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EDMA310/360 Mathematics unit planner

Elloise Pellissier S00142303

Unit Overview

Unit title:
Patterns and Equality
Content maths area:
Algebra
This unit of work will be taught to grade 3. At this level the curriculum (Ausvels, 2015) states that algebra and patterning involves being able to,
describe, continue, and create number patterns resulting from performing addition or subtraction. This involves identifying and writing the
rules for number patterns and describing a rule for a number pattern, then creating the pattern. (Ausvels, 2015).
Learning Focus:
Content strand: Number and algebra
Sub-strand: Patterns and algebra
Proficiency strands:
Understanding: To be able to represent different generalisations of patterns using concrete materials
Reasoning: To be able to justify why a particular generalisation applies to an extending pattern

Rationale:
Patterns and algebra are being taught in this unit as algebra and identifying pattern is an important factor towards the development of
generalisation. (Jones, L,1993). According to (Papic, M. 2007) developing patterning as a skill in early mathematics is a must for the promotion
of spatial awareness, sequencing and ordering, comparison and classification. According to (Papic, M. 2007), when students are at the stage of
finding relationships between data sets having experience with repeating and growing pattern will have advanced their functional thinking. By
the students participating in this unit it is preparing them to continue on to more advanced number and patterning using equivalence. The
expression of equality is being taught in this unit as a study by (Falkner, K. P., Levi, L., & Carpenter, T. P,1999), concludes that it is important for
students to comprehend that equality is the idea that two expressions are exactly the same. According to (Ferguson, S, 2009), Rich mathematical
tasks have the ability to reach most children at the point where their known understandings meet the unknown. Vygotsky (1978) described this
point as the zone of proximal development. In this zone, the students understand some of what is needed to build new understandings, but not
all. They are neither bored nor stressed. This is why open tasks are used throughout the unit.
Assumed prior knowledge of students: extracted from (Ausvels, 2015)

Sort and classify familiar objects and explain the basis for these classifications. (Ausvels, 2015)
Copy, continue and create pattern with objects and drawings. (Ausvels, 2015)
Investigate and describe number patterns formed by skip counting and patterns with objects. (Ausvels, 2015)
Describe patterns with numbers and identify missing elements. (Ausvels, 2015)
Solve problems by using number sentences for addition and subtraction. (Ausvels, 2015)

Grouping strategies to support learning:

When students are to go off and do their independent learning they will be sitting in mixed ability table groups. (Morehead, M & Waters, S,
1985) states that, relational abilities will be improved and gathering builds scholarly connected with time for students. Gathering additionally
considers meetings to generate new ideas and urges students to partake in an open-finished style without being concerned about getting the
wrong answer. It gives students the chance to collaborate with peers in an organised setting and urges them to regard the conclusions of others.
Overview of assessment:

Formative assessment will be used to assess this unit of work. This type is used so that if needed during the learning process, teaching and
learning activities will be modified. Formative assessment will be collected in the form of observations and anecdotal notes to identify student
understanding of what is being taught. (Graham, S., Hebert, M,. and Harris, K. 2015).
References:
Ausvels (2015). Mathematics level 3. Accessed from: http://ausvels.vcaa.vic.edu.au/Level3
Falkner, K. P., Levi, L., & Carpenter, T. P. (1999). Childrens understanding of equality: A foundation for algebra. Teaching Children Mathematics, 6(4),
232-236.

Ferguson, S. (2009). Same task, different paths: Catering for student diversity in the mathematics classroom. Australian Primary Mathematics
Classroom, 14(2), 32-36.
Graham, S., Hebert, M., &Harris, K. (2015). Formative assessment and writing : A meta-analysis. The Elementary School Journal, 115(4), 523-547
Jones, L. (1993). Algebra in the primary school, Education 3-13, 21(2), 27-31
Morehead, M & Waters, S. (1985). Grouping students, The Teacher Educator,21(3), 29-32
Papic, M. (2007) Promoting repeating patterns with young children--more than just alternating colours!, Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom, 12(3),
8-13

Year Level: 3

Key mathematical understandings

identifying and writing the rules for number
patterns

describing a rule for a number pattern, then

creating the pattern

equality is the idea that two expressions are

exactly the same.

Correct use of mathematical vocabulary:

Extending patterns

Deciding pattern rules

Translating Patterns

Developing critical thinking

Level descriptions:
Describe, continue and create number patterns resulting from performing addition and subtraction
Proficiency strands:
Understanding: To be able to represent different generalisations of patterns using concrete materials
Reasoning: To be able to justify why a particular generalisation applies to an extending pattern

Students believe that the equals sign is supposed to

carry out the operation.

It is believed that algebra is about computation

rather than arithmetic.

Learning
strategies/ skills

Estimating
Explaining
Generalising
Hypothesising
Inferring
Interpreting
Justifying

Date: 18/09/15

Sub-strand: Patterns and Algebra

Possible misconceptions

Analysing
Checking
Classifying
Co-operating
Considering options
Designing
Elaborating

Week: 1

Key AusVELS documentation

Content strand: Number and algebra

Key skills to develop and practise (including strategies, ways of

working mathematically, language goals, etc.):

Term: 3

Key equipment / resources:

String
Growing Ts template (see
appendix)
square tiles
pattern blocks
base-ten units
Cuisenaire rods
Spinner (see appendix)

Key vocabulary:
Term, growing pattern, geometric pattern, number pattern,
increasing pattern, decreasing pattern, pattern rule, number
sequence, table, equal, equation, combination, equivalence,
equality

Key probing questions

What makes a growing pattern different from a pattern that
just repeats?

Session 1 can be related to physical education with

the use of the T-ball example

How could you use materials to represent this equation?

Listening
Locating information
Making choices
Note taking
Observing
Ordering events
Organising

Performing
Planning
Predicting
Presenting
Providing feedback
Questioning

Recognising bias
Reflecting
Reporting
Responding
Restating
Revising

Seeing patterns
Selecting information
Self-assessing
Sharing ideas
Summarising
Synthesising

Testing
Viewing
Visually representing
Working independently
Working to a timetable

MATHEMATICAL
FOCUS

TUNING IN
(WHOLE CLASS FOCUS)

INVESTIGATIONS
SESSION

REFLECTION & MAKING

CONNECTIONS SESSION

(INDEPENDENT LEARNING)
(extended opportunity for students to
work in pairs, small groups or
individually. Time for teacher to probe
childrens thinking or work with a small
group for part of the time and to also
conduct roving conferences)

(WHOLE CLASS FOCUS)

(focused teacher questions and summary to
draw out the mathematics and assist
children to make links. NB. This may occur
at particular points during a lesson. Use of
spotlight, strategy, gallery walk, etc.)

- Enabling prompt
(to allow those experiencing difficulty to
engage in active experiences related to
the initial goal task)
- Extending prompt
(questions that extend students
thinking on the initial task)

Gather students together to

share their work.

Enabling: Use counters

to represent the pattern
concretely. Help students
understand how the
pattern progresses by
demonstrating that a
counter is added at each
new term.

Observe and note

students to assess
how well they:

Extending: Challenge
students to create other
growing or shrinking
patterns.

extend and describe

growing and
shrinking patterns;

(what you want the children

to come to understand as a
result of this lesson short,
succinct statement)

(a short, sharp task relating to the

focus of the lesson; sets the scene/
context for what students do in the
independent aspect. e.g., It may be a
problem posed, spider diagram, an
open-ended question, game, or

Session 1:
Identify
repeating,
growing, and
shrinking patterns
found in real-life
contexts and
create growing or
shrinking
patterns.

T- ball-water bottle
question:
We could arrange beads
on a string in a pattern,
and then tie the strings to
the bottles. That way, we
can tell which water
bottle is our own by
looking at the bead
pattern.

Provide students with

Growing Ts template.
(see appendix)

On the board draw a line

to represent a string.

Ask them to record the

number of beads that are
needed to create each of
the first six Ts in the
pattern.

Session 2:
Students will
extend growing
patterns, describe
growing patterns

Draw coloured beads in

a repeating pattern and
invite students to
identify the pattern and
to suggest the next few
beads in the pattern
sequence. Explain how
the beads, represented by
circles, might be
arranged to create
different-sized Ts for
four players.
The Lego Problem:
Max is building a
skyscraper with his
Lego. He needs to make
a staircase for his little

Instruct students to
extend the growing
pattern, using counters,
and then to draw a
picture of the T for each
of players 4, 5, and 6.

After students have

completed the first six
Ts, ask them to find the
number of beads that are
needed for both the
seventh and the eighth
T.
How many Lego pieces
will he need for the
staircase when there are
10 steps?

Ask a few students to

explain how they were able
to find the number of beads
for the seventh and eighth
Ts in the pattern.
Try to include students who
used various strategies for
example, those who used
counters to construct the Ts
and then counted the
number of counters, and
those who recognised and
extended a numeric pattern.

After students have

identified the pattern in at
least 2 ways, they are to
participate in a gallery walk
to see some of the different
strategies their class peers
have used.

Have them use

manipulatives to create
patterns, and then ask
them to draw a diagram
of the pattern.

ASSESSMENT
STRATEGIES
(should relate to objective.
Includes what the teacher will
listen for, observe, note or
analyse; what evidence of
learning will be collected and
what criteria will be used to
analyse the evidence)

create, describe, and

compare repeating
growing and
shrinking patterns;

explain pattern
rules;
predict what comes
next in a pattern;

Have students explain

how the increase or
decrease of elements in a
pattern is related to
Observe and note
students to assess
students to describe what how well they:
is happening as Max
builds his staircase. Help Solve the the
them to identify this
pattern as a growing

growing patterns
are created.

Lego people to get to the

top. As he builds the
staircase, it looks like
this:

After students have

solved the problem they
are to create their own
problem to get their peer
to solve.

1 step

Ask students to share their

solutions to the problem.
This may be done at the
board, on individual
or on large pieces of paper
or chart paper.

pattern and talk about

its characteristics.

What makes it
different from a
pattern that just
repeats?

Extending:
How many Legos when
there are 25 steps?

2 steps

problem for 10 steps

What strategies do
they use?

Create their own
problem, does it
include:
A growing pattern;
Does the pattern
require extension?

3 steps
As a class ask students to
suggest patterns they can
see.

Session 3

Explain to students a
growing pattern can be
Create a concrete, recorded in a table.
pictorial or
symbolic
Explain to students that
representation of using materials can help
an increasing
find the pattern rule.
pattern for a
given pattern

Staircase Give
students the first 3
frames of a staircase
pattern. Ask them to use
square tiles pattern
blocks, base-ten units, or
multi-link cubes to build
the next three frames of
the staircase pattern.

As the students are

completing their
independent learning pause
the class and select some
students to share
What they have built as
their next few frames of the

Enabling:

Observe and note

students to assess
how well they:

Help students to identify

this pattern as a growing
create, describe, and
pattern and talk about
compare repeating
its characteristics.
growing and
shrinking patterns;
What makes it

rule.

Model to the class using

an example of a growing
pattern with materials
and record it in a table.

Students then predict

what each frame will
look like before they
build it.

staircase?
Why they chose to build it
in that way?
Emphasise how the
materials can help find the
pattern rule.

Ask students make a

table and record the
number of frames, the
number of squares
added each time and the
number of squares in
each frame.

Session 4
Demonstrate an
understanding of
the concept of
equality by
partitioning
whole numbers in
a variety of ways,
using concrete
materials

Provide each pair of

students with a spinner
(see appendix)
Display a chart that
shows the numeric
values for the different
colours of Cuisenaire
rods.
white = 1 red = 2

As students find and

record different
combinations of rods
and the corresponding
such as the following:

Gather the students to

discuss the activity. Pose the
following questions to
promote discussion:
What is an equation?

What is the value of the How did this activity help

two rods indicated by
you find equations?
the spinner?
How can you find
different combinations

What are some of the

different from a
pattern that just
repeats?

extend and describe

growing and
shrinking patterns;
explain pattern
rules;

Extending:
predict what comes
How many squares will next in a pattern;
be in frame 15?
Peer Assessment:
use a table to record
their ideas?

Probing:
simplify the activity by
having them find
combinations of rods that
equal another rod.
For example, students
might find combinations
that equal the brown rod
(e.g., white and black,
yellow and light green)

Observe and note if

students are able to:
Find different
equivalent
combinations of
Cuisenaire rods?
Are students able to
represent equations,
using symbolic

light green = 3 purple = 4

yellow = 5 dark green = 6
black = 7 brown = 8

same value?
What does this
equation mean?

equations you discovered?

How could you use
Cuisenaire rods to prove
that 5 + 4 = 2 + 6 + 1?

blue = 9 orange = 10

Students spin the spinner

twice, select the
Cuisenaire rods
indicated by the spinner,
and place the two rods
end to end.

How do you know that

this part of the equation
is equal to this other
part?
How could you prove
that this equation is
true?

On a sheet of paper,
students record the
different combinations of Provide students with an
Cuisenaire rods and their opportunity to repeat the
corresponding equations. activity of finding
different combinations
for two rods indicated
For example, black+
by the spinner.
red= yellow + purple
7+2=5+4

How could you use other

manipulatives to represent
this equation?
For which two rods were
you able to find many
equivalent combinations of
rods? Why?
Have students respond to
the following question in
their math journals:
What is an equation?

and then record the

corresponding equations
(e.g., 8 = 1 + 7, 8 = 5 +
3).
Extending:
For students who require
a greater challenge, have
them find different
combinations that are
equal to three Cuisenaire
rods

notation?
How well do
students explain the
meaning of
equation?
How well do
students explain the
meaning of the
equal sign?

Session 5
represent,
through
investigation with
concrete
materials and
pictures, two
number
expressions that
are equal, using
the equal sign

Provide each pair of

students with a container
of interlocking cubes.
Record the following
number sentences on the
board, one at a time.
7=3+4
5+2=7+4
8=4+2
3+7=10

Students are to work

individually to create
visual representations of
the equations that the
teacher provides.
Students then use the
cubes to create 5 of their
own equations.

Gather the students to

discuss the activity.
Pose the following
questions to promote
discussion:
What is an equation?
How did this activity help
you find equations?
What are some of the
equations you discovered?

5+4=9+1
4+6=7+3
Explain to students they
can use interlocking
cubes to represent both
sides of the number
sentence, in order to
determine whether each
number sentence is true
or false.
For example, students
might determine that the
first number sentence is
true by comparing the
length of a row of 7
interlocking cubes and
the length of a row
composed of 3 red cubes
and 4 blue cubes.

How could you use cubes

to prove that 5 + 4 = 2 + 6 +
1?
How could you use other
manipulatives to represent
this equation?

Probing:
simplify the activity by
having them find
combinations of rods that
equal another rod.
For example, students
might find combinations
that equal the brown rod
(e.g., white and black,
yellow and light green)
and then record the
corresponding equations
(e.g., 8 = 1 + 7, 8 = 5 +
3).
Extending:
For students who require
a greater challenge, have
them find different
combinations that are
equal to three Cuisenaire
rods

Observe and note if

students are able to:
Find different
equivalent
combinations of
Cuisenaire rods?
Are students able to
represent equations,
using symbolic
notation?
How well do
students explain the
meaning of
equation?
How well do
students explain the
meaning of the
equal sign?

Appendix: