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Unit Overview

Unit title:

Patterns and Equality

Content maths area:

Algebra

Grade/year level:

This unit of work will be taught to grade 3. At this level the curriculum (Ausvels, 2015) states that algebra and patterning involves being able to,

describe, continue, and create number patterns resulting from performing addition or subtraction. This involves identifying and writing the

rules for number patterns and describing a rule for a number pattern, then creating the pattern. (Ausvels, 2015).

Learning Focus:

Content strand: Number and algebra

Sub-strand: Patterns and algebra

Proficiency strands:

Understanding: To be able to represent different generalisations of patterns using concrete materials

Reasoning: To be able to justify why a particular generalisation applies to an extending pattern

Rationale:

Patterns and algebra are being taught in this unit as algebra and identifying pattern is an important factor towards the development of

generalisation. (Jones, L,1993). According to (Papic, M. 2007) developing patterning as a skill in early mathematics is a must for the promotion

of spatial awareness, sequencing and ordering, comparison and classification. According to (Papic, M. 2007), when students are at the stage of

finding relationships between data sets having experience with repeating and growing pattern will have advanced their functional thinking. By

the students participating in this unit it is preparing them to continue on to more advanced number and patterning using equivalence. The

expression of equality is being taught in this unit as a study by (Falkner, K. P., Levi, L., & Carpenter, T. P,1999), concludes that it is important for

students to comprehend that equality is the idea that two expressions are exactly the same. According to (Ferguson, S, 2009), Rich mathematical

tasks have the ability to reach most children at the point where their known understandings meet the unknown. Vygotsky (1978) described this

point as the zone of proximal development. In this zone, the students understand some of what is needed to build new understandings, but not

all. They are neither bored nor stressed. This is why open tasks are used throughout the unit.

Assumed prior knowledge of students: extracted from (Ausvels, 2015)

Sort and classify familiar objects and explain the basis for these classifications. (Ausvels, 2015)

Copy, continue and create pattern with objects and drawings. (Ausvels, 2015)

Investigate and describe number patterns formed by skip counting and patterns with objects. (Ausvels, 2015)

Describe patterns with numbers and identify missing elements. (Ausvels, 2015)

Solve problems by using number sentences for addition and subtraction. (Ausvels, 2015)

When students are to go off and do their independent learning they will be sitting in mixed ability table groups. (Morehead, M & Waters, S,

1985) states that, relational abilities will be improved and gathering builds scholarly connected with time for students. Gathering additionally

considers meetings to generate new ideas and urges students to partake in an open-finished style without being concerned about getting the

wrong answer. It gives students the chance to collaborate with peers in an organised setting and urges them to regard the conclusions of others.

Overview of assessment:

Formative assessment will be used to assess this unit of work. This type is used so that if needed during the learning process, teaching and

learning activities will be modified. Formative assessment will be collected in the form of observations and anecdotal notes to identify student

understanding of what is being taught. (Graham, S., Hebert, M,. and Harris, K. 2015).

References:

Ausvels (2015). Mathematics level 3. Accessed from: http://ausvels.vcaa.vic.edu.au/Level3

Falkner, K. P., Levi, L., & Carpenter, T. P. (1999). Childrens understanding of equality: A foundation for algebra. Teaching Children Mathematics, 6(4),

232-236.

Ferguson, S. (2009). Same task, different paths: Catering for student diversity in the mathematics classroom. Australian Primary Mathematics

Classroom, 14(2), 32-36.

Graham, S., Hebert, M., &Harris, K. (2015). Formative assessment and writing : A meta-analysis. The Elementary School Journal, 115(4), 523-547

Jones, L. (1993). Algebra in the primary school, Education 3-13, 21(2), 27-31

Morehead, M & Waters, S. (1985). Grouping students, The Teacher Educator,21(3), 29-32

Papic, M. (2007) Promoting repeating patterns with young children--more than just alternating colours!, Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom, 12(3),

8-13

Year Level: 3

identifying and writing the rules for number

patterns

creating the pattern

exactly the same.

Extending patterns

Translating Patterns

Level descriptions:

Describe, continue and create number patterns resulting from performing addition and subtraction

Proficiency strands:

Understanding: To be able to represent different generalisations of patterns using concrete materials

Reasoning: To be able to justify why a particular generalisation applies to an extending pattern

carry out the operation.

rather than arithmetic.

Learning

strategies/ skills

Estimating

Explaining

Generalising

Hypothesising

Inferring

Interpreting

Justifying

Date: 18/09/15

Possible misconceptions

Analysing

Checking

Classifying

Co-operating

Considering options

Designing

Elaborating

Week: 1

Content strand: Number and algebra

working mathematically, language goals, etc.):

Term: 3

String

Beads

Growing Ts template (see

appendix)

square tiles

pattern blocks

base-ten units

multi-link cubes

Cuisenaire rods

Spinner (see appendix)

Key vocabulary:

Term, growing pattern, geometric pattern, number pattern,

increasing pattern, decreasing pattern, pattern rule, number

sequence, table, equal, equation, combination, equivalence,

equality

What makes a growing pattern different from a pattern that

just repeats?

the use of the T-ball example

Listening

Locating information

Making choices

Note taking

Observing

Ordering events

Organising

Performing

Persuading

Planning

Predicting

Presenting

Providing feedback

Questioning

Reading

Recognising bias

Reflecting

Reporting

Responding

Restating

Revising

Seeing patterns

Selecting information

Self-assessing

Sharing ideas

Summarising

Synthesising

Testing

Viewing

Visually representing

Working independently

Working to a timetable

MATHEMATICAL

FOCUS

TUNING IN

(WHOLE CLASS FOCUS)

INVESTIGATIONS

SESSION

CONNECTIONS SESSION

(INDEPENDENT LEARNING)

(extended opportunity for students to

work in pairs, small groups or

individually. Time for teacher to probe

childrens thinking or work with a small

group for part of the time and to also

conduct roving conferences)

(focused teacher questions and summary to

draw out the mathematics and assist

children to make links. NB. This may occur

at particular points during a lesson. Use of

spotlight, strategy, gallery walk, etc.)

- Enabling prompt

(to allow those experiencing difficulty to

engage in active experiences related to

the initial goal task)

- Extending prompt

(questions that extend students

thinking on the initial task)

share their work.

to represent the pattern

concretely. Help students

understand how the

pattern progresses by

demonstrating that a

counter is added at each

new term.

students to assess

how well they:

Extending: Challenge

students to create other

growing or shrinking

patterns.

growing and

shrinking patterns;

to come to understand as a

result of this lesson short,

succinct statement)

focus of the lesson; sets the scene/

context for what students do in the

independent aspect. e.g., It may be a

problem posed, spider diagram, an

open-ended question, game, or

reading a story)

Session 1:

Identify

repeating,

growing, and

shrinking patterns

found in real-life

contexts and

create growing or

shrinking

patterns.

T- ball-water bottle

question:

We could arrange beads

on a string in a pattern,

and then tie the strings to

the bottles. That way, we

can tell which water

bottle is our own by

looking at the bead

pattern.

Growing Ts template.

(see appendix)

to represent a string.

number of beads that are

needed to create each of

the first six Ts in the

pattern.

Session 2:

Students will

extend growing

patterns, describe

growing patterns

a repeating pattern and

invite students to

identify the pattern and

to suggest the next few

beads in the pattern

sequence. Explain how

the beads, represented by

circles, might be

arranged to create

different-sized Ts for

four players.

The Lego Problem:

Max is building a

skyscraper with his

Lego. He needs to make

a staircase for his little

Instruct students to

extend the growing

pattern, using counters,

and then to draw a

picture of the T for each

of players 4, 5, and 6.

completed the first six

Ts, ask them to find the

number of beads that are

needed for both the

seventh and the eighth

T.

How many Lego pieces

will he need for the

staircase when there are

10 steps?

(open ended task)

explain how they were able

to find the number of beads

for the seventh and eighth

Ts in the pattern.

Try to include students who

used various strategies for

example, those who used

counters to construct the Ts

and then counted the

number of counters, and

those who recognised and

extended a numeric pattern.

identified the pattern in at

least 2 ways, they are to

participate in a gallery walk

to see some of the different

strategies their class peers

have used.

ADAPTATIONS

manipulatives to create

patterns, and then ask

them to draw a diagram

of the pattern.

ASSESSMENT

STRATEGIES

(should relate to objective.

Includes what the teacher will

listen for, observe, note or

analyse; what evidence of

learning will be collected and

what criteria will be used to

analyse the evidence)

compare repeating

growing and

shrinking patterns;

explain pattern

rules;

predict what comes

next in a pattern;

how the increase or

decrease of elements in a

pattern is related to

addition or subtraction.

Observe and note

Enabling: Ask the

students to assess

students to describe what how well they:

is happening as Max

builds his staircase. Help Solve the the

them to identify this

pattern as a growing

growing patterns

are created.

top. As he builds the

staircase, it looks like

this:

solved the problem they

are to create their own

problem to get their peer

to solve.

1 step

solutions to the problem.

This may be done at the

board, on individual

whiteboards, on overheads,

or on large pieces of paper

or chart paper.

its characteristics.

What makes it

different from a

pattern that just

repeats?

Extending:

How many Legos when

there are 25 steps?

2 steps

What strategies do

they use?

Create their own

problem, does it

include:

A growing pattern;

Does the pattern

require extension?

3 steps

As a class ask students to

suggest patterns they can

see.

Session 3

Explain to students a

growing pattern can be

Create a concrete, recorded in a table.

pictorial or

symbolic

Explain to students that

representation of using materials can help

an increasing

find the pattern rule.

pattern for a

given pattern

Staircase Give

students the first 3

frames of a staircase

pattern. Ask them to use

square tiles pattern

blocks, base-ten units, or

multi-link cubes to build

the next three frames of

the staircase pattern.

completing their

independent learning pause

the class and select some

students to share

What they have built as

their next few frames of the

Enabling:

students to assess

how well they:

this pattern as a growing

create, describe, and

pattern and talk about

compare repeating

its characteristics.

growing and

shrinking patterns;

What makes it

rule.

an example of a growing

pattern with materials

and record it in a table.

what each frame will

look like before they

build it.

staircase?

Why they chose to build it

in that way?

Emphasise how the

materials can help find the

pattern rule.

table and record the

number of frames, the

number of squares

added each time and the

number of squares in

each frame.

Session 4

Demonstrate an

understanding of

the concept of

equality by

partitioning

whole numbers in

a variety of ways,

using concrete

materials

students with a spinner

(see appendix)

Display a chart that

shows the numeric

values for the different

colours of Cuisenaire

rods.

white = 1 red = 2

record different

combinations of rods

and the corresponding

equations, ask questions

such as the following:

discuss the activity. Pose the

following questions to

promote discussion:

What is an equation?

two rods indicated by

you find equations?

the spinner?

How can you find

different combinations

different from a

pattern that just

repeats?

growing and

shrinking patterns;

explain pattern

rules;

Extending:

predict what comes

How many squares will next in a pattern;

be in frame 15?

Peer Assessment:

Can your partner

use a table to record

their ideas?

Probing:

simplify the activity by

having them find

combinations of rods that

equal another rod.

For example, students

might find combinations

that equal the brown rod

(e.g., white and black,

yellow and light green)

students are able to:

Find different

equivalent

combinations of

Cuisenaire rods?

Are students able to

represent equations,

using symbolic

yellow = 5 dark green = 6

black = 7 brown = 8

same value?

What does this

equation mean?

How could you use

Cuisenaire rods to prove

that 5 + 4 = 2 + 6 + 1?

blue = 9 orange = 10

twice, select the

Cuisenaire rods

indicated by the spinner,

and place the two rods

end to end.

this part of the equation

is equal to this other

part?

How could you prove

that this equation is

true?

On a sheet of paper,

students record the

different combinations of Provide students with an

Cuisenaire rods and their opportunity to repeat the

corresponding equations. activity of finding

different combinations

for two rods indicated

For example, black+

by the spinner.

red= yellow + purple

7+2=5+4

manipulatives to represent

this equation?

For which two rods were

you able to find many

equivalent combinations of

rods? Why?

Have students respond to

the following question in

their math journals:

What is an equation?

corresponding equations

(e.g., 8 = 1 + 7, 8 = 5 +

3).

Extending:

For students who require

a greater challenge, have

them find different

combinations that are

equal to three Cuisenaire

rods

notation?

How well do

students explain the

meaning of

equation?

How well do

students explain the

meaning of the

equal sign?

Session 5

represent,

through

investigation with

concrete

materials and

pictures, two

number

expressions that

are equal, using

the equal sign

students with a container

of interlocking cubes.

Record the following

number sentences on the

board, one at a time.

7=3+4

5+2=7+4

8=4+2

3+7=10

individually to create

visual representations of

the equations that the

teacher provides.

Students then use the

cubes to create 5 of their

own equations.

discuss the activity.

Pose the following

questions to promote

discussion:

What is an equation?

How did this activity help

you find equations?

What are some of the

equations you discovered?

5+4=9+1

4+6=7+3

Explain to students they

can use interlocking

cubes to represent both

sides of the number

sentence, in order to

determine whether each

number sentence is true

or false.

For example, students

might determine that the

first number sentence is

true by comparing the

length of a row of 7

interlocking cubes and

the length of a row

composed of 3 red cubes

and 4 blue cubes.

to prove that 5 + 4 = 2 + 6 +

1?

How could you use other

manipulatives to represent

this equation?

Probing:

simplify the activity by

having them find

combinations of rods that

equal another rod.

For example, students

might find combinations

that equal the brown rod

(e.g., white and black,

yellow and light green)

and then record the

corresponding equations

(e.g., 8 = 1 + 7, 8 = 5 +

3).

Extending:

For students who require

a greater challenge, have

them find different

combinations that are

equal to three Cuisenaire

rods

students are able to:

Find different

equivalent

combinations of

Cuisenaire rods?

Are students able to

represent equations,

using symbolic

notation?

How well do

students explain the

meaning of

equation?

How well do

students explain the

meaning of the

equal sign?

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