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Term Project: Google

12 March 2015
Nikki Kiga (1134239), Claire Covner (1228063),
Jonathan Bannick (1065895), Andrew Coatsworth (1227562)
Team 1
BA 390 Winter 2015

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Table of Contents

I.
II.
III.
IV.

Executive Summary
Introduction
SWOT
Critical Issues

V.
VI.
VII.

VIII.

Competition
Trends
Recommendations
a. Mission
b. Innovation
c. Hiring
Annotated Bibliography

I.

Introduction

3
4
7
8
11
15
16
18
20

Larry Page and Sergey Brin met in 1995 at Stanford University as Ph.D. students in
computer science. Sparked by Pages desire to download the entire contents of the internet onto
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his computer, the pair teamed up for a research project intended to study possibility of creating a
database composed of the webs information. Their ambitious goals combined with the idea of
having a healthy disregard for the impossible, escalated the project into an attempt to change
the world via search engine. As their project continued to evolve, Page and Brin resolved to
shelve their Ph.D.s and in September of 1997 they registered the domain Google.com and the
company was born. Within five years Google grew to be a multi billion-dollar enterprise and
much more than a search engine .
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Googles mission is to organize the worlds information and make it universally


accessible and useful . Additionally, Google incorporated the mantra Dont be evil into their
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corporate culture. However, Googles rapid growth into a multi billion dollar giant has greatly
broadened the scope of the company. With a seemingly endless supply of human and financial
capital, Google quickly branched out from its search engine roots to incorporate many other
services such as Gmail, Google Maps, YouTube and its lucrative revenue generating
advertisement structure. Since the incorporation of these services, Google has entered numerous
industries beyond the website including robotics, medicine and self-driving cars. In addition to
their vast research and exploration in these fields, the company has been at the center of many
controversies. These include concerns regarding user privacy, antitrust suits in Europe, battles
with digital publishers in Germany, censorship in China and questionable tax standards in
Ireland. In order for Googles management to best decide how to overcome these obstacles, they
must first conduct a SWOT analysis of the company.
II.

SWOT
a. Strengths
With a market capitalization of roughly $390 billion and $66 billion earned in revenue for

2014, one of Google most powerful assets is the companys financial flexibility . This flexibility
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has allowed Google to branch off from their initial product, the search engine, and expand into a
wide array of other markets. The financial flexibility also allows Google to attract incredibly
talented human capital in order to carry out these expanding endeavors. Google has developed a
highly selective and data driven hiring process that allows the company to handpick its work
force. Additionally, Google has established a strong recruiting culture in which workers are
encouraged to constantly seek out prospective hirees. However, with more than 37,000
exceptionally talented and intelligent employees, Google must use unconventional managerial
tactics in order to provide the best possible working environment. This process begins with a
relatively small management team; 5,000 managers, 1,000 directors and 100 vice presidents.
The small number of managers as well as Googles team based system helps avoid
micromanagement and maximize productivity. Also, employees have the opportunity to submit
reviews of their managers through Project Oxygen, a system that Google began to implement in
2009. Oxygen closely mirrors Googles hiring process as it leans heavily on data from the
employees reviews to provide managers with specific areas of strength and weakness. Yet,
Oxygen doesnt simply asses motivations and values. Rather it paints a black and white picture
of managerial actions; Oxygen is very clear if managers are truly implementing these values into
the workforce . Finally, in addition to a more modern management structure, Google has
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consistently been rated as one of the best companies to work for, including holding Fortunes top
rank for 2015. Google had incorporated workplace features such as free high quality meals for
employees, nap pods to help ease stress and frequent recognition of hard work . The
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combination of financial resources, elite talent and forward thinking managerial tactics paired
with a long-standing stronghold of the search engine market best depict the strengths of Google.
b. Weaknesses

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Despite Googles many strengths, there are definite areas for concern. These weaknesses
include a dependence upon ad revenue, a lack of diversity within the workforce and questionable
international relations. According to the companys 2014 income statement, Google earns
roughly 89% of its revenue from advertising . As a company that values the idea of creative
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destruction, Googles reliance upon revenue should be highly concerning to management. In


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the event of the introduction of a disruptive advertising technology, the impact on Google could
prove to be disastrous. A second weakness for Google is a relatively homogeneous workforce.
Although Google has the ability to handpick amazing talent, actual hiring practices have led to a
male and Caucasian dominated workforce . Also, the desire for Googley employees further
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limits diversity. While Google was founded on the mantra of dont be evil, the actual meaning
of this saying has been called into question. It is difficult to imagine Google truly living up to
the ideal as they have the power to define what evil is. As Eric Schmidt, the current Executive
Chairman said, Evil is what Sergey [Brin] says is evil. Finally, as the society become more
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connected to the internet, online privacy is becoming a highly debated issue. Due to the high
volume of personal data that is processed by Google, users are beginning to questions Googles
motives and morally questionable uses of this information. Management must address these
issues in order to ensure the long run success of the company.
c. Opportunities
By analyzing the weaknesses that Google faces, it will be possible for the management
team to take advantage of the opportunities that the company has to grow. Google is faced with
a major challenge in overcoming the international scrutiny but management can spin this
negative in order to strengthen Google as a whole. With their internet market power, Google has
the opportunity to truly live up to the company mantra, dont be evil. Management must learn

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from their mistakes by responding to the overseas issues and prevent these situations in the
future. Another major opportunity for Google is to utilize their various acquisitions to help
individuals around the world. Page has the required attitude to lead drastic change throughout
the world. In his interview with the Financial Times, Page makes it clear that he is unwilling to
wait for others to spark the changes that he sees necessary and his company benefits from the
fact that when it says that it will do something, people believe it . Finally, Pages drive combined
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with Googles financial flexibility and talented workforce, the company possesses the ability to
enter and shape emerging markets thus combating the ill effects of complacency and a lack of
innovative thinking.
d. Threats
Finally, while Google is obviously one of the most powerful and influential companies in
the world, they are still faced with various threats, mainly other technology companies and the
international legal environment. As made evident by the current business world,, companies can
very easily be adversely impacted by a disruptive technology. In order to avoid falling victim to
such a technology, Google must keep close watch of their competition, mainly companies such
as Microsoft, Apple and alternative search engines including the Chinese operated Baidu. Also,
as previously discussed, Google has faced numerous legal and ethical issues overseas, including
an antitrust investigation looking into Googles 95% control of the European search market .
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Beyond the potential antitrust violation, Google has responded poorly to new laws including, the
shutting down of Google News in Spain in response to legislation requiring payment to new
publishers in order to post snippets of their stories and not complying with the Right to be
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Forgotten act to remove sensitive links from the search engine . Google must successfully
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manage these legal environments in order to avoid potentially crippling fines and negative
reputational impacts.
III.

Critical Issues and Assumptions


Even with an inspiring ascension to prominence, Google has reasons to be skeptical of

the future. As with the power of nations of the world, power in the business world is never
permanent. Of the top 5 companies ranked by market capitalization 20 years ago, only one
company remains on that list20. The speed of technology which galvanized the rise of Google
may also facilitate its decline. Google will not fall overnight but there are fundamental forces
that will heavily influence its future.
While its reputation appears golden within the US, the rest of the world holds different
views. International relations represent one of the largest threats facing Google. Perhaps the most
visible conflict exists in the worlds most populous country, China. Tensions have developed
over the concept of censorship and the extent to which China is able to control the content the
citizens can access on Google15. Following a hacking incident that China launched against
Google, services of the company have been virtually unusable .
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China represents a tremendous opportunity for all companies. The frayed relations with
the Chinese government are of particular concern because of the future implications. An inability
to operate efficiently in China represents a tremendous amount of lost revenue. Even more
dangerous, China could become a breeding ground for another company to develop a better
technology. A new competitor that has control over the most populous country in the world could
become a threat to Google.
While Google is struggling in China for having too little power, it faces threats in Europe
for having too much power. While popular among consumer in North America, Google accounts
for over 90 percent of all online searches in Europe. There is no question about the dominance
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that Google holds in the market in Europe . Officials are concerned whether Google has used
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their dominance in a way to restrict competition. The company has recently been forced to
restructure itself in response to tightening regulation and trends imply that more changes are to
come19
Googles reliance on advertising revenue also represents a critical issue because it makes
the company potentially vulnerable to competitors. History suggests that the question is not if
there will be another service to rival Google, but when. If a competitor ascends prior to the time
in which Google is able to diversify its business, the company will be facing tremendous
financial challenges.
A final critical issue facing Google is the importance of Cybersecurity. The company has
devoted a great amount of research and energy to this area21. While there are many forces that
could indirectly harm Googles operations, cyber-attacks could have present a clear danger. In
past instances when Gmail has been out of service for just moments, there has been widespread
economic chaos22.
IV.

Competition
Googles overall biggest competition is companies like it the other leading players of

the technology industry Apple, Facebook, and Amazon. According to The Economist, all of
these companies rival each other in combinations of mobile gadgets, operating systems and app
stores.23 This statement just brushes the surface in describing how widespread Googles efforts
are. In the past, Microsoft has been a major competitor for Google, however this competition
has dwindled slightly as Google continues to dominate by consistently bettering its products and
services. Although its main competitors in the grand scheme of the technology world are
currently Apple, Facebook, and Amazon, because Google has extensive reach and is involved in
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so many different technology industries, it has further competition in many other areas of
technology.
Although Microsoft is no longer as strong of a competitor as it once was, it remains a
source of competition for Google in a few major areas. Previously, Microsofts attempts to
compete with Google as a search engine early on were manifested with MSN Search, Windows
Live Search, and now, Bing . As a result of this, Google developed the Finland plan in defense
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against Microsofts advances, which led Google to always offer higher-quality services and
make those services easily accessible.24 In doing this, Google hoped to challenge Microsoft by
continuously improving its products. Google has since been able to overcome Microsofts grip
in its native product category, the search engine, and pull ahead.
In addition to this general competition, Google has specific competitors within the variety
of particular sectors that Google has entered and with which it is involved, comprising search
engines, mobile operating systems, other search websites such as those in ecommerce, and social
networking and advertising. In some cases, the competition is made up of these tech giants, and
in others, competitors range from smaller companies to declining past industry leaders. Google
started as a search engine, and has over the years come to be one of the most dominant search
engines worldwide. As such, Googles core lies in its search engine expertise. The major
competitors in the search engine business are Microsofts Bing, Yahoo!, as well as global search
engines such as Baidu. Although Google has encountered some problems internationally,
specifically within Europe, Google has still experienced a lot of success in the global market.
Less than half of Googles revenue comes from the United States, which shows Googles
popularity abroad25. Conversely, Baidu, Chinas primary search engine, has 99% of its revenue

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comes from China, demonstrating its inability to expand beyond national borders. Googles
global reach exemplifies its dominance, even amongst international competitors.
Apple remains Googles biggest rival in the realm of mobile operating systems. Android
and iOS have been the two principal operating systems dominating the phone and tablet markets,
ever since Google entered the mobile operating system market with its acquisition of Android26.
Google currently has a competitive advantage over Apple because the use of Android as an
operating system spans a variety of phones with a wide price range, whereas iOS is limited to
only iPhones and is expensive.
With product searches, Amazon has been one of Googles biggest competitors. It has
successfully redirected traffic from Google as people continue to completely bypass Google and
buy directly from Amazon. The research firm, Forrester, believes that 30% of online shoppers
start their product searches with Amazon23. Additionally, Amazons search capacities have begun
to compete against those of Google. Eric Schmidt said in 2014 that many people think
[Googles] main competition is Bing or Yahoo. But, really, our biggest search competitor is
Amazon as it also functions to answer users questions and searches27 Amazon also has a
significant amount of information about people from their buying habits, which is a technique
that Google uses in its targeted advertising. All of these elements impede on Googles territory
and have increasingly brought Amazon closer to Google within the domain of online searching.
Facebook represents Googles biggest competition when it comes to social networks and
advertising. Along with its search engine function, advertising is at the heart of what Google
does best, with 89% of its annual revenue in 2014 being derived from advertising26. Facebooks
advertising efforts and scope rival those of Google, specifically in the amount of personal
information they both have about people to better target advertisements to them. On the other

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hand, social networking will continue to be a weaker spot for Google, as Facebook has captured
more of the market over Googles Google+ social platform and continues to see success with
over 757 million daily active users . Google has a ways to go in this sector, and must figure out
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how to better challenge such competitors as Facebook especially as advertising is increasingly


used on social networking sites.
V.

Trends
One way to analyze where Google is going is to look at its acquisitions. In the last few

years its acquisitions have ranged from robotics to social analytics. In the Century of the Internet,
Google is trying to become synonymous with all things Internet. Google is clearly trying to
prepare for predicted trends like the Internet of Things as seen with its acquisition of Nest for
$3.2 billion or Robotics with Schaft, Boston Dynamics and numerous other robotics companies.
The Internet of Things has the potential to create economic impact of $2.7 trillion to
$6.2 trillion annually by 202531. Some of the most promising uses are in health care,
infrastructure, and public-sector serviceshelping society tackle some of its greatest
challenges.31 Google acquired Nest to catalyze the development of an Internet of Things
platform and applications. The Internet of Things means better logistics within operations
management, possibly more efficient uses for utilities and public services, and even smarter
home appliances for the consumer.
By 2025 advanced robots could be capable of producing goods with higher quality and
reliability by catching and correcting their own mistakes and those of other robots or humans.
These robots can sense and quickly react to obstacles, other robots, or human co-workers, giving
them greater awareness and making it possible for them to work more safely side-by-side with
humans. Many advanced robots can also communicate with one another and work together on

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shared tasks. According to the International Federation of Robotics (a major robotics industry
group), China is expected to become the worlds largest consumer of industrial robots by 2014.
By 2025, many of the tasks performed by a typical knowledge worker will become
automatable. Computers have learned to process tons of unstructured information, interpret
human speech, and understand the commands, actions, and even intentions of human beings.
This will allow teachers, engineers, medical professionals, lawyers, financiers, administrators,
and managers to partly delegate their duties to computing devices.
Some question whether Google is straying too far from its core competencies though.
Although advertising accounted for 89% of Googles revenue in 2014 this number is down from
91% in 2013, and 95% in 2012. This trend indicates diversification, but some stakeholders cant
help but wonder whether Google is optimizing its resources. Jill Hazelbaker, a PR representative
for Google, explains while the possibilities are incredibly exciting, please do keep in mind that
the sums involved are very small by comparison to the investments we make in our core
businesses. Google has to keep innovating - its part of the Google DNA37The 20% time
encourages employees to work on side projects that they are passionate about. The 20% time
policy also helps encourage an autonomous culture, which attracts smart creatives that help
strengthen Googles knowledge base.
"We are adding five million new users a month and that should take the user base to 500
million by 2018-19," says Rajan Anandan, managing director, Google India. There are some 5
billion mobile connections today, and the GSMA predicts there will be some 26 billion
connected people and devices by the mid 2020s
As one might expect, Google is preparing for this trend by setting up offices and
launching programs in India. Google now has two offices in India, with another seven spread

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throughout Asia. Two offices in Israel, eleven in Europe, three in Latin America, with another
twenty-four in North America.
Meanwhile, Google maintains a very in depth and data driven hiring process. Although
they have since done away with the brain-teaser interviews, after finding out they had no
correlation to success with the company. Google still derives many numbers for interviewing
based on data from hired employees. They use predictors such as When did you get your first
computer? to analyze how successful an applicant might be at Google. In 2006 Todd Carlisle
designed the Google Candidate Survey, and in 2007 it was revised and they now use it to screen
job applicants.36
However Googles hiring process is flawed, the processes and cultural practices in place
leave Google predisposed to higher certain people. To this day the rule of thumb is that at least
half of Google employees (aka Googlers) should be engineers37 Googles Associate Product
Manager program is expected to produce Googles next wave of executive management, but it
enforced a strict requirement of only accepting computer science engineers. This policy
contributed to a bright young Kevin Systrom, a then product-marketing manager, to leave the
company, only to start Instagram with Mike Krieger. Googles failure to widen policies drifted
top talent away. Meanwhile, Googles Workforce Demographics are far from diverse. Men make
up an egregious 83% of Tech, 79% of Leadership, and 70% overall. Google said that of its 36
executives and top-ranking managers, just three are women30 60% of Tech are White, 34%
Asian, and 72% of Leadership are white, and 23% Asian28
These numbers indicate a very homogenous culture within Google, where Google is
consistently drawing from similar pools of workers. Google is in danger of embodying a very
homogenous culture that could be stifling innovation and fast-tracking groupthink. Business

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professors at the University of Maryland and Columbia University analyzed size and gender
composition of top management teams from 1992 to 2006 and found that female representation
in top management leads to an increase of $42 million in firm value.35 Richard Freeman, an
economics professor at Harvard University analyzed the ethnic identities of authors for 1.5
million scientific papers between 1985 and 2008. They found that papers written by diverse
groups receive more citations and have higher impact factors than papers written by people from
the same ethnic group35It is crucial for Googles culture and ability to innovate, that Google
improve its ability and hire and retain a diverse workforce.
VI.

Recommendations
In order to ensure long-term success, Google must consider the various issues raised by

the SWOT, trend and competition analyses to reevaluate and refine the company mission.
Through Googles rapid expansion, the mission statement no longer captures the companys
goals or corporate culture. By refocusing, the goals and objectives of Google will once again be
clear to both employees and consumers. This will be best achieved by focusing on three main
areas; continuing to take risks in order to innovate at a higher level than competition, the revision
of the companys mission statement, and analyzing hiring practices in order to foster stronger
workplace diversity.
a. Mission
When Sergey Brin and Larry Page first launched Google in 1998, even they could never
have anticipated the way in which Google would change the world. What started as a search
engine grew into a company that would seek to influence nearly every aspect of our lives.
Google started as a resource for information and consequently, their mission statement reflected

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their actions. Today, Googles mission statement still reads Googles mission is to organize the
worlds information and make it universally accessible and useful38.
While the statement clearly reflects the original goal of Google, several problems emerge
a contemporary setting. First, one would be stretched to believe that the statement actually
encompasses all of the actions of the company. While information is still at the heart of the
organization, the overall mission of the company stretches far beyond it. Second, while relatively
short compared to other mission statements, Google could benefit by simplifying their ideas.
Google should refine its current mission statement to a simple idea such as Empowering
Humanity. A quick, memorable, and meaningful set of words is a perfect guide for any
company. A mantra as described by Guy Kawasaki is able to capture the overall objective of
the company and still be applicable to all situations which the company may encounter39.
Some may question the importance of a refining Googles mission. Others may even
question the need for the existence of any formulation of mission at all. Google executives are
not in that category of skeptics because the current mission is the first sentence a viewer sees
when they click About Google.
The formulation of a mission is important because companies are composed of human
beings. People function most effectively when they have a purpose for what they are doing.
Furthermore, a powerful mission provides guidance for companies during difficult situations.
Earlier analysis outlined the many ways in which the world is changing. During difficult
situations concerning international relations, it is helpful for all employees to be able to unite
around a common set of ideas.
The mission of Empowering Humanity resonates with the original benevolent goal of
Google. For a period of time, code of conduct for the company started with the phrase Dont be
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evil.40 The theme shows that Google ultimately hopes to serve those who use its services rather
than simply trying to make a profit.
b. Innovation
After analyzing Googles competition, the industry trends, and critical issues and
assumptions surrounding the company, another key recommendation for management is to foster
expansion and innovation manageably in accordance with the refined mission statement of
empowering humanity. This entails a new focus on prioritizing investments and acquisitions
to ensure that they are meaningful and/or have the possibility to be built upon, rather than just
another company Google buys and then shelves.
Although Google is already involved in so many technology industries and projects, in
order to remain competitive long-term and combat against potentially disruptive technologies
within the market, it must continue to emphasize innovation. This is because, as has been seen
time and time again, companies succeed when they continue to take risks and fail when they start
to become complacent. Therefore, Google should continue to expand, in balance, as this will
keep the company at the forefront of the technology industry and help it remain cutting-edge.
With the impending retirement of Googles current Chief Financial Officer (CFO),
Patrick Pichette, now is the ideal time to refocus. This process starts with the hiring and
transition of a new CFO, which is expected to happen in the next sixth months41. After a new
CFO is found, implementation includes encouraging the CFO to focus on new ways to grow and
expand instead of relying so heavily on old sources of revenue such as advertising. The focus
should be on projects and investments that match the mission of the company with the priority
being on investments and acquisitions that are good for the world or have the potential to be

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developed further. These types of decisions would directly align with empowering humanity,
as they will be either positive changes from which the world can benefit or innovations Google
deems cutting-edge and believes could be useful and inspiring to people in the future.
Google Ventures is a growing venture capital firm and, as a subsidiary, directly related to
Google. One way Google can work on refocusing its investment and acquisitions decisions is by
working with Google Ventures42. management team to expand the operations and portfolio of
Google Ventures. An estimated time frame for this is growth is within the next five years.
Google Ventures is currently supporting approximately $2 billion in its more than 280 portfolio
companies in the U.S. and Europe, and this can surely grow to much more as it continues to
invest in worthy interests42.
Although this recommendation makes a lot of sense for Google, it also carries risks. The
main concern with Google expanding further is the fear of it spreading itself too thin. Google is
already involved in so many different areas of technology. Interestingly, Pichette suggested in
January 2015 that Google will seek a healthy balance between growth and discipline and the
willingness to throttle back when [it] reach[es] the limits of what [it] believe[s] [it] can
manageably absorb . With Pichette leaving soon, Google should still take balance into
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consideration while continuing to innovate. Another risk Google faces is potential investor
backlash. Google wants to make sure it has both its investors and shareholders as well as its
future in mind, and pushing to expand more would inevitably increase spending41. Despite these
concerns, Google has always been based upon the desire to look long-term, even if that means
sacrificing short-term earnings43. Thus, Google should continue to act on this philosophy by
fostering expansion and innovation, but focusing more on doing so through empowering
humanity.

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c. Hiring
Google is already sponsoring programs like Women and Girls Who Code, RailsBridge,
TechLadyMafia and is a strategic partner with the National Center for Women & Information
Technology for starters. Google is participating in forums online, as seen with Women
Techmakers and seemingly collaborating with various partners in the field. However this does
not change the fact that Google has only about 17% of women in tech positions. Google has
stated that it has begun a series of However throwing money at the problem and blue-washing is
not going to solve the problem. Very recently Google has been accused of mishandling sexual
harassment complaints. A female software engineer worked at Google for four years before
eventually leaving the company. She lodged her complaints with HR at Google but they did
nothing. Instead, they later promoted her harasser to a director position. The victim states that the
harassment was her primary reason for leaving Google. Since Larry became chief executive and
reorganized Google, women have been pushed out of his inner circle and passed over for
promotions. They include Marissa Mayer, who left run Yahoo after being sidelined at Google. 45
Ironically, the most cutting edge companies in the tech world are considered some of the least
friendly to women. One ranking system evaluated tech companies on how similar women and
men ranked their happiness levels. Companies where both men and women are the same level of
happiness were ranked as:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Texas Instruments
Epic Systems (Women: $87,742; Men: $90,000)
Hewlett-Packard (Women: $91,730; Men: $96,423)
Intel (Women: $89,736; Men: $88,649) 44

Ironically enough, the companies listed above are considered some of the oldies in Tech.
So what is it that sets them apart from companies like Google? Ultimately, its the extent to
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which they are willing to commit to leveling the gender playing field. Yes, Google has
increased its paternity leave from two months to five, is holding Unconscious Biases
workshops, and has more women interacting with women in the hiring process. However, it is
not enough if Google really wants to lead the way for gender equality in Tech. This means
going beyond just awareness workshops - it means emphasizing mentoring women, providing
communication channels for people who are less likely to boast or assert themselves directly,
recognizing quiet leadership styles, and actively promoting positive attitudes toward women.
In the first six - nine months Google will need to use these months for transitioning from
awareness workshops to stronger two-way mentorship programs, new hiring objectives,
providing alternative communication channels, and emphasizing more work-life balance.

VII.

Annotated Bibliography

Vise, David A., and Mark Malseed. The Google Story. New York: Delacorte, 2005. Print.
This book, authored by David Vise takes a look at Googles origins as well as their rise to a multi
billion dollar firm. Covering a wide range of topics from Sergey Brin and Larry Pages time at
1

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Stanford to the unorthodox management styles utilized by the firm, the book gives the reader and
inside look at one of the most powerful companies in the world.
Waters, Richard. "FT Interview with Google Co-founder and CEO Larry Page." Financial
Times 31 Oct. 2014: n. pag. Print.
This interview, conducted by the Financial Times, covers a broad spectrum of topics including
Googles quest to adopt a revised mission statement as well as the companys various
acquisitions. Page expresses his ambitious mindset and vision for his company. He states that
there is no model for the company that Google hopes to become as they continue to expand in
and out of the technological world.
2

"Google Inc." Yahoo Finance. N.p., 4 Mar. 2015. Web.


This is a webpage consisting of various financial data relating to Google including share
price and market capitalization.
3

Garvin, David A. "How Google Sold Its Engineers on Management." Harvard Business
Review 91.12 (2013): n. pag. Print.
Garvins article, published in the December 2013 issue of the Harvard Business Review,
examines the complex managerial analysis composed by Google. Google, a company with
thousands of incredibly brilliant employees, experimented with finding the most productive
managerial system to maximize overall company success. This process resulted in a diminished
managerial system containing an in depth review process to provide managers with constructive
feedback.
4

"Google Inc. " Great Rated! N.p., n.d. Web.


Great Rated! compiles comprehensive company profiles relating to the work environment.
Googles profile contains various employees rating as well as specific perks, quotes from
workers and advice on how to get hired. The perks discussed for Google include; free high
quality meals for employees, nap pods and worker recognition.
5

"2014 Financial Tables Investor Relations Google." 2014 Financial Tables Investor
Relations Google. N.p., 2014. Web. 04 Mar. 2015.
Googles financial tables, located on their web site, contain various information including
a breakdown of assets, costs and revenue. The main takeaway is the companys overwhelming
reliance upon ad revenue.
6

Salinder, Michael A., and Robert J. Levinson. "Economics and the FTC's Google
Investigation." Springer Science+Business (2014): n. pag. 8 Aug. 2014. Web.
Salinder and Levinson provide an in depth analysis of the evolution of Googles search
algorithm. The two authors then go on to highlight the FTCs antitrust investigation of Google
and its relation to economics. Ultimately, the article concurs with the FTCs decision to close the
investigation.
7

"Google." Fortune. N.p., 05 Mar. 2015. Web.


Fortune Magazine rates Google as the top company to work for and provides a broad
profile of the firm. The information provided includes various perks, workforce diversity and
hiring selectivity.
8

Mirani, Leo. "What Google Really Means by "Dont Be Evil"" Quartz 21 Oct. 2014. Web.

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Mirani discusses Googles well known mantra; Dont be evil. While this is a noble
cause, Mirani points out how, although it is used to motivate employees, the saying loses its
governing power as Google has the ability to set its own definition of evil. The article
concludes with a quote from Eric Schmidt, Evil is what Sergey [Brin] says is evil.
Arthur, Charles. "European Commission Reopens Google Antitrust Investigation." The
Guardian [London] 8 Sept. 2014: n. pag. Print.
Continuing the trend of Googles legal troubles in Europe, Arthur discusses the European
Parliaments decision to reopen the Google antitrust investigation. Included is Microsofts
assertion that Google is stifling competition by forcing Android devices force users to utilize
Google maps and searches. Eric Schmidt responds to these accusations by claiming that
Google is not a gateway to the internet.
10

Chandler, Michelle. "Google Vs. The European Union: Whats Ahead." Investors
Business Daily 2015. Print
Chandler briefly highlights the various issues that Google faces in Europe. These include
the closing of Google News in Spain, controversy surrounding Google and their response the
Right to be Forgotten Act and payment disputes with digital publishers in Germany. This
article depicts the potential reputational and financial damage that Google may face overseas.
11

Vasagar, Jeevan, Murad Ahmed, and Alex Barker. "Europe's Demands on Google
Mount." Financial Times 26 Nov. 2014: n. pag. Print.
Vasagar, Ahmed and Barker provide another perspective on Googles legal troubles in
Europe. Included in their article is discussion of The Right to be Forgotten Act, and platform
neutrality. While the European Parliament resolved to break up the company, the motion ended
up being non-binding.
12

13

"Buffetts Berkshire Gains on Exxon in Market Cap, With No. 3 Rank at Stake."
Editorial. pag. MoneyBeat RSS. Wall Street Journal. 11 Mar. 2015.
The Wall Street journal details the market capitalization of the largest companies in the
world. Apple stands out far beyond others but companies like Google still have a tremendous
value. Other companies on the list like Berkshire Hathaway and Exxon are significantly older
than Google.
14

"Best Companies to Work For 2014." Editorial. pag. Fortune. 22 May 2014. 03 Mar. 2015.
Every year Fortune releases a list of the companies that are rated as the best place to work. The
rankings are based on empirical data gathered by the magazine. Google has retained this top spot
for the past several years because of its overall performance on the metrics.
"China Condemns Decision by Google to Lift Censorship." BBC News. BBC, 23 Mar.
2010. Web. 09 Mar. 2015.
Following hacking attacks, Google became frustrated with the current conditions
necessary for operating in China. As a result, they decided to lift some of the censorship used on
their search engine. China disapproved of these actions and would go on to severely limit the
ability of Google to operate in China.
15

16

"Researcher Says Up to 100 Victims in Google Attack." WSJ. 11 Mar. 2015.

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During the conflict between Google and China there were numerous parts of Googles
business that suffered consequences. This article details the adverse effects that took place. The
situation between Google and China is still a matter of current events.
17

Manjoo, Farhad. "Google, Mighty Now, but Not Forever." The New York Times. The New
York Times, 11 Feb. 2015. 11 Mar. 2015.
Some question the sustainability of Googles tremendous rise to power. This New York Times
columnist details the ways in which Google is vulnerable at the moment. Like all companies, the
success of Google may not last forever.
18

"Should Digital Monopolies Be Broken Up?" The Economist. The Economist Newspaper,
29 Nov. 2014. 11 Mar. 2015.
Following the events taking place in Europe, The Economist looked at the different attributes
of Google and considered why the European Authorities may be concerned about its power. The
article laid out numerous figures and concluded that Internet monopolies were different in nature
than traditional monopolies. Europe has few cases where Google has abused its power, rather it
is concerned about future actions that it may be able to take.
19

Auchard, Eric. Yahoo! News. Yahoo!, Web. 11 Mar. 2015.


The relationship between Europe and Google is still developing. In order to continue to
operate in Europe, Google has been forced to make some concessions to the authorities. Trends
suggest that they may need to continue to do so.
20

"FT 500 2013." - Financial Times. 11 Mar. 2015.


Every year the Financial Times releases many financial figures about the companies in the
economy. One of these figures deals with the companies with the largest Market Capitalization.
The publication allows a reader to observe how long Google has been on that list.
21

"The Security Download: Anticipating Cyberattacks with Machine Learning." The CIO
Report RSS. WSJ. 11 Mar. 2015.
Cybersecurity will continue to be one of the most important aspects of the Digital Age. Google
currently recognizes this trend and is taking numerous steps to mitigate these risks. Google is not
the only company locked in this struggle, rather this is a conflict faced by all companies in all
industries.
22

"Gmail Goes Down, Frustrating Office Workers." Bits Gmail Goes Down Frustrating
Office Workers Comments. WSJ, 10 Dec. 2012. Web. 11 Mar. 2015.
Several times in recent years, Gmail has crashed. The widespread impact of this failure shows
just how reliant the world is on the ability of Google to operate efficiently. The importance of
Gmail to the efficiency of the market makes the operational success of Google crucial to the
economy.
23

Technology giants at war: Another game of thrones. The Economist 1 Dec. 2012,
Briefing sec. Print.

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This source outlines the competition between the technology giants, specifically Amazon,
Apple, and Google. It talks about each companys dominant products and services the others are
competing against and in which industries they are battling it out.
24

Schmidt, Eric. Google: How Google Works. Grand Central, 2014. Print.
This book written by Googles current Executive Chairman, Eric Schmidt, specifically
refers to its competition with Microsoft. It discusses Microsoft attempts to compete with
Googles search engine, but Googles ability to continually better its products and overcome
Microsoft.
25

Robertson, Jordan. A Tale of Two Search Engines: Why Google Is Winning, Baidu
Isn't. Bloomberg Business. Bloomberg L.P., 1 May 2013. Web. 2 Mar. 2015.
In this article, Robertson compares Google to Baidu, which is Chinas most popular search
engine. It explains why Google has seen so much success, especially in the global market, while
Baidu has remained a significant search engine player almost entirely within China.
26

Google Inc. SWOT Analysis. Google Inc. SWOT Analysis (2015): 1-10. EBSCO. Web. 27
Feb. 2015.
This source outlines Googles dominant areas in the technological industry, including its
importance within advertising and the mobile operating systems arena. The majority of Googles
revenue is derived from its advertising. Additionally, Android has seen a lot of success in
competing with iPhones iOS mobile operating system, as they are set at different price points
and cater to different markets. Androids system is more flexible since it serves as the operating
system for many types of phones, while Apple only offers its iOS on iPhones.
27

DOnfro, Jillian. Google's Chairman Says Amazon Not Bing Is Its Biggest Search
Competitor. Business Insider. Business Insider Inc., 13 Oct. 2014. Web. 27 Feb. 2015.
DOnfro details Eric Schmidts response to a question about Googles main competition,
citing Amazon as its biggest search competitor. The article goes on to talk more about Amazons
rise as essentially a product search engine, which serves as an even bigger threat than other
search engines like Bing, as consumers increasingly bypass Google to search for products
directly on Amazons website.
28

"Diversity Google." Diversity Google. Google, n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2015.


This source discusses the various diversity figures released by Google. It breaks it down by
leadership, tech, and all of Google.

29

Levy, Steven. In the Plex: How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes Our Lives. New York:
Simon & Schuster, 2011. Print.

This book goes through how Google has evolved over the years, and covers key
turning points for the company in terms of conflict, and innovation.
30

Manjoo, Farhad. "Exposing Hidden Bias at Google." The New York Times. The New York
Times, 24 Sept. 2014. Web. 8 Mar. 2015.
This article discusses various instances of gender bias at Google. It covers some events and
the past and discusses some of what Google is trying to do to remedy the situation.

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31

Manyika, James, Jacques Bughin, Susan Lund, Olivia Nottebohm, David Poulter,
Sebastian Jauch, and Sree Ramaswamy. "Global Flows in a Digital Age: How Trade,
Finance, People, and Data Connect the World Economy." McKinsey. McKinsey &
Co., Apr. 2014. Web.
This article talks about various upcoming trends in mobile, IoT, robotics etc.

32

Manyika, James, Michael Chui, Jacques Bughin, Richard Dobbs, Peter Bisson, and Alex
Marrs. "Disruptive Technologies: Advances That Will Transform Life, Business, and
the Global Economy."Disruptive Technologies: Advances That Will Transform Life,
Business, and the Global Economy. McKinsey & Co., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2015.
This article includes how up and coming technologies will change how businesses operate
and consumers interact.

33

Milov, Grigory. "Smart Computers, Skilled Robots, Redundant People." Smart


Computers, Skilled Robots, Redundant People. McKinsey & Co., 28 May 2013. Web. 8
Mar. 2015.
This article specifically talks about the robotics trend.

34

Morgan, Jacob. The Future of Work: Attract New Talent, Build Better Leaders, and Create
a Competitive Organization. N.p.: John Wiley & Sons, 2014. Print.
This journal article discusses how diverse groups help productivity and innovation.

35

Phillips, Katherine W. "How Diversity Makes Us Smarter." Scientific American. Scientific


American, 16 Sept. 2014. Web. 01 Mar. 2015.
This journal article discusses how diverse groups help productivity and innovation.

36

Poundstone, William. Are You Smart Enough to Work at Google?: Trick Questions, Zenlike Riddles, Insanely Difficult Puzzles, and Other Devious Interviewing Techniques You
Need to Know to Get a Job Anywhere in the New Economy. New York: Little, Brown,
2012. Print.
This book goes over trick questions and answers that Google used to ask in interviews.
37

Schmidt, Eric, and Jonathan Rosenberg. Google: How Google Works. 1st ed. New York:
Grand Central, 2014. Print.
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This book goes over various practices and management principles that Google has followed
or learned over the years. Fairly similar to the book by Gary Hamel

38

"Company Google." Company Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2015.

When an individual clicks on the link labeled About on Googles homepage, he/she is
brought to another window that describes different elements of the company. The current mission
reads Googles mission is to organize the worlds information and make it universally accessible
and useful. The placement of this phrase emphasizes the importance that Google places on the
idea of a mission.
39

"Guy Kawasaki - About." Guy Kawasaki. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2015.
Guy Kawasaki has been an active member of the Silicon Valley Community having worked
for both Apple and Google. He provides a great amount of information about his philosophy on
his website. One of the ideas that he speaks about is the importance of a mission and how a
mission statement can be used effectively.
40

"Code of Conduct Investor Relations Google." Code of Conduct Investor Relations


Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2015.
This source discusses the Google code of conduct and how it came about.
41

Winkler, Rolfe, and Alistair Barr. Google Financial Chief Pichette to Retire. The Wall
Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, Inc., 10 Mar. 2015. Web. 10 Mar. 2015.
This source from WSJ discusses the news of Googles CFO Patrick Pichettes impending
retirement. It talks about what he has done for Google and the legacy he is leaving behind in
trying to balance ambitious expansion and spending.
42

Google Ventures Team. GV. Google Ventures. Web. 12 Mar. 2015.


This is the page that outlines who makes up the Google Ventures Team on the Google
Ventures website. In it, there is a mention that Google Ventures currently is supporting over 280
companies and managing about $2 billion. This is significant as there is a lot of potential for
growth in this venture capital endeavor and it aligns with Googles desire to do good for the
world and innovate.
43

Letter from the Founders: An Owner's Manual for Google's Shareholders. University
of California, Berkeley School of Information, University of California, Berkeley.
Web. 10 Mar. 2015.
This Letter from the Founders is essentially a letter from Larry Page and Sergey Brin
detailing everything the company stands for, in anticipation of it going public. The two founders
emphasize how it is important for Google to remain innovative, and in doing so, making sure to
always look long-term even if that means sacrificing short-term earnings.
44

Stillman, Jessica. "The 10 Best Tech Companies for Women." Inc.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 9
Mar. 2015.
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This article discusses the top companies evaluated on comparing happiness levels of both
male and female employees.
45

Miller, Claire Cain. "In Googles Inner Circle, a Falling Number of Women."The New
York Times. The New York Times, 22 Aug. 2012. Web. 9 Mar. 2015.
This article discusses Googles history with gender equality issues.

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