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Drawing

and
Painting

HowtoMakeCharcoal?

Supplies:
Collectwoodsticks(fromtreebranchestoalreadycutwood)
Aplainpaintcanorcoffeecan(nopaintorstickersonit)
Foil
Hammer
Nail

Kiln(IfhaveaKilninArtDepartment),Canbuildafireormakeapropanehookuptoa
burnerandplaceacharcoalchimneyontop.

VideoInstructionstoMakeCharcoal:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=otVhpDSbHZk
(propane)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1VB3LUDura0
(buildafire)

StepstoMakingCharcoal:

1. Collectassortmentofwoodbranchesandotherwoodpieceslayingaround.
2. Cutthewoodpiecesdownenoughtofitinthemetalcanyoufoundorbought.

3. Makesureyoutakealltheoutsidepapersadvertisingofftheoutsideofthemetal
can.
4. Useahammerandnailtomakeatleast3to5holesonthetopofthelidofthe
metalcan.
5. Wrapthewoodpiece(youcut)inbundleswithfoilmakingsuremostofthewood
iscovered.
6. Placethefoiledwoodinthemetalcan
7. Securethetopofthemetalcanmakingsureititclosedtight.
8. Placethemetalcaninallreadypreparedfire,propaneburner,orkilnfor45
minutes.
9. Takethecanoutsafelyusingproperprotectivegloveorpotholders(itishot)
10. Letitseeoutforaboutanhourtohourandhalfmakingsureitisfullycooled
down.
11. Takethelidoffandnowyouhavecharcoal.It'stimetodraw!

ColorTheory

ColorTerminology:
Color
thepropertypossessedbyanobjectofproducingdifferentsensationsontheeyeasaresultofthe
waytheobjectreflectsoremitslightlightchangescolorswith
hue
,
shade
,
tint
,
tone
.

Hueagradationorvarietyofacolortint:palehuesLocalcolor

PrimaryColors

Red,Blue,Yellow
SecondaryColors(ComplementaryColors)

Purple,Green,Orange
TertiaryColors

YellowOrange,RedOrange,RedPurple,
BluePurple,BlueGreen,YellowGreen
WarmColors
Red,RedOrange,Orange,YellowOrange,Yellows,YellowGreen
CoolColors
Green,BlueGreen,Blue,BluePurple,Purple,RedPurple

Tone
Atoneisproducedeitherbythemixtureofacolorwithgray,orbyboth
tintingandshading.Mixingacolorwithanyneutralcolor(includingblack,gray
andwhite)reducesthechroma,orcolorfulness,whilethehueremains
Unchanged.

Shade

themixtureofacolorwithblack,whichreduceslightness
Tint

themixtureofacolorwithwhite,butinwatercolorlightingthecolorby
usingthepigmentofthewhitepaperanddilutingcolorwithmorewater,which
makethecolorlighter

AnalogousColorsgroupsofthreecolorsthatarenexttoeachotheronthecolorwheel,withonebeingthe
dominantcolor,whichtendstobeaprimaryorsecondarycolor,andatertiary.Red,orange,andredorange
areexamples

Achromaticmeanslackingcolor.White,blackandgraysmixedfromblackandwhiteareachromatic

Contrastdesignprinciplethatusesoppositesbesideoneanothertocreateinterestandvisualimpact.
Examples:rough/smooth,light/dark,warm/coolortheuseofcolorcomplements

Gradationanygradualchangeinhue,value,orcolorintensity

Intensityacolorssaturation,brightnessorstrength

MonochromaticColors
containingorusingonlyonecolor

WatercolorExamples:

Colorwheel

ColorTintingandShading

Drawing
Onepointperspectiveasystemfordepictingthreedimensionaldepthonatwodimensionalsurface,
dependentupontheillusionthatallparallellinesthatrecedeintospaceconvergeatasinglepointonthe
horizon,calledavanishingpoint

Opencompositionavisualcircumstancewhereimagesofformsandstructuresappearunrelatedtothesize
ofthepaperandunlimitedbyitsouteredges,creatingtheimpressionthatthecompositionexceedsthe
boundariesofthepictureplane
Patternarepeatedcompositionalelementorregularrepetitionofadesignorsingleshape

Perspectiveamathematicalmethodofrepresentingformsastheyrecedeinspaceanddiminishinsize
usingconverginglinesthatmeetatacentralvanishingpointonthehorizonline

Reflectedlighttheeffectoflightbouncingbackfromreflectivesurfacesfunctionsasfillinlightmaking
objectsappearroundedbygivingdefinitiontothecoreoftheshadowoneofthevaluegradationsof
chiaroscuro

Shadingacontinuousseriesofgraysthatareusedtosuggestthreedimensionalityandtocreatethe
illusionoflightatypeofgradation

Sketch:Adrawing,oranactofdrawingdonequicklywithminimalornoelaboration,buteffectivelycaptures
theessentialforminspace,withbasiclightandshadow

Space:Thenegativeaspectorcomplementofform,whethertwoorthreedimensional

Stippling:Thebuildingoftonaldescriptionsthroughtheconcentrateduseoftinydotswhenclosertogether
theyproducedarkerpassageswhenfartherapart,lightertones

Stumps:Acylinderthatispointedoneachendconsistingoftightlyrolledpaper,usedwithdrymediafor
blendingtones

Texture:Thesurfacecharacterortactilequalitiesexperiencedeitherthroughthesenseoftouchorthrough
theimagination

Vanishingpoint:Inlinearperspective,thepointonthehorizonlineatwhichrecedingparallellinesappearto
converge

Valueanelementofdesignthatrelatestothelightnessordarknessofacolorortone

ValueScaleRangingfromlighttodark,startingwithwhite,thelightergrays,thedarkergrays,thenblack.
Usuallynumbered010with10representingblackthisscaleisusedtoevaluatecolorstodeterminetheir
value

Viewfinderasmallcardboardorpapersheetwithacutawaysquareorrectangularcenterthroughwithone
lookstoframeacomposition,aswithaviewfinderapparatusinacamera

Volumethequalityofaformthathasheight,width,anddepththerepresentationofthisquality

Graphite

Graphitesoftformofcarbonfoundinnatureandusedasleadinpencils.Itismanufacturedinawiderange
ofverysofttoveryhardstatesandproducesalustrousblack(softstate)orgrayblack(hardstate)mark
whendraggedagainstareceptivesurfacealsoavailableinstick,chunk,orpowderedform

Pencilawoodenorpapercylindricaltoolencasingagraphite,charcoal,crayon,orcoloredpigmentrodofa
widevarietyofhardandsoftgradesthemostversatiledrawinginstrumentsincetheendoftheeighteenth
century,andthemostcommonlyusedwritingimplementuntiltheinventionofthecartridgepen

VariationofGraphitePencilsLeadMarkings

MaterialsforGraphite:
Graphitepencilsassortmentofvariation
Sketchbook
Newspaperprint
Roughpaper
Stumps


Charcoal

Charcoalalight,blackresidue,consistingofcarbonandanyremainingash,obtainedbyremovingwater
andothervolatileconstituentsfromanimalandvegetationsubstances,usuallyproducedbyslowpyrolysis,
theheatingofwoodorothersubstancesintheabsenceofoxygen

Carbonizedwoodcharcoalproducedbyheatingslipsofwood(withoutfire)toremoveorganicmatter

Charcoalpaperatexturedpaperabrasivetocharcoalduetoitshardnessoftoothavailableindifferent
weightsinwhite,graytones,andmutedcolors

Compressedcharcoalpowderedcarbonizedwoodmixedwithabindingmaterialandpressedintochalklike
sticksandlabeledaccordingtohardnessfromHB(hardestandlightest)to6B(softestanddarkest)

Fixativesprayafinegranularmistthatdriesquicklywhileformingaprotective,porouscoatingthatfixesor
holdsthefineparticlesofdrymediainplace

Pressedcharcoalcomesasapencilusefulfordetaileddrawingsbecauseitcanbesharpenedtoafine
point

Stickcharcoalmadebyheatingsticksofwillowwoodaboutonequarterinchindiameterinkilnsuntilthe
organicmaterialshaveevaporated(carbonized)andonlydrycarbonremains

Vinecharcoalthehighestqualitystickcharcoalnamedforplantvinesfromwhichitisextractedthrough
heatingandcarbonization

MaterialsforCharcoal:
Charcoalvine,compressed,made

Eraserspink,white,kneaded
Stumps
Roughpaper
Fixative


ColorPencils/Crayons

ColoredPencilispencilcrayonisanartmediumconstructedofanarrow,pigmentedcoreencasedina
woodencylindricalcasevariationofcolors

Crayonapointedstickorpencilofcoloredclay,chalk,wax,etc.,usedfordrawingorcoloringvariationof
colors

MaterialsforColoredPencils/Crayons:
ColoredPencilsassortmentofcolors
Crayonsassortmentofcolors
Roughpaper


Pastels/Chalk

Pastelsacombinationofchalk,pigmentandabinder,usuallygumtragacanth,asubstancederivedfrom
variousPlants.Theingredientsaremixedandformedintoroundorrectangularsticks.Pastelsareavailable
inthreebasicforms:hardpastel,softpastelandpastelpencils.Hardpastelsareusuallyrectangularand
softpastelsarecylindershapedandcoveredwithpaper.

Oilpastelscolorinstickform,similartopastelsbutwithoilandwaxingredientsinplaceofthegumfoundin
regular(dry)pastels.Oilpastelsmakenodust.Oilpastelsmaybemoistenedandbrushedwithturpentineor
ormineralspiritstomakeawash

Chalkawidevarietyofeasilycrumbleddrawingmaterialsproducedineitherroundedorsquaresticks
rangingfromcoarsetofine,hardtosoft,ordrytogreasy,originallyobtainedfromnaturalcoloredearths.
Fabricatedchalkismadewithpastesofwatersolublebindingmediamixedwithdrypigments,sometimes
withadditionalinertclays,thenrolled,pressedintosticks,anddried

ConteCrayonsemihardchalksoffinetextureandvarioussizescontainingasufficientoilinthebinderto
adheremoreorlesspermanentlytosmoothpaper

MaterialsforPastels/Chalk:
Pastels,Chalkassortmentofcolors
RoughPaper


Ink

Inkblackand
coloredliquidthatisusedfordrawing,writingorprinting

Ballpointpenapenwithatinyballasitswritingpoint.Theballtransfersinkfromacartridgetothepaper

Calligraphyavisualartrelatedtowritingitisthedesignandexecutionofletteringwithabroadtip
instrument,dippen,orbrush,amongotherwritinginstrumentsacontemporarycalligraphicpracticecanbe
definedas,"theartofgivingformtosignsinanexpressive,harmonious,andskillfulmanner"

Calligraphiclinefreeflowinglinethatresembleshandwriting,makinguseofgradualandgracefultransitions
inlineweight

Finepointpenapeninwhichthepointisafineballbearingthatrotatesagainstasupplyofsemisolidinkin
acartridge

Pennibtheparticularpointofapenavailableindifferenttypesandsizeswhetherquill,reed,bamboo,or
steelthatcontrolsthecharacterofaline

Sharpieapenwithindelibleinkthatwillwriteonanysurface

MaterialsforInk:
Inkblackandblue,othercolor
Assortmentofdifferentpens,calligraphy,ballandfinepoint,sharpiesbigand
fineblack,blueandred,othercolors
PaintBrush
RoughPaper


Painting

GeneralPaintingTerminology:
Paintingtheprocessorartofusingpaint,inpicture,asaprotectivecoating,orasdecoration

Binderthemediumthatholdspigmentparticlestogetherinpaint

Blendingtheactofblurringthelinesbetweenpaintcolours,allowingonetograduallyflowintotheother
withnoclearseparationbetweenthetwo

Brushes(Basic)

Roundorpointedtipgoodfor:sketching,outlining,detailedwork,controlledwashes,fillingin
smallareascreatesthintothicklinesthinatthetip,becomingwiderthemoreitspresseddown
usedwiththinnedpaintratherthanpaint

PointedRoundnarrowerthantheroundpaintbrush,hassharplypointedtipgoodfor:fine
detailsandlines,delicateareas,spottingandretouching

Flatsquareend,withmediumtolonghairsgoodfor:boldstrokes,washes,fillingwidespaces,
impasto,canuseedgeforfinelines,straightedgesandstripes,longhairedflatbrushesareideal
forvanishing

Brightflatwithedgescurvedinwardattip,withshorthairsgoodfor:shortcontrolledstrokes
thick,heavycolorbetterforworkingupcloseratherthanholdingthebrushatadistancefromthe
canvas

Filbertflatandovalshapedendwithmediumtolonghairsgoodfor:blending,softroundededges
likeflowerpetalsthisbrushissortofacombinationoftherounds(becausetheycanbeusefor
detail)andflat(becausetheycancovermorespacethanround)

Fanflat,spreadhairsgoodfor:naturalhairsaregoodforsmoothing,blending,andfeathering
synthetichairsarebetterfortexturaleffects,clouds,andleavesontreesforacrylics,usedstrong
andsturdy,otherwisethehairswillclumpwhenpaintisadded

AngularFlatflatwithangledhairsatendgoodfor:curvedstrokesandfillingcornerscanreach
smallareaswithtipalsocanbeusedtocoverlotsofspace,similartoflatbrushesDetailRound
hairsshorterinlengthshorterhandlegoodfor:detailsandshortstrokesholdsmorecolorthanyou
mightthink

Canvasthefabricthatisstretchedonawoodenframewhichoilpaintingsandacrylicpaintingsaredone

ColourBlockingtheactoflayingoutallmaincoloursinapaintinginaflatcolourwash.Mostofthislayer
willbepaintedover,itisjusttogivetheartistagoodideaofhowtheoverallpaintingwillcometogether

Compositiontheessentialstructureofapictureseparatefromsubject,style,andmeaningfundamental
abstractdesigncastingline,shape,value,pattern,texture,andcolorthroughtheprinciplesofbalance,
harmony,rhythm,repetition,variation,dominance,subordination,andfocus

DryBrushTechniquetheprocessofusingadrypaintbrush,orbarelywetpaintbrush,toapplysmall
amountsofpainttothesurface.Thismustbedoneinascrubbytypemotion

DryBrushTechniquetheprocessofusingadrypaintbrush,orbarelywetpaintbrush,toapplysmall
amountsofpainttothesurface.Thismustbedoneinascrubbytypemotion

Frescoatechniqueofpaintingonalayerofwetplaster.Theplasterabsorbsthepigmentsandthepainting
becomespartofthewall.

FlatColourpaintappliedinasolidmotion,withnovariationincolour.Thisishowwepaintourwallsinour
homes

FlowReleaseanadditiveusedtoincreasethewateryqualityofthepaint,allowingforthinnerapplications

GelMediumavarietyofgellikemediumsusedtoincreaseordecreasetheconstancyofthepaint,allowing
thepainttogofartherwhilealsoincreasingtheworkingtimeofthepaintbeforeitstartstodry.

Gessoprimerusedtoprepsurfacestoacceptacrylicpaintgessoincreasesthetoothofthesurface,giving
thepaintsomethingtograbontoandstick

Glazingtheprocessofapplyingthin,transparentlayersofcolouroverexistingdrypaintcolours,allowing
someoftheoriginallayertoshinethroughthenewglazelayer.

Groundanopaque,flatcolourappliedtoablankcanvastosetthetoneofthepaintingandtoallowmore
accuratecolourdecisionstobemade.(Neverstartpaintingoverbrightwhite!)

Highlightthelightestpartsofthepainting.Itisgenerallyrecommendedtopaintyourabsolutehighlights
(especiallypartsthatarepurewhite)attheveryendofyourpainting

Impastoapaintingtechniqueusingthickpaintapplicationsandhardlines,eitherwithpaintbrushesthat
showbrushstrokes,orwithpaletteknivesthatleavevarioustextures

Lighttheilluminationofanobjectmakingsightpossibleamajorcomponentofchiaroscurohelpingto
defineformsinspacewithinacomposition

Masstonetheperceivedcolourofthepaintasitlookscomingdirectlyoutofthetube

Mediumasubstanceusedwithacrylicpaintsforvariouseffects,includingincreasingordecreasingthe
thicknessofthepaint,oraddingspecialeffectslikegrainy,roughtextures,ortheabilitytostanduphighoff
thecanvaswithoutfallingover

Opaquefinishthatisnottransparent.Lightcannotbeseenthroughitanddoesnotallowwhatis
underneathtoshowthrough
Overlapplacingonecoatofpaintalongsideanother,onepartlyextendingovertheother
Pigmentaninsolublefinelygroundpowder,eithernatural,synthetic,inorganicororganic.Itprovidescolor,
hardness,durability,hidingandcorrosionresistancetopaint.
Reducerasolventusedtolowertheviscosityofanenamelorurethane.
SolventCleanersolventbasedcleaningmaterialusedtoremovecontaminationfromsurfacespriorto
refinishing,mineralspirits
Thinnersolventmaterialusedtoreducetheviscosityoflacquers,turpentine

OilPaint

OilPaint
atypeofslowdrying
paint
thatconsistsofparticlesof
pigment
suspendedina
dryingoil
,
commonly
linseedoil

Canvasthefabricthatisstretchedonawoodenframewhichoilpaintingsandacrylicpaintingsaredone

Gessoprimerusedtoprepsurfacestoacceptacrylicpaintgessoincreasesthetoothofthesurface,giving
thepaintsomethingtograbontoandstick

LinseedoilThebinderusedinartistsoilpaints,alsoasaningredientinsomevarnishesandinks.Canbe
usedtomakeoilpaintmoretransparent.Itwillcauseyellowingwithage

MineralSpirits
avolatile,colorlessliquiddistilledfrompetroleum,usedasapaintthinnerandsolvent

Paletteknifeablunttoolusedformixingorapplyingpaint,withaflexiblesteelblade.Itisprimarilyusedfor
mixingpaintcolors,paste,etc.

Turpentineafluidobtainedbythedistillationofresinobtainedfromlivetrees,mainlypines.Itismainlyused
asasolventandasasourceofmaterialsfororganicsynthesis

Solventaliquidmaterialthatisusedtothinthebinderinapaint

Tooththetextureofthepaintingsurfaceverysmoothsurfacelikewoodhaslittletooth,whileacanvashas
moretooth

MaterialsforOilPaint:
OilPaintsassortmentofcolors
Brushesassortmentofsizes,andtypes
PaletteKnifesassortmentofsizes,andtypes
Palette
LinseedOil
Turpentine
MineralSpirits
Canvas
WoodPanel
Gesso
RagorOldTShirt
SmallLightPlasticToolbox(holdssomesupplies)
2plasticsjars

AcrylicPaint

Acrylicpaintafastdryingpaintmadeofpigmentsuspendedinacrylicpolymeremulsionacrylicpaintsare
watersoluble,butbecomewaterresistantwhendry

AdditiveAsubstanceaddedtoacrylicpainttochangeitschemicalproperties

Canvasthefabricthatisstretchedonawoodenframewhichoilpaintingsandacrylicpaintingsaredone

Curing(orCureTime)Theactoftheacrylicpaintfullydrying,orthetimeittakesfortheacrylicpainttobe
fullysetandpermanent

Gessoprimerusedtoprepsurfacestoacceptacrylicpaintgessoincreasesthetoothofthesurface,giving
thepaintsomethingtograbontoandstick

OpenTimetheperiodoftimeinwhichtheacrylicpaintremainsworkableandwet,leavingnohardedges
andstillpossessingtheabilitytoblend.Usingcertainadditivesandmediumscanextendtheopentimeof
acrylicpaint(examplesincluderetarderandGoldensOPENmedium).

RetarderAnadditiveusedtoincreasetheopen,workabletimeofacrylicpaint

Tooththetextureofthepaintingsurfaceverysmoothsurfacelikewoodhaslittletooth,whileacanvashas
moretooth

MaterialsforAcrylicPaint
AcrylicPaintassortmentofcolors
Brushesassortmentofsize,andtypes
Palette
PaletteKnife
Canvas
WoodPanel
Gesso
WaterContainers
Rag

Watercolor

Blotting
liftingawaymoistureandpigmentwithanabsorbentmaterial(facialtissue,papertowelorsponge)
usedtolightenareasinapaintingortocreatespecialeffects

Buckingthewrinklingandbendingcausedbyexpansionwhichoccurswithwatercolorpaperwhenwet(also
calledcockling)

Caseinafastdrying,watersolublepaintderivedfrommilkprotein,orcasein

Chargingtechniquethatinvolvesmixingtwoormorecolorsdirectlyonthepaperinsteadofpremixingona
palette

Coldpressedpaperlightlytexturedpaperthatabsorbspaintandwater

Drybrushtechniquebrushworkdoneonthedrysurfaceofthepaper

Flatwashbrushingsuccessivestrokesofcoloronawetordrysurface,witheachstrokeplacednexttothe
other,tocreateanevenlayerofcolor

FlatWash
anareaofevenlydistributedcolor."Flat"meaningthecolorremainsthesamehue,value(or
intensity)andtexturalquality.Nobrush
strokesshowing.

Glazingapplyingthin,transparentwashesofonecoloroveranothercolor
gradatedwash:awashinwhichthevaluegraduallychangesfromdarktolight

Gradedwashawashthatsmoothlychangesinvaluefromdarktolight.Mostnotedinlandscapepainting
foropenskywork,butanessentialskillforwatercolorpaintingingeneral.

Granulationspeckledeffectwhencoarsepigmentsettlesintothepaperindentationsasthepaintdries

Hotpressedpapersmooth,slickpaperthatdoesnteasilyabsorbpaintandwater


Layeringapplyingpremixedcolorsoveranotherwashtochangeitsvalueorintensity

Liftingpaintatechniqueforremovingpaintfromasurfacewithabrush,papertowelortissueinorderto
correctmistakes,developtextures,createhighlightsorchangevalues

Panpaintsmallcakesofwatercolorpaintthatcomeinhalfpanorwholepansizes
pigment:drycoloringmatter,usuallyaninsolublepowder,thatsmixedwithwaterandgumArabictocreate
paint

Washathinfluidapplicationofwatercoloroneitherwetordrywatercolorpaper.Awashusuallyimplies
layingdowncoloronabroadareaofpaper

Washouttoremovepaintfromapaintedareaofthepaintingusingasponge,brush,ordampcloth

Watermediaanypaintthatiswatersoluble,orwaterbased.Alsocalledaquamedia

Wetintodrywashknownasaglazeorlayeringwashawashthatsappliedtoadrysurface

Wetintowetwashpaintingonawetsurfaceandlettingcolorsblendastheymaylooksstrongandvibrant
whilewetbutlosesintensitywhenthecolorsdry

BasicWatercolorSupplies:
WatercolorPaintsassortmentofcolors
Brushesassortmentofsizes,andtypes
Palette
WatercolorPaper
Watercontainers

Watercolormaintenance:
Washingbrushes,dryingetiquette,storingartworks?

Howtoblendyourcolors:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jU7rMHNGYYI
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=awDM1weRP3E

TemperaPaint

Tempera(Italian:[
t
mpera]),eggtempera,isapermanent,fastdryingpaintingmediumconsistingof
coloredpigmentsmixedwithawatersolublebindermedium(usuallyaglutinousmaterialsuchaseggyolk
orsomeothersize)

MaterialsforTemperaPaint:
TemperaPaintassortmentofcolors
PaintBrushesassortmentofsize,andtypes
Palette
Paletteknife
Roughpaper
Rag
WaterContainers

WatercolorCombinedwithCharcoal

PlacingWatercolordownbeforecharcoalmakingthebeforelook:

1. Laydownwatercolorasifmakingawashofcolorsfor10to15on8.5x11onto
watercolorpaper.
2. Letitthoroughlydryovernightortakeablowdryertoit.
3. Afteritisfullydrystart,pick3to4piecesofthewatercolorpaperyouhadwash
overon.
4. Gooutsideandlookatthingsthatinspireyoutodraw
5. Drawwithcharcoalontopofthewatercolorwash,trytoutilizethewatercolor
paintalreadyplacebeforehandtocreatetheform

Examples:

PlacingCharcoaldownbeforewatercolormakingtheafterlook:

1. Gooutsideandlookatthingsthatinspireyoutodraw
2. Drawwithcharcoalabout3to4on8.5x11ontowatercolorpaper
3. Whenfinishedusefixativeoneachdrawing,sprayatleast2timesforeachone
4. Letitdrawingdryafewminutes
5. Addwatercolorafterontopofthecharcoalutilizingtheemptyspacetodevelop
theform

Examples: