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Traffic Management and

Accident Investigation
Reviewer
Traffic Management and Accident Investigation
Definition of Terms
Accident (Legal meaning) an accident is any happening beyond the
control of a person the consequences of which are not foreseeable.
(There is no criminal liability in accident provided, the following
requisites or elements under the law must be satisfied;
1. performance of a lawful act
2. with due care
3. causes injury to another by mere accident
4. without any fault or intention of causing it
Articulated Vehicle - shall mean any motor vehicles with a trailer
having no front axle and so attached that part of the trailer rest
upon the motor vehicle and a substantial part of the weight of the
trailer and of its load is born by the motor vehicle.
Benz Patent-Motorwagen - (motorcar) built in 1886, is widely regarded
as the first automobile. It is a vehicle designed to be propelled by
an internal combustion engine.
Box Junction - is a road traffic control measure designed to prevent
congestion and gridlock at junctions. A road area at a junction marked
with a yellow grid, which a vehicle should enter only if its exit from
it is clear. Box junctions were introduced in UK during 1967,
following a successful trial in London.

Chain of Events is the making up of accident or the link which


explains the occurrence of the accident and its components are present
in every accident.
Perception of hazard is the point of sensory warning at
which the operator sensed the approaching hazard. The driver
may not comprehend or recognized the hazard in all of its
implications at this point of perception, but there was a
warning. The normal routine is perception, realization, or
recognition, decision, and action.
Possible Perception - is a link in the accident chain dealing
with the reaction of a normal person. Prompt perception occurs
when possible and actual perception are very close. Maximum
delayed perception occurs when actual perception is delayed
until impact shock alerts the driver..
Encroachment is the movement of a vehicle into the path
assigned to the other traffic unit.
Evasive Action is the first action taken by a traffic unit
to escape from a collision course or otherwise avoid the hazard.
Point of no escape is that location and that time after or
beyond which an accident cannot be prevented by the driver or
pedestrian.
Initial Contact it is the first accidental touching of an
object collided with by a traffic unit in motion.
Maximum Engagement is the greatest collapse or overlap in a

collision.
Disengagement is the separation of a traffic unit in motion
from an object with which it has collided.
Final Rest of Stopping it usually stabilizes the accident
situation where both vehicles in a collision has ceases its
force, and stopping may occur with or without control by the
driver or pedestrian.
Classification of Road
1. National Road
2. Provincial Road
3. City Road
4. Municipal Road
5. Barangay Road
6. Private Road
Compressed Air Car - is an alternative fuel car that uses a motor
powered by compressed air. The car can be powered solely by air, or
by air combined (as in a hybrid electric vehicle) with gasoline,diesel,
ethanol, or electric plant.
Crosswalks - are designed to keep pedestrians together where they can
be seen by motorists, and where they can cross most safely across the
flow of vehicular traffic.
Defensive Driving is an act of driving while preventing accidents
despite of the wrong actions of others aggravated by the existence
of adverse driving conditions. Which requires knowledge, alertness,
foresight, judgment and skill.

Ferdinand Verbiest - a member of a Jesuit mission in China, built the


first steam-powered vehicle around 1672 which was of small scale and
designed as a toy for the Chinese Emperor, that was unable to carry
a driver or a passenger, but quite possibly, was the first working
steam-powered vehicle.
Force Majure is an inevitable accident or casualty, an accident
produced by any physical cause which is irresistible. In other words
it is an Act of Man, such robbery, fire, fault, negligence,
rebellion, etc.
Fortuitous Event an event which takes place by accident and could
not have been foreseen. In other words it is an Act of God which
could neither be foreseen nor resisted, such as earthquake,
lightning, flood, and the like.
Francois Isaac de Rivaz - A French and Swiss national who invented a
hydrogen powered internal combustion engine with electric ignition and
described it in a French patent published in 1807. In 1808 he fitted
it into a primitive working vehicle the world's first internal combustion
powered automobile.
Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle - FCHV was developed by Toyota in 2005. The
vehicle is powered by the chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen
to power the motor driving the vehicle.
Geneva Convention on Road Traffic - September 19, 1949. Promotes the
development and safety of international road traffic by establishing
certain uniform rules.
Gottlieb Daimler - He invented the high-speed petrol engine.He is
also thought to have invented the first real motorcycle in 1885.

Gustave Trouve - In November 1881, Trouv demonstrated a working


three-wheeled electric automobile at the International Exhibition of
Electricity in Paris.
Hit-and-run - is the act of causing (or contributing to) a traffic
accident (such as colliding with a person or a fixture), and failing
to stop and identify oneself afterwards. It is considered a crime in
most jurisdictions.
Characteristics of Hit-and Run Drivers
1. After living the scene, he dreads or frighten of being caught.
2. He may have left the accident scene because he was shocked,
injured, or intoxicated.
3. He may have been too confused to know he was doing.
4. He may have a long record of violations or accidents and
therefore a terrible fear of getting further involve with
the law.
5. More often, he fears financial loss specially if he does not
have liability insurance.
6. Hit-and run drivers do not have a establish method of
operation unlike criminals.
Imprudence indicates deficiency of action. If a person fails to
take the necessary precaution to avoid injury to a person or damage
to property, there is imprudence. Imprudence usually involves lack
of skill.
Ivan Kulibin - a Russian mechanic and inventor, he developed in 1971
a human-pedalled, three-wheeled carriage with modern features such as
a flywheel, brake, gear box, and bearings.

Karl Friedrich Benz - was a German engine designer and car engineer,
generally regarded as the inventor of the first automobile powered by
an internal combustion engine, and together with Bertha Benz,
pioneering founder of the automobile manufacturer Mercedes-Benz.
Last Clear Chance - it means that the driver who is in the better
position to prevent the accident shoulders the responsibility of
preventing the accident. The last clear chance principle is always
applied in any traffic accidental investigation in order to justify
penalized the driver who was not defensive in its driving.
Lester Wire - a policeman in Salt Lake City, Utah. He developed the
first electric traffic light in 1912 which used red-green.
Macadam - is a type of road construction pioneered by Scottish engineer
John Loudon McAdam around 1820. The method simplified what had been
considered state of the art at that point. Single-sized aggregate layers
of small stones, with a coating of binder as a cementing agent, are
mixed in an open-structured roadway.
Mesopotamia - (Present Iraq) location of the oldest constructed roads
discovered to date. The stoned paved streets date back to about 4000 BC,
in the Mesopotamia cities of Ur and Babylon.
Milestone - The earliest road signs, giving distance or direction.
milestone is one of a series of numbered markers placed along a road
or boundary at intervals of one mile or occasionally, parts of a mile.
They are typically located at the side of the road or in a median.
Motor Car Act 1903 - introduced registration of motor cars and
licensing of drivers in the United Kingdom and increased the
speed limit.

Motor Vehicle shall mean any vehicle propelled by any power other
than muscular power using the public highways, but exempting road
rollers, trolley cars, street sweepers, bulldozers, graders,
fork-lifts, cranes, vehicles which runs only on rails or tracks,
tractors, trailers, and traction engine.
Negligence indicates a deficiency of perception. If a person fails
to pay proper attention to use due diligence in foreseeing the injury
or damage impending to be caused there in negligence. Negligence
usually involves lack of skill.
Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot - was a French inventor. He is known to have
built the first working self-propelled mechanical vehicle, the
world's first automobile.
Nikolaus August Otto - the German inventor of the first
internal-combustion engine to efficiently burn fuel directly in a
piston chamber.
Paris - in 1964, first time that police women were used for traffic
control duties.
Pavement Markings are markings on the roads and surfaces whereby a
message is conveyed by means of words or symbols, officially reflected
for the purpose of regulating, warning and guiding traffic.
May Indicate a Number of Things like
1. Where lanes are divided
2. Where you may pass other vehicles
3. Where you may change lanes or which lane to use for turns
4. Where pedestrian walkways are located
5. Where you may stop for traffic signs and traffic signals

Types of Pavement Markings


1. Curve Markings are used to show where parking is legally
prohibited or not allowed, such Bus Stop, or in front of a
fire hydrant, drive way.
2. Object Markings are painted on fixed poles, and on vertical
ends of bridges and ports to avoid accidents.
3. Reflectorized Markings are used to mark hazardous areas
and also used as delineators or road limits, these delineators
are aids especially during night driving, particularly when
the alignment of a road changes and might confused the
operator of the vehicle.
4. Striped Curb Markings are markings used in traffic islands
in order to warn the driver of the traffic island on the road
and aids the motorist to its traffic lane.
5. Painted Crosswalk are placed at intersections and other
places where there is considerable pedestrians traffic to
provide pedestrians with safety zones when crossing.
6. Broken White Lines is used to define or separate traffic lanes.
It permits crossing from one lane to another if there is ample
passing distance, and if the opposing lane is clear of traffic.
7. Solid White Line is used to separate opposing streams of
traffic. Crossing is unlawful except where ample distance
exists and where the opposing traffic lane is clear of traffic.
8. Solid Yellow Line is your driving lane prohibits you from
passing other vehicles.
9. Double Yellow Line indicates two way traffic; were crossing
of pedestrian and motorist is not allowed. It separates the
opposing flow of traffic.
10.Broken Yellow Lines is a two way/highway which means no
overtaking or passing is permitted only when the road
ahead is clear.

11.Stop Line it indicates where stop should be made.


PD 96 - A law declaring unlawful the use or attachment of sirens,
bells, horns, Whistles or similar gadgets that emit exceptionally
loud or startling sounds, including dome lights and other signalling
or flashing devices on motor vehicles.(January 13, 1973)
Excemptions - Motor Vehicles designated for official use by the
1. AFP
2. NBI
3. LTO
4. PNP
5. BFP
6. Hospital Ambulances
Penalty
1. Confiscation - 1st offense
2. Imprisonment - 6 months and/or Fine. - 2nd and succeeding offenses.
3. Cancellation or Revocation or Certificate of Registration
PD 1911 - a law authorizing the disposal of of unclaimed recovered and
impounded carnapped motor vehicles.
This law provides that all carnapped or stolen motor vehicle,
recovered and impound by law enforcement agencies which after a
period of three (3) months from the date of its seizure/recovery
have remained unclaimed or whose real owners could no longer be
determined or established because the original numbers of the
motor engine or chassis numbers could no longer be determined and
restored, are considered as abandoned motor vehicles and shall be
sold and disposed of by the Chief PNP or his authorized
representative in a public auction.

In all cases before any public auction is effected, there shall


be published once a week for three (3) consecutive weeks in a
newspaper of general circulation in the Philippines or in the
place where it was recovered or found, a description of the motor
vehicles intended to be auctioned with a notice that after the
lapse of one month from the date of the last publication, should
no person file a claim for the recovery of the same, said motor
vehicles will be sold at public auction.
Pedestrian Crossing - is a place designated for pedestrians to cross
a road.
Pierre-Marie-Jrme Trsaguet - was a French engineer. He is widely
credited with establishing the first scientific approach to road building
about the year 1764. Proposed a method of construction relying on a
firm well-drained foundation of large rocks topped by progressively
smaller ones, forming a convex surface to make it more impervious to
water. He is sometimes considered the first person to bring post-Roman
science to road building.
Places Where Parking is Prohibited
1. Within an intersection
2. On a crosswalk
3. Within six meters of the intersection of curb lines.
4. Within four meters of the driveways entrance to any fire station.
5. Within four meters of a fire hydrant.
6. In front of a private driveway
7. On the roadway side of any vehicle stopped or parked at the curb
or edge of the highway.
8. At any place where official signs have been erected prohibiting
parking.

PNP Highway Patrol Group - is an operational support unit of the PNP


in charged of anti-carnapping, highway robbery and hi-jacking incidents.
Formerly called Traffic Management Group. Traffic Management in
Metro Manila is managed by the MMDA.
Professional Driver shall mean every and any driver hired or paid
for driving or operating a motor vehicle, whether for private use or
for public.
Categories of Drivers
1. Tourist
2. International Driver
3. Government
4. Professional
5. Non-professional
6. Student Permit
RA 4136 - the Land Transportation and Traffic Code.
RA 6539 - Anti-Carnapping Act of 1972. An act preventing and
penalizing carnapping.
Carnapping - is the taking, with intent to gain, of a motor
vehicle belonging to another without the latter's consent, or
by means of violence against or intimidation of persons, or by
using force upon things.
Road Intelligence Unusual points of serious congestion must be noted.
Note and report unnecessary delay at stop signs or signals which are
installed when traffic is heavier. Note and report congestion that ties
up traffic for a block or more.

Skid Marks - are marks caused by tires on roads which occur when a
vehicle wheel stops rolling and slides or spins on the surface of
the road.
Importance of Skid Mark In Traffic Accident Investigation
- Skid marks can be analyzed to find the maximum and minimum
vehicle speed prior to an impact or incident.
Kinds of skid Marks
1. Pavement Grinding is the collection of many fine scratches
and some larger one form by particles of gritty materials
such as stone, gravel, glass and sometimes bit of metal
embedding itself in the rubber of the tire or in the thread
pattern and being ground or scored against the road surface.
2. Tire Grinding is the collection of particles of rubber
ground from the tire surface by gritty paving, especially
before the tire gets hot enough smear. It occur on hard,
dry, granular surfaces, particularly weathered or new but
not traffic-polished cement.
3. Erasing is a clean light area where a sliding tire had
erased or removed dirt from the pavement. Erasing is most
likely to be found on traffic-polished concrete road.
4. Squeeze Mark are areas where a sliding tie rubs moisture
of the surface in its path. It occurs on some kind of surface
as erasing except that the surface is wet.
5. Smear of Soft Material materials such as snow, mud, or
debris usually wet smooth or spread by a sliding tire. It
occurs on road covered with snow, or mud.
6. Smear of Bituminous Material is excess asphalt or tar,
usually warm which spread by a sliding tire this occurs in
pavement patches and joints in very warm weather and else

where when there is an excess of tar or asphalt bleeding to


the surface.
7. Tire Smear is a rubber melted from the tire rather than
material melted from the road by a sliding tire.
8. Scrub of Tire during Collision collision of cars usually
cause the wheel to jam and prevents it from turning. If the
vehicles are moving there will be a heavy scrubbing action
between tire and road surface.
9. Furrow is a ploughed depression made by a sliding tire with
material piled-up on each sides and usually at the end. If
the soil is smooth and sticky, there may be soft material
smear in the bottom of the rut.
Types of Ending Skid Mark
1. Overlapping Skid mark occurs when the rear wheels track on
top of the front wheel marks in sliding.
2. Front Wheel Marks are in long skids on hard pavement with
bituminous binders. Front wheels skid marks in which most of
the mark is at edge of the tire.
3. Rear Tire Marks are relatively faint because of lesser
weight on the tire in slowing. They may show thread grooves
when the front tire marks do not.
4. Flat Tire Scuffs will leave marks by a scrubbing action
even without application of brakes due to overload.
5. Gaps in Skid marks are interruptions in skid marks made by
release of brake pressure and its reapplication.
6. Skip Skid are skid marks that are broken or interrupted
without brakes being release.
7. Curb in Skid marks are usually gentle slides toward the
edge of the road which is simply downhill.
Sources of Power In Transportation

1. Man Power
2. Animal Power
3. Water and Air Power
4. Petroleum Fuel
5. Bi-fuel, bio gas, and Ethanol fuel
6. Hydrogen
7. Electric
Registration Classification of Vehicles
1. Private
2. For Hire
3. Government
4. Diplomatic
Scuff Marks are signs left on the road by tires that are sliding or
scrubbing while the wheel is still turning.
Types of Scuff Marks
1. Decelerating Scuff are left while the vehicle is slowing
by braking effort and tires are both sliding and rolling.
2. Accelerating Scuff are left by a wheel driven by the
engine and spinning on the ground.
3. Side Scuff are scuff marks left by a tire that is free to
rotate without braking or power the sliding sideways, these
are usually left by a vehicle steering around a curb and
also in collision.
4. Combination Scuff are combination of slide with either
decelerating or accelerating scuffs.
5. Flat Tire Scuff are marks lefts on the road by the edges
of under-inflated or greatly overloaded tires. They are
usually smear of rubber, a flat tire rolls it become a very
hot specially at the edges where the pressure is greatest.

6. Scrub of Tire during collision it is much the same when


the wheel is rotating as when it is locked.
7. Furrows by a rotating and sliding wheel are little different
than one with a locked wheel.
State of Necessity there is state of necessity even if the injury
to a person results in his death, because self-preservation always
makes the actor feel that his own safety is greater than that of
another.
Elements or requisites under the law
1. the evil sought to avoided actually exists ;
2. the injury feared be greater that that done to avoid it;
3. that there is no other practical and less harmful means of
preventing it.
Thomas Telford - a Scottish civil engineer, architect and stonemason,
and a noted road, bridge and canal builder. he was dubbed The Colossus
of Roads, and, reflecting his command of all types of civil engineering
in the early 19th century. He was elected as the first President of
the Institution of Civil Engineers.
Timeline - History of Transportation
3500 BC - Fixed wheels on carts are invented - the first wheeled
vehicles in history. Other early wheeled vehicles include the
chariot.
- River boats are invented - ships with oars
2000 BC - Horses are domesticated and used for transportation.
181-234 - The wheelbarrow is invented.
770 - Iron horse shoes improve transportation by horse.

1492 - Leonardo da Vinci first to seriously theorize about


flying machines - with over 100 drawings that illustrated his
theories on flight.
1620 - Cornelis Drebbel invented the first submarine - a human
oared submersible.
1662 - Blaise Pascal invents the first public bus - horse-drawn,
regular route, schedule, and fare system.
1740 - Jacques de Vaucanson demonstrates his clockwork powered
carriage.
1783 - First practical steam boat demonstrated by Marquis
Claude Francois de Jouffroy d'Abbans - a paddle wheel steamboat.
1783 - The Montgolfier brothers invent the first hot air balloons.
1787 - Steamboat invented.
1769 - First self-propelled road vehicle invented by Nicolas
Joseph Cugnot.
1790 - Modern bicycles invented.
1801 - Richard Trevithick invented the first steam powered
locomotive (designed for roads).
1807 Isaac de Rivas makes a hydrogen gas powered vehicle first with internal combustion power - however, it is an
unsuccessful design.

1807 - First steamboat with regular passenger service - inventor


Robert Fulton's Clermont.
1814 - George Stephenson invents the first practical steam
powered railroad locomotive.
1862 - Jean Lenoir makes a gasoline engine automobile.
1867 -First motorcycle invented.
1868 - George Westinghouse invents the compressed air locomotive
brake - enabled trains to be stopped with fail-safe accuracy.
1871 - First cable car invented.
1885 - Karl Benz builds the world's first practical automobile
to be powered by an internal combustion engine.
1899 - Ferdinand von Zeppelin invents the first successful
dirigible - the Zeppelin.
1903 - The Wright Brothers invent and fly the first engined
airplane.
1907 - Very first helicopter - unsuccessful design.
1908 - Henry Ford improves the assembly line for automobile
manufacturing.
1908 - Hydrofoil boats co-invented by Alexander Graham Bell &
Casey Baldwin - boats that skimmed water.

1926 - First liquid propelled rocket launched.


1940 - Modern helicopters invented.
1947 - First supersonic jet flight.
1956 - Hovercraft invented.
1964 - Bullet train transportation invented.
1969 - First manned mission (Apollo) to the Moon.
1970 - First jumbo jet.
1981 - Space shuttle launched.
Traffic is a movement of vehicles along a route where passengers
and cargoes are carried by transportation.
Elements of street and highway traffic
1. The road user
2. The vehicle and its load
3. The road.
Police officers main functions in Traffic
1. Police traffic directions
2. Police traffic law enforcement
3. Police traffic accident investigation.
Traffic Accident - (traffic Collision) occurs when a vehicle collides
with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other

stationary obstruction, such as a tree or utility pole.


Elements of traffic accident
1. The vehicle involved
2. The highway
3. The road user.
Causes of Traffic Accident
1. Direct Causes the direct causes of an accident are
observable by witness and participants, or may be constructed
from physical evidence found at the scene. Since a direct cause
relates to the action of the human part of the traffic unit
concerned it is a behavior cause. Usually only four direct
causes are considered in accident investigation;
a. Initial Behavior - Any movement, position, or failure
to signal intent to make a traffic maneuver that creates
a dangerous situation and is either hazardous, illegal,
improper, or unusual may be initial behavior of a nature
justly term a direct cause of an accident.
b. Speed Too fast for conditions is the direct cause of
many accidents.
c. Delayed Perception is inattention to the major task
of operating a motor vehicle, and occurs when the driver
is distracted by conversation with other occupants of
the car, lighting a cigarette or cigar, looking at a
roadway or the scenery, or glancing at occupants of
nearby vehicles.
d. Faulty Evasive Action Faulty evasive action always
occurs after perception and is the reaction of a
driver or pedestrian to a hazardous situation on
the highway.
2. Mediate and Early Causes These mediate and early causes of

an accident are also termed condition causes in formalized


accident investigation procedure. A mediate cause of an
accident occurs between the early and the direct causes in
the time span leading to the accident, but it has a closer
relationship to the direct cause than to the early causes.
A mediate cause should not be listed unless it explains the
direct cause of an accident. A mediate cause of an accident
is an irregular or unusual condition of a vehicle, the road,
the weather, or of a road user (driver or pedestrian) that
explains on of the four direct causes of an accident: initial
behavior, speed, delayed perception and faulty evasive action.
3. Early Causes - An early cause of an accident results from the
act of any individual, or the failure to act by any person,
which creates conditions leading to the chain of events
making up an accident.
Early cause of an accident - is an act or negligence on the
part of an individual or an organization which causes or
permits a mediate cause to exist.
Traffic Accident Analysis
1. Condition of the motor vehicles involved in the accident;
2. Condition of the drivers at the time of the accident;
3. Load of the vehicle;
4. Weather condition;
5. Characteristics of the road, which involves the design
condition, and inhabitants of the place of accident
6. Presence or absence of traffic sign and its condition.
All these factors must considered in order to fully uncover
the reasons of the accident, and thereby provide a factual
bases in coming-up with a traffic prevention program and
traffic plans and programs.

Key Events in a Traffic Accident


Key Event means the one which characterizes the manner of
the occurrence of the traffic accident. It determines the
time, place, and type of accident.
1. Point of Possible Perception is the place and time at which
the unusual or unexpected movement or condition could have
been perceive by a normal person.
2. Delay in Perception or Perception Time it is the time
between the point of possible perception and actual
perception.
3. Prompt Perception is the perception of hazard which is
actually nearly the possible accident.
4. Maximum Delayed Perception occurred when the traffic unit
does not sense a hazard until he hits another vehicle.
5. Point of No Escape is the place and time after or beyond
which the accident cannot be prevented by the traffic unit
under consideration.
6. Point of Impact is used to mean as the point of initial
contact, sometimes it is considered the point of maximum
engagement or center of force.
7. Final Position is the place and time when the object
involved in the accident finally come to rest without
application of power.
Traffic Actuated Signal is controlled by an individual using his
hands in signaling the flow of traffic wherein traffic shall proceed
in accordance with the desire of the individual controlling the
flow of traffic.

Traffic Code - (also motor vehicle code) refers to the collection of


local statutes, regulations, ordinances and rules that have been
officially adopted by countries to govern the orderly operation and
interaction of motor vehicles, bicycles, pedestrians and others upon
the public (and sometimes private) ways.
Traffic Education comprises all means for public information and the
safety education of both drivers and pedestrians as to traffic laws
and the use of traffic facilities and an adequate training programs in
traffic control throughout the police unit.
Traffic Engineering - is a branch of civil engineering that uses
engineering techniques to achieve the safe and efficient movement of
people and goods on roadways.
Functions of Traffic Engineering
1. Fact finding surveys and recommendation of traffic rules and
regulations.
2. Supervision and maintenance to the application of traffic
control devices.
3. Planning of traffic regulations.
Objectives of traffic Engineering
1. To achieve efficient, safe, free and rapid flow of traffic.
2. To prevent traffic accidents and casualties.
3. To present the role of traffic engineering in reducing the
needs for police action and simplifying police performance.
4. To show that good police action and performance makes
engineering plans effective.
Traffic Investigation - Objective

1. Securing facts upon which to base an accident prevention program;


2. Determining whether or not laws have been violated, gathering
evidence which will reveal the road user responsible for the
accident, and taking on-the-scene police action; and
3. Ascertaining the facts so that those involved in accidents can
properly exercise claims under our Civil Law.
Traffic Island - a small raised area in the middle of a road which
provides a safe place for pedestrians to stand and marks a division
between two opposing streams of traffic.
Kinds of Traffic Islands
1. Divisional and or Pedestrian Barrier
2. Channelizing Island
3. Refuge Island
4. Rotary Island
Traffic laws - are the laws which govern traffic and regulate vehicles,
while rules of the road are both the laws and the informal rules that
may have developed over time to facilitate the orderly and timely
flow of traffic.
Traffic Law Enforcement comprises all police activities in connection
with the direction of traffic, regulation and education of drivers,
determine potential offenders, constant patrol, giving of assistance
in the prosecution of offenders, investigation of accidents, follow-up
complaints, requesting police action, warning, summoning or arrest of
violators, reporting of road hazards and obstruction.
Traffic Enforcement Action
1. Detection
2. Apprehension

3. Prosecution
4. Adjudication
5. Penalization
Enforcement action is usual limited to:
1. Verbal or written warning;
2. Summon or citation requiring the offender to appear in court;
3. Arresting traffic violators for traffic violations not attended
4. Suspension or revocation of license;
5. Payment of fines or civil damages, and;
6. Prosecution of criminal offenses in relation to traffic.
Traffic lights - a set of automatically operated coloured lights,
typically red, amber, and green, for controlling traffic at road
junctions, pedestrian crossings, and roundabouts.
Traffic Light Signals is a power operated traffic control device
by which traffic is warned or directed to take some specific actions.
Light: Flashing Red
1. This is the same as STOP SIGN.
2. STOP at the designated line.
3. Vehicles will be crossing from the other side
4. Expect pedestrians to cross at the pedestrian lane.
5. PROCEED WHEN CLEAR.
Light: Flashing Yellow
1. This is the same as a YIELD SIGN.
2. Proceed through the intersection with caution.
3. You have the right of way over a flashing RED light.
4. Vehicles on the other side will proceed to a FULL STOP.

Light: Steady Green and Steady left/Right Arrow


1. Vehicles can go straight or vehicles on the left lane can make
a left turn.
2. Vehicles can go straight or vehicles on the right lane can make
a right turn.
3. The RIGHT GREEN signal might or might NOT have a road sign
disallowing a right turn while the RED lights is On
Traffic Management it comprises all public surfaces , facilities
and agencies having responsibility for licensing, approving,
maintaining and controlling the flow of traffic and the use of traffic
facilities.
Traffic Patrol Traffic patrol refers to the observation
of road conditions, the behavior of the drivers and other users of
vehicles for the purpose of traffic supervision and law enforcement
and providing authorized traffic-connected services to the public.
Purpose of Traffic Patrol
1. Deterrent to violations and dangerous driving.
2. Detecting and apprehending violators.
3. Observing and reporting traffic conditions.
4. Observing and reporting road conditions, including view
obstruction which needs attention.
5. Providing certain services to the public.
Types/Kinds of Traffic Patrol
1. Line Patrol Conducts observation either in moving or
stationary observation at a certain route or point of a major
street in a city.
2. Area Patrol Conduct observation either by moving patrol or
stationary observation in a certain area, which included a

number of streets roads or sections of a highway.


3. Stationary Observation Observation of traffic conditions
of a selected place, usually one with unfavorable accident
experiences for traffic law supervision. Stationary observation
may be conspicuous, visible or concealed, depending upon the
location of the patrol unit in relation to the street under
observation.
4. Conspicuous Observation Stationary observation in which
the observer remains in full review of traffic conditions.
5. Visible Observation Stationary observation in which observer
is full view but so located, for example, at Side Street, so
as to require effort on the part of traffic users to discover
the observer.
6. Concealed Observation Stationary observation in which the
observer is not visible to persons using ordinary power of
observation form the roadway being observed.

Traffic Signs a device mounted on a fixed or portable means of words


or symbols, officially created and installed for the purpose of
regulating, warning and guiding traffic.
Types of Traffic Signs
1. Regulatory Signs - are intended to inform road-users of
special obligations, instructions or prohibitions which must
comply. A round shape is used for regulatory signs with
exception of stop and yield signs.
2. Warning Signs - are intended to warn road-users of danger on
the road and to inform them of its nature. These signs have
an equilateral triangular shape with one side horizontal.
3. Guide or Informative Signs - are intended to guide road-users
while they are traveling or to provide them with other useful

information.
Types of Guide Signs
1. Route markings is usually found on highways composed of
several lanes which are going into different direction.
2. Destination and distance signs is usually erected on
highway informing the motorist as to the number of kilometers
and at which way to take going to its place of destination.
3. Information signs is usually erected on highway which
informs the motorist of the establishments in the era, such
hospitals, restaurants, restrooms, hotels, and other
establishments which provide services to motorist.
Transfer Evidence it is an evidence found at the accident scene
that will connect to the suspected vehicle and with the crime scene.

Fire Technology And Arson


Investigation Reviewer
Fire Technology and Arson Investigation
3 State of matter
Solid
Liquid
Gas
4 General Categories Of Heat Energy
Chemical Heat Energy
Electrical Heat Energy
Mechanical Heat Energy
Nuclear Heat Energy
Backdraft - a phenomenon in which a fire that has consumed all available
oxygen suddenly explodes when more oxygen is made available, typically
because a door or window has been opened.
Boiling Point - The temperature of a substance where the rate of
evaporation exceeds the rate of condensation.
British Thermal Unit - (BTU) The amount of heat needed to raise the
temperature of one pound of water one degree F.
Calorie - The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one
gram of water one degree Centigrade.
Centigrade - (Celcius) On the Centigrade scale, zero is the melting
point of ice; 100 degrees is the boiling point of water.
Chemical Heat Energy
Heat of Combustion - The amount of heat generated by the
combustion (oxidation) process.

Heat of Decomposition - The release of heat from decomposing


compounds. These compounds may be unstable and release
their heat very quickly or they may detonate.
Heat of Solution - The heat released by the mixture of matter
in a liquid. Some acids, when dissolved, give off sufficient
heat to pose exposure problems to nearby combustibles.
Spontaneous Heating - The heating of an organic substance
without the addition of external heat. Spontaneous heating
occurs most frequently where sufficient air is not present
to dissipate the heat produced. The speed of a heating
reaction doubles with each 180 F (80 C) temperature increase.
Classification of Fires
Class A Fire - Fires involving ordinary combustible materials,
such as wood, cloth, paper, rubber and many plastics.
Class B Fires - Fires involving flammable liquids, greases
and gases.
Class C Fires - Fires involving energized electrical equipment.
Class D Fires - Fires involving combustible metals, such as
magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium and potassium.
Class K Fires - Class K is a new classification of fire as
of 1998 and involves fires in combustible cooking fuels such
as vegetable or animal fats.
Combustion - is the self-sustaining process of rapid oxidation of a
fuel being reduced by an oxidizing agent along with the evolution of
heat and light.
Dry Chemicals and Halons - method of fire extinguishment, interrupt
the flame producing chemical reaction, resulting in rapid extinguishment.
Electrical Heat Energy
Dielectric Heating - The heating that results from the action
of either pulsating direct current, or alternating current

at high frequency on a non-conductive material.


Heat from Arcing - Heat released either as a high-temperature
arc or as molten material from the conductor.
Heat Generated by Lightning - The heat generated by the
discharged of thousands of volts from either earth to cloud,
cloud to cloud or from cloud to ground.
Induction Heating - The heating of materials resulting from
an alternating current flow causing a magnetic field influence.
Leakage Current Heating - The heat resulting from imperfect
or improperly insulated electrical materials. This is
particularly evident where the insulation is required to
handle high voltage or loads near maximum capacity.
Resistance Heating - The heat generated by passing an
electrical force through a conductor such as a wire or
an appliance.
Static Electricity Heating - Heat released as an arc between
oppositely charged surfaces. Static electricity can be
generated by the contact and separation of charged surfaces
or by fluids flowing through pipes.

Endothermic Heat Reaction - A chemical reaction where a substance


absorbs heat energy.
Exothermic Heat Reaction - A chemical reaction where a substance
gives off heat energy.
Fahrenheit - On the Fahrenheit scale, 32 degrees is the melting point
of ice; 212 degrees is the boiling point of water.
Fire point - The temperature at which a liquid fuel will produce
vapors sufficient to support combustion once ignited. The fire point
is usually a few degrees above the flash point.
Fire Triangle - Oxygen, Fuel, Heat

Fire National Training Institute - (FNTI) the Institution for training


on human resource development of all personnel of the Bureau of Fire
Protection (BFP).
Flame - A gas-phased combustion.
Flammable or Explosive Limit - The percentage of a substance in air
that will burn once it is ignited. Most substances have an upper
(too rich) and a lower (too lean) flammable limit.
Flashover - an instance of a fire spreading very rapidly across a gap
because of intense heat. Occurs when a room or other area becomes
heated to the point where flames flash over the entire surface or area.
Flash Point - The minimum temperature at which a liquid fuel gives
off sufficient vapors to form an ignitable mixture with the air near
the surface. At this temperature, the ignited vapors will flash, but
will not continue to burn.
Fuel - is the material or substance being oxidized or burned in the
combustion process. Material such as coal, gas, or oil that is burned
to produce heat or power.
Fuel Removal - method of fire extinguishment, fire is effectively
extinguished by removing the fuel source. This may be accomplished by
stopping the flow of liquid or gaseous fuel or by removing solid fuel
in the path of the fire or allow the fire to burn until all fuel
is consumed.
Glowing Combustion - A condensed phased combustion.
Heat - the quality of being hot; high temperature. A form of energy
arising from the random motion of the molecules of bodies, which
may be transferred by conduction, convection, or radiation.
Heating - is transfer of energy, from a hotter body to a colder one,
other than by work or transfer of matter.
Heat of Combustion - The amount of heat generated by the combustion
(oxidation) process.

Heat Transfer
Conduction - Conduction is the transfer of energy through
matter from particle to particle. Heat may be conducted from
one body to another by direct contact of the two bodies or
by an intervening heat-conducting medium.
Convection - is the transfer of heat by the actual movement
of the warmed matter. Transfer of heat by the movement of
air or liquid.
Radiation - Electromagnetic waves that directly transport
energy through space.
Ignition Temperature - The minimum temperature to which a fuel in air
must be heated in order to start self-sustained combustion independent
of the heating source.
Heat - The form of energy that raises temperature. Heat is measured
by the amount of work it does.
Heat of Decomposition - The release of heat from decomposing compounds.
These compounds may be unstable and release their heat very quickly or
they may detonate.
Heat of Solution - The heat released by the mixture of matter in a
liquid. Some acids, when dissolved, give off sufficient heat to pose
exposure problems to nearby combustibles.
Mechanical Heat Energy
Frictional Heat - The heat generated by the movement between
two objects in contact with each other.
Friction Sparks - The heat generated in the form of sparks
from solid objects striking each other. Most often at least
one of the objects is metal.
Heat of Compression - The heat generated by the forced
reduction of a gaseous volume. Diesel engines ignite fuel
vapor without a spark plug by the use of this principle.

Nuclear Fission and Fusion - The heat generated by either the


splitting or combining of atoms.
Oxidation - The complex chemical reaction of organic material with
oxygen or other oxidizing agents in the formation of more stable
compounds.
Oxidizing Agents - are those materials that yield oxygen or other
oxidizing gases during the course of a chemical reaction.
Oxygen Dilution - is the reduction of the oxygen concentration to
the fire area.
Phases of Fire
Incipient Phase (Growth Stage)
Free-Burning Phase (Fully Developed Stage)
Smoldering Phase (Decay Stage)
Products of Combustion
Fire gases
Flame
Heat
Smoke
Pyrolysis (also known as thermalde composition) - is defined as the
chemical decomposition of matter through the action of heat.
RA 6975 - created the BFP.
Bureau of Fire Protection (BFP) - administers and enforces
the fire code of the Philippines. The Fire Bureau shall
have the power to investigate all causes of fires and, if
necessary, file the proper complaints with the city or
provincial prosecutor who has jurisdiction over the case.
Chief of the Fire Bureau - rank is Director.
Deputy Chief for Administration of the Fire Bureau - 2nd
highest officer in the BFP. Rank is Chief Superintendent.

Deputy Chief for Operation of the Fire Bureau - the 3rd


highest officer in the BFP. Rank is Chief Superintendent.
Chief of Directorial Staff of the Fire Bureau - 4th highest
officer in the BFP. Rank is Chief Superintendent.
Directors of the Directorates in the respective national
headquarters office - rank is Senior Superintendent.
Regional Director for Fire Protection - The BFP
shall establish, operate and maintain their respective
regional offices in each of the administrative regions of
the country. Rank is Senior Superintendent.
- He/She shall be respectively assisted by the
following officers with the rank of superintendent:
Assistant Regional Director for Administration,
Assistant Regional Director for Operations, and
Regional Chief of Directorial Staff.
Assistant Regional Director for Fire Protection - The
assistant heads of the Department's regional offices - rank
is Senior Superintendent.
District Fire Marshall - the heads of the NCR district offices rank is Senior Superintendent.
Provincial Fire Marshall - the heads of the provincial offices rank is Superintendent.
District Fire Marshall - heads of the district offices - rank
is Chief Inspector.
Chief of Municipal/City Fire Station - (also called City/
Municipal Fire Marshall) - the heads of the municipal or
city stations - rank is Senior Inspector.
Fire Station - at least one in every provincial capital, city
and municipality.
LGU - (Local Government Unit) - shall provide the site of the
Fire Station.

RA 9263 - this Act shall be known as the "Bureau of Fire Protection


and Bureau of Jail Management and Penology Professionalization Act of 2004.
The BFP is headed by a Chief to be assisted by 2 deputy chief, 1
for administration and 1 for operation, all appointed by the
President upon recommendation of DILG Secretary from among
qualified officers with at least the rank of Senior Superintendent
in the service.
In no case shall any officer who has retired or is retirable
within six (6) months from his/her compulsory retirement age
be appointed as Chief of the Fire Bureau or Chief of the
Jail Bureau.
The Chief of the Fire Bureau and Chief of the Jail Bureau
shall serve a tour of duty not to exceed four (4) years.
The President may extend such tour of duty in times of war
or other national emergency declared by Congress.
RA 9514 - this act shall be known as the fire code of the Philippines
of 2008. An Act establishing a comprehensive fire code of the
Philippines repealing PD 1185 and for other purposes.
Specific Gravity - the density of liquids in relation to water.
Spontaneous Heating - The heating of an organic substance without
the addition of external heat. Spontaneous heating occurs most
frequently where sufficient air is not present to dissipate the
heat produced.
Temperature Reduction - method of extinguishing fire, cooling the fuel
with water to a point where it does not produce sufficient vapor to burn.
Vapor Density - the density of a particular gas or vapor relative
to that of hydrogen at the same pressure and temperature.

Definition of Terms Under RA 9514


Abatement - Any act that would remove or neutralize a fire hazard.

Administrator - Any person who acts as agent of the owner and ma nages
the use of a building for him.
Blasting Agent - Any material or mixture consisting of a fuel and
oxidizer used to set off explosives.
Cellulose Nitrate or Nitro Cellulose - A highly combustible and
explosive compound produced by the reaction of nitric acid with a
cellulose material.
Cellulose Nitrate Plastic (Pyroxylin) - Any plastic substance,
materials or compound having cellulose nitrate (nitro cellulose)
as base.
Combustible, Flammable or Inflammable - Descriptive of materials
that are easily set on fire.
Combustible Fiber - Any readily ignitable and free burning fiber such
as cotton, oakum, rags, waste cloth, waste paper, kapok, hay, straw,
Spanish moss, excelsior and other similar materials commonly
used in commerce.
Combustible Liquid - Any liquid having a flash point at or above 37.8
C (100 F).
Corrosive Liquid - Any liquid which causes fire when in contact with
organic matter or with certain chemicals.
Curtain Board - A vertical panel of non-combustible or fire resistive
materials attached to and extending below the bottom chord of the roof
trusses, to divide the underside of the roof into separate compartments
so that heat and smoke will be directed upwards to a roof vent.
Cryogenic - Descriptive of any material which by its nature or as a
result of its reaction with other elements produces a rapid drop
in temperature of the immediate surroundings.
Damper - A normally open device installed inside an air duct system
which automatically closes to restrict the passage of smoke or fire.
Distillation - The process of first raising the temperature in separate

the more volatile from the less volatile parts and then cooling and
condensing the resulting vapor so as to produce a nearly purified
substance.
Duct System - A continuous passageway for the transmission of air.
Dust - A finely powdered substance which, when mixed with air in the
proper proportion and ignited will cause an explosion.
Electrical Arc - An extremely hot luminous bridge formed by passage
of an electric current across a space between two conductors or
terminals due to the incandescence of the conducting vapor.
Ember - A hot piece or lump that remains after a material has
partially burned, and is still oxidizing without the manifestation of flames.
Finishes - Materials used as final coating of a surface for ornamental
or protective purposes.
Fire - The active principle of burning, characterized by the heat
and light of combustion.
Fire Trap - A building unsafe in case of fire because it will burn
easily or because it lacks adequate exits or fire escapes.
Fire Alarm - Any visual or audible signal produced by a device or
system to warm the occupants of the building or fire fighting
elements of the presence or danger of fire to enable them to
undertake immediate action to save life and property and to suppress
the fire.
Fire Door - A fire resistive door prescribed for openings in fire
separation walls or partitions.
Fire Hazard - Any condition or act which increases or may cause an
increase in the probability of the occurrence of fire, or which
may obstruct, delay, hinder or interfere with fire fighting operations
and the safeguarding of life and property.
Fire Lane - The portion of a roadway or public way that should be kept
opened and unobstructed at all times for the expedient operation of
fire fighting units.

Fire Protective and Fire Safety Device - Any device intended for the
protection of buildings or persons to include but not limited to
built-in protection system such as sprinklers and other automatic
extinguishing system, detectors for heat, smoke and combustion
products and other warning system components, personal protective
equipment such as fire blankets, helmets, fire suits, gloves and other
garments that may be put on or worn by persons to protect themselves
during fire.
Fire Safety Constructions - Refers to design and installation of walls,
barriers, doors, windows, vents, means of egress, etc. integral to and
incorporated into a building or structure in order to minimize danger
to life from fire, smoke, fumes or panic before the building is
evacuated. These features are also designed to achieve, among others,
safe and rapid evacuation of people through means of egress sealed
from smoke or fire, the confinement of fire or smoke in the room or
floor of origin and de lay their spread to other parts of the building
by means of smoke sealed and fire resistant doors, walls and floors.
It shall also me an to include the treatment of buildings components
or contents with flame retardant chemicals.
Flash Point - The minimum temperature at which any material gives off
vapor in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air.
Forcing - A process where a piece of metal is heated prior to changing
its shape or dimensions.
Fulminate - A kind of stable explosive compound which explodes by
percussion.
Hazardous Operation/Process - Any act of manufacturing, fabrication,
conversion, etc., that uses or produces materials which are likely
to cause fires or explosion.
Horizontal Exit - Passageway from one building to another or through
or around a wall in approximately the same floor level.
Hose Box - A box or cabinet where fire hoses, valves and other equipment
are stored and arranged for fire fighting.
Hose Reel - A cylindrical device turning on an axis around which a

fire hose is wound and connected.


Hypergolic Fuel - A rocket or liquid propellant which consist of
combinations of fuels and oxidizers which ignite spontaneously on
contact with each other.
Industrial Baking and Drying - The industrial process of subjecting
materials to heat for the purpose of removing solvents or moisture
from the same, and/or to fuse certain chemical salts to form a
uniform glazing the surface of materials being treated.
Jumper - A piece of metal or an electrical conductor used to bypass a
safety device in an electrical system.
Occupancy - The purpose for which a building or portion thereof is
used or intended to be used.
Occupant - Any person actually occupying and using a building or
portions thereof by virtue of a lease contract with the owner or
administrator or by permission or sufferance of the latter.
Organic Peroxide - A strong oxidizing organic compound which
releases oxygen readily. It causes fire when in contact with
combustible materials especially under conditions of high temperature.
Overloading - The use of one or more electrical appliances or devices
which draw or consume electrical current beyond the designed capacity
of the existing electrical system.
Owner - The person who holds the legal right of possession or title
to a building or real property.
Oxidizing Material - A material that readily yields oxygen in
quantities sufficient to stimulate or support combustion.
Pressurized Or Forced Draft Burning Equipment - Type or burner where
the fuel is subjected to pressure prior to discharge into the
combustion chamber and/or which includes fans or other provisions for
the introduction of air at above normal atmosphere pressure into the
same combustion chamber.
Public Assembly Building - Any building or structure where fifty (50)

or more people congregate, gather, or assemble for any purpose.


Public Way - Any street, alley or other strip of land unobstructed
from the ground to the sky, deeded, dedicated or otherwise permanently
appropriated for public use.
Pyrophoric - Descriptive of any substance that ignites spontaneously
when exposed to air.
Refining - A process where impurities and/or deleterious materials are
removed from a mixture in order to produce a pure element of compound.
It shall also refer to partial distillation and electrolysis.
Self-Closing Doors - Automatic closing doors that are designed to
confine smoke and heat and delay the spread of fire.
Smelting - Melting or fusing of metallic ores or compounds so as to
separate impurities from pure metals.
Sprinkler System - An integrated network of hydraulically designed
piping installed in a building, structure or area with outlets
arranged in a systematic pattern which automatically discharges water
when activated by heat or combustion products from a fire.
Standpipe System - A system of vertical pipes in a building to which
fire hoses can be attached on each floor, including a system by which
water is made available to the outlets as needed.
Vestibule - A passage hall or antechamber between the outer doors
and the interior parts of a house or building.
Vertical Shaft - An enclosed vertical space of passage that extends
from floor to floor, as well as from the base to the top of the
building.

Fire Technology and Investigation

Fire - exothermic reaction involving the oxidation of some substance (fuel) resulting in the release of energy in
form of light and heat.
Fire Quadrangle
1. Fuel
2. Oxygen
3. Heat
4. Ignition energy
Triangles of Fire
1. Fuel
2. Oxygen
3. Heat
- removal of any of these results in the suppression of the
fire.
Some major products of combustion
1.

water

2. carbon dioxide
3. carbon monoxide
4. oxides of sulfur
Definition of terms
1. Vapor Density - the density of the vapor relative to thedensity of air and is calculated by dividing the

molecular weight of the gas by that of air.


2. Flash point - the lowest temperature at which
liquid fuel produces a flammable vapor.
3. Fire point/flame point - the lowest temperature at which
liquid fuel produces a flammable vapor in sufficient quantity
such that if a source of ignition is introduced, the vapor
will ignite and is usually a few degrees above the flash point
4. Ignition/auto-ignition temperature - the temperature at
which a fuel will ignite on its own with out any additional
source ignition.
5. Thermal inertia - the ease at which a material can be ignited.
6. Heat release rate - is a measure of the amount of energy a
specific type of fuel can contribute to the heat flux in a fire.
7. Heat transfer - the mechanism in which fire can spread from
its origin to other sources of fuel.
Methods of heat transfer
1. Conductive/conduction heat transfer - heat is transferred by direct contact and the rate of transfer is
dependent on factors such as the thermal conductivity of the material and the temperature difference
between the cooler and warmer areas.

2. Convective/convection heat transfer - transfer of heat through physical movement of materials and oc
only in liquids and gases. Hot gases rise and spread heat to nearby ceilings and walls.

3. Radiative/radiation heat transfer - heat is transferred if the form of electromagnetic energy directly f
one object to another. ex. infrared radiation from the sun.
8. Combustion - or burning - is the sequence of
exothermic chemical reaction between fuel and an oxidant
accompanied by the production of heat and conversion of
chemical species.The result of the heat can result in the
form of either glowing or flame.

Glowing combustion - occurs when solid fuels are not capable of producing sufficient quantities of ga
during pyrolysis to sustain a flame. If access to the oxidant (air) is limited, glowing combustion may re

Flaming combustion -commonly recognized type of fire and occurs with gaseous fuel sources only. Th
color of the flame can give some indication of the composition of the fuel.

Spontaneous combustion - the ignition of organic matter with out apparent cause, typically through he

generated internally by rapid oxidation.A process whereby a material self heats.

Explosive combustion - can occur when vapors, dust of gases, premixed with appropriate amount of a
ignited.

Definition of Terms:
Arson - intentional or malicious destruction of property by fire.

Fire analysis - the process of determining the origin, cause and responsibility as well as the failure analysis of
or explosion.
Fire cause - the circumstances or agencies that bring a fuel and an ignition source together with proper air or
oxygen.
Fire spread - the movement of fire from one place to another.
Flash fire - a fire that spreads with extreme rapidity such as the one that races over dust, over the surface of
flammable liquids or through gases.

Fuel load - the total quantity of combustible contents of the building, spaces or fire area, including interior fini
and trim expressed in heat units or the equivalent weight in wood.

Point of origin - the exact physical location where a heat source and fuel comes in contact with each other and
fire begins.

Rekindle - a return to flaming combustion after incomplete extinguishment of a fire reigning at some time afte
being put out.
Spalling - chipping or pitting of concrete or masonry surfaces.
Definition of terms - (RA no.9514)
Abatement - any act that would remove or neutralize fire hazard.
Administrator - any person who acts as agent of the owner and manages the use of a building for him.
Blasting Agent - any material or mixture consisting of a fuel and oxidizer used to set off explosives.

Cellulose nitrate or Nitro cellulose - a highly combustible and explosive compound produced by the reaction
nitric acid with a cellulose material.

Cellulose nitrate plastic (Pyroxylin) - any plastic substance,materials or compound having cellulose nitrate a
base.

Combustible/Flammable or Inflammable - Descriptive of materials that are easily set on fire.


Combustible fiber - any readily ignitable and free burning fiber such as cotton,oakum,rags,waste cloth,waste
paper,kapok,hay,straw,Spanish moss,excelsior,and other similar materials commonly used in commerce.

Combustible liquid - any liquid having a flash point at or above 37.8 degrees Celsius or 100 degrees Fahrenhe

Corrosive liquid - any liquid which causes fire when in contact with organic matter or with certain chemicals.

Curtain board - a vertical panel of non-combustible or fire resistive materials attached to and extending below
bottom chord of the roof trusses, to divide the underside of the roof into separate compartments so that heat an
smoke will be directed upwards to a roof vent.
Cryogenic - descriptive of any material which by its nature or as a result of its reaction with other elements
produces a rapid drop in temperature of the immediate surroundings.

Damper - a normally open device installed inside an air duct system which automatically closes to restrict the
passage of smoke or fire.

Distillation - the process of first raising the temperature to separate the more volatile from the less volatile par
and then cooling and condensing the resulting vapor so as to produce as nearly purified substance.
Duct system - a continuous passageway for the transmission of air.

Dust - a finely powdered substance which when mixed with air in the proper proportion and ignited will cause
explosion.

Electrical arc - an extremely hot luminous bridge formed by passage of an electric current across a space betw
two conductors or terminals due to the incandescence of the conducting vapor.

Ember - a hot piece or lump that remains after a material has partially burned and is still oxidizing without the
manifestation of flames.
Finishes - materials used as final coating of a surface for ornamental or protective purposes.
Fire - the active principle of burning characterized by the heat and light of combustion.

Fire Trap - a building unsafe in case of fire because it will burn easily or because it lacks adequate exits or fire
escapes.

Fire Alarm - any visual or audible signal produced by a device or system to warn the occupants of the building
the fighting element of the presence or danger of fire to enable them to undertake immediate action to save life
property and to suppress the fire.
Fire door - a fire restrictive door prescribed for openings in fire separation walls or partitions.

Fire Hazard - any condition or act which increases or may cause an increase in the probability of the occurren
of fire or which may obstruct,delay,hinder or interfere with firefighting operations and the safeguarding of life
property.

Fire Lane - the portion of a roadway or public way that should be kept opened and unobstructed at all times fo
expedient operations of firefighting units.

Fire Protective and Fire Safety Device - any device intended for the protection of buildings or persons to inc
but not limited to built in protection system such as sprinklers and other automatic extinguishing system,detect
for heat,smoke and combustion products and other warning system components,personal protective equipment
such as fire blankets,helmets,fire suits,globes and other garments that may be put on or worn by persons to pro
themselves during fire.

Fire Safety Constructions - refers to design and installations of walls,barriers,doors,windows,vents,means o


egress etc. integral to and incorporated into a building or structure in order to minimize danger to life,from
smoke,fire,fumes or panic before the building is evacuated.

Flash Point - the minimum temperature at which any material gives off vapor in sufficient concentration to for
an ignitable mixture with air.
Forcing - a process where a piece of metal is heated prior to changing its shape or dimensions.
Fulminate - a kind of stable explosive compound which explodes by percussion.
Hazardous operation/process - any act of manufacturing, fabrication, conversion etc., or produces materials
which are likely to cause fires or explosions.

Horizontal exit - passage way from one building to another or through or around a wall in approximately the s
floor level.

Hose Box - a box or cabinet where fire hoses, valves and other equipment are stored and arranged for firefight
Hose Reel - a cylindrical device turning on an axis around which a fire hose is connected.\.
Hypergolic fuel - a rocket or liquid propellant which consist of combinations of fuels and oxidizers which ign
simultaneously on contact with each other.

Industrial Baking and Drying - the industrial process of subjecting materials to heat for the purpose of remov
solvents or moisture from the same and,or to fuse certain chemical salts to form a uniform glazing the surface o
materials being treated.
Jumper - a piece of metal or an electrical conductor used to bypass a safety device in an electrical system.
Occupancy - the purpose for which a building or portion thereof is used or intended to be used.

Occupant - any person actually occupying and using a building or portions thereof by virtue of a lease contrac
with the owner or administrator or by permission or sufferance of the latter.
Organic Peroxide - a strong oxidizing organic compound which release oxygen readily. It causes fire
when in contact with combustible materials especially under conditions of high temperature.

Overloading - the use of one or more electrical appliances or devices which draw or consume electrical curren
beyond the designed capacity of the existing electrical system.
Owner - the person who holds the legal right of possession or title to a building or real property.
Oxidizing Material - a material that readily yields oxygen in quantities sufficient to stimulate or support
combustion.

Pressurized or Forced Draft Burning Equipment - type or burner where the fuel is subjected to pressure pri
discharge into the combustion chamber and /or which includes fans or other provisions for the introduction of a
above normal atmosphere pressure into the same combustion chamber.

Public Assembly Building - any building or structure where 50 0r more people congregate, gather or assemble
any purpose.

Public Way - any street, alley or other strip of land unobstructed from the ground to the sky, dedicated for pub
use.
Pyrophoric - descriptive of any substance that ignites spontaneously when exposed to air.

Refining - a process where impurities and,or deleterious materials are removed from a mixture in order to prod
a pure element of compound. It shall also refer to partial distillation and electrolysis.

Self Closing Doors - automatic closing doors that are designed to confine smoke and heat and delay the spread
fire.
Smelting - melting or fusing of metallic ores or compounds so as to separate impurities from pure metals.

Sprinkler System - an integrated network of hydraulically designed piping installed in a building, structure or
with outlets arranged in a systematic pattern which automatically discharges water when activated by heat or
combustion products from a fire.
Standpipe System - a system of vertical pipes in a building to which fire hoses can be attached on each floor,
including a system by which water is made available to the outlet as needed.

Vestibule - a passage hall or ante chamber between the outer doors and the interior parts of a house or building

Vertical Shaft - a enclosed vertical space of passage that extends from floor to floor as well as from the base to
top of the building.
RA no.9514 - Revised Fire Code of the Philippines of 2008 (Dec. 19, 2008).

PD. 1185 - known as the fire code of the Philippines, was enacted into law 1977, repealed by RA no. 9514.

RA no. 9263 - Bureau of Fire Protection and Bureau of Jail Management and Penology Professionalization Ac
2004.
BFP Powers/Functions
1. Preventions and suppression of all destructive
fires on
a. buildings
b. houses
c. other structure
d. forest
e. land transportation vehicles
f. ships/vessels
g. petroleum industry installations
h. plane crashes and similar incidents
2. Enforcement of the Fire Code of the Philippines
3. Investigate all causes of fire
4. File proper complaints with the prosecutors office

note: Vessel/Ship must be docked at piers or wharves or anchored in major seaport.

BFP Organization

Headed by a Chief who shall be assisted by a Deputy Chief. It shall composed of a Provincial, District
City and Municipal stations.

In large provinces, district offices may be established to be headed by a district fire marshall.

In large cities and municipalities, district offices may be established with subordinate fire stations head
by a district fire marshall.

There shall be at least one fire station in every provincial, capital, city and municipality.

The local government unit shall provide the site of the fire station.

BFP Key Positions

The Chief of the Fire Bureau - rank is Director.

The Deputy Chief of the Fire Bureau - rank is Chief Superintendent.

Assistant Regional Director for Fire Protection - rank is Senior Superintendent.

District Fire Marshall of NCR District Offices - rank is Senior Superintendent.

Provincial Fire Marshall - rank is Superintendent.

District Fire Marshall of Province - rank is Chief Inspector.

Chief of City/Municipal Fire Station - rank is Senior Inspector.

Key Positions - Qualifications


1. Municipal Fire Marshal - should have the rank of
Senior Inspector.
a. Must have finished at least 2nd year Bachelor of
Laws or earned at least 12 units in a masters
degree program in public administration,
management, engineering, public safety,
criminology or other related discipline.
b. Must have satisfactory passed the necessary
training of career courses for such position as
may be established by the fire bureau.
2. City Fire Marshal - should have the rank of Chief
Inspector.
a. Must have finished at least 2nd year Bachelor of
Laws or earned at least 24 units in a masters
degree program in public administration,
management, engineering, public safety,
criminology or other related disciplines.
b. Must have satisfactory passed the necessary
training or career courses for such position as
may be established by the fire bureau.
3. District Fire Marshal/Provincial Fire Marshal/
Assistant Regional Director for Administration/
Assistant Regional Director for Operations/
Chief of Directorial Staff - should have the rank of
Superintendent.
a. Must be a graduate of Bachelor of Laws or a
holder of a Masters degree in public
administration, management, engineering,
public safety, criminology, or other related
disciplines.
b. Must have satisfactory passed the necessary

training or career courses for such position as


may be established by the fire bureau.
4. District Fire marshal for the NCR/Regional
Director for Fire Protection/Director of the
Directorate of the National Headquarters Office should have at least the rank of Senior
Superintendent.
a. Must be a graduate of Bachelor of Laws or a
holder of masters degree in public administration,
management, engineering, public safety,
criminology, or other related disciplines.
b. Must have satisfactory passed the necessary
training or career course for such position as may
be established by the fire bureau.
5. Deputy Chief for Administration and
Deputy Chief for Operation of the Fire Bureau should have the rank of Chief superintendent.
a. Must be a member of the Philippine Bar or must
be a holder of a masters degree in public
administration, management, engineering,
public safety, criminology or other related
disciplines.
b. Must have satisfactory passed the necessary
training or career courses as may be established
by the fire bureau.
6. Chief of the Fire Bureau - should have the rank
of Director.
a. Must be a member of the Philippine Bar or a
masters degree in public administration,
management, engineering, public safety,
criminology or other related discipline.
b. Must satisfactory passed the necessary
the training or career courses for such position
as may be established by the fire bureau.

Fire Technology and Investigation Reviewer 1

1. Combustion or burning in which substances combine chemically with


oxygen from the air and typically give out bright light,heat and
smoke.
A. Flame
B. Heat
C. Fire
D. Smoke
Ans. C
2. A hot glowing body of ignited gas that is generated by something
on fire.
A. Flame
B. Heat
C. Fire
D. Smoke
Ans. A
3. An extensive fire that destroys a great deal of land or property.
A. Conflagration

B. Burning
C. Fire
D. Combustion
Ans. A
4. Means on fire or very hot or bright.
A. Flame
B. Burning
C. Fire
D. Combustion
5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Ans. B
The rapid chemical combination of a substance with oxygen
involving the production of heat and light.
A. Flame
B. Burning
C. Fire
D. Combustion
Ans.D
The quality of being hot or high temperature at which fuel will
continue to burn for atleast 5 seconds after ignition by an open
flame.
A. Flame
B. Heat
C. Fire
D. Smoke
Ans. B
The natural agent that stimulates sight and makes things visible.
A. Flame
B. Heat
C. Light
D. Smoke
Ans. C
Is one of the 4 fundamental states of matter, the other being
solid,liquid and gas.
A. Flame
B. Plasma
C. Light
D. Smoke
Ans. B
The lowest temperature a which the vapor of a combustible liquid
can be ignited in air.
A. Flash point
B. Ignition temperature
C. Fire point
D. Boiling point

Ans. A
10. Is the temperature at which fuel will continue to burn for at least
five seconds after ignition by an open flame.
A. Flash point
B. Ignition temperature
C. Fire point
D. Boiling point
Ans. C
Remember the following:
1. Fire - Combustion or burning in which substances combine
chemically with oxygen from the air and typically give out bright
light,heat and smoke.
2. Flame - A hot glowing body of ignited gas that is generated by
something on fire.
3. Conflagration - An extensive fire that destroys a great deal of
land or property.
4. Burning - Means on fire or very hot or bright.
5. Combustion - The rapid chemical combination of a substance with
oxygen involving the production of heat and light.
6. Heat - The quality of being hot or high temperature at which fuel
will continue to burn for at least 5 seconds after ignition by an
open flame.
7. Light - The natural agent that stimulates sight and makes things
visible.
8. Plasma - Is one of the 4 fundamental states of matter, the other
being solid,liquid and gas.
9. Flash point - The lowest temperature a which the vapor of a
combustible liquid can be ignited in air.
10.Fire point - Is the temperature at which fuel will continue to burn
for at least five seconds after ignition by an open flame.
Fire Technology and Investigation Reviewer 2

1. The use of one or more electrical appliances or devices which draw


or consume electrical current beyond the designed capacity of the
existing electrical system
A. self-closing door
B. jumper
C. overloading
D. oxidizing material
2. An enclosed vertical space of passage that extends from the floor
to floor, as well as for the base to the top of the building is called
A. sprinkle evidence
B. vertical shaft
C. flash point
D. standpipe system
3. A wall designated to prevent the spread of fire having a fire
resistance rating of not less than four hours with sufficient
structural stability to remain standing even if construction on either
side collapses under the fire conditions.
A. Wood rack
B. Fire wall
C. Post wall
D. Fire trap
4. Any act that would remove or naturalized a fire hazard
A. Allotment
B. Combustion
C. Distillation
D. Abatement
5. The ____ shall be conducted as a pre-requisite to grant permits
and/or license by local governments or other government agencies.
A. Fire safety inspection
B. Fire protection assembly
C. Fire alerting system
D. Fire service
6. An instance that may cause fires from the heat accumulated from
the rolling, sliding or friction in machinery or between two hard
surfaces, at least one of which is usually a metal is called.
A. static electricity
B. overheating of machine
C. friction heat

D. heat from arching


7. Method of heat transfer by direct contact
A. nuclear fission
B. conduction
C. convection
D. Radiation
8. Instrument used to open and close a fire hydrant
A. hydrant key
B. kilowatts
C. key board
D. bunch of key
9. Energy is transferred from one body to another by thermal
interactions.
A. Fire
B. Smoke
C. Heat
D. Ember
10.The transfer of heat from one place to another by the movement
of fluids.
A. Convection
B. Radiation
C. Conduction
D. None of the above

Answer: Fire Technology and Investigation

1. C
2. B
3. B
4. D
5. A
6. C
7. B
8. A
9. C
10.A