern Churches, vestments chap. V
'EyKoXTTtoi/, 176, 188, 191

of,

Elagabalus, 33

Index.
Embroidery.
Orphreys
Oriental, 162 England, excellence of embroidery
in,

265

See

Apparels,

163
destruction of vestments in,

Girdle, contrasted with subcingulum, 107, 109 Gloves, 64 when recognised as vestments, 121

169 vestments of church

of,

194

symbolism of, 122 ornamentation of, 152 by whom worn, 214

Ephod, description
girdle of, 7

of, 6, 7

by whom worn, 8 worshipped, 8, 9 proper name, 9
breastplate of, 9 Latin name for amice, 257 'ETTiyovariov, I08, 176, 186, 191
'ETTiiJiaviKia,

Gold plate, apostolic, 112 Golden chain (loop of pall), 103 Gona, 254 Gown, black preaching, 202, 204
monastic, 235 See Toga See also Geneva gown Gregory the Great quoted, 28, 45, 51, 52, 104 picture of, 54
university.

136,

176,

180,

191,

233 Epiphanius quoted, 113 Epitogium, 254
'ETTtrpax'/X'oi',

sacramentary Gypciere, loS

of,

55

50,

176, 1S2, 191,

Estla, 190

Eucharistic vestments, chap, iii chasuble, 82 'E^wXa^aXavxih 1 76, 1 88, 191

Exodus, book

of,

quoted, 4-8

Fabius, 33 Fagius quoted, 195 Ferula, 58 Fife, Synod of. See Synod Final period of vestments, chap, Flower of chasuble, 89

Headdress, ecclesiastical, 149 university, 256 High Priest, vestments of, 6 et seq. Holland, church of, vestments in, 22, 210 Homer cited, 20 Honorius of Autun quoted, 64, 69, 75, 103, 109, in, 121, 122,123,
131

Hood
iii

of chasuble, 82 of cope, 147, 153

monastic, 235
university,

254

Folkestone ritual case, 201 Fountains Abbey mitre, 119
Gallican church, vestments 135
of, 29,

Hope, Mr St John, quoted, 144,
166

Hosea quoted, 8 Humeral orphrey, 88
Hurrara, 190
Infulae, 118, 129

Gammadia, 58
Garland, baptismal, 171 Genesis of vestments, chap,
i

Innocent

HI
IV

quoted, 58, 64, 69,
134,

Geneva gown, 208
Georgi quoted, 106 Germanus quoted, 18, 175, 184 Germany, vestments in, 193 Gideon, 8 Girdle, Levitical, 4 of ephod, 7
ecclesiastical,

75, 89, 96, 103, 107, 131,

178,

225 Innocent

covets

English

orphreys, 163 Institution of bishops, 55 Inventory of Boniface VIII, 75

64,

70.

See

also ^wj'j;

Canterbury, 65 Dover, 65 Lincoln, 81, 129, 158, 166 London, St Mary Hill, 141

266
Inventory of

Index.
Peterborough,
65,

66,68
Westminster, 65, 70, 218 Winchester, 65, 129
Irish crozier, 126, et seqq.

Macarius, 17 Mafors, 246

Maimonides quoted, 4 Malabar vestments, 177
'^lavlbaq, 176, 187, 191,

ei seqq,

234
See
also

Isidore of Seville, 27, 35, 54, 55, 56, 58, 112, 115, 122, 126 Issues of the Exchequer quoted,

Manicae, 121, 135 Maniple, 64, 180.

Mappula
description
of, of,

164 Ivo of Chartres quoted, 52, 64, 69, 89, 96, 105, III, 122

symbolism

75 77

James

I

prescribes vestments

for

Scotland, 203

Jerome, 15-18, 114 Jewel, Bishop, cited, 104 Jewish vestments, 2-14, 18, 136 Joannes Diaconus, his portrait of

ornamentation of, 151 whom worn, 214 Mantelletum, 199 Mantellum, 245, 255 Mantle, 210 Manualia, 29, 135 Mappula, a Roman vestment, 29,

by

^^5

Gregory I, 54 John, Bishop of Ravenna, 53 Josephus quoted, /\- 10 pas sij?i Judges, Book of, 8, 9

Kamelauch, 234
Ki^apig, 112

of, 52 spread of, 53, 54 Marriott quoted, 15, 16, 19, 25, 29, 50. 62, 94, 115, 122 Martene, 29 Mayence, Council of. See Council Menard, 115

origm

r

Kodi, 177, 186 KoXojSiov. See Colobium Kulpas, 189

Mesnaemphthes,
Messesjorta, 194

5

Lampridius quoted, 33, 43, 44
Aa/i7rp6e,

meaning

of,

19

Landulphus, pontifical of, 40 Laoghaire, druids of King, their prophecy, 115, 128 Lector, 213 Leo III, 58 Letters on vestments, 59
Levitical vestments. See Jewish Limerick mitre, 120 Lincolnshire, destruction of vest-

Messhake, 194 Micah, 8 Minerva Library, pontifical in, 37 Minister, dress and duties of, at mass, 217, 219, 220
Mitre, Levitical, 10
ecclesiastical,

64

origin
early,

of, 1
1

12
of, 1

14 16

development

infulae of, ii8

ments in, 170 Lineae = tails of pall, 104 Linen breeches, 4
tunic,

118 119 by whom worn, 214 Monastic dress, appendix i Eastern, 234

ornamentation

of,

various kinds

of,

4

Monuments,

etc., cited

Liripipe, 254 Liturgical colours. See Colours Liturgy of Clement. 6ee Clement Lituus, 56
Aiopia, 180

Arundel, 156

Bamberg, 102, 125 Bathampton, 85
Beverley, 71, 157

Birmingham, 145
Broadwater, 156 Caerleon, 49 Cambridge, 150

Lucca, Bishops of, their privileges, 102 Luther, reformation of, 193

Index,
Monuments, etc., cited— continued

267

Chesham Bois, Cobham, 145

172, 173

Ely, 74, 133, 202

Fontevraud, 230 Fulbourne, 156 Havant, 156 Hereford, 145, 219

Orphreys, 72, 73, 87, 88, 153 Orro, 177, 184 Ostia, Bishops of, their privileges, 102 Ostiarius, 213 Ouches, 7
Paenula, 43, 44, 49i 186 See also Pallium Pall, 64, 187.
material and development
of,

Horsham, 220 Kilkenny, 90
Liibeck, 193 Mayence, 100, 117, 118, 125 Milton, 77

96
history

of individual

speci-

Norwich, 219
Oxford, 125, 145

Randworth, 78 Ravenna, 46 St David's, 80
Salisbury',
1 17 Sessay, 147 Shelford, Great, 156

mens, 99 by whom and when worn, 96, 100, 102 symbolism of, 102 cost of, 104 not ornamented, 98, 152 Pallium, monastic cloak, 26, 46, ^35' 245 vestment = pall, 29, 47-5 1>
135 linostimum, 34, 40, 52 Paris, Matthew, quoted, 163 Parker, consecration of Arch"bishop, 198 Pasbans, 177, 182 Pastoral staff, 27, 64

Towyn,
Wells,

71 144,

201,

215,

216,

219

Winwick, 83 Worcester, 67 Wyvenhoe, 76 Morse, no, 147
Mozetta, 142, 148 Msane, 190

by
214

whom

^

carried,

28,

57,

68 Narbonne, bishop of, rebuked, 26 See Council council of. Nestorian vestments, 189

Names

of vestments,

origin of, 56 description and
of, 57,

development

126 et seqq. erroneous views concerning,
Irish form of, infula of, 129
1

124 26
et seqq.

Nicholas

Pope, 51 Numbers, Book of, quoted, 9
I,

symbolism

of, 129, 1

31

'Qlio(p6piov, 50, 176, 187, 191,

233

IlarEpecro-a, 176, 188, 191

Orale, 64, 134, I53 'Qpapiov, 50, 176, 184, 191, 233

Orarium, 27, 28, 47i 73-

-^^'^

^^^^

Stole derivation of name, 38
secular, 38,

Paul, St, quoted, 22, 35 Pavia, Bishops of, their privileges, 102 Peacock, Mr E., quoted, 170 Pectoral cross, 134, 188, 189, 191

49

canons respecting, 39, 40, 41 origin of, 38, 49, 50 Oriental embroidery, 162 Origin of vestments, chap, i Ornamentation of vestments, 58, 66, S7, \Soet seqq.

orphrey, 88 Pelagians, Jerome's letter against the, 17, 19
Pellicea, 140 Periods of history of vestments,

Ornaments

rubric,

200

25 Perizona, 109 ntraXov, 112, 113

268

Index,
Ritual uses of vestments, chap, vii

^aCKovT], 35 Phaino, 177, 186 ^aivoKiov^ 176, 186, 191, 233, 234 Pileus, 151, 256. See also Cap

Roba Robe

Talaris, 254

of the ephod, 6 Rochet, 141, 199

98 symbolism of, 104 Planeta, 28 secular, 44 Plate, gold on mitre, Levitical, 10 apostolic, 112 Plautus quoted, 43 Pollux, Julius, quoted, 43 Polybius cited, 20 Polycrates quoted, 113
pall, 97,

Pins of

Rock, Dr, quoted, 48, 49, 66, 67,
75, 85,

106, 108, 114, 115, 134,

135. 144

Roman
chap,

civil
ii

costume, 14 passim

et seqq.^

Rubenius, Albertus, quoted, 38 Rulers of the choir, their insignia, 131, 221

Sabanum, 171
Cencio de, 107, 108 Sacramentary of Gregory
Sabellis,

Poor-ourar, 176, 184 Pope, grant of pall by, 51, 99, 214 his bearing the pastoral staff,
57, 131

the

Great, 55

insignia of,

105,

106,

119,

130, 134, 135, 139,

214

Prayer-Book of 1549, 195
1552, 197
^1559. 197

Prazona, 190
Pre-sanctified,

Mass

of,

217, 220

Sagavard, 177, 188, 189 2rtK:/cog, 176, 188, 191, 234 Salisbury missal quoted, 68 Sampson, Thomas, quoted, 199 Samuel, Book of, quoted, 8 wears ephod, 8 Sandals, 64 development and description
of,

Presbyterians, vestments of, 205 Priests, insignia of, 27, 41, 74,

214
Priest's cap, Levitical,

by whom worn, 91, 214 symbolism of, 92 et seqq.^
96
ornamentation of, 91, 152 Armenian, 189
Saul, 8

90» 91, 95

5

Primitive period of vestments, chap, i, 25 Processional vestments, chap, iv chasuble, 82 Pseudo-AIcuin. See Alcuin

Rabanus Maurus quoted,
68, 89, 92, 96, 122 Rational, 64, 110-112,

12, 62,

152 Ravenna, mosaics at, 4648 John, Bishop of, 53 Reformed churches, vestments
chap, vi Reichel, Rev. O.

Scapular, 235, 245 Scarf of honour, 1^ of English church, 203 of Presbyterian church, 207 Scarlet days, 255 Scipio, 33 Scotland, vestments in, 203

of,

J., 50 Requiem, vestments worn at, 223 Rhinthon cited, 43 Ring, 54, 64 by whom worn, 27, 54, 214, 228 description and symbolism
of,

Act of Assembly of church 209 Senchus Mor cited, 128
of,

Septuagint cited, 18 Severus, edict concerning paenula,

123

Ripon Treasurer's Rolls quoted,
174

43 Shaesha, 234 Shapich, 176, 180 Shoes, Malabar. 177 Shoochar, 177, 189 Shorshippa, 190 Simples, 220

Index.
Simplicity
of
early

269

vestments,

Tabard, 256
Talith, 14

Sinker, Dr., quoted, 113 Spain, vestments in, 204 See Pastoral Staff Staff. Stockings, 64 by whom worn, 105, 214 symbolism of, 105 ornamentation of, 152 Srotxapiov, 176, 178, 191, 233 Stola in Gallican church, 29, 135 See also Orarium, Stole Stole, 64, 182 origin of, 72 description of, "Jl, 75

Talmud quoted, 10 Temple worship, 13
Teraphim, 9
Tertullian quoted, 114

Theodore, Archbishop of Laureacus, 51

Theodoret quoted,

Thomas

17, 18 of Canterbury, St, his chasuble, 86 Tiara, 112 papal, 119, 121 Tippet, 254, 255

Toga, 42, 45, 48
university, 254 Toledo, Council of. See Council Transitional period of vestments, chap, ii Trebellius Pollio quoted, 29

how

worn, 74, 214 symbolism of, 75 ornamentation of, 1 51 Spanish, 204 worn by kings, 230 baptismal, 222

Treves,
in,

Pope bears

pastoral staff

2roXj7, 18

Stolone, 215

Subcingulum,
history

64,

214
et seqq.
of,

of,

106

Subdeacons, insignia 214
Subiaco, fresco Succinctorium. Sudarium, 50
at,

28,

132,

108

See Subcingulum

See also SurSuperpellicea, 140. plice Surplice, origin of, 140 development and description
of,

132 Tunic of linen, 4, 30 of blue, 6 monastic, 235 Tunica Alba. See Alba Dalmatica. See Dalmatica Manicata, 32 Tunicle, 64 description of, 132 by whom worn, 132, 214 ornamentation of, 133, 153 illegal in English church, 201
University costume, 253 Urban V. adds crown to tiara,

141
varieties of, 141

in England, 201 in Scotland,

204
140, 217,
in,

when worn,

255
Vakass, 176, 188 Valerian quoted, 30 Value of vestments, 164 Vartabeds, insignia of, 1S9

Sweden, vestments

194

Sylvester, Pope, decree respecting dress, 34-36, 47, 52, 81

Symbolism,

56, 57, 68, 69, 70, 72, 75. 77^ 79. 81, 85, 89, 92-96, 102-105, 121, 123, 129, 131, 176, 180, 184, 187 Symmachus grants a pallium,

Velum, 245
quadrigesimale, 228 Verona, Bishops of, their privileges, 102 Vestimentum parvolum in Gallican

51

Synagogue models

followed Early Christians, 13 Synod of Dublin, 169 Fife, 210

by

church, 29, 135 Vesting, order of, 217, 231

Vienne, 26

Bishop

of,

rebuked,

270
51
Virgilius,

Index,
Waldenses, vestments among, 206

Vigilius, grant of a pallium by,

Archbishop

of

Aries,

Zando, 177, 182
Zwj/j;, 176, 186, 191,

51

234
of
Syria,

Vopiscus, Flavius, quoted, 38

Zosimio,
62.

Procurator

Walafrid
81

Strabo

quoted,

30 Zunnara, 190 Zunro, 177, 186

THE END.

Elliot Stock. Paternoster

R 01V.

London.

ERRATA.
Page 47, line 2, for maniple read mappula. Page 61, line 2, for Walfrid read Walafrid. Page 74, line i of footnote, yijr Goodrich r^a^ Goodrick. Page ^T, line 3 of footnote, /(jrWhittlesford read Milton. Page 106, last line, y^r succinctorium read subcingulum
succinctorium
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