Geroche 1

Taryn Geroche
Ms. Alyssa Barnes
EDUC 485B
Teacher Work Sample
13 May 2016

Assessment Data and Analysis
In order to determine how well the students learned the content of this unit, they were
asked to take a pre-test and post-test about the topics that we covered. The pre-test was given at
the beginning of the unit, and the post-test was given at the end, so the tests show the range of
the students’ growth within that three week period. Both tests contained the same questions,
each addressing a distinct component of the lesson as described in the Assessment Tools section.
To see the pre-test and post-test questions, see Appendix B. To see the correct answers for each
question and how the questions were scored, see Appendix C. In all, students received scores for
seventeen questions.
The best part about this pre-test and post-test was that the students could take them
online, using a Google Form. I simply listed a link on the class Schoology page, and when it was
time to take the tests, I asked the students to all get out their iPads to complete it. The results
from Google Forms are immediately translated into a Google Sheet, so I had live results as the
students answered the questions, all laid out in one place. Since many of the questions were free
response, I had to grade the results by hand, but this was probably the most difficult part of the
whole process!
The first method I used to interpret the data was looking at how many students got each
question correct, on both the pre-test and the post-test, and comparing the two.

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Pre-Test Results
The graph below shows the number of students who answered each question correctly (in
blue) and incorrectly (in red) on the pre-test, out of the total of 28 students who were evaluated.
The results are also listed in the table below. The results of the pre-test were as follows:

Pre-Test Results

30

Correct Answer
Incorrect Answer

Number of Students

25
20
15
10
5
0
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8
9
10 11
Question Number

12

13

14

15

16

17

Pre-Test
Question #
Correct Answer
Incorrect Answer

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

8 23 16 18 18 26 27 21 11 13 9 0 3 15 6 14 21
20 5 12 10 10 2 1 7 17 15 19 28 25 13 22 14 7

In order to make sense of these results, I think we have to look at the data based on the
content of each question. For instance, Question #1 was about statistical questions, which we
had briefly mentioned in the last unit, but not in any detail. Questions #2 and #3 were about data
displays which we had talked about before, but they had been rushed, so the students clearly
needed some more time with them if everyone was going to get those questions correct.
Question #12 was about a topic which the students had never seen before, so its results make
sense. An interesting trend to notice is that some of the questions about samples and populations
(Questions #14, #16, and #17) had pretty good results, considering we had not yet covered that

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topic. That goes to show that some of this is not as hard as you might think – common sense got
these sixth graders a long way, and hopefully they would only do better on the post-test.
Post-Test Results
After completing the project, the students were asked to take a post-test. The goal of the
post-test was to show that the students had mastered the concepts at the heart of the unit, as listed
in the Topic and Rationale section. Since these two tests were taken on different days, we had a
slightly different number of students take the post-test than the pre-test. However, the results are
still comparable. The graph below shows the number of students who answered each question
correctly (in blue) and incorrectly (in red), out of the total of 33 students who were evaluated on
the post-test. The results are also listed in the table below. The results of the post-test were as
follows:

Post-Test Results

35

Correct Answer
Incorrect Answer

Number of Students

30
25
20
15
10
5
0
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8
9
10 11
Question Number

12

13

14

15

16

17

Post-Test
Question #
Correct Answer
Incorrect Answer

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

14 24 19 26 25 32 31 28 21 22 17 14 9 17 11 11 31
19 9 14 7 8 1 2 5 12 11 16 19 24 16 22 22 2

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These results show that some good learning happened. Where Question #12 previously
had no correct answers, now there were several students who got the answer correct. When
looking at the students’ actual answers for Question #12, on the pre-test most students wrote “I
don’t know”, but on the post-test most students attempted to solve the problem, even if they did
not get the correct answer. On the pre-test many students struggles with Questions #9, #10, and
#11, which addressed finding quartiles and interquartile range. On the post-test, more students
got these questions right than got it wrong, so that shows an improvement. However, there were
actually a few questions that more students got wrong on the post-test than on the pre-test, which
is puzzling.
Another way to compare the pre-test and post-test results is by looking at individual
students’ scores on both tests. To create the following pie charts, each student’s percentage out
of 100% was calculated, for the pre-test and the post-test. Then the data was split into
categories: students scoring between 0% - 25% (darkest color), 25% - 50%, 50% - 75%, and
75% - 100% (lightest color). The pie charts below shows how many students scored in each
category:

Pre-Test

Post-Test

0% - 25%

0% - 25%

25% - 50%

25% - 50%

50% - 75%

50% - 75%

75% - 100%

75% - 100%

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These pie charts show that overall, there was a significant sway of the grades from the
pre-test to the post-test. While only half of the students scored above 50% on the pre-test, over
three-quarters of the students scored above 50% on the post-test. While the most common score
on the pre-test was between 25% - 50%, the most common score on the post-test was between
50% - 75%. This is an obvious way to show that there was growth in the scores. This shift is
definitely in the right direction, but I would have liked to have seen many more students scoring
in the 75% - 100% category on the post-test.
Subgroups
In order to evaluate the effectiveness of this lesson further, and to better understand my
students, it was useful to investigate the learning that took place within specific subgroups of
students. The most obvious choice of subgroups was boys vs. girls. It is possible for a lesson to
be more suited to a certain gender of students based on their general prior knowledge, the
societal norms, or the format of the lesson, so I wanted to explore this possibility.
The graphs below show what percentage of girls/boys got each question right, and what
percentage got each wrong. Correct answers are represented by the darker color, while incorrect
answers are represented by the lighter color. The results for each subgroup were as follows:
Incorrect Answer

Percentage of Girls

Post-Test Results: Girls

Correct Answer

100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8
9 10 11
Question Number

12

13

14

15

16

17

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Incorrect Answer

Percentage of Boys

Post-Test Results: Boys

Correct Answer

100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8
9 10 11
Question Number

12

13

14

15

16

17

Post-Test: Girls vs. Boys
Question #

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Girls

Correct
Incorrect

8
7

11
4

9
6

13 11 15 15 13 11 12
2 4 0 0 2 4 3

Boys

Correct
Incorrect

6 13 10 13 14 17 16 15 10 10 10 4 5 7 7 5 16
12 5 8 5 4 1 2 3 8 8 8 14 13 11 11 13 2

7
8

10 4 10 4
5 11 5 11

6
9

The only incredibly noticeable difference in results between girls and boys is on Question
#12, the question about mean absolute deviation. This was a topic we learned in a specific
lesson, at the beginning of the unit, so I think many students forgot about it by the time we took
the post-test. However, the method taught for how to find the mean absolute deviation for a set
of data was very much a step-by-step process. If students could remember the steps, even though
they were a little tedious, then they would know exactly how to find the mean absolute deviation.
The fact that many more girls were able to get the correct answer for this question on the posttest than boys indicates to me that the girls in this class are more step-by-step, procedural
thinkers. It may be that eleven and twelve year old boys are just not yet as developmentally
capable of completing such a task.

15
0

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Overall, the rest of the questions, while having a bit of variation, seem to follow most of
the same trends for boys and girls. I take this as a good sign – it means both genders of students
in this class, though they may be at different levels of maturity, are capable of taking
responsibility and completing a project like this one. I am glad that my lesson was balanced for
these subgroups.
Conclusion
Overall, this data does not show nearly as much growth as I would like to have seen.
Looking at both the results listed by question in the bar graphs and the results listed by scores in
the pie charts, it is clear that there were still a lot of students giving the wrong answers on a lot of
questions. More specifically, the questions that were getting a lot of incorrect answers were the
questions that were about the more in-depth topics that we covered in this unit: students could
complete basic tasks like finding mean, median, mode, etc., but they struggled with identifying
statistical questions and determining appropriate representative samples.
These are the results I discovered by studying the students’ work and formative
assessments from throughout the unit, as well. They completed the Data Collection sheets and
Data Analysis sheets fairly well, but not as proficiently as I would have hoped. Most students
were able to determine appropriate representative samples to use for their project, but we
struggled somewhat with statistical questions and creating the appropriate charts and graphs. On
a positive note, though, all of the students completed their presentations very well. Even if they
had not determined the best statistical questions or representative samples, students were
confident in using the appropriate vocabulary and concepts to talk about the results of their
projects.
This data analysis tells me that the unit may have been too free-form. The purpose for
completing the unit through a project was to give the students creative liberty and responsibility

Geroche 8
for their own learning, but that freedom may have been gained only at the sacrifice of their
learning, at least to the full extent of their ability. I believe they probably needed more guidance,
more teaching, before being released to work on their own. I think the pre-test and post-test
went well, but if I teach this unit again I will probably make all of the ‘checkpoints’ into teacher
checkpoints, because that will provide much more accountability than the peer checkpoints and
self-checkpoints did. That way I can be more aware of how students’ learning is progressing
throughout the unit, rather than finding out at the end that it was not as successful as I would
have hoped.

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Appendix B

‘CBMS Theme Song’ Project Pre-Test and Post-Test Questions
1. a.) Which of the following are statistical questions?
o What is the most popular middle school mascot?
o How tall are you to the nearest inch?
o How many times a week do CBMS students order school lunch?
o How many students carry a backpack?
o How tall is the average sixth grader to the nearest inch?
b.) Choose one question from above and explain why it is a statistical question. (Free
Response)
2. What does each part of the box plot below represent?

o 1) outlier, 2) quartile, 3) median, 4) quartile, 5) outlier
o 1) lower extreme, 2) lower quartile, 3) mean, 4) upper quartile, 5) upper
extreme
o 1) lower extreme, 2) lower median, 3) median, 4) upper median, 5) upper
extreme
o 1) lower extreme, 2) lower quartile, 3) median, 4) upper quartile, 5) upper
extreme
3. How is data displayed in a histogram? (Free Response)
4. a.) Students asked their classmates, “How many hours do you watch TV per week?” They
received the following answers (in hours): 2, 6, 21, 12, 9, 6, 4, 7, 14. Find the mean,
median, mode, range, outliers, quartiles, interquartile range, and mean absolute deviation
of the data set:
Mean ________
Median ________
Mode ________

Range ________

Outliers ________

Lower Quartile ________

Upper Quartile ________

Interquartile Range ________

Mean Absolute Deviation ________
b.) Which of the above measurements would you use to summarize the data, and why?
(Free Response)

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5. All of the girls in Miss Clark's first period class were polled to see what their favorite
sport is. The majority of the girls chose basketball as their favorite sport. Based on these
results, determine the following:
a.) Could we infer that the majority of students (girls and boys) in Miss Clark's first
period class would choose basketball as their favorite sport?
o Yes
o No
Why or why not? (Free Response)
b.) Could we infer that the majority of sixth grade girls would choose basketball as their
favorite sport?
o Yes
o No
Why or why not? (Free Response)
c.) Could we infer that the majority of girls in the whole school (6th, 7th, and 8th grade)
would choose basketball as their favorite sport?
o Yes
o No
Why or why not? (Free Response)
6. In Mr. Popp's first period class, the majority of girls chose swimming as their favorite
sport. Based on these two sets of data, we could infer that...
o The majority of 6th grade girls would choose basketball as their
favorite sport
o The majority of 6th grade girls would choose swimming as their
favorite sport
o Not enough information

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Appendix C

‘CBMS Theme Song’ Project Pre-Test and Post-Test Questions
Correct answers are in red text and are explained below each problem. The questions are
numbered slightly differently than in Appendix B to show each individual question that was
graded - seventeen in all.
1. a.) Which of the following are statistical questions?
o What is the most popular middle school mascot?
o How tall are you to the nearest inch?
o How many times a week do CBMS students order school lunch?
o How many students carry a backpack?
o How tall is the average sixth grader to the nearest inch?
b.) Choose one question from above and explain why it is a statistical question. (Free
Response)
Since this was a question with multiple correct answers, students were considered correct if they
chose at least one of the correct questions. For the free response, if the students’ answer
included something about how the question has a variety of possible answers, or that the question
specifies a variety of people who are being asked, then it was considered correct. Overall,
students received credit for this question only if they got correct answers for both part a) and part
b).
2. What does each part of the box plot below represent?

o 1) outlier, 2) quartile, 3) median, 4) quartile, 5) outlier
o 1) lower extreme, 2) lower quartile, 3) mean, 4) upper quartile, 5) upper
extreme
o 1) lower extreme, 2) lower median, 3) median, 4) upper median, 5) upper
extreme
o 1) lower extreme, 2) lower quartile, 3) median, 4) upper quartile, 5) upper
extreme
This question only had one possible correct response, so students received credit if they chose
this answer.

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3. How is data displayed in a histogram? (Free Response)
Students’ answers were considered correct if they mentioned something about the data being in
intervals, the histogram looking like a bar graph, the bars touching, or the y-axis measuring
frequency, because these are all key characteristics of histograms.
Students asked their classmates, “How many hours do you watch TV per week?” They received
the following answers (in hours): 2, 6, 21, 12, 9, 6, 4, 7, 14. Find the mean, median, mode,
range, outliers, quartiles, interquartile range, and mean absolute deviation of the data set:
4. Mean ____9____
5. Median ___7_____
6. Mode ____6____
7. Range ____19____
8. Outliers ____21____
9. Lower Quartile ____5____
10. Upper Quartile ____13____
11. Interquartile Range ____8____
12. Mean Absolute Deviation ____4.444444____
13. Which of the above measurements would you use to summarize the data, and why? (Free
Response)
The correct answer is median, and their reasoning should include something about the data’s
distribution, the data being skewed, or the presence of outliers.
All of the girls in Miss Clark's first period class were polled to see what their favorite sport is.
The majority of the girls chose basketball as their favorite sport. Based on these results,
determine the following:
14. Could we infer that the majority of students (girls and boys) in Miss Clark's first period
class would choose basketball as their favorite sport?
o Yes
o No
Why or why not? (Free Response)
Answer should include something about the fact that the sample did not include boys, so it
cannot represent a population that includes boys. Students received credit for this question if
they answered ‘no’ and gave a reasonable explanation.
15. Could we infer that the majority of sixth grade girls would choose basketball as their
favorite sport?
o Yes
o No
Why or why not? (Free Response)
Answer should include something about the fact that a random sample of sixth grade girls can be
used to make inferences about the whole population. Students received credit for this question if
they answered ‘yes’ and gave a reasonable explanation.

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16. Could we infer that the majority of girls in the whole school (6th, 7th, and 8th grade)
would choose basketball as their favorite sport?
o Yes
o No
Why or why not? (Free Response)
Answer should include something about the fact that the sample did not include 7th or 8th grade
girls, so it cannot represent a population that includes 7th and 8th graders. Students received
credit for this question if they answered ‘no’ and gave a reasonable explanation.
17. In Mr. Popp's first period class, the majority of girls chose swimming as their favorite
sport. Based on these two sets of data, we could infer that...
o The majority of 6th grade girls would choose basketball as their
favorite sport
o The majority of 6th grade girls would choose swimming as their
favorite sport
o Not enough information
This question only had one possible correct response, so students received credit if they chose
this answer.