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Report 210 HSE-MS Guideline

Report 210 HSE-MS Guideline

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04/18/2013

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Evaluation of the risks posed by the identified hazards, however sophisti-
cated the detailed techniques employed (e.g. HAZOPS and HAZAN, QRA,
health risk assessment, EIA), requires consideration of both the severity of
the consequences of a potential event and the probability of its occurrence:

S4

Environment

Chronic

Acute

(incident)

Continuous discharge

Oil spill

Safety and health

Occupational exposure

Fire/explosion

Risk = Probability of occurrence x Severity of consequences

Risk = Probability of occurrence x Severity of consequences

Risks of different events can then be compared and considered against
screening criteria. Such criteria are most often a range of considerations or
values and can take a variety of quantitative or qualitative forms.

There may be considerable uncertainty attached to the estimate of the
probability of an event; the severity of the consequences if the hazard is
realised may be more readily and precisely definable. This ‘two-factor
model’ can be used to evaluate the acute safety and/or environmental
risks of a specific incident (e.g. blow-out or oil spill).

The evaluation of chronic effects on the environment arising out of a com-
pany’s operations, however, will need to take account of some ‘events’
which are regular or continuous, and intentional—such as the discharge of
effluent or the operation of gas flares. For such effects:

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

page 35

Risk = Severity of consequences = Exposure x Degree of harmfulness

(e.g. toxicity, disturbance to habitat)

Risk = Severity of consequences = Exposure x Degree of harmfulness

(e.g. toxicity, disturbance to habitat)

Similarly, in health risk assessment the probability of some degree of expo-
sure may be 100%; thus:

Regulatory controls, health surveillance programmes or epidemiological
studies (within the company or externally) may indicate exposure to health
hazards, chronic effects and the need for risk reduction measures. Harmful
agents (agents capable of causing chronic and/or acute adverse health
effects) include chemicals (e.g. hydrogen sulphide, hydrocarbon vapours,
solvents, coating materials), biological agents (e.g. pathogenic organisms
causing malaria and legionella) and physical agents (e.g. ionizing radiation,
cold and heat stress, dust, noise and vibration). Ergonomic factors (e.g.
equipment design and cumulative effects of repetitive movements) relating
to the manner in which tasks are performed will also need to be considered.

The results of formal risk evaluation facilitate:

qAssessment of the feasibility of the proposed activity, based on

compliance with the defined screening criteria.

qIdentification of the need for specific prevention, mitigation and/or

recovery measures.

qIdentification of permitted operations (e.g. simultaneous operations).

qIdentification of monitoring requirements (e.g. for emission and

exposure monitoring).

qPrioritisation of opportunities for improvement.

Evaluation of HSE risks requires access to information on the probabilities
of specific events and/or on the nature and severity of likely conse-
quences; sources of such information include, for example:

qInternal knowledge and experience of managers and HSE experts.

qIndustry frequency and failure rate databases and co-operative

research programmes.

Risk = Severity of consequences = Exposure x Degree of harmfulness

(e.g. toxicity)

Risk = Severity of consequences = Exposure x Degree of harmfulness

(e.g. toxicity)

qRelevant international, national and company standards and codes of

practice.

qIndustry and trade association codes of practice and other guidance.

Company and external R&D aimed at identifying hazards and effects, and
assessing and reducing the risks associated with them, is to be encouraged.

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