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# NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints

NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints SN043a-EN-EU

**NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints
**

This NCCI provides the rules for the design of fixed column base joints. The rules are limited to covering the design of symmetric un-stiffened base plate joints of I section columns subjected to normal force, shear force and moment about the column major axis. The design of a shear nib, if required, is covered by NCCI SN021. The rules given can be easily extended to bases of other types of column sections.

Contents

1. 2. 3. 4.

Created on Wednesday, May 12, 2010 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

Introduction Parameters Design model and limitations Design situation 1: Dimension a base plate for the loading at the base of a given column section Design situation 2: Determine the design resistances of a given base plate

2 4 5 8 12

5.

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NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints

NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints SN043a-EN-EU

1.

Introduction

This NCCI covers the design of fixed bases of I section columns transmitting a normal force, a shear force and a moment. The rectangular base plate is welded to the column section in a symmetrical position so that it has projections beyond the column flange outer edges on all sides (see Figure 1.1). Anchor bolts rows, normal to the column major axis, are symmetrically placed about the column minor axis. The base plate may be located eccentrically on the concrete foundation. In practice, the following two design situations are encountered: 1. The column section and the concomitant design normal force, shear force and moment are known. The dimensions of the required base plate and anchor bolts are to be determined. The column section, base plate and foundation dimensions in a particular structure are known. It is required to check that the different combinations of axial force, shear force and moment that arise can be safely resisted.

2.

**The design procedures for these two situations are given in Sections 4 and 5 respectively.
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Created on Wednesday, May 12, 2010 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

Noting, in particular, the importance of the intrinsic relationship between the values of the design moment and the concomitant normal force, the satisfactory determination of the fundamental characteristics of the joint components (i.e. grout/foundation bearing resistance, base plate area, base plat thickness, anchor bolt dimensions and anchor bolt positions) usually requires separate checking of all joint components for the concomitant forces and moments resulting from a number of different load combination cases acting on the structure. The shear force resistance of the base plate joint is either covered by SN037 and, if the friction resistance is insufficient, by SN043. The shear force is not considered to have any effect of the joint resistance to a combination of a normal force and a moment. The stiffness of the base plate joint is obtained using SN045.

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Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement Key : 1. Concrete foundation 5. Grout 4.1 Typical fixed column base plate joints Page 3 .NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints SN043a-EN-EU 1 5 2 3 4 df bp bf hp hf Created on Wednesday. 2010 This material is copyright . May 12. I section column 2.all rights reserved. Anchor bolt Figure 1. Base plate 3.

Effective normal load eccentricity expressed by the ratio. tfc. Design resistance in tension of the right-side anchor bolt row T-stub. Nj. Flange width.Rd/Nj. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement bfc. df Ft. Distance of a right-side anchor bolt row from the column major axis. hp.all rights reserved.Rd) fyb fyp fjd fcd Yield strength of the anchor bolt.r.Rd FC.Rd Created on Wednesday.l.Rd z zT. Design resistance moment of the column base joint for a given effective eccentricity. Distance of a right-side T stub centre of compression from the column major axis. eN Ft.Rd beff c Effective width of a base plate T-stub in compression.Rd LB MEd Mj.Rd Design normal force (positive if in tension) applied by the column to the base joint. MEd/NEd . leff Effective length of a T-stub in tension. Design bearing strength of the foundation joint. Mj.l. FT.Rd: Ft.l zC. in conjunction with NEd. 2010 This material is copyright . twc.Ed γM0 Partial factor on the base plate bending resistance.r Page 4 . Table 2. tp beff.Rd Sectional area of an anchor bolt Design resistance in tension of an anchor bolt section Anchorage bond design resistance of an anchor bolt Design resistance of an anchor bolt in tension = min(Ft.l zC.bond. May 12.r zT. e Tension T-stub geometric parameters NEd Nj. Yield strength of the base plate. Distance of a left-side T stub centre of compression from the column major axis. eN = MEd/NEd of the normal load NEd = Nj. length and depth of the foundation.anchor.Rd m. length and thickness of the base plate. in conjunction with the moment MEd. n. Distance of a left-side anchor bolt row from the column major axis.Rd FC. Design normal force resistance of the column base at an effective eccentricity of eN = MEd/NEd = Mj. hc bp. of the applied concomitant moment MEd and axial load NEd Width. hf.Ed Design resistance in tension of the left-side anchor bolt row T-stub. Additional bearing width (measured from the column section perimeter) for a compression T-stub. Design moment applied by the column (positive if clockwise) to the base joint. flange thickness web thickness and depth (height) of an I section column Width. Lever arm between the left-side force and the right-side force induced on the column base to foundation joint. Length of anchor bolt submitted to tensile elongation. Design resistance in compression of the left-side compression flange T-stub.NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints SN043a-EN-EU 2.Rd bf.r.Rd FT.1 Parameters Parameters Definition Definition As Ft. Design compressive strength of the concrete according to EN 1992-1-1.bond. Design resistance in tension of the right-side compression flange T-stub.

either a compressive axial load .2. 2010 This material is copyright .all rights reserved. it could arise in vertical members of bracing sub-structures required to transmit high lateral loads. symbols and a sign convention which facilitate treating non symmetric joints subjected to multiple load cases.1 Design model and limitations Design model The design model for a fixed column base plate joint for a combined normal force plus a moment about the major column axis is given in §6. are as follows: Compression on both sides of the joint due to a dominant axial compression load combined with .1 a). An additional load distribution case with tension on both sides of the joint (Figure 3. Tension on the left hand side and compression on the right hand side due to a dominant clockwise moment combined with .1.7 of EN 1993-1-8 are derived from the equilibrium between the applied moment . In the design formulae given Table 6. Created on Wednesday.or an anticlockwise moment. for which an axial tensile load is dominant. shown in Figure 3. While having tension throughout a fixed column base is uncommon in typical buildings. 3.NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints SN043a-EN-EU 3. A simplified mechanical model is adopted which considers that the possible reaction force on any one side of the joint can be either tension in a single anchor bolt row or compression on the foundation joint over a bearing area centred under the column flange. for instance in industrial buildings in which cranes operate or in buildings under significant seismic loading. The design resistance of the critical joint component (T stub in compression or in tension) determines the design resistance moment acting in concomitance with the given normal force.either a clockwise moment . The formulae given in Table 6. Page 5 . The most common load distributions in a fixed column base joint.either a compressive axial load .7 of EN 1993-1-8 a distinction made between the latter two cases which permits the use of parameters. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement Compression on the left hand side and tension on the right hand side due to a dominant anticlockwise moment combined with .or a tensile axial load (uplift) .normal force combination and the reaction forces induced on the base plate. completes the theoretical possibilities for the load distributions. May 12. They cover each of the four possible and distinct load distribution scenarios for the basic configuration of column base plate joint shown in Figure 3.or a tensile axial load (uplift).8 of EN 1993-1-8.1d)). b) and c) respectively.

In this NCCI.all rights reserved. reference is made to SN037 for the design resistance of T-stubs in compression. Page 6 .NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints SN043a-EN-EU M N M N a) M N b) M N Created on Wednesday. The design model assumes that the bearing resistance is provided by one or both of the column flange T-stubs in compression.2 Resistance in bearing For the compression side of a joint the design approach is to ensure that the bearing stresses under the base plate neither exceed the design bearing strength of the foundation joint material nor lead to excessive bending of the base plate. 2010 This material is copyright .1. In the simplified approach given in EN 1993-1-8 for the design of column base joints transferring moment. no direct account is taken for any compression force that may be transferred through a column web T-stub in compression. depending on whether compression reigns over part or all of the column base plate respectively as shown in Figure 3.2. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement c) Key : a) b) c) d) Compression on both sides of the joint Compression on the right hand side and tension on the left hand side Compression on the left hand side and tension on the right hand side Tension on both sides of the joint (rare situation) d) Figure 3. May 12.1 Load distribution 3. For a flange T-stub in compression the bearing stresses are assumed to be uniformly distributed over the T-stub area centred beneath the flange as shown in Figure 3.

such as with anchor plates or special heads. To permit the direct application of the design rules given for the case of anchor bolt rows on both sides of the column flange. EN 1992-1-1 does not provide design rules for the bond anchorage resistance of plain bars. for anchor bolt rows between the column flanges.4 Limitations The design rules provided are limited to applications for the types of un-stiffened column base plates shown in Figure 1. Therefore.all rights reserved.3 Resistance in tension of an anchor bolt row The design model for an anchor bolt row in tension is similar to that for a bolt row of an end plate connection transmitting moment. This involves the consideration of the three basic tension T stub failure modes as identified in Table 6. This is in accordance with some existing national rules for reinforced concrete and with initial drafts for Eurocode 2. It is to be noted that.2 of EN 1993-1-8. These issues may the subject of provisions in the National Annexes. it is recommended to use an equivalent single row having a total tensile resistance of the two rows acting together at the centroid.1 subjected to axial load in combination with moment acting about the column major axis only. No rules are given for the design of anchored bolts. according to EN 1993-1-8 §6. the design approach is to ensure that the tensile force in the anchor bolt row does not exceed either of the following. The design tensile resistance of the base plate tension T stub. Page 7 . The rules cover the case of two anchor bolts in a row. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement 3. In the present NCCI the design basic anchorage length of plain anchor bolts is taken as that for a ribbed bar divided by a factor of 2. 2010 This material is copyright .25. It is not recommended to consider that other rows than those about the column flanges contribute to the resistance of a fixed column base subjected to a moment combined with an axial load. Created on Wednesday. If necessary.NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints SN043a-EN-EU 3.12(5) that the yield strength of the steel for bent or hooked anchor bars should not exceed 300 N/mm². The latter mode is possible if the prying effect disappears with the loss of contact between the base plate edge and the foundation because of anchor bolt elongation. the design resistance in tension of the column web component of the T stub.6. the single mode replacing modes 1 and 2 shall be considered (see Table 6. If relevant. It is also believed also that the rules provided for the bends and hooks of the ribbed bars should not be applied to plain bars. May 12. In the simplified mechanical model the resistance in tension is presented for the case of there being one anchor bolt row only.e.2.2 EN 1993-1-8). i. The design approach is identical to that for a bolt row of an end plate except that when determining the resistance of the anchor bolt in tension one must also consider that the anchorage bond resistance may be more critical.

l z zC. Figure 3.c 6 c 5 beff. Compression T stub area. Anchor bolts.1 Choice of base plate type It is recommended that the base plates be of the “long projection” type of sufficient width so as to allow having an anchor bolt row situated on the projection on each side of the column.NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints SN043a-EN-EU 1 NEd 2 MEd 3 la FT.r 3 Key: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Both the normal force and the moment applied by the column to the column base plate joint are shown acting in the positive sense as defined by EN 1993-1-8. 2010 This material is copyright .c 2 zT. May 12.l z zC. reduces the mechanical resistance requirements on the anchor bolts in tension. Right side of the base plate joint when in compression: foundation joint offers bearing resistance on the underside of the base plate T stub which is acting in bending off the column flange. Left-side of the base plate joint when the anchor bolts are in tension: the tensile force is resisted by the T stub formed by the base plate and the anchor bolt row.e. This facilitates providing adequate compression resistance and.l FC.r 4 c tfc c c tfc c c 5 Created on Wednesday. tensile axial forces are positive and positive moments act clockwise. Page 8 .l z zC. by increasing the lever arm between the compression and the tensile zones. Lever arm between the tension force in the anchor bolts and the compression force under the base plate.all rights reserved.r zT. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement c 6 beff.r 3 2 zT. i.2 Compression and anchor bolt tension induced by the normal force and moment 4. Design situation 1: Dimension a base plate for the loading at the base of a given column section 4.

MEd) at the column base.all rights reserved. Column flange Column web Column base plate Figure 4.Ed ) compression: maximum value for FC. hc 1 mx e x w bp 3 tfc 1 e m m bp 2 e m m e m2 3 Created on Wednesday.NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints SN043a-EN-EU In the following the dimensioning of a symmetric base plate joint is presented.8 plate ended anchors have become common.Ed = max(FT. 2.1 Geometrical parameters for the tension T-stub 4. with anchor bolts with a single row on the extended part of the base plate or in two rows.Ed = M Ed N − Ed hc − tfc 2 M Ed N + Ed hc − tfc 2 Page 9 .1. For typical buildings. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement e m2 3 mx ex Key: 1. as shown in Figure 4. one each side of the flange. 2010 This material is copyright . May 12. Each row has two anchor bolts symmetrically placed about the column minor axis.3 Estimation of maximum compression and tension forces on the foundation Considering all the various combinations of axial load and moment (NEd. the base plate steel and the anchor bolt class. 3. A “long projection type of base is used.6 anchor bolts while elsewhere class 8.Ed ) tension: maximum value FT. in some countries it has been usual practice to recommend class 4.2 Choice of materials It is necessary to choose the concrete class. The base plate is not necessarily of the same steel grade as that of the column section. 4. the following expressions provide estimates of the maximum compressive force and maximum tensile force acting on the foundation: max(FC.

bond.Ed = 2 max(FC. 2.bond. 4.e.Ed . Nj.4 Dimension the base plate for the estimated maximum joint compression force To dimension the base plate.Rd = - γ Mb. However the equivalent bond anchorage length for bends and hooks of plain bars is not Page 10 .) A “long” projection base plate is chosen from the outset of the procedure. It is assumed in the present NCCI that the design value for a plain bar is the value given in §8.traction 0. May 12.2(2) of EN 1992-1-1). MEd . 2.Ed .Rd = 1 (πφlb f bd ) . and MRd are written for N j. The values for the plate base plan dimensions (bp. 4.9 f ub As Annex A of this NCCI gives the design bond anchorage resistance of often used diameters of class 4.Rd = Bolt diameter φ > 32 mm: Ft.25.4 of EN 1992-1-1 (i. negative if compressive) is to be used in them.1 Axial tensile resistance of an anchor bolt Created on Wednesday. NRd . Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement Anchorage bond resistance and tensile section resistance of anchor bolts When considering the failure modes of a T stub in tension the design tensile resistance of an anchor bolt in tension is to be taken as the least of the following two values: Design bond anchorage resistance (assuming that good bond conditions pertain): o o Bolt diameter φ ≤ 32 mm: Ft.6 anchor bolts as a function of the basic anchorage length for typical foundation concrete.25 Where lb is the basic anchorage length of the anchor bolt (starting from the bottom surface of the grout down into the foundation) and fbd is the design bond strength of the concrete (§8. design tensile resistance of the anchor bolt section. apply the procedure in Section 4 of SN037.Rd respectively. assuming that the axial compressive load is.4. The relevant National Annex may provide guidance. Ed. the design value for a ribbed bar of the same diameter in similar concrete and conditions) divided by 2. Mj.5.5 Dimension the base plate thickness and the anchor bolts for the estimated maximum joint tensile force 4. Note: EN 1992-1-1 provides design bond strengths for “ribbed” bars only. In order to simplify the notation NEd . Nj.all rights reserved. the sign of the axial load NEd (positive if tensile.25 (132 − φ ) / 100 (πφ lb f bd ) .NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints SN043a-EN-EU Note: while the expressions above give the absolute values for the two forces. A reduced anchorage depth into the foundation is required if bent or hooked anchor bolts are used. Ft.Rd and Mj. 2010 This material is copyright . hp) and plate thickness (tp) are obtained.

9 f ub As . May 12.2 Design resistance of T-stub in tension with a two bolt anchor row Base plate thickness The base plate thickness tp obtained for the compression design of the base plate may not be adequate. The design resistance of a single anchor bolt Ft.Rd = Created on Wednesday. it is assumed that the full tensile resistance of the anchor bolt section can 0.5.Rd ≥ max(FT.Ed ( M2 ) from which the bolt diameter can be obtained. Rd is taken as: Ft. Rd . 2010 This material is copyright . The final choice of the anchor bolt details. anchor.all rights reserved.anchor.1 for the parameters): Page 11 . 4. Ft. Based on the mode 1 resistance (full plastic mechanism) the following estimate of the plate thickness is obtained (see Figure 4.NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints SN043a-EN-EU provided by EN 1993-1-1 so that it is necessary to adopt other rules such as those in existing national standards or international recognised recommendations to provide them. decide to use two rows of anchor bolts (i.e.Ed) As a first estimate. The dimensioning of the bolt size becomes: As ≥ FT. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement γ M2 As ≥ FT. To avoid anchor bolt failure (mode 3) the resistance of the anchor bolts of the chosen class must satisfy the following condition: 2Ft.6 f ub ) The latter assumption about the anchor bolt tensile resistance needs to be checked when the final details of the bond anchorage lengths are established.bond. Experience with standard foundation design and construction practice in a particular region will guide the designer in the choice of a suitable anchor bolt. four anchor bolts of section As).Ed ( γ γ M2 3. If full anchorage for any given diameter and class of anchor bolt cannot be assured. it is necessary to adopt a lower resistance than the design tensile resistance of the section.Rd = min [Ft.8 f ub Two rows of anchor bolts If one row of the anchor bolt size available is not adequate. The required bolt section is given as follows: be attained: Ft.anchor. 1.anchor.Rd ] Anchor bolt size Assume that one anchor bolt row on the base plate projection will be adequate. in particular those concerning anchoring. usually requires knowledge of the foundation depth.

Edγ M0 f yp 2π FT. 2010 This material is copyright .l = z C.1 Compression and anchor bolt tension induced by the applied normal force and moment 5.Rd = min [Ft.l z z zC.2 Check the resistance of the anchor bolts Ft.3 Determine the axial compressive resistance Refer to Section 5 of SN037 to provide the axial compressive resistance of the joint.c c beff. Page 12 . Ft. Note: For a symmetric joint the distances z T.1 Created on Wednesday.l = z T. Edγ M0 f yp 4π Two anchor bolt rows: tp ≥ 4. is obtained from 4.5.Rd ] The design tensile resistance of an anchor bolt.Rd. Ft.6 Check of the fixed base plate joint Design resistance checks given in Section 5 below should be carried out.c c zT.r = zC. May 12. Design situation 2: Determine the design resistances of a given base plate 5.Rd .r Figure 5. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement Joint type It is assumed below that the joint is symmetric with one row or two rows of anchor bolts (two per row) on each side of the joint (see Figure 5.1).1 above: 5.l zC.r = z T and z C. modifications being made if necessary to the base plate and/or anchor bolt dimensions.bond. This value is valid when the concomitant applied moment is zero.anchor. 5.all rights reserved.NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints SN043a-EN-EU One anchor bolt row: tp ≥ FT.r zT.anchor. c tfc c c tfc c c beff.

625ex ). In the EN 1993-1-8 simplified model.nc Inner anchor bolt row o o Circular mechanism: leff. It should be noted that if a part of the axial compression is transferred through a column web T-stub.cp : leff.Rd) .Rd .nc = ( 4m + 1. the T stub length is that given above for mode 1.NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints SN043a-EN-EU It provides a first indication of the possible (NEd. the axial resistance in compression reduces to the latter value when the applied moment is zero.nc = min[ 0. May 12.1 = min(leff.2 = leff.625ex )] Mode 1 effective T-Stub length: leff.nc For the special mode indicated in Figure 5.all rights reserved.25e) Mode 1 effective T-Stub length: leff. (0.5bp .25ex ). MEd) combinations that can be applied to the joint. 2010 This material is copyright .1 = min(leff.nc ) Mode 2 effective T-Stub length: leff.5w + 2mx + 0. (π mx + w).2 = leff. the negative sign indicating that the load is compressive.Rd = -(2 FC. Page 13 . The resistance of each flange T-stub in compression is written here as FC. (π mx + 2e)] Non circular mechanism: leff.The axial compressive resistance is then given as: NC.nc ) Mode 2 effective T-Stub length: leff. 5. The effective T stub length is as follows (see Figure 4.1 for the definition of the geometric parameters): Outer anchor bolt row : o o Circular mechanism: leff.4 Determine the tensile axial load resistance The resistance in tension of the anchor bolt rows on both sides of the joint are obtained.cp = 2 π m Non circular mechanism leff .cp : leff. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement The possible modes of failure of a T-stub in tension are shown schematically in Figure 5. the resistance obtained will exceed the sum of the resistances for the two column flange T-Stubs in compression.2.2 e). ( 4m + 1. T stub effective lengths Created on Wednesday. (e + 2mx + 0.cp = min[( 2π m).

anchor.2 Possible failure modes for a T stub in tension The special failure mode replacing mode 1 and mode 2 is possible only when the following condition on the anchor bolt length is met: 8.2 and the effective T stub length leff is determined above. This value may be differ between mode 1 (with leff. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement d) Full plastic mechanism (failure Mode 1).all rights reserved.Rd = leff 2 tp f y 4γ M0 .2.Rd is taken as the least of the following resistances as relevant: Page 14 .1 ) and mode 2 (with leff.2 ). The plastic hinge flexural resistance is given by: M pl.1 ∗ b ⎡m⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ tp ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 3 Where the distance m is as shown in Figure 5. T stub resistance in tension Determine the resistance of the T stub in tension for the bolt row. The value of the resistance of a T-stub in tension Ft. 2010 This material is copyright . The design resistance of a bolt row will be the least value for the failure modes shown in Figure 5.Rd = leff mpl. Failure by flexural yielding of the flange in conjunction with separation of the base plate from the foundation due to anchor bolt elongation (the prying force becomes null). May 12. Partial plastic mechanism with anchor bolt failure (failure Mode 2). Web yielding in tension (failure Mode 4). It replaces failure Modes 1 and 2 c) d) e) Figure 5. Rd. Anchor bolt failure (failure Mode 3).8 As Lb > L = leff. When considering the failure modes of a T stub in tension the design tensile resistance of an anchor bolt in tension is to be taken Ft.NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints SN043a-EN-EU Ft m δ e Ft m e Ft δ n a) b) Ft e) n Ft δ c) Key: a) b) Created on Wednesday.

- Mode 3 : Anchor bolt failure Ft.Rd = 2 M pl.Rd Which is valid only when the concomitant moment is null.Rd.1.all rights reserved.Rd Created on Wednesday. Rd = 2Ft. where the lever arm z = zT + zC 5.Rd m+n .NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints SN043a-EN-EU - Mode 1: Plastic mechanism: Ft. Axial resistance in tension of the joint The axial tensile resistance of the symmetric joint is given as follows: NT.Rd = beff. b) The effective eccentricity of the axial load is determined as eN = M Ed for the applied N Ed combination is (MEd.Rd = 2 M pl. May 12. the resistances for modes 1 and 2 are replaced by o : Ft.t.1/2.2 + 2nFt.Rd = 2 FT. It should be noted that the eccentricity value may be positive or negative depending on the signs of the forces and moments. NEd) combination.wc. 2010 This material is copyright . Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement The summation sign allows considering having either one bolt row on each side of the joint or two bolt rows on each side of the joint.wc γ M0 The resistance of all the anchor bolt rows present are calculated.Rd : z FC.1.Rd.1 m .Rd = ∑Ft.25m) Mode 1-2: If the condition requiring adopting the special mode is met.anchor. anchor.6 Case of a given load combination When the check is limited to verifying that the joint can resist a given (MEd.Rd).Rd = min ( z FT.1 m Mode 2 : Mixed failure mode: Ft.5 Moment resistance If the axial load is zero the moment resistance of the symmetric joint is given as the least of the following two values: M0.wct wc f y. NEd).Rd Mode 4: Column web in tension for inner anchor bolt rows -: Ft. 5. Page 15 .2. the checks can be limited to the following steps: a) The distribution of stresses in the column section will provide a direct indication as to which load distribution reigns in the base plate joint.Rd. The design resistance for the side in tension is taken as: FT.7 of EN 1993-1-8.Rd = 4 M pl.3. This information can be used to identify the load distribution case to be examined in table 6. n = min(e.

Page 16 . Rd z and T.r < e ≤ 0 − FC.l NEd ≤ 0 and -zC. Because the joint is symmetric the design resistances on both sides in tension will be equal.1 (see table 6.r z = z C + zT z = zC. (This calculation is not required if the entire section is in compression). are obtained as shown in Figure 5.Rd.1.l + zT.all rights reserved.r = zC If it is found that M Ed ≤ M Rd the joint is adequate. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement Table 5. Because of the joint symmetry z T. Because the joint is symmetric the design resistances on both sides in compression will be equal.l NEd > 0 and -zT. f) From the distribution of stresses in the column identify the case to be examined. FC.l = z C. The Mj. e = The formulae above are those for a symmetric joint so that: z T.l F z − FC.7 of EN 1993-1-8).r z = z T + zT z = zC. MEd and MRd . in particular the various lever arms. Created on Wednesday. The formulae given in Table 5.r = zC.r z = z T + zC z = zT. e) The geometric parameters.l = z T. are obtained in 5. Rd z and zC / e + 1 zT / e + 1 0 < e < zT.r = z T and z C. Rd z FT.NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints SN043a-EN-EU c) The resistances of the bolt row T stubs in tension.r z = z C + zC NEd > 0 and The smaller of NEd > 0 and The smaller of NEd > 0 and The smaller of NEd ≤ 0 and The smaller of M Ed N Ed e > zT. Rd z and zT / e + 1 zT / e − 1 e ≤ -zT.Rd moment resistance.r < e ≤ 0 FT. is obtained by the direct application of the relevant formulae given in Table 5. If so.l + zC. (This calculation is not required if the entire section is in tension).Rd can be obtained from 5.l + zC. May 12. the joint is adequate to resist the load combination given.l + zT.r = z T and z C.2 above. the value being taken as that for one column flange T-stub only. Rd zT / e + 1 zC / e − 1 0 < e < zC. FT. are of the same sign and that M Ed ≤ M Rd . NEd > 0 is tension.r FT. Rd z and zC / e + 1 zC / e − 1 MEd > 0 is clockwise. d) The resistance of the column flange T stub in compression. g) Check that the moment.r NEd ≤ 0 and e > zC.1 Checking the design moment resistance MRd of fixed column bases Loading Lever arm z Moment resistance MRd Left side in tension Right side in compression Left side in tension Right side in tension Left side in compression Right side in tension Left side in compression Right side in compression z = zT.7 of EN 1993-1-8.l = z T.l = z C. Rd z − FC. applied simultaneously with the axial load.1 are for symmetric joints and have been adapted from those in table 6.l NEd ≤ 0 and e ≤ -zC.3 above. 2010 This material is copyright . NEd . Rd z − FC.

By varying the value of the equivalent eccentricity within the range indicated for each loading situation (see Figure 3.Rd MEd (5) (2) : -NC.Rd Key: 1) Axial resistance in tension 2) Negative moment resistance 3) Positive moment resistance 4) Negative moment resistance 5) Allowable M and N combination Figure 5.7 Interaction diagram for a column base joint MEd = MRd NEd = NRd e= M Ed M = Rd N Ed N Rd When the joint design resistance is attained under a combination (MEd.3 is for the particular case of a symmetric joint with two bolt rows on each side for which it has been assumed that the distances from the column major axis to the centroids of the compression T stub area under a flange and of anchor bolt tension area. 2010 This material is copyright . Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement (3) : +M0. May 12. axial load NRd on the vertical axis and moment MRd on the horizontal axis (see Figure 5. Table 5.3 Fixed column base plate joint: Typical M-N interaction diagram Page 17 .2. NEd) the following holds: All of the latter parameters can have both positive and negative values. The diagram shown in Figure 5.Rd NEd Created on Wednesday.1 and Table 5. (1) : +NT. All allowable load combinations fall on or within the surface defined by the boundaries corresponding to the relevant limiting design condition.Rd (4) : -M0. It is found that the boundary for the type of base plate joint treated here is made up of linear segments which can be plotted using the expressions between MRd and NRd given in Table 5. for instance.1.3).2). The following type of interaction diagram is obtained. the limiting design condition is found to be a boundary plotted with. When the latter distances are not equal.NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints SN043a-EN-EU 5. the enclosed area differs slightly from the diamond shape. zC and zT respectively. It allows rapid checking of any load combination applied to the base plate joint.all rights reserved. are equal.

r = z C Page 18 . Axial compression (negative) dominant. Rd − N Rd ) Created on Wednesday.all rights reserved.l = z C. Rd − N Rd ) MEd > 0 is clockwise. Rd z + N Rd zC 2 NRd ≤ 0 and e > zC Compression side critical : z − N Rd zT 2 Tension side critical : M Rd = N C. Rd M Rd = − N T.2 Interaction of design resistances NRd and MRd for fixed column bases Loading Lever arm z Design moment resistance MRd corresponding to NRd Left side in tension Right side in compression Dominant positive z = z T + zC moment with a tensile or compressive load (see figure 5. e = M Ed . Rd − N Rd ) M Rd = −( N C. NEd > 0 is tension. 2010 This material is copyright . The formulae are for a symmetric joint so that: z T.3 and 5.r = z T and z C. May 12. Rd M Rd = N T.Rd are obtained from 5. Rd − N Rd ) z 2 NRd > 0 and -zT < e ≤ 0 z 2 M Rd = −( N T. with a positive or negative moment NRd ≤ 0 and z = 2 zC 0 < e < zC z 2 NRd ≤ 0 and -zC < e ≤ 0 z 2 M Rd = ( N C.4 respectively. N Ed The values of NC.1) 0≤ NRd and e > zT Compression side critical : z + N Rd zT 2 Tension side critical : M Rd = − N C.Rd z + N Rd zC 2 Both sides in compression.l = z T.NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints SN043a-EN-EU Table 5.Rd M Rd = − N T. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement Left side in compression Right side in tension Dominant negative moment with a compressive or tensile axial load 0≤ NRd and e ≤ -zT Compression side critical : z = z C + zT z − N Rd zT 2 Tension side critical : M Rd = N C.Rd and NT. Rd z + N Rd zC 2 Both sides in tension Dominant axial tensile load with a positive or negative moment NRd > 0 and 0 < e < zT z = 2 zT M Rd = ( N T. Rd z − N Rd zC 2 NRd ≤ 0 and e ≤ -zC Compression side critical : z + N Rd zT 2 Tension side critical : M Rd = − N C. Rd M Rd = N T.

No mention is made of anchor bolts or of ‘plain’ round bars. the design value for a ribbed bar of the same diameter in similar concrete and conditions) divided by 2.0 0.0 30.0 70. 2010 This material is copyright .4 of EN 1992-1-1 (i. The relevant National Annex may provide guidance on the design for anchorage bond of plain bars.0 20. which is what most anchor bolts in use today are made of.6 and class 5.6 and concrete C20/25 Page 19 . Tensile resistance Ft.all rights reserved.Rd (kN) 110. It is assumed in the present NCCI that the design value for a plain bar is the value given in §8.NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints SN043a-EN-EU Annex A: Design resistances of anchor bolts The reinforced concrete standard EN 1992-1-1 gives design rules for anchorage bond resistance for ribbed reinforcement bars only.0 100.0 Created on Wednesday. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement 80.0 10.25.0 60.0 90.0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 M16 M18 M20 M22 M24 M27 M30 M33 M36 Basic anchorage bond length (mm) Figure A.0 40.6 anchor bolts of various diameters against the design tensile resistance for typical foundation concrete classes.Anchor.0 50. May 12. The graphs below plot the basic anchorage bond length for class 4.e.1 Anchorage bond resistance and tensile resistance of anchor bolts – Steel 4.

0 30. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement Anchorage bond resistance and tensile resistance of anchor bolts – Steel 4.0 100. May 12.Rd (kN) 150.6 and concrete C30/37 Tensile resistance Ft.0 130.0 130.Rd (kN) 180.0 10.0 50.0 40.0 140.0 170.0 140.0 120.0 150.0 100.0 20.0 0.0 70.0 70.6 and concrete C40/50 Page 20 .0 160. 2010 This material is copyright .0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 M16 M18 M20 M22 M24 M27 M30 M33 M36 Basic anchorage bond length (mm) Figure A.0 20.Anchor.Anchor.0 90.0 10.0 80.NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints SN043a-EN-EU Tensile resistance Ft.0 40.0 120.0 50.0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 M16 M18 M20 M22 M24 M27 M30 M33 M36 Basic anchorage bond length (mm) Figure A.0 110.0 30.2 Created on Wednesday.0 0.0 90.all rights reserved.3 Anchorage bond resistance and tensile resistance of anchor bolts – Steel 4.0 110.0 80.0 60.0 60.

0 10.4 Created on Wednesday.0 80.0 110.0 60.0 30.Anchor.Rd (kN) 150.0 10.Rd (kN) 110.6 and concrete C20/25 Tensile resistance Ft.0 20.0 40.0 130.0 100.0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 M16 M18 M20 M22 M24 M27 M30 M33 M36 Basic anchorage bond length (mm) Figure A.6 and concrete C40/50 Page 21 .5 Anchorage bond resistance and tensile resistance of anchor bolts – Steel 5.0 140.0 40.0 0.0 60.0 20.NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints SN043a-EN-EU Tensile resistance Ft.0 70.0 120.0 90.0 80.0 30.0 50.0 70.0 90. 2010 This material is copyright .0 100.Anchor.all rights reserved.0 50.0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 M16 M18 M20 M22 M24 M27 M30 M33 M36 Basic anchorage bond length (mm) Figure A. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement Anchorage bond resistance and tensile resistance of anchor bolts – Steel 5. May 12.0 0.

0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 M16 M18 M20 M22 M24 M27 M30 M33 M36 Basic anchorage bond length (mm) Figure A.0 50.0 100.0 20.0 130.0 90.6 and concrete C40/50 Page 22 .0 70.Anchor.0 60.0 140.NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints SN043a-EN-EU Tensile resistance Ft. 2010 This material is copyright .0 160.Rd (kN) 180.0 30.0 0.0 150.0 170.6 Created on Wednesday.0 120. May 12.0 10.0 40.all rights reserved.0 80. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement Anchorage bond resistance and tensile resistance of anchor bolts – Steel 5.0 110.

all rights reserved. 2010 This material is copyright . France Created on Wednesday. UK 2. Germany 5. Sweden 4. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints Company CTICM CTICM Date 06/02/2006 06/02/2006 Ivor Ryan Alain Bureau G W Owens A Bureau B Uppfeldt C Müller J Chica G W Owens SCI CTICM SBI RWTH Labein SCI 07/04/06 07/04/06 07/04/06 07/04/06 07/04/06 18/08/06 3. Spain Resource approved by Technical Coordinator TRANSLATED DOCUMENT This Translation made and checked by: Translated resource approved by: Page 23 . May 12.NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints SN043a-EN-EU Quality Record RESOURCE TITLE Reference(s) ORIGINAL DOCUMENT Name Created by Technical content checked by Editorial content checked by Technical content endorsed by the following STEEL Partners: 1.