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a project report born out of summer internship and submitted in part fulfilment of the academic requirements for
The Post Graduate Diploma in Business Management
Indira School of Business Studies, Pune
During the academic years 2006-08 By Navin Khaware Roll No-B46
TABLE OF CONTENTS
• EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1. Introduction 2. Objectives of study 3. Scope and Limitations of the study 4. Methodology
• CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY • ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA • FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION • • BIBLIOGRAPHY ANNEXURE
The satisfaction of completion of any successful task is incomplete without mentioning the name of people who made it possible and whose constant guidance and encouragement crowned our efforts with success. I have a pleasure in submitting the project report and I take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to all those who have helped me in this organization. I express my sincere gratitude to Mr. Prakash Tatia, Vice-President (Marketing), who gave the vital inputs and necessary information regarding the project and organization. I would also like to thank my project guide Mr. R.S.Bowrankar, (Dy.General ManagerMarketing), for giving me the opportunity constant encouragement, support and guidance and for imparting their views regarding Developing Strategies. I wish to place on record my sincere Thanks to people of Vikram Ispat management team for their contribution and co operation. I'm also thankful to Mr.Saini, Sr.Manager, Marketing Mr.Dilip Rajpurohit, Assistant Manager (Marketing) whose encouragement and never ending support made me relentlessly work hard towards the pursuit of preparing this report in a timely and efficient manner. This project report could not have been completed without the guidance of our Director Dr.Renu Bhargava ,Project Guide Prof. Bidyut Gogoi. I also wish to express my gratitude to all those who have directly or indirectly given assistance in making this project easier and possible.
The project entitled “Developing marketing strategy” from VIKRAM ISPAT (A UNIT OF GRASIM IND. LTD.) an Aditya Birla Group Company has been prepared in partial fulfillment of PGDBM degree awarded by INDIRA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS STUDIES, Pune. VIKRAM ISPAT manufactures various types of SPONGE IRON. These Sponge Iron are used by: Steel Industry Foundries The reason for carrying out survey was to know the potential of sponge iron market all over India. If production is doubled what would be the potential of Gas based DRI. The survey was conducted in various parts of Mahrashtra. The areas that were covered were as follows: • • • • • • Nashik Wardha Bhiwandi Raipur Revdanda Pren
All these areas are part of Mahrashtra. Due to certain limitation and weather conditions survey was conducted only in the above mentioned areas. There was more of literature survey like availability of natural gas.
Survey was conducted with the existing customers of the company as per the list provided by the company personnel.
The primary objective of the research was:• To find out the position of the Vikram Ispat as compared to the other competitors in the market. • • • Customer’s perception and satisfaction level about VIKRAM ISPAT. To identify measures to be taken to increase sell of VIKRAM ISPAT products. To find out the sales figure for GAS BASED DRI.
The Secondary objectives of the research were: • • To create the list of reference to promote GAS BASED DRI. To identify measures to improve quality of the product..
A structured questionnaire was used as research instrument. Total sample size was 23. Also informal talks with the employee of the surveyed company have also played a vital role in the data collection. Customers visited were of induction furnace category. 5
1. Introduction 2. Statement of problem 3. Objectives of study 4. Scope and Limitations of the study 5. Methodology
The boom in the steel sector in last three years has already indicated the huge demand of the Sponge Iron. And now that the steel sector is quite stable but still its having more demand compared to what it was three years before. The major reason for it being development in various fields due to development in the economy. The Gas Based Dri market in India is growing at a faster rate. Major players for gas based dri in the Indian market are: . Vikram Ispat . Essar steels . Ispat industries limited Various reasons for the growth in the demand of the DRI in the few recent years can be given as follows: • • • The rising rate of growth of the GDP. Rise in the purchasing power of people. The need of development in the infrastructure.
The DRI market in India is dominated by Vikram Ispat which has the market share of 40% especially for Dri . Vikarm Ispat was established in 1993. Ever since it’s the market leader in the DRI. But in the present scenario it’s facing tough competition in certain parts of India.
A stiff competition has lead Vikram Ispat to undertake market research to find out its position in terms of other competitors and find out various measures to increase its market share. Thus considering the above discussion this project work is of immense importance to the company and has provided some important lines of action
Objectives of the study
• To find out the position of the Vikram Ispat as compared to the other competitors in the market. • • • Customer’s perception and satisfaction level about VIKRAM ISPAT. To identify measures to be taken to increase sell of VIKRAM ISPAT products. To find out the sales figure for GAS BASED DRI.
The Secondary objectives of the research were: • • To create the list of reference to promote GAS BASED DRI. To identify measures to improve quality of the product..
Scope and Limitations
SCOPE : Research was limited for the certain parts of India only. The areas that were visited were as follows: • • • • • • Nashik Wardha Bhiwandi Raipur Revdanda Pren
Research emphasis was only on finding customers priority on purchasing their products for Vikram Ispat products and other competitive products. It includes finding position of Vikram Ispat products in respect to other competitors. And necessity to formulate marketing mix of the company if any. LIMITATIONS :
The study is based on the perception, ideas and preferences of the respondent, which are complex in nature and depend upon subjectivity of the individual.
Many times there was lack of cooperation from respondent for research. The research was carried out in certain parts of Mahrashtra only therefore finding and suggestion are limited to those parts only.
Project was carried out in the month of june-july and demand for DRI differ is very sensitive to price as well as requirement of the customers. Hence figures provided may not be accurate.
Research methodology is the process which helps in selecting the tools to achieve the objectives. Methodology used in this research is the survey of the customers of the who require Ferro alloys for mixing in their product. Sources of data collection: Primary data: Data obtained from the first hand by the researcher is called the primary data. Here the main source of primary data collection was interviews, discussion and interaction with customers by using the Questionnaire. Secondary data: Secondary data refers to the data available in some form or another and may include the result of the previously performed research or the available materials such as newspaper, reports may be from the internet. Various sources of secondary data used in this research are: • • • • • • Internet Interaction with the employee of the company. Intra web-site of Vikram Ispat. SIMA magazines. HYL Report. MIDREX Report.
The methodology consists of: • • • • Need and objective of research Collecting the facts/data Analysis of the data. Conclusion and solution.
After identifying problems and sources of data the next step is to prepare a research design. It facilitates research to be efficient as possible yielding maximum information.
Survey method was used to collect data. List of existing customers were provided by the company. Approach used was to take prior appointment of customers and then meet them or in some cases meet the customers directly without appointment and then fill up the questionnaire.
It is a tool used to collect data from sample. A structured questionnaire was used as research instrument in this project. A questionnaire consists of both close ended and open ended question to make analysis easy and respondent to feel free to answer the questions.
A definite plan developed to obtain a sample from a given population is called sampling plan.
Judgmental sampling of all the customers as per the list provided by the company was covered from various parts of India.
For customers: 7 customers
Sampling units were geographical. Geographical areas visited: 1. Maharashtra: Mumbai, Wardha, Nashik.
An industry and its employee were considered as sampling unit.
VIKRAM ISPAT (a UNIT OF gRASIM IND. lTD.)
VIKRAM ISPAT (A UNIT OF GRASIM IND. LTD.)
Aditya Birla Group
Aditya Birla Group is one of the largest Indian business houses operating in the country for over 5 decades and globally for nearly 3 decades. It was established in 1950. Global in vision, rooted in Indian values, the group is driven by a performance ethic pegged on valve creation for its multiple stakeholders. A 6.5 billion US$ conglomerate, with a market capitalization of 6.33 billion US$. It has 66 state-of-the-art manufacturing units and sectoral services span in India, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Egypt, Canada, Australia and Japan. An extraordinary force of 72000 employees belonging to over 20 different nationalities anchors it. Over 30% of its revenue flows from its operation across the world. The group's products and services offer distinctive customer solution. The Aditya Birla Group holds a leadership position in almost all the sectors in which it operates such as Aluminum, Mining, Chemicals, Cement, Carbon Black, Fertilizers, Branded Apparel, Insulators, Sponge Iron, Financial Services and Insurance.
It is Dominant in the following fields The world no. in viscose staple fiber
The world's largest single location palm oil producers World's largest producer of white cement The fifth largest producer of carbon black World's third largest producer of insulator India's premier branded garments player Asia's largest lowest cost integrated aluminum producer.
On the social front, a value-based, caring corporate citizen, the Aditya Birla Group inherently believes in the trusteeship concept of management. Parts of the Group’s are ploughed back into meaningful welfare-driven initiatives that make a qualitative difference to the lives of initiatives and rural development, Mrs. Rajeshree Birla spearheads it. The Aditya Birla group operates a decentralized, professionally managed, responsive organization led by Mr. Kumar Mangalam Birla, supported by an experienced and well qualified international management team.
Grasim Industries Limited, a flagship company of the Aditya Birla Group, ranks among India's largest private sector companies, with consolidated net revenues of Rs.141 billion (FY2007). Starting as a textiles manufacturer in 1948, today Grasim's businesses comprise Viscose Staple Fibre (VSF), Cement, Sponge Iron, Chemicals and Textiles — in all of which the company holds a dominant position. In July 2004, Grasim acquired a majority stake and management control in UltraTech Cement Limited, the de-merged cement business of Larsen & Toubro Limited (L&T). One of the largest of its kind, in the cement sector, this acquisition catapulted the Aditya Birla Group at the top of the league in India. The Group's combined capacity stands raised to 31 million tpa, of which 17.0 million tpa capacity comes from UltraTech and 1.1 million tpa from Shree Digvijay Cement Co. Ltd, another subsidiary of Grasim. Between Grasim and its subsidiaries, the Group has 11 composite plants, seven split grinding units, four bulk terminals — inclusive of one in Sri Lanka and 10 ready-mix concrete plants. Importantly, it gives the Group a strong national presence, with a leadership position in 17 states. Viscose staple fibre The Aditya Birla Group is the world's largest producer of VSF, commanding a 23 per cent global market share. The company meets India's entire domestic VSF requirements. Cement The Aditya Birla Group is the 11th largest cement producer in the world and the seventh largest in Asia. Sponge iron It is the largest merchant producer of sponge iron in India.
Chemicals Grasim has India's second largest caustic soda unit.
Textiles Its premium brands, the Grasim and Graviera range of fabrics, have distinctively positioned themselves as 'the power of fashion'. All of Grasim's units have earned ISO 9002 and 14001 certifications. Product quality, innovation and eco-friendliness are a hallmark of all the company's divisions
LANDMARKS Bihar Caustic Bihar Caustic and Chemicals Ltd., Rehla, Jharkhand has received the FICCI Annual Award 2003-2004 in recognition of corporate initiative in family welfare Grasim, Nagda 2006 :: Greentech Environmental Excellence Award by Greentech Foundation :: Planet Award for Innovation in Employee Performance Management from the Aditya Birla Group :: Distinguished Achiever Award to Mr. Ravi Uppal from the Aditya Birla Group :: Young Achiever Award to Mr. Rakesh Jha from the Aditya Birla Group
2005 Environmental and Ecological Gold Award by Greenland Society Golden Peacock Eco-Innovation Award by IOD Safety awards for longest accident-free period (Membrane Cell) and lowest average frequency rate (CSA plant) by the Government of India 18
CII National Energy Management Award for the most energy efficient unit Certificate for Strong Commitment to Excel CII-Exim Bank Award for business excellence :: Rajiv Ratna National Award — Best Chief Executive Gold Award by Greenland Society :: Greentech Environment Excellence Award by the Greentech Foundation :: Rajiv Ratna National Award – Best Pollution Control Implementation Gold Award by Greenland Society :: Greentech Safety Gold Award by the Greentech Foundation :: National Safety Award by the Government of India :: Indira Gandhi Memorial National Award by the Greenland Society :: Vishkarma National Award by the Government of India 2004 :: Grasim, Nagda received the FICCI Annual Award 2003-2004 in recognition of corporate initiative in rural development Vikram Cement :: The first Indian unit to win the coveted TPM award from the Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance, Tokyo, in 1995 :: The Ramakrishna Bajaj National Quality award in 1998 :: The first cement unit in the world to receive IQRS level 5 rating from DNV, The Netherlands :: The first cement unit in India to be certified ISO 14001 (1997) and OHSA 18001 (certifications from DNV, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, in 2001) :: SA 8000 certification achieved 19
Aditya Cement 2004 :: Aditya Limestone Mines wins the following awards at the Mines Safety Week 2004, Udaipur: Mines machinery and maintenance: first Safety, occupational health and VTC: first Mine working: second Environment protection, publicity, propaganda and housekeeping: second Overall performance: second
1999 :: Best productivity award by the National Productivity Council 2000 :: National energy conservation award by Ministry of Power, Government of India :: Best energy efficient unit award by CII :: IQRS level 6 rating from DNV, The Netherlands 2001 :: First in India to be certified ISO 9001:2000, by DNV, The Netherlands (2001) :: TPM Excellence award, first category, by JIPM, Tokyo
Rajashree Cement 2004 :: Birla Super Cement received the Environment Excellence Award under the silver category by GreenTech Foundation :: Birla Super Cement certified with the OHSAS 18001:1999 for their occupational health and safety management system by Det Norske Veritas (DNV) 2001 :: National award for 'Quality excellence in the Indian Cement Industry' from the National Council for Cement and Building Materials 1999 :: IMC Ramakrishna Bajaj National Quality award (certificates of merit) 1995 :: Jamnalal Bajaj Uchit Vyavahar Puraskar for fair business practices 1993 :: Rajiv Gandhi National Quality award
Viscose Staple Fibre 2004 :: The 2004 Stockholm Industry Water award 2003 :: Deming Quality Control award :: IMC Ramkrishna Bajaj National Quality award :: IMC Ramkrishna Bajaj National Quality award — commendation certificate for Grasilene Division
:: CII Exim Bank award — commendation for business excellence :: Greentech Gold award for environmental excellence 2002 :: Chairman's Gold award for manufacturing excellence :: CII Exim Bank award — commendation for commitment of TQM :: Rajiv Gandhi National Quality award — best of all :: ISO - 9001 certification :: ISO - 14001 certification 2001 :: Rajiv Gandhi National Quality award — commendation certificate :: Corporate Citizen award for excellent contribution in the area of social development 2000 :: Chairman's Silver award for manufacturing excellence :: Rajiv Gandhi National Quality award — commendation certificate
VISION, MISSION & VALUES STATEMENT OF COMPANY
VISION “Sustaining the leadership position through value based services.” MISSION “To establish ourselves as the first choice of our customers with a focus on value
creation for all other stakeholders.”
INTEGRITY: We define integrity as honesty in every action. We shall act and take decisions in a manner that these are fair, honest and follow the highest standards of professionalism. Integrity shall be the cornerstone for all our dealings, be it with our customers, our employees, suppliers, our partners, shareholders, the communities we serve or the government. COMMITMENT: On the foundation of integrity, we see commitment as doing whatever it takes to deliver as promised. Each one of us shall take ownership for our own work, teams and the part of the organization we responsible for. Through this value, we shall build an even sharper results-oriented culture that is high on reliability accountability. Our commitment is likely to make us a formidable leader and competitor in every market that we are in.
PASSION: We define passion as a missionary zeal arising out of an emotional engagement with work, which inspires each one to give his or her best. All of us are expected to be enthusiastic in the pursuit of our goals and objectives. We shall recruit and actively 23
encourage employees with a ‘fire in belly’. With this value, we hope to build a culture of innovation and breakthrough thinking, leading to superior customer satisfaction and value creation.
SEAMLESSNESS: We understand seamlessness as thinking and working together across functional silos, hierarchy levels, across business lines and geographies. Each one of us shall demonstrate high level of teamwork through sharing and collaborative efforts and garner the synergy benefits from working together. Before we can truly benefit from a borderless world, we need to build a borderless organization. We visualize free flow of knowledge and information across the group.
SPEED: We look upon speed as responding to internal and external customers with a sense of urgency. We shall continuously seek to crash timelines and ensure expeditious completion of our tasks. Through this value, we hope to build an agile and proactive organization that is prompt to respond to the present and future needs of our customers.
All these values together form our core ideology. They are all equally important and no value will take precedence at the cost of the other. It is in the harmonization of the five that we see the prospect of greater value creation for all our stakeholders. \
The product produced at VKRAM ISPAT are mainly consumed by: Steel Industry Foundries Electrodes
Dye & Intermediates
A FIRST AT VIKRAM ISPAT (A Unit Of Grasim Industries Ltd)
Vikram Ispat, A Unit of Grasim ind. Ltd., is located at salav village in Raigad district of Mahrashtra 130 KM south of Mumbai. The plant was visualized by Late Aditya Birla anticipating the increased use of Electric Arc Furnace and Induction Furnace in Steel Making, shift towards high quality of steel and import of scrap.
The plant was setup in 1989 with design capacity of 0.75 million tones of Sponge Iron in the Form of HBI with an initial investment of Rs. 525 crores. The factory is spread over 43 hectors. The plant was upgraded in 1998 to a capacity of 0.9 million tones with an increased investment to Rs. 725 crores. The plant produces both HBI and DRI from the same reactor – A First and the only plant in the world.
The plant is based on HYL III Technology from HYLSA, Mexico are the pioneers in GAS Based sponge iron technology and have put their first plant in 1957 based on fixed bed reduction.
The HYL III plant is designed with two independent sections: One generating the reducing Gas and the other for reduction of Iron Oxides. The reducing gas Generation section consists of natural gas – Steam reformer and related equipment . Reforming reaction takes place at high temperature in high alloys tubes packed with nickel based catalyst. In the reactor which is working at pressure , the mixture of recycled gas and reformed gas at high temperature flow upwards as counter current to the descending moving bed of iron oxides resulting in reduction reaction. The reactor exhaust gases are cooled, quenched, decarbonated and recycled.
Vikram Ispat is the world's first sponge iron reactor to produce both HBI & DRI from the same reactor successfully. Vikram Ispat started as a merchant producer of HBI. The plant used 3 lines of HBI
briquetting machines and had a provision for a 4th line. In order to serve the domestic market for conventional DRI, the plant installed a 4th STREAM as DRI line. Below the existing rotary valve, a new hot diverter valve was installed in order to send the hot DRI to the third briquetting machine or the new DRI cooling bin. The hot DRI is cooled down in the new DRI cooling bin using cooling gas coming from a new gas compressor having natural gas as a make up and cold DRI below 60oC will be sent to new pressurized DRI bins by a new cold rotary valve. The cold DRI from the pressurized bins is sent to the storage building using new belt conveyors. The pressurized bins have inlet and outlet cold cut off and plug valves.
Performances over the Years Sector wise Contribution
Sponge Ir o n's c o nt r ibut io n t o war ds gr o up t ur no ver (f ig in %) Others BPO Insulators VFY Sponge Fertiliser Chemicals Garments Acrylic Mines Spinning Insurance Carbon Vsf Telecom Cement Aluminiu Copper
2.4 0.5 0.5 1.2 1.2 1.3 2.7 1.8 2.5 3.6 3.3 3.8 7
Sponge Iron's contribution towards group turnover
8.6 11.4 15.8 19.4
Onl y VikramIspat's Contribution 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Other Sectors
O nly Vikram Ispat's Contribution
PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM
Sponge iron Sponge iron is the product created when iron ore is reduced to metallic iron, usually with some kind of carbon (charcoal, etc), at temperatures below the melting point of iron. This results in a spongy mass, sometimes called a bloom, consisting of a mix of incandescent wrought iron and slag. Use of sponge iron Sponge iron is not useful in itself, but must be processed further to create wrought iron. The sponge is removed from the furnace, called a bloomery, and repeatedly beaten with heavy hammers and folded over to remove the slag, oxidise any carbon or carbide and weld the iron together. This treatment usually creates wrought iron with about three percent slag and a fraction of a percent of other impurities. Further treatment may add controlled amounts of carbon, allowing various kinds of heat treatment (e.g. "steeling"). Today, sponge iron is created by reducing iron ore without melting it. This makes for an energy-efficient feedstock for specialty steel manufacturers which used to rely upon scrap metal. History Producing sponge iron and then working it was the earliest method used to obtain iron in the Middle East, Egypt, and Europe, where it remained in use until at least the 16th century. There is some evidence that the bloomery method was also used in China, but China had developed blast furnaces to obtain pig iron by 500 BC. The advantage of the bloomery technique is that iron can be obtained at a lower furnace temperature, only about 1,100°C or so. The disadvantage, relative to using a blast furnace, is that only small quantities can be made at a time.
ADVANTAGES OF DRI & HBI OVER SCRAP KNOWN CHEMICAL COMPOSITION CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF OUR DRI/HBI IS KNOWN TO THE USERS (MINI STEEL PLANTS HAVING ELECTRIC ARC & INDUCTION FURNACES) & THEREFORE THEY CAN USE IT WITHOUT FACING ANY ADVERSE CONDITIONS SAY LOW CARBON, HIGH SULPHUR OR PHOSPHORUS IN MOLTEN STEEL.CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SCRAP AVAILABLE IN MARKET DIFFERS FROM LOT TO LOT & UNCERTAIN. THIS LEADS TO EXTRA TIME TO PROCESS MOLTEN STEEL, HIGH POWER CONSUMPTION, LOW PRODUCTIVITY ETC. OUR DRI & HBI ARE FREE FROM ALL THESE COMPLICATIONS. LOW PHOSPHORUS & SULPHUR IN OUR DRI IS AN ADDED ADVANTAGE FOR STEEL MAKERS & THEREFORE IT IS USER FRIENDLY MATERIAL.
SAVINGS IN POWER CONSUMPTION WITH USAGE OF OUR DRI & HBI SAVINGS IN POWER CONSUMPTION IS CERTAINLY THERE. AS CARBON IN OUR PRODUCT IS 1.50-2.00% CARBON OPENING IS AROUND 0.20 TO 0.30% (DEPENDING ON QUALITY & QUANTITY OF OTHER RAW MATERIALS USED) THIS FACILITATES OXYGEN LANCING WHICH SAVES ELECTRIC ENERGY & REDUCTION OF TAP TO TAP TIME. THIS HAPPENS BECAUSE OF EXOTHERMIC REACTION OF OXYGEN & CARBON. IN CASE OF STEEL SCRAP THE CARBON CONTENT OF DIFFERENT CATEGORIES VARIES FROM 0.20 TO 0.50% & THEREFORE CARBON OPENING IS NOT UPTO THE MARK. IF OXYGEN LANCING IS DONE THAN MOLTEN BATH MAY BE OVER OXIDIZED WITH CARBON IN THE RANGE OF 0.05 TO 0.10%. TO PREVENT THIS SITUATION ADDITION OF COAL OR USE OF PIG IRON & CAST IRON IS NECESSARYIN THE FURNACE CHARGE MIX.HIGH CARBON OF OUR DRI & HBI NOT ONLY SAVES POWER CONSUMPTION BUT AVOIDS DIFFICULT SITUATIONS LIKE OXIDIZED BATH. APART FROM ABOVE HIGH CARBON IN OUR DRI & HBI HELPS IN REDUCTION OF FERROUS OXIDE PRESENTS IN DRI/HBI. THIS HELPS TO INCREASE YIELD OF OUR PRODUCTS DURING MELTING. REQUIRES LESS AREA TO STORE. SCRAP NORMALLY AVAILABLE IN THE MARKET IS HAVING LOW BULK DENSITY (0.8 TO 1.00 MT/M3.) WHEREAS OUR DRI & HBI HAS DENSITY OF
1.9-2.0 MT/M3 & 2.50-2.70MT /M3.RESPECTIVELY. THEREFORE IT REQUIRES LESS SPACE TO STORAGE. LESS AMOUNT OF TRAMP ELEMENTS TRAMP ELEMENTS SUCH AS COPPER, CHROMIUM, NICKEL, TIN, VANADIUM, MOLYBDENUM ETC ARE PRESENT UPTO 0.1% ONLY IN OUR DRI/HBI THIS LOW CONTENT OF TRAMP ELEMENTS HELPS THE STEEL MAKERS PRODUCING THIN SHEETS (COLD ROLLED PRODUCTS). HIGH AMOUNT OF TRAMP ELEMETS IS THEIR IN SCRAP & THESE CAUSES PROBLEMS IN ROLLING. THEREFORE OUR DRI/HBI IS SUITABLE FOR USE TO OUR CUSTOMERS LIKE LLOYDS STEELS, ISPAT INDUSTRIES LTD.ETC. FOAMY SLAG PRACTICE CAN BE EASILY ADOPTED WITH THE USE OF DRI IT IS POSSIBLE TO MAKE FOAMY SLAG.IT IS GENERATED NATURALLY DUE TO BUBBLING OF CO & CO2 GASES GENERATED DURING MELTING OF DRI/HBI. THESE BUBBLES ARE ENTRAPED IN BASIC SLAG MAKING IT FOAMY. THIS FOAMY SLAG COVERS THE MATERIAL UNDER PROCESS.THIS HELPS IN LOW POWER CONSUMPTION APPROX. 50-60 KWH PER TONNE OF LIQUID STEEL PRODUCED.FOAMY SLAG PRACTICE ALSO REDUCES REFRACTORY EROSION, ELECTRODE CONSUMPTION, TAP TO TAP TIME & THEREFORE INCREASES PRODUCTIVITY. CONTINUOUS FEEDING OF DRI/ HBI IS POSSIBLE. DRI & HBI ARE FEED CONTINUOUSLY IN EAF’S. WHEREVER SUCH FACILITY IS AVAILABLE. THIS REDUCES THE TIME LOST DUE TO SWINGING OFF THE FURNACE ROOF FROM TIME TO TIME FOR TAKING BACK CHARGES OF SCRAP. CONSEQUENTLY THIS PRACTICE REDUCES TAP TO TAP TIME BY AROUND 10 MINUTES PER HEAT, POWER CONSUMPTION BY APPROX. 20-30 KWH PER TONNE OF LIQUID STEEL.APART FROM THIS ONE GREAT ADVANTAGE OF AVOIDING BACK CHARGES IS THAT IT REDUCES CHANCES OF ACCIDENTS DUE TO SPALSHING OF LIQUID STEEL OVER SHOP FLOOR. SOME TIMES BECAUSE OF LOW DENSITY OF SCRAP, CHARGED SCRAP GETS HIGH LEVEL AFTER CHARGING & THIS AGAIN LEADS TO TIME LOST IN LEVELLING & PRESSING OF SCRAP. STICKING OF SCRAP TO SIDE WALLS IS OTHER PROBLEM AREA, IF THE STICKED MATERIAL COLLAPSES IN THE MOLTEN IT CHILLS THE BATH LEADING TO INCREASE IN POWER CONSUMPTION & TAP TO TAP TIME DEPENDING ON AMOUNT OF STICKED MATERIAL. IF THIS STICKED MATERIAL FALLS IN THE BATH DURING FURNACE TAPPING IT CHILLS THE TAPPED LIQUID STEELMAKING IT DIFFICULT TO CAST. CONTINUOUS FEEDING OF DRI/HBI IS FREE FROM ALL THE ABOVE PROBLEMS NORMALLY ENCOUNTERED WITH SCRAP USAGE.
ABSENCE OF INJURIOUS & HARMFUL FOREIGN MATERIALS OUR DRI & HBI ARE FREE FROM ANY OF THE INJURIOUS & HARMFUL MATERIALS LIKE EXPLOSIVES, BOMBS WHICH ARE PRESENT IN SCRAP.IT IS TO BE NOTED THAT SCRAP GENERATED DURING US-IRAQ WAR IN 2005 HAD CREATED LOT OF PROBLEMS IN SOME OF THE STEEL PLANTS LIKE M/S. BHUSHAN STEELS GHAZIABAD. IMPORTED SCRAP FROM GULF HAD TAKEN LIVES OF FEW WORKERS IN THIS STEEL PLANT & THEREFORE AUTHORITIES HAD ORDERED TO CLOSE THE STEEL PLANT. IF THIS SCRAP CONTAINING BOMBS OR EXPLOSIVES ARE CHARGED IN THE EAF OR INDUCTION FURNACE THAN THE CASUALITIES WILL BE ENORMOUS IN TERMS OF MONEY, PROPERTY LOSS & ABOVE ALL DEATH OF WORKERS IN THE STEEL PLANTS USING THIS KIND OF SCRAP. APART FROM THIS, SCRAP CONTAINS OTHER MATERIALS LIKE OIL, PAINT, DUST, PLASTIC, SULPHUR WHICH CAUSES POLLUTION ON THE SHOP FLOOR. VIRGIN MATERIAL OUR HBI & DRI ARE VIRGIN MATERIALS & THESE DO NOT CONTAINS ANYTHING WHICH IS HARMFUL FOR ITS USERS LIKE PLASTIC, RUBBER, SAND & DUST ETC. THOSE ARE NORMALLY FOUND IN SCRAP.
Customer can choose the DRI or HBI depending upon their other scrap mix and final product. Important Characteristics of HYL Sponge Iron: -Equivalent Metallization The balanced carbon content and lower percentage of iron oxide in sponge iron helps to increase the equivalent metallization index. The carbon in sponge iron mainly is in the form of iron carbide, reacts with oxygen in the unreduced oxide & increases metallization. % Equivalent metallization = % metallization + 6 (% of carbon) It indicates that the oxidized iron remain in the sponge iron can be fully reduced with the carbon which is available in the form of iron carbide & carbon. The carbon oxygen reaction improves heat transfer, decreases hydrogen and nitrogen in the metal
bath. Carbon available in the sponge iron pure and can be utilized completely in the steel making process. Chemical & Physical Characteristics of Sponge Iron will vary depending upon the quality of raw material being used. We at Vikram Ispat using iron ore pellets and iron ore with highest % of iron content available in the world. This not only improves the metallic yield but also easy to standardize the scrap mix for the Steel maker.
ADVANTAGES OF OUR DRI/HBI OVER COAL BASED SPONGE IRON LOW CARBON IN COAL BASED DRI • COAL BASED DRI IS HAVING CARBON IN THE RANGE OF 0.15 – 0.25% AS COMPARED TO OUR DRI/HBI HAVING CARBON 1.502.00%. THIS MAKES IT NECESSARY FOR COAL BASED DRI USER TO SUPPLEMENT CARBON BY ADDING PIG IRON, CAST IRON SCRAP OR COAL IN THE CHARGE MIX. LOW YIELD METALLIZATION OF COAL BASED DRI IS POOR BY 2 TO 5% AS COMPARED TO OUR DRI & HBI, THEREFORE ITS YIELD IS POOR. CHANCES OF CATCHING FIRE COAL BASED DRI IS PRONE TO CATCH FIRE, EVEN A SLIGHT MISTAKE IN STORAGE MAY LEAD TO FIRE. BETTER CHEMICAL COMPOSITION CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (METALLIC IRON & TOTAL IRON) IN OUR DRI IS MUCH SUPERIOR AS COMPARED TO COAL BASED SPONGE IRON.
• • • •
CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
MARKETING RESEARCH Marketing research can be broken down into two distinct words- Marketing and Research. We have to understand each of the two components Marketing and Research to know what Marketing Research is all about. Marketing is essentially a sum total of two entities, viz. the target market and the marketing mix for the market, which in turn is related to actions regarding the four P’s viz. Product, Price, Place and Promotion. Thus, marketing is some human activity directed at satisfying needs and wants through exchange process and a modern marketing system cannot exist without efficient producers and affluent consumers. Research is an activity solving problem. It is an endeavor to discover, and develop knowledge aiming for progress. The testing validity of existing phenomena cannot be possible but for research. Research is, “the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that a process involving a series of steps to collect and analyze the information needed for decision in the desired filed of enquiry. If it is in the field of sociology it is termed as Social research and if it is in the filed of marketing it is known as Marketing Research. According to Philip Kotler, “Marketing research is the systematic design, collection, analysis and reporting of data, and finding a solution relevant to specific marketing situation facing the company”. Marketing research is undertaken to guide managers in their analysis, planning, implementation and control of programmes to satisfy customers and organizational goals. In the words of Blankership and Doyle, “Marketing Research is the collection and implementation of facts that help marketing management to get products more efficiently into the heads of the customer. Marketing research encompasses all the information pertinent to this task, all the appropriate techniques.
American Marketing Association defines marketing research as, “the systematic gathering, recording, and analysis of data about problems relating to the marketing of goods and services”. Green and Tull have defined marketing research as “the systematic and objective search for and analysis of information relevant to the identification and solution of any problem in the field of marketing”. Marketing research can be broken down into two distinct words- Marketing and Research. We have to understand each of the two components Marketing and Research to know what Marketing Research is all about. Marketing is essentially a sum total of two entities, viz. the target market and the marketing mix for the market, which in turn is related to actions regarding the four P’s viz. Product, Price, Place and Promotion. Thus, marketing is some human activity directed at satisfying needs and wants through exchange process and a modern marketing system cannot exist without efficient producers and affluent consumers. Research is an activity solving problem. It is an endeavor to discover, and develop knowledge aiming for progress. The testing validity of existing phenomena cannot be possible but for research. Research is, “the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that a process involving a series of steps to collect and analyze the information needed for decision in the desired filed of enquiry. If it is in the field of sociology it is termed as Social research and if it is in the filed of marketing it is known as Marketing Research. From the above definitions, following fundamental characteristics of marketing research can be derived:• • Marketing Research is an objective and systematized body of knowledge. It involves collection, recording, analysis, interpretation and reporting of some relevant information.
Provides more efficient marketing of goods and services to consumers. It is concerned with problems relating to products, markets and methods of sales and distribution.
Deals with present and potential consumers as well as the changing marketing environment. Provides regular and reliable information about the product, its market and the potential consumer to the management so as to chalk out appropriate marketing strategy.
• • •
There can be both intra and extra resources for collecting information. It provides information for decision making and to develop new knowledge. Marketing research is an attempt to find justified solutions to marketing problems.
OBJECTIVES OF MARKETING RESEARCH:• To define the probable market for the product. • • • • • • • • • To know and report the market conditions and techniques, buying buying power of customers. behavior,
To assess competitive strength of various marketing policies. To forecast the market share and future sales. To know the impact of promotional efforts. To estimate the potential buying power in various areas. To indicate the distribution methods best suited to the product and the market. To study the requirements regarding the features of the product. To identify marketing opportunities or problems. To help select the right course of action.
TYPES OF MARKETING RESEARCH:Marketing Research provides adequate information to the line management. In the days of specialization, various types of marketing research are adopted. Each type of research is tailored to the individual needs of the management. There are seven major types of Marketing Research1) Marketing Performance Research 2) Product Research 3) Promotion Research 4) Distribution Research 5) Pricing Research 6) Research on Sales Methods 7) Research on Competition All these Researches are interrelated and one cannot consider one research as totally different from the other. In actual practice, a given marketing research problem may impinge on more than one subject. 1) Marketing Performance ResearchMarketing performance research provides information necessary for management to plan and control the performance of the marketing efforts. This research is $primarily concerned with the identification of problems and their solution. In this research a performance standard is fixed to gauge the marketing performance. This research is further subdivided as• • • • • Market Potential Research Overseas Marketing Research Consumer Research Market Share Research Sales Research
2) Product Research It is the task of product marketing research to determine consumer requirements and to keep abreast of product technical research. It is the development of a product line which meets the needs of certain group of consumers. It is further subdivided as• • • • Product Line Research Individual Product Research New product research Service Research
3) Promotion ResearchPromotion Research is mainly concerned with the expansion- stimuli of the market. It is further subdivided as• • • • Advertising Research Personal Selling Research Brand Image Research Readership Research
4) Distribution ResearchIt refers to the study of the physical flow of goods from the manufacturers of the final consumers. Goods may be distributed through different channels. The main objective of this research are• • • • • Distribution Channel Research Dealer Surveys Shop Audit Retail Store Investigation Location Research
5) Pricing ResearchIt reveals the quantity demanded at various levels of prices. It finds out the behavior of the competitors, the market shares, dealer’s attitude, production and marketing costs and other relevant factors. It can be subdivided as• • • Pricing of new product Pricing strategy and Competitors Price Discounts
6) Research on sales methodsIt has the following sub types• • • • Testing new sales Programme Analyzing problems of selling Measuring salesman’s effectiveness Study of sales compensation
7) Research on CompetitionIt involves• • Study on competitive structure of the industry and individual competitors Study of competitor’s Products, Prices, Promotion, Programmes, Channel Policies and sales methods. In this project Market Potential Research and Overseas Market Research was carried out. The overseas market research was aimed at expansion of the business in the international market.
Geographical Coverage of Vikram Ispat
Jammu Ludhiana, Gobindgarh, Hisar, Sonepat, Ballabhgarh Jodhpur, Falna Ghaziabad
Goa, Pune, Wardha, Raigad, Aurangabad, Thane, Ahmednagar, Nagpur, Solapur
Bellary, Shimoga, Bangalore, Hubli
Salem, Kariakal, Coimbatore, Perundurai
ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA
Indian Dri Production (2006-07)
Indian Dri production (2006-07)
Indian Dri Producton (2006-07)
Gas Based Coal Based
WARDHA REGION 47
Furnace Type:- Induction Furnace
SUPPLY TO WARDHA (f ig in tonnes)
10000 10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 TONNES 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0
150 Supply Potential SUPPLY Supply Current
ANALYSIS ON COMPARISON OF EAF & IF
FURNACES ALL OVER INDIA (EXCEPT EAST)
FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
SWOT ANALYSIS OF VIKRAM ISPAT
STRENGTHS • • • • • • • Competent Manpower Both HBI & DRI Financial Backing Brand Image Customer loyalty Good coordination among interdepartments Quality certification: ISO-9000 ISO-14001 ISO-18000 • • Ideal setup Plant located near the sea-shore OPPORTUNITIES • • • • • • • • Exports Shipping Assets Coastal market via Sea Pre-Sales service Growing Demand of steel China Factor Less consumption of steel in domestic market MPL has stabilized • • • • • • THREATS Gas Price, Gas Volume Price Export benefits, Coal based Plants Volatile Steel Market Increasing Power cost Availability of Imported Scrap • • • • • • • • WEAKNESSES Price of the product Promotional aspects Location of the plant [in terms of transportation in the rainy season] No development on the existing websites Inflexible approach towards selling process [ Payment terms] High cost of production Technology No further investments
PEST ANALYIS OF SPONGE IRON MARKET
POLITICAL • • • • • • • Govt. Policy to Housing, Infrastructure Ever changing central govt. Tax structure Inter State Tax Govt. Interference Development of infrastructure Recent Development On Gas Deal of RIL [ This is going to help Vikram Ispat in the long run post 2009] ECONOMICAL • • • • • • Unorganized marketing strategy of Scrap Imported Shredded Scrap Increasing foreign Currency Demand of Coal based DRI Lack of supply of Gas in comparison to the demand Lower price of competitive Products • • • • • • • • •
SOCIAL High pollution Local Unionization Local Market Infrastructure Cost is High Transportation cost is High
TECHNOLOGICAL Improvement in Coal Based Technology Unknown chemical composition of coal based DRI Higher Metallization of shredded scrap Backward integration:“Steel Cos. Setting up their own sponge iron Plants”
USP Analysis 1=Good/10=Poor
Criteria Fe Metallic Metallization % Carbon Ph Content Price Freight Vikram Ispat 1 3 1 1 10 7 Coal based DRI 10 10 10 10 1 1 Local Scrap 3 3 2 5 2 2 Shredded Scrap 1 1 1 1 1 1
Score out of 10 10 12 10 8 6 4 2
M et ta lic
5 3 1
al liz at io n
3 2 1
C ar bo n
on te nt
2 1 1
re ig ht
Coal based DRI Local Scrap Shredded Scrap
Score out of 10 10 10 12 0 2 4 6 8
Fe Me tta lic
Me tal liz ati o n % Ca rbo n Co nt e nt
V ik ram Is p a t's An a lys is
C rite ria
Pr i ce Fr ei g ht
V ik ra m Isp a t
Current Metallic Suppliers
At present there are three areas from where metallic Supplies are made:Raipur- Coal Based Sponge Iron Karnatka- Coal Based Sponge Iron Imported Scrap- Areas are mostly Middle East, Europe Pig Iron – Tata Sponge Iron
According to the areas surveyed there were no cases of any Backward Integration so there potential requirement from VI remains intact as long as quality and Price remains within their limit
Out of total survey there was only one customer who has got planning of Forward integration. Alok Ingots is the one which is planning to setup Rolling Mill
Scenario Western Region
P rojected D an em d
400 40 400 30 400 20 400 10
P rojected D an em d
400 00 300 90 300 80 300 70 2 07 08 0 -20 J -D '0 an ec 6 2 08 0 9 0 -2 0 P jec ro ted D an em d 2 09 0 0 0 -2 1
Scenario North Region
Scenario N orth Region
10000 9000 8000
7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0
Projected Dem and
Projected Dem and Year
Scenario South Region
Scenario South Region
12000 10000 Demand 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 Jan-Dec 06 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010
3947 9650 8850 9900
Projected Demand Year
Segment Wise Demand Region-west
20072008 30500 11500 1000 43000 20082009 28950 12500 1000 42450 20092010 29500 12500 1000 43000
Segment EAF IF Foundries TotalWest
Segm ent Wise Dem and
140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 Total-West Foundries EAF IF 0
2009-10 2008-09 2007-08
Segment EAF 2007-08 5850 2008-09 6850 2009-10 7350
Segment Wise Demand(North)
18000 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 2007-08 2008-09 Year 2009-10 Total-north IF EAF
Segment Wise Demand(South)
10000 9800 9600 9400 9200 9000 8800 8600 8400 8200 8000
New Customer/Market identified Region wise and their Projected Demand
New Customers Wada/Murbad/Nashik Pune/Ahmednagar Jalna/Aurangabad EAF/IF IF IF IF 2008-09 2000 1000 1000 2009-10 2000 1000 1000
N C ew usto ers-W m est
4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0
W ada/M ad a urb /N shik P e/A ed gar un hm na Jaln ura a/A ngab d a
New Customers Ludhiana Mandigobingarh Kanpur Bhiwadi
EAF/IF IF IF IF IF
2008-09 2000 1000 1000 1000
2009-10 2000 1000 1000 1000
4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0
Ludhiana Mandigobingarh Kanpur Bhiwadi
SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT
The suggestions for improvement are as follows :• • • VKRAM ISPAT should be little flexible in the pricing and credit policy. Major and old customers should be given more importance. $There should be some marketing personnel who should be given the responsibility of creating more one to one relationship and be in regular contact with them. • There should be only one price decider in every branch office, who should get the quotation approved by the head office before telling to customers. • • There should be more of advertisement. There should be more of publicity activities like inviting the customers for get together or parties and functions. • Steps should be taken to establish a unit or in territory region so as to avail tax benefits. • Steps should de taken to create the awareness about the company especially in that region where VKRAM ISPAT product is supplied by its agent. • There should be more of R&D activities undertaken through summer trainees once in every year for the betterment of performance in all the branches and zones.
Concentration should be given to various new industries coming up so as to explore them and increase the market share.
The product should be supplied strictly at the prorata demanded by the customers and not more or less than that, as it changes the price of the material drastically.
Agents’ activities should be closely monitored as there are chances of malfunctions.
CONCLUSION Working on this project was an enriching experience for me not only I got to know about the Sponge Iron manufacturing process, its requirement, its market but also about the various different industries related directly with VKRAM ISPAT business i.e. steel industries, foundries industries, welding industries and casting industries. And also I got the opportunity to be the part of lower level marketing department and that too in Aditya Birla Group. I had a wonderful experience of meeting with different kinds of high profile people and finding out the satisfaction level of the customers with regard to all other competitors. I was given the opportunity of traveling and surveying in eight states of India, in total I traveled about 8,000 kms in a span of five weeks which was in itself a wonderful experience to check my level of working in the corporate sector in the field of marketing. It is found that most of major customers who are mainly quality conscious prefer VKRAM ISPAT products. It is found that VKRAM ISPAT is the market leader of Gas Based DRI in the domestic market. Old customers in this field are very much aware of VKRAM ISPAT but new customers are not. Quality of VKRAM ISPAT products are perceived as the best by all the customers. In this competitive environment of DRI the rates are determined on the basis of international prices.
• Philip Kotler, Marketing Management, 12th edition, Pearson Education Publication.
C.R.Kothari, Research Methodology Methods And Techniques, 2nd Edition, Wishwa Prakashan.
• • • • www.adityabirla.com www.indiametals.com www.metalbulletin.com www.mindtools.com
VIKRAM ISPAT (A UNIT OF GRASIM IND. LTD.) Aditya Birla Group
Name of the Organization: Address & Contact no:
Contact person: ___________________________________________ 1 Which type of Process you use for Steel making? Electric Arc Furnace Induction furnace Corex Mini Blast Furnace Foundry
What is the size of Furnace? (NOS * MT) 1 to 10 ( ) 11 to 20 ( ) 21 to 30 ( ) >30 ( )
What is present monthly Production (mt/month)? …………………………………………………………………………………
What are your main grades of steel ? Alloy steel MS Stainless steel SG Iron
If any other please specify ____________________
What are your different types of Products? Long products, Ingot HRC Flat product Casting
If any other please specify _____________________________ 4 What are types of production facilities? LRF CC (Continuous Casting)
Rolling If any other please specify ____________ 5 What is Average charge mix Percentage ? Vikram Ispat DRI/HBI OTHER Gas Based DRI Coal Based DRI Pig Iron Imported Scrap Local Scrap Returns Others
Who are your current metallic suppliers? Gas based DRI: Coal based DRI: Pig Iron Scrap If other please specify ___________
At Present is your plant Backward Integrated or forward integrated? Backward ( ) Forward ( )
If YES is it If yes please specify Coal based DRI Gas based DRI If NO any future plans for doing it Others (Specify) If NO any future plans for doing it 8 What is the possibility of upgrading the customer to high value product? ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… Does your plant have DRI continuous feeding facility? YES 10 NO
What is the present requirement of raw material from Vikram Ispat ? Quantity
Product type Prime HBI/DRI/ Granules Fines 73
What would be your potential requirement in the future (Specify time period)? Quantity
15. Are you satisfied by the quality of the material from VIKRAM ISPAT? Parameters Satisfied Products Dri Dri Granules Dri Fines Moderately satisfied Neutral Less satisfied Dissatisfied
16. Which one you prefer among these? Gas based------vs----------Coal based DRI Gas based------vs---------Scrap Vikram Ispat-- vs----------Others
17. How satisfied are you with these services provided from Vikram Ispat?
Moderately Neutral Satisfied
A B C
Pre-Sales Delivery Complaint handling Delivery Post-Sales
18. What are your further expectations from Vikram Ispat in terms of service? …………………………………………………………………………………… … 19. What are the landing charges of DRI from Bellary and Raipur? Bellary Raipur
20. What is the electric consumption when you use following products? Gas based DRI Coal based DRI Local scrap Imported Scrap Casting
21. What is the percentage of Waste when you use following products? Gas based DRI Coal based DRI Local scrap Imported Scrap Casting
22. What is the premium that you are willing to pay for Gas based Dri over Coal based DRI ? …………………………………………………………………………………… 23. We have started Sealing of Trucks while dispatching so it is helping you in terms of quality & other matter?
Customer Profile Name of the Company Promoters Name of the CEO :……………………………………………… :………………………………………............ :………………………………………………. 76
Last years Turnover Current years Turnover Bankers’ Name Product Profile
:………………………………………………. :………………………………………………. :………………………………………………. :………………………………………………
Expansion programme if any : ……………………………………………………………................ ……………………………………………………………………………… Name few of your biggest competitors? a. …………………………………….. c. …………………………………….. b. …………………………………. d. ………………………………….
How do you describe Vikram Ispat in one sentence? ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………… Name: ……………………………. Designation:……………………………. Date: …………………………….. Signature
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