Copyright 2008-2013 Taina Maria Miller.
EDITION 3.0
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2

Contents
Introduction .......................................................................... 5
Geometry Games on the Internet .....................................

6

Basic Shapes ......................................................................

10

Playing with Shapes .........................................................

15

Drawing Basic Shapes .....................................................

16

Practicing Basic Shapes and Patterns ............................

19

Shapes Review....................................................................

22

Shapes ................................................................................

25

Right Angles ......................................................................

29

Surprises with Shapes ......................................................

31

Making Shapes .................................................................

33

Rectangles and Squares ...................................................

36

Some Special Quadrilaterals ...........................................

39

Geometric Patterns ..........................................................

42

Line Symmetry ..................................................................

45

Perimeter ...........................................................................

48

Problems with Perimeter ..................................................

51

Getting Started with Area ................................................

54

More About Area ..............................................................

56

Multiplying by Whole Tens ..............................................

60

Area Units and Problems ..................................................

64

Area and Perimeter Problems ........................................

68

More Area and Perimeter Problems ..............................

70

Three-Dimensional Shapes ..............................................

73

Solids 1 ................................................................................

75

Solids 2 ................................................................................

77

3

..... 105 More from Math Mammoth .................................. 84 Printable Cutouts for Common Solids .............................. 79 Review 2 ................................... 82 Answers .................................................................................. 80 Geometry Review ................................................................... 119 4 ...........................Review 1 ........................................................................................

usually made from plastic. fold the sides.” This means using an area model to represent a × (b + c) as being equal to a × b plus a × c. They also put several shapes together to form new ones. The expression a × (b + c) is the area of a rectangle with side lengths a and (b + c). Lastly we touch on solids.” I wish you success with your math teaching! Maria Miller 5 . or just square units if no unit of length is specified. and study their faces. and to find the area of rectilinear figures by dividing them into rectangles and adding the areas. and the other with sides a and c. right angles. rectangles. and how to measure it in either square inches. and vertices. such as a cube. one with sides a and b. pentagons. They also get to see rectangles with the same perimeter and different areas or with the same area and different perimeters. square centimeters. which is equal to the areas of two rectangles. Multiplying by Whole Tens is a lesson about multiplication such as 3 × 40 or 90 × 7. pyramids. or divide an existing shape into new ones. Alternatively you can buy them. and cubes. We also study some geometric patterns. The students also learn a little about symmetry—hopefully an easy and fun topic. a cone. Search on the internet for “geometric solids. cut out the shapes. the emphasis is on two third grade concepts: area and perimeter. a rectangular prism. and identify triangles. Just print them out. square meters. and a cylinder. These lessons are taken out from the Math Mammoth Complete Curriculum (Light Blue Series). Children learn to recognize and draw basic shapes. edges. These topics are to provide some fun while also letting children explore geometry and helping them to memorize the terminology for basic shapes.Introduction Math Mammoth Early Geometry covers geometry topics for grades 1-3. The first lessons in this book have to do with shapes—that is where geometry starts. square feet. It is put here so that students can use their multiplication skills to calculate areas of bigger rectangles. and glue or tape the figures together. In the latter part of the book. They learn to find the area of a rectangle by multiplying the side lengths. You can make paper models for them from the printouts provided after the answer key. quadrilaterals. We also study the distributive property “in disguise. Students also relate area to the operations of multiplication and addition. That is necessary so that students learn to distinguish between these two concepts. They learn about area. and make shapes in a tangram-like game. including finding the perimeter when the side lengths are given. Then we solve many area and perimeter problems. have surprises with pentagons and hexagons. hexagons. Students find the perimeters of polygons. and finding an unknown side length when the perimeter is given. squares.

http://illuminations.html 6 .nctm.mathplayground. rectangles.com/activity/buzz/buzz.htm Logic Tangram game Note: this uses four pieces only.com/explore/polygons.com/tangrams. You can modify the quiz parameters to your liking. asking to identify common two-dimensional shapes. rhombi.com/geometry/quadrilaterals-interactive.harcourtschool. www.mathcats.html Shapes Identification Quiz from ThatQuiz.com/matching_shapes.html Polygon Playground Drag various colorful polygons to the work area to make your own creations! http://www.mathsisfun. You can have the computer mix them up.org/ActivityDetail. cut it.org/ActivityDetail. http://www.ictgames. http://www.abcya.org/tq-f/math/shapes/ Tangram puzzles for kids Use the seven pieces of the Tangram to form the given puzzle. http://www. and manipulate the cut pieces. drag the counter to the shape that has that amount of sides. http://www. http://illuminations.html Shape Cutter Draw any shape (polygon).com/tangrams. Use logic and spatial reasoning skills to assemble the four pieces into the given shape.aspx?ID=27 Polygon Matching Game http://www.aspx?ID=72 Shifting Shapes Figure out what shape it is when viewed through a small opening! Click on the “eye” button to see it in its entirety.mathplayground.Geometry Games on the Internet I encourage you to use some of these free resources that can make geometry so much fun! SHAPES Buzzing with Shapes Tic tac toe with shapes.com/YRshape.html Interactive Quadrilaterals Drag the corners to play with squares.html Patch Tool An online activity where the student designs a pattern using geometric shapes. and more. http://www. Complete the puzzle by moving and rotating the seven shapes.thatquiz. and then try to recreate the original shape.nctm.org An online quiz in a multiple-choice format.

After the lesson.mathplayground. http://www.php Everything you wanted to know about area and perimeter Short explanations of how to find the perimeter of simple shapes and the area of rectangles. you calculate the perimeter of compound shapes. you will use an interactive ruler to measure the length and width of 10 rectangles. followed by quizzes on three levels.swf Primary Resources: Reflection Color the squares and reflect the given pattern in a line.primaryresources. http://nlvm.primaryresources.bgfl.usu.shodor.homeschoolmath.uk/online/reflection.swf AREA AND PERIMETER Free Worksheets for Area and Perimeter Create worksheets for the area and the perimeter of rectangles/squares with images. Ben. explain how to find the area and perimeter of rectangles and show you how changing the perimeter of a rectangle affects its area. http://www.html Tangram set Cut out your Tangram set by folding paper http://tangrams. http://www.co. level 1 has just rectangles.co.net/worksheets/area_perimeter_rectangles. http://www. In area of rectangles. and more.Interactive Tangram Puzzle Place the tangram pieces so they form the given shape. In perimeter. http://www. http://www. http://www. and to calculate the perimeter and area of each.asp Primary Resources: Mirror Images See images mirrored in a line.uk/online/symmetry.html Shape Explorer Find the perimeter and area of odd shapes on a rectangular grid. level two. In level three. Options also include area and perimeter problems for irregular rectangular areas. and levels 2 and 3 have compound shapes made of rectangles.innovationslearning. some side lengths are not given. www.org/custom/resources_ftp/client_ftp/ks2/maths/perimeter_and_area/index.zefrank. or problems where the student writes an expression for the area using the distributive property.uk/subjects/maths/activities/year3/symmetry/shape_game.html 7 .ca/fold-set Online Kaleidoscope Create your own kaleidoscope creation with this interactive tool.edu/en/nav/frames_asid_112_g_2_t_1.org/interactivate/activities/ShapeExplorer/ Math Playground: Measuring the Area and Perimeter of Rectangles Amy and her brother.co.com/dtoy_vs_byokal/ SYMMETRY Symmetry Game Tell how many lines of symmetry a shape has.com/area_perimeter. word problems.

uk/schools/ks3bitesize/maths/measures/perimeter/revise1. and of compound shapes. such as a crafts table. edges.com/PartyDesigner/PartyDesigner. area of rectangles.co. and not using the altitude of the parallelogram. http://www. or compound rectangles where not all side lengths are given.com/math/geometry/shapes/solids/games/ Geometric Solids Manipulate various geometric solids. including a few interactive questions. http://www.funbrain.cyram. or instead of solving for area.softschools.uk/schools/ks3bitesize/maths/measures/area/revise1.com/forums/arcade.org A simple online quiz for finding the perimeter of rectangles. Color the solid to investigate properties such as the number of faces. http://illuminations.html FunBrain: Shape Surveyor Geometry Game A simple and easy game that practices finding either the perimeter or area of rectangles. parallelograms. triangles.aspx?ID=70 8 . about area: counting squares.com/poly/index. and so on. and vertices. http://www.org An online quiz.Math Playground: Party Designer You need to design areas for the party. and circles.shtml BBC Bitesize . and you need to calculate the perimeter. food table.mathplayground.shtml Geometry Area/Perimeter Quiz from ThatQuiz. You can modify the quiz parameters to your liking.Perimeter A simple revision (review) “bite” for perimeter that includes short explanations and a few quiz questions. http://www.co.org/tq-4/?-j201v-lc-m2kc0-na-p0 Perimeter Game from Cyram.Area Brief revision (review) “bites”.xpmath.nctm.php?do=play&gameid=10 SOLIDS Identify solids Select the name and drop it on the correct solid. http://www. including typing in the right unit. seesaw.bbc. http://www.org/ActivityDetail. triangles.html BBC Bitesize .html Area of Rectangle Drag the corners of the rectangle and see how the side lengths and areas change. http://www.org/Projects/perimetergame/index. for example to omit the circle. so that they have the given perimeters and areas.aspx?ID=46 XP Math: Find Perimeters of Parallelograms This online quiz shows you parallelograms and rectangles. asking either the area of perimeter of rectangles. Includes an activity and a test.nctm.bbc. area of triangles. http://www. you solve for an unknown side when the perimeter/area is given. http://illuminations.org/ActivityDetail.thatquiz.

html Space Blocks Build with blocks to illustrate three-dimensional shapes.org/bgfl/custom/resources_ftp/client_ftp/ks2/maths/3d/index.html 9 .bgfl.htm Identify solids Click to identify the partially buried 3-dimensional shapes.edu/en/nav/frames_asid_195_g_2_t_2.primaryresources.usu.co. http://nlvm.uk/online/longshape3d.2-D and 3-D Shapes Learn about different solids and see them rotate. http://www. http://www.

They are perfectly round! These are triangles. too.Basic Shapes These are circles.” They look like books! These are squares. Color the circles yellow. the triangles green and the rectangles blue. They don't have any corners. They have THREE corners. One shape will not be colored. and three sides. 10 . have four corners. Squares. These are rectangles.” All sides of a square are the same length. They have four “straight corners. and each corner is “straight. the squares red. 1.

4. _____ b. But they don't have four straight corners. there is one rectangle. Draw three dots anywhere in this space. _____ e. Find another rounded shape that is not a circle. c. a. _____ f. “Quadri” comes from quattuor. In the shapes above. a. 2. Latin for side. b. Draw again three dots anywhere in this space. Join them with lines. “Lateral” comes from lateralis. _____ g. They are just four-sided shapes that are not squares nor rectangles. _____ i. Mark it with R. _____ j. _____ h.So what are these shapes? They have four corners and four sides. What shape do you get? b. _____ 3. _____ d. a. Latin for four. d. Mark the other four-sided shapes with Q (for quadrilateral). 11 . Mark the one circle with C. In mathematics we call them quadrilaterals. like squares and rectangles do. and join them with lines. _____ c. Count how many corners each shape has.

The new shapes have _______ sides. They are ________________________ b. and _______ corners. They are ________________________ Divide this shape. The new shapes have _______ sides. using one line. and _______ corners.5. They are ________________________ c. How many sides do the new shapes have? How many corners? a. and _______ corners. into a triangle and a pentagon (five-sided shape). and _______ corners. 12 . Draw a line from dot to dot so that you divide the shape into two new shapes. They are ________________________ e. and _______ corners. The new shapes have _______ sides. The new shapes have _______ sides. The new shapes have _______ sides. Use a ruler. They are quadrilaterals d.

13 .

14 .

3. Hint: if you have the download version of this curriculum. Make your own interesting shapes using any shapes. A challenge: put together the two purple shapes (#6) to make a five-sided shape (a pentagon). Have fun! 15 . 2. Make your own six-sided shapes (hexagons) using any shapes! Make many different ones. Put together the two purple shapes (#6) to make a six-sided shape (a hexagon).Playing with Shapes Cut out the shapes on page 13. 15. so that it prints on two sheets of paper. 4. a rectangle. b. 13. Can you make a bigger square than what you made in exercise 4. 5. an L-shape. print the shapes page scaled in 140-150% and landscape. All the shapes will then be much bigger. Make a big triangle with the four yellow triangles (marked with 1). Put together the two slim rectangles (#3) to make a. c. using any pieces you want? 6. 12. 1. Make a bigger rectangle using four red triangles (#5). Make your own five-sided shapes (pentagons) using any shapes! Make many different ones. 9. Take all six of the yellow triangles (marked with 1). 10. 14. Make a rectangle using two red triangles (#5). Use one pink rectangle (#2) and two blue squares (#7) to make a square. an eight-sided shape. Put together two of the green triangles (#4) to get a four-sided shape. 7. Use the two pink rectangles (marked with 2) and make a square. You can do this in many different ways! 11. You can do this in two different ways! Each time you will get a parallelogram. Put together the two purple shapes (#6) to make a four-sided shape (a quadrilateral). Put them together to get a six-sided shape (a hexagon). 8.

triangle / square / rectangle / b. What shape do you get? a. triangle / square / rectangle / other four-sided shape other four-sided shape f. triangle / square / rectangle / d. Use a ruler to join the dots carefully with straight lines. triangle / square / rectangle / other four-sided shape other four-sided shape c. triangle / square / rectangle / other four-sided shape other four-sided shape 16 . triangle / square / rectangle / e.Drawing Basic Shapes 1.

This time try to draw four dots in this space so that you would get a rectangle. or just a four-sided shape? c. This time. What shape did you get? A square. Join the dots with lines. a rectangle. a. Use a ruler! b. use a BOOK to draw straight corners.2. Draw four dots anywhere in this space. 17 . Draw a rectangle.

Choose a color for each shape. and (d) below are four-sided shapes (quadrilaterals). What kind of shapes do you get now? ______________________ Now draw another line from corner to corner in each shape. (c). (b). draw a line from one corner to the opposite corner. Circles are _________________.3. d. In each shape. using the two other corners you didn't yet use. Squares are _________________. and color! Triangles are _________________. 18 . How many parts does each four-sided shape have now? _______ What kind of shapes are these parts? ______________________ a. Other four-sided shapes are _________________. b. 4. The shapes (a). Rectangles are _________________. c.

Color the two new parts with different colors. Join each dot to a dot on the other side with straight lines (horizontal and vertical lines) so that you get a grid of squares. Then color the squares using to this pattern: (ye = yellow) 19 . Use a ruler and draw neatly. Write inside each new shape a letter: S for square. In each figure. Q for other quadrilateral (four-sided shape).Practicing Basic Shapes and Patterns 1. T for triangle. draw a straight line with a ruler from one black dot to the other black dot. R for rectangle. 2.

3. 20 . Repeat the patterns to fill the grids.

Here you can design your own patterns! 21 .4.

It has ______ vertices (corners) and four sides. They can overlap. Can you tell which is which? Squares and rectangles are quadrilaterals because they have four sides. the best you can. 2. You have drawn a quadrilateral (quadri means four. You have drawn a triangle (tri means three). Draw at least one more square and one more rectangle into the picture. lateral has to do with sides). Draw two more triangles in the same space. It has _____ vertices (corners) and three sides. Connect the dots with straight lines. Connect the dots with straight lines. Draw three dots on the right. 3. 22 . Draw FOUR dots on the right.Shapes Review 1. The figures on the right are a square and a rectangle. Draw two more quadrilaterals in the same space.

Color all pentagons blue. 23 .4. It has _____ vertices and _____ sides. 5. Connect the dots with straight lines. How is a circle different from all of the shapes above? 7. Draw SIX dots on the right. It has _______ vertices and _____ sides. You have drawn a pentagon (penta means five). Color all triangles yellow. 6. Or choose your own colors for each kind of shape. Draw one more pentagon in the space. and color it with pretty colors! 8. You have drawn a hexagon (hex means six). Connect the dots with straight lines. Color all hexagons purple. Continue the pattern. Draw yet one more hexagon in the space. Color all quadrilaterals green. Draw FIVE dots on the right.

this is a challenge to check if you remember the words for different shapes. Draw here a skinny and a fat three-sided shape. then use a ruler to draw the lines connecting the dots. a. What are four-sided shapes called? b. Now. Draw here a big and a small four-sided shape.9. Draw here a blue five-sided shape and a green six-sided shape. What are five and six-sided shapes called? 24 . What are three-sided shapes called? c. Don't look at the previous pages! You can use the “dot” method: first draw dots for the corners.

it is a pentagon. Remember. it is a quadrilateral. If a shape has FOUR vertices and four sides. your pentagons don't have to look “regular” or nice. 25 . “Quadri” means four. If a shape has FIVE vertices and five sides. or a four-sided shape. and “lateral” refers to sides. Seven-sided figure = heptagon Eight-sided figure = octagon Nine-sided figure = nonagon Ten-sided figure = decagon 1. If a shape has SIX vertices and six sides. it is a triangle.Shapes If a shape has three vertices (corners) and three sides. as long as they have five sides and five vertices.” too. You can draw them to look “funny. it is a hexagon. Draw two pentagons here by drawing dots and connecting them with lines.

____________________________________ d. What shape is formed if you place the bolded sides of the two figures together? You can trace the shapes and cut them out. three rectangles d. a. ____________________________________ c. four triangles that are not rectangles g. four triangles exactly the same shape h.2. two parts that are f. ____________________________________ 3. ____________________________________ b. two quadrilaterals e. four quadrilaterals . a square and a rectangle b. Draw a straight line or lines through the shape and divide it into other shapes! a. a triangle and a pentagon c. a triangle and a pentagon 26 i.

________________________ and ________________________ 27 . d. 5.4. Write what new shapes you get. and name what shape(s) are used in the tiling. a. Notice: your line does NOT have to go from corner to corner. a. Continue the tilings so they fill the grids. ________________________ c. ________________________ b. b. Divide the pentagon and the hexagon into new shapes using one straight line. c.

6. 28 . Design your own tilings here.

Corners of books are examples of right angles. a. _____ angles _____ angles _____ angles _____ right angles _____ right angles _____ right angles d. but in math we call them angles. _____ angles _____ angles _____ angles _____ right angles _____ right angles _____ right angles 29 . and the walls going up around you in the shape of the “corner. Write how many angles each shape has. c.” In which angle would you have lots of space to sit? In which angle would you have only a little space to sit? Find two “square corners. Imagine sitting inside of each angle.Right Angles These look like corners. f.” In mathematics we call them right angles. b. Write how many right angles each shape has. Right angles are marked this way. Sometimes we draw a round line (an arc) inside of the angle to mark it. 1. e.

_____ right angles in each part. Where in the pattern (not in the grid) can you find right angles? 4. _____ right angles in each part. _____ right angles in the big shape. d. First draw dots for the corners. a square c. a rectangle b. a. 30 . Write how many right angles there are. Then connect those with lines. _____ right angles in the big shape. _____ right angles in each part. a quadrilateral with f. a pentagon with no right angles one right angle one right angle 3. Which of these shapes has to ALWAYS have a right angle? a) triangle b) square c) pentagon d) hexagon e) rectangle 5. The shapes are divided into parts. Draw the shapes below. Continue this pretty pattern. _____ right angles in the big shape. a. Look carefully. a triangle with e. _____ right angles in the big shape. _____ right angles in each part. c. a triangle with one right angle d.2. b.

Then repeat so that each corner gets connected to the opposite corner. Decorate your shape now so that it becomes a SNOWFLAKE! ALL snowflakes have this basic shape. 4. This divides your shape into two new shapes. 31 .Surprises with Shapes 1. Be neat! What shape do you get? _______________________________ 2. 6. What shapes are they? _______________________________ 3. Connect the dots using a ruler. Be neat! What shape do you get? _______________________________ 5. Draw a line from one corner to some other corner. Connect the dots using a ruler. You need to draw three lines to do that. Draw a line from one corner to the opposite corner. Draw more lines from a corner to some corner so that the whole shape gets divided into triangles.

2 . Be neat! What shape do you get? _______________________________ 11. What is it? _______________________________ 12. In the middle of that shape.2 .a .1. Be neat! What do you get? _______________________________ 8.4 . In the middle of that shape. What shape is formed now? _______________________________ 32 . another shape is formed. Connect the dots in the numbered order using straight lines. another shape is formed.3 . What shape is formed now? _______________________________ 10.5 . Connect the dots 1-2-3 using a ruler.7.b . What is it? _______________________________ 9.c .3 . Also connect the dots in the order 1 . Then connect the dots a-b-c also.1. Also connect the dots in the order 1 .

these two triangles together form a square: 1.html or http://www. and give that to your friend to solve.usu. Now. you do the same. d. For example. a.edu/en/nav/frames_asid_112_g_2_t_1. f.Making Shapes We can make new shapes from putting several shapes together. The game you just played is very similar to the ancient Chinese puzzle called Tangram. e. What shapes can you use to make the given shapes? There may be several possible solutions. Play an interactive tangram game online at http://nlvm. b.htm 33 . 2. The figures below are smaller than the ones you will cut out. c. Put together some shapes. 3. Trace the outline of your combined shape on paper.com/tangrams.abcya. Cut out the shapes on the next page.

34 .

) 35 .(This page left intentionally blank.

d.Rectangles and Squares 1. c. Continue these patterns that use rectangles and squares. Make your own patterns here! 36 . b. a.

He got 12 little squares. Now you do the same. d. 8 little squares Can you make two different ones? 12 little squares Can you make two different ones? 37 . Count how many little squares are inside each rectangle. Draw rectangles so they have a certain number of little squares inside. b. a. b. 10 little squares 15 little squares c. ______ little squares ______ little squares 3. Guess and check! a.Josh counted how many little squares were inside this rectangle. 2. ______ little squares c.

4. Here is a pattern where several squares are inside each other. Continue the pattern.
Use pretty colors.

5. Design your own pattern, where you start with a small rectangle in the middle, then
draw bigger ones around it like in the pattern above.

38

Some Special Quadrilaterals
Some Special Quadrilaterals

Rectangles look like book covers.
The corners are “straight.”

Squares are actually rectangles
where each side is the same length.

1. Draw three different rectangles and three different squares.

2. Draw three quadrilaterals that are NOT squares nor rectangles.

39

A rhombus is a quadrilateral where each of the four
sides has the same length. A rhombus is also
called a diamond-shape or a diamond in common
language.
The corners of a rhombus don't have to be “straight”
like the corners of a square. But they can be.
The plural of rhombus is rhombi.

3. You can make a rhombus by taking four popsicle sticks or
pencils or other sticks of the same length.
Arrange the four sticks into a diamond shape. Now, change it
slightly to get another rhombus. Make a skinny one, a less skinny
one, and so on. You can even make a square!
You can also play with rhombi on this web page. Choose
“rhombus.” Just drag the dots!
http://www.mathsisfun.com/geometry/quadrilaterals-interactive.html
4. A square or a rhombus?

a. _______________

b. _______________

c. _______________

5. Is a square also a rhombus? Read the definitions again:
Squares are rectangles (with straight corners)
where each side is the same length.
A rhombus is a quadrilateral where each of the four
sides has the same length.
So, is a square also a rhombus?
Why or why not?

40

d. _______________

Color all the rectangles green. squares blue. 41 . Continue it! Use pretty colors. This is a tiling with rhombi. choose your own colors. and other quadrilaterals yellow. Or.6. rhombi red. 7.

This is a pattern from an apron used by Kirdi people in Cameroon. Continue the coloring in the pattern. Continue it. 42 . 2.Geometric Patterns 1. Africa. Notice it uses PARALLELOGRAMS that are inside each other. The design below is often seen in Greek vases.

What two shapes are used in this design? _______________________________ and _________________________________ b. a. 43 .3. This is a geometric design found on a Greek vase. Copy the design at least once in the empty shapes.

44 .4. Repeat the patterns to fill the grids.

c. e. h. i. You cannot draw a symmetry line in them. The line is called a symmetry line. g. f. Or. b. you would see the other half of the figure reflected in the mirror. Then both sides would exactly meet. a.Line Symmetry These figures are symmetrical in relation to the dashed line. Is the line drawn a symmetry line for the figure? You can cut out the images and fold them along the dashed line to check. if you placed a mirror along the symmetry line. d. Many figures are not symmetrical at all. What does that mean? Imagine that you folded the figure along the symmetry line. 45 . 1.

b. a. The cross-shape on the right has two different symmetry lines. f. Draw as many different symmetry lines as you can into these shapes.Some shapes you can fold in two different ways so that the sides meet. 3. d. Write the capital letters in which you can draw a symmetry line. c. Draw the symmetry lines in them. 46 . 2. e.

f. Draw your own design and find its mirror image. Continue the pattern. Find at least three logos that have symmetry. d. stores. Examining logos. 5. and so on. Draw your own design and find its mirror image. Does the logo employ a square. Draw a mirror image in the symmetry line to get a symmetrical figure. b. Answer the questions a. a triangle. Look for logos on food products. a. c. Then draw its mirror image. for each logo.4. a rectangle. magazines. or some other basic geometric figure in some way? b. a. Sketch them below. a circle. cars. Does it have any symmetry? 47 . and b. e.

In it. The units are marked with little arrows in the picture. peri means 'around' and metros means 'measure'. Make sure you understand that! So. P = _______________ P = _______________ d. Your answer will be so many units. f. c. P means perimeter. count the units as you go around the figure. what is the perimeter? _______ units Here it is trickier to count those little units. The right side is two units long. You can think of running or hopping around the figure. To find the perimeter of this rectangle. a. Find the perimeter of these figures. The word comes from the Greek word perimetros. P = _______________ P = _______________ P = _______________ P= units 48 . e.Perimeter Perimeter means the “walk-around measure. The top side is four units long. Be careful! How many units is the perimeter? _______ units 1. b.” or the distance you go if you walk all the way around the figure.

Measure with a ruler to find the perimeter of these figures in inches. P = ____________ cm P = ____________ cm c. a. b. a.2. P = ____________ in. 3. 49 . b. You can trace the ruler below and tape it on an existing ruler or cardboard! Or cut it out after you have finished the neighboring page. Measure with a ruler to find the perimeter of these figures in centimeters. P = ____________ in.

4. P = ________________ P = ________________ P = ________________ 6 P= units 5. Notice: some side lengths are not given! Don't forget to use either “cm” or “in. a. What side lengths are not given? The perimeter is _______ cm. then the perimeter is so-many units. a. the perimeter will be so-many centimeters.of a square with 13-cm sides 50 ..To find the perimeter. e. Find the perimeter. simply add all the side lengths. f. c. or _______ units.. Often you need to figure out some side lengths that are not given. . Find the perimeter. Don't forget the unit of measurement in your answer.of a square with 7-in. If the side lengths are in centimeters. P = ________________ P = ________________ d. How many units is the perimeter of the triangle on the right? It is 8 + 9 + 10 units... b.” or “units” in your answer. If the side lengths are “plain numbers” without any particular unit.. .. sides b..

The one side of this rectangle is 12 in. Its ? perimeter is 82 in. The perimeter of this rectangle is 20 cm. Its one 6 cm side is 6 cm. form half of the perimeter. Just think: the two sides. or an addition with an unknown: ? 9 + ? + 9 + ? = 30 You could guess and check to solve it. Solution: ? = ____________ d. But.Problems with Perimeter The perimeter of a rectangle is 30 cm. 9 cm 9 cm ? Thinking either way. The perimeter of this square is 12 in. Its one side is 9 cm. Solve. How long is the other side? We can write a “how many more” addition. How long is the other side? _____________________________________ 15 cm Solution: ? = ____________ c. How long is the other side? ? _____________________________________ Solution: ? = ____________ b. there is also an easier way. 9 and ? . a. The perimeter of this rectangle is 44 cm. Write an addition with an unknown for each problem. Its one ? side is 15 cm. ? How long is its side? _____________________________________ Solution: ? = ____________ 51 ? . 1. How long is the other side? _____________________________________ 12 in. So. we can solve that ? = 6 cm. 9 + ? = 15.

Find the perimeter of this L-shape. a. Kyle's house measures 25 feet wide and 35 feet long. Mandy wants a rectangular garden with a perimeter of 18 meters. 3. What is its perimeter? 5. The perimeter of this square is 44 cm.2. c. Find the perimeter of this square with 12-inch sides. Each little square in the image has a side of 10 feet. The parking lot of a school is in the shape shown here. How long is the side of the square? ? b. How long should the other side be? 52 . One side of the garden is 3 m. What is the perimeter of the parking lot? 4. Solve. Notice that some side lengths are not given.

10 units c. 14 units 53 . 8 units b. and that has a perimeter of a.6. Then. One side Other side Perimeter 3 units 9 units 24 units 24 units 24 units 24 units Draw a shape here that is not a rectangle. which is 12 units. write the side lengths of those rectangles in the table. Hint: The two sides of the rectangle form half of the perimeter. Draw many different rectangles that all have a perimeter of 24 units.

The area is ______ square units. We multiply 3 × 8 = 24. Write a multiplication to find the area. and it is measured in little squares. 54 . The area is ______ square units. The area of this rectangle is 24 square units. which we call square units. How many square units is the area of these figures? a. and 8 columns. A = ______ square units. c. You can use multiplication to find the area of a rectangle. c. ____ × ____ = _______ ____ × ____ = _______ ____ × ____ = _______ A = ______ square units. a. Notice how there are rows and columns of squares! There are 3 rows. 1.Getting Started with Area How many little squares do you need to cover this rectangle? That is its area. A = ______ square units. “A” means area. 2. The area is ______ square units. Area has to do with covering. The area of this rectangle is ______ square units. b. b. The area is ______ square units. d.

b. a. Find the areas. The area is ______ square units. Draw two rectangles or squares with an area of 16 square units. d. The area is ______ square units. Draw two rectangles with an area of 24 square units. The area is ______ square units. b. Find the areas of these figures. The area is ______ square units. a.3. The area is ______ square units. 6. 4. c. 55 . The area is ______ square units. 5.

___ × ___ + ___ × ___ = ________ ______________________________ c. we can divide the shape into two rectangles. can you think how to use multiplication and subtraction to find the shaded area? Don't look at the answer (below) yet! Think first! It is 4 × 5 − 2 × 2 = 20 − 4 = 16 square units 1. ______________________________ ______________________________ 56 . d. b. and add their results.More about Area To find the area of this figure. 3 × 2 + 3 × 5 = 6 + 15 = 21 square units Here. We then use two multiplications. a. Write two multiplications to find the total area.

___ × ( ___ + ___ ) = ___ × ___ + ___ × ___ area of the whole rectangle area of the first part area of the second part c. But notice: we can write the longer side of the rectangle as a sum (3 + 5). ___ × ( ___ + ___ ) = ___ × ___ + ___ × ___ e. ___ × ( ___ + ___ ) = ___ × ___ + ___ × ___ 57 . Write a number sentence for the total area. ___ × ( ___ + ___ ) = ___ × ___ + ___ × ___ area of the whole rectangle area of the first part area of the second part d. But if we think of it as two rectangles. a. thinking of one rectangle or two. we can write the area as 3 × 3 + 3 × 5. we get: 3 × (3 + 5) = area of the whole rectangle 3×3 + area of the first part 3+5 3×5 area of the second part 2. its area would be written as 3 × (3 + 5). Then. thinking of it as a one rectangle or two rectangles. 3 So.The total area of this rectangle is 3 × 8 = 24 square units. ___ × ( ___ + ___ ) = ___ × ___ + ___ × ___ area of the whole rectangle area of the first part area of the second part b.

4 × (3 + 1) = ___ × ___ + ___ × ___ area of the whole rectangle area of the first part area of the second part d.3. Fill in. a. 5 × (1 + 4) = ___ × ___ + ___ × ___ area of the whole rectangle area of the first part area of the second part c. ___ × ( ___ + ___ ) = area of the whole rectangle 3×2 + area of the first part 3×1 area of the second part e. ___ × ( ___ + ___ ) = area of the whole rectangle 2×5 + area of the first part 2×2 area of the second part 58 . 3 × (2 + 4) = ___ × ___ + ___ × ___ area of the whole rectangle area of the first part area of the second part b. Now it's your turn to draw the rectangle.

Write a number sentence for the area. Think what operations you can use this time. Your task is to write a number sentence for the area. __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ b. Write a number sentence for the area. Find the shaded area (not including the school). 59 . Write a number sentence for the area. Find the areas of the figures. _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ The area of this shape is 32 squares. ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ c. Find the shaded area.4. a. Find the shaded area.

For example: 78 × 10 = 780 or 10 × 49 = 490 2. 56 × 10 = ________ 10 × 99 = ________ c. write the number. Multiply. 10 × 5 = ________ 10 × 50 = ________ b. Think of counting by tens! 9 × 10 = _________ 14 × 10 = _________ 19 × 10 = _________ 10 × 10 = _________ 15 × 10 = _________ 20 × 10 = _________ 11 × 10 = _________ 16 × 10 = _________ 21 × 10 = _________ 12 × 10 = _________ 17 × 10 = _________ 22 × 10 = _________ 13 × 10 = _________ 18 × 10 = _________ 23 × 10 = _________ There is a pattern: Every answer ends in _____. Also. Can you see that? SHORTCUT To multiply any number by ten. and the answer. Fill in the missing parts of the multiplication table of 10.Multiplying by Whole Tens 1. and tag one zero on it. Multiply. 10 × 11 = ________ b. For example: 30 × 10 = 300 3. a. you still need to tag one zero on the answer. a. 18 × 10 = ________ 82 × 10 = ________ 10 × 0 = ________ Note: If the number you multiply by 10 ends in zero. 17 × 10 = ________ 17 × 1 = ________ . 10 × 90 = ________ 100 × 9 = ________ 60 c. there is something special about the number you multiply times 10.

The total area is_______. Solve 8 × 20 by dividing this rectangle into TWO equal parts. Parts: ____ × ______ and ____ × ______. Solve. Parts: ____ × _____ and ____ × _____ and ____ × _____. But here is yet a different way to think about it: Let's divide this big rectangle into TWO smaller rectangles that each are the size 7 × 10. we could solve 7 × 20 by adding 20 repeatedly. d. 61 . The total area is __________. a. Parts: __________________________________________. in total their area is 70 + 70 = 140. Solve 4 × 40 by dividing this rectangle into parts. c. Parts: ____ × _____ and ____ × _____ and ____ × _____. Solve 5 × 30 by dividing this rectangle into THREE equal parts. So. Or. b. Solve 7 × 30 by dividing this rectangle into THREE equal parts. The total area is_______. It has 7 rows and 20 columns. The total area is_______. 4.This rectangle illustrates the multiplication 7 × 20. We could COUNT the little squares to find its area. Each of the two rectangles has an area of 7 × 10 = 70.

such as 5 × 60. we can multiply 5 × 6 × 10. or 300. 5 × 30 = ________ e. Can you find it? a. 2 × 80 = ________ c. 3 × 40 = ________ b. Then. 30 × 10 is just 30 with a zero tagged on the end of it. 80 × 3 = 10 × ____ × ____ = 10 × ____ × ____ = 10 × ______ = __________ = 10 × ______ = __________ 62 . But also look for a pattern and a shortcut. 5 × 70 = ________ f. a.We can solve multiplication problems. 7 × 9 × 10 63 4 × 80 = ____ × ____ × 10 × 10 = __________ = ______ × 10 = __________ 6 × 40 d. Multiply and fill in. such as 5 × 60. 7 × 90 = = c. b. by repeated addition. isn't it? So. Break each multiplication into another where you multiply three numbers. And 5 × 6 × 10 is the same as 30 × 10. one of them being 10.. 4 × 40 = ________ d.. to solve 5 × 60. 5 × 60 = 60 + 60 + 60 + 60 + 60 (60 added five times) 5. 6. Solve these multiplications by repeated addition. 9 × 90 = ____ × ____ × 10 = ____ × ____ × 10 = ______ × 10 = __________ = ______ × 10 = __________ 30 × 6 f. Notice: 60 is equal to 6 × 10. 3 × 80 = ________ Here's another idea for solving multiplication problems. e.

Example 1. Multiply 9 × 7 = 63. 11. 40 × 7 = ________ d. Find the total area of this rectangle. What is its area? 9. 7 × 70 = ________ b. 3 × 90 = ________ 8. 50 × 4 = ________ e. Find the total area. 6 × 80 = ________ c. Multiply using the shortcut. What is the area of each small part? 10. Figure out a way or two ways to solve 5 × 16 without counting all the squares. 90 × 7 Multiply 6 × 2 = 12. Tag a zero to 63. 63 . Tag a zero to 12.Study the shortcut for multiplying by whole tens. 6 × 20 Example 2. 7. a. This rectangle is divided into 8 equal parts. and also the area of each little part. This rectangle is 7 units high and 80 units long. 70 × 3 = ________ f. to get 120. to get 630.

A = ____ cm × ____ cm = _____ cm2 A = ____ cm × ____ cm = _____ cm2 c. We can use it to measure areas of other shapes. It is called a square centimeter. a. To find the area of a shape. We abbreviate this as 6 cm2. we check how many squares are needed to cover the shape. Measure the sides of the rectangles in centimeters using a ruler. Don't forget the units (cm and cm2)! b. So.Area Units and Problems Area is always measured in squares of some size. Write a multiplication for the area of each rectangle. A = _________________________ A = _________________________ 64 . Each side of this square measures 1 centimeter. The elevated 2 indicates the “squaring.” We can also use multiplication to find the area: 3 cm × 2 cm = 6 cm2 1. d. It is a special square. We need 6 square centimeters to cover this rectangle. its area is just that: 6 square centimeters.

× ____ in. It is called one square inch. or 1 in2. in.Each side of this square measures 1 inch. = ______ in2 c. = ______ in2 A = ______________________________________ 65 . abbreviated as 1 sq. We can use it to measure areas of other shapes. It is also a special square. Measure in inches using a ruler. 2. A = ____ in. Find the area of each rectangle. b. a. Don't forget the unit for the area. A = ____ in. × ____ in.

in. Be very careful about the unit you need to use. We need 8 square inches to cover this rectangle. So. This is one square meter. We abbreviate this as 8 sq. square inches (in2). They show some other square units for area. 4 inches × 2 inches = 8 square inches 3. square meters (m2). or square feet (ft2). Find the areas of the rectangles. A = ________________________ A = ________________________ 66 . whether square centimeters (cm2). A = ________________________ A = ________________________ c. If no particular unit of length is given for the sides of a rectangle. b.” Again. d.The following pictures are not to scale. a. use multiplication to find the area: The sides are 7 and 4 units. This is one square foot or 1 ft2. its area is 8 square inches. and the area is 28 square units. or 8 in2. we just use the word “unit. or 1 m2.

How many square inches is the white rectangle? How many square inches is the shaded (pink) area? 67 . Find the area of Margaret's garden. His brother Joe's room is 5 m by 3 m. 5. The white rectangle is 3 in. On its cover is a white rectangle. 6. by 2 in. A notebook measures 6 in. by 8 in. Whose room is bigger in area? How much bigger? 7.4. Danny's room measures 4 m by 4 m. Find the area of this children's playground.

” Your answer will be in some unit of length. Perimeter: 4 cm + 8 cm + 4 cm + 8 cm = 24 cm 1. 4 in. square feet. meters. square inches. wide. Your answer will be in square centimeters. a. b. Perimeter = ______________________ Perimeter = ______________________ Area = ______________________ Area = ______________________ c. Find the area and perimeter of this shape. Find the area and perimeter of the rectangles. inches.   AREA has to do with covering the shape with squares. tall d. 2 in. Area Perimeter 68 . You need to figure that out.Area and Perimeter Problems Sometimes it's easy to confuse perimeter and area. square meters. or just square units. such as centimeters. or feet. A square with 3 cm sides Perimeter = ______________________ Perimeter = ______________________ Area = __________________________ Area = __________________________ 2. PERIMETER has to do with “going all the way around. Area: 4 cm × 8 cm = 32 cm2. Notice that one side length is not given.

5. and also the area of each little part. Find the areas of the two parts. Find the total area. Draw a rectangle with an b.3. and a perimeter of 32 units. _____________ and __________________ b. Find the perimeter. 69 . Area of each part: Total area: Can you draw these rectangles? Guess and check! a. Notice that one side length is not given. a. Find the area and perimeter of this shape. c. Area Perimeter 4. This is a two-part lawn. area of 56 squares. and a perimeter of 36 units. Find the total area of this rectangle. Draw a rectangle with an area of 39 squares. You need to figure that out.

More Area and Perimeter Problems
1. a. Find the area for each part.
_____________ and __________________
b. Find the total area.

c. Find the perimeter.

2. Make rectangles that have an
area of 24 square units.
Draw them in the grid.
Write in the table their side
lengths. One is already given.

first side second side
Rectangle 1

2 units

12 units

area
24 square units

Rectangle 2

24 square units

Rectangle 3

24 square units

3. For each rectangle you made in #2, calculate its perimeter.

Rectangle 1

one side

second side

area

2 units

12 units

24 square units

Rectangle 2

24 square units

Rectangle 3

24 square units

70

perimeter
units

4. Make rectangles that have a
perimeter of 20 units.
Hint: the two different side lengths
add up to half of the perimeter.

Draw them in the grid.
Write in the table their side
lengths. One is already given.

first side second side perimeter
Rectangle 1

2 units

8 units

20 units

Rectangle 2

20 units

Rectangle 3

20 units

5. For each rectangle you made in #4, calculate its area.

first side second side perimeter
Rectangle 1

2 units

8 units

20 units

Rectangle 2

20 units

Rectangle 3

20 units

6. The image illustrates Jane's garden.
a. Find the area of each part.

_____________ and __________________
b. Find the total area.

c. Find the perimeter.

71

area
square units

7. Draw and fill in.
a. Write a number sentence using the area of this

two-part rectangle.

___ × ( ___ + ___ ) = ___ × ___ + ___ × ___

b. Draw a two-part rectangle to illustrate this number

sentence.

4 × (3 + 5) = 4 × 3 + 4 × 5

c. Fill in the missing parts, and then draw a two-part

rectangle to illustrate this number sentence.

2 × (5 + 2) = ___ × ___ + ___ × ___

d. Fill in the missing parts, and then draw a two-part rectangle

to illustrate this number sentence.

___ × ( ___ + ___ ) = 3 × 2 + 3 × 1

a. Write a number sentence using the area of this two-part rectangle.

___ × ( ___ + ___ ) = ___ × ___ + ___ × ___
b. Sketch a rectangle to match

20 × (3 + 7) and find its area.

72

box or cube g. f. Find two things in your classroom or at home in the shape of a cube. _____________________________. a.” A cube is a box. 1. Put them in order from the smallest to the biggest. but all of its sides are equally long. A cylinder has a circle on the bottom and at the top. _______________________________. I found __________________________ and _______________________________. one smaller and one bigger.Three-Dimensional Shapes This is a box. Find four things in your classroom or at home in the shape of a box. It is also called a “rectangular prism. A ball or a sphere. box or cube box or cube d. box or cube box or cube box or cube 2. too. e. b. Are these things in the shape of a box or a cube? Underline the right choice. I found __________________________. box or cube box or cube h. c. and _______________________________. 3. 73 .

Which shapes can roll on the floor? Underline. Put them in order from the smallest to the biggest. c. Name the basic shape. b. c. a. _____________________________. 9. . 8. _____________________________. a. cylinder or ball cylinder or ball cylinder or ball cylinder or ball cylinder or ball f. Find four things in your classroom or at home in the shape of a ball. I found __________________________. Which shapes will slide.4. g. b. cylinder or ball 5. 74 d. cylinder or ball h. and _______________________________. and _______________________________. and not roll on the floor? box cylinder cylinder or ball ball box cube ball cube 7. cylinder 6. I found __________________________. d. Find four things in your classroom or at home in the shape of a cylinder. e. _______________________________. _______________________________. Are these things in the shape of a cylinder or a ball? Underline the right choice. Put them in order from the smallest to the biggest.

a cylinder. a rectangle. Your teacher will help you. but it has a rounded shape on the bottom. or a pentagon. and at the top. a cone. _________ faces What shapes are they? d. _________ faces What shapes are they? c. but all of its sides are equal in length. Count how many faces this pyramid has. A pyramid has a pointed top. _________ faces What shapes are they? b.Solids 1 This is a box. Its bottom shape can be any many-sided figure. _________ faces How about the cylinder? It has three faces: the top and bottom circles are two faces. such as a triangle. Count how many faces a ball has. It is also called a “rectangular prism. a square. and the third face is “wrapped around” it. A face is any of the flat sides of a solid. A cone has a pointed top. 1. Count how many faces a cube has.” A cube is a box. A cylinder has a This is a circle on the bottom sphere. as well. and a pyramid using the cut-outs provided on the following pages. And the cone? It has two faces. a. Make a cube. too. 75 . or just a ball. 2. Count how many faces a box has.

_________________________ d.3. _________________________ l. _________________________ 76 _________________________ . _________________________ h. _________________________ c. pyramid. Label the pictures with box. or cone. cube. i. j.) 4. _________________________ g. or a part of them is a cone? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ (Hint: One thing that is cone-shaped tastes really yummy!) (Hint: Another thing you might see in birthday parties. _________________________ k. cylinder. _________________________ _________________________ f. _________________________ e. You might have seen safety cones on the street. Can you think of other things in real life that are in the shape of a cone. _________________________ b. They are used to mark off areas where people are not supposed to go. a.

vertices) is the same as corner. We say they are three-dimensional shapes. The cone only has one! 77 . A rectangular pyramid has a rectangle as its base. the marked edge is its only one! A vertex (pl. A cylinder A cone A pyramid with a triangle at the bottom is called a tetrahedron. A cube: all of its sides are of the same length. We also call it a box. A rectangular prism. Let's also study the parts of solids: faces. A square pyramid: its base (bottom) is a square. An edge is a boundary “line” for the face. A face is a flat side with area. and vertices. For the cone.Solids 2 You can make paper models of these solids with the help of the printable cutouts provided (see introduction). Solids are shapes that don't just exist on paper: you can fill them with something. such as water or stones. Its faces are rectangles. The other face of the cone is “wrapped around” it. edges.

Name the shapes.) Try to do this exercise without checking back! Name of Shape 78 Faces Edges Vertices 6 12 8 6 12 8 5 8 5 5 8 5 4 6 4 2 1 1 3 2 0 . d. b. Vertices. Which of these shapes belongs where in the table? (Sometimes you have two right choices. Name E V F 2. c. Shape Name E V F Shape a. and find how many Edges. and Faces they have.1. f. e.

the rectangles red. Divide the shape A into a triangle and a five-sided shape. Use a ruler.Review 1 1. What shape do you get? Divide your shape into two triangles. 2. Divide the shapes using one straight line.) Measure its sides in centimeters. and the little circles light blue. 3. Divide the shape C into a four-sided shape and a triangle. from 1 to 2 to 3 to 4 to 1. 79 . Join these dots carefully with lines. 4. How many corners are in this shape? (We call it a pentagon. the squares blue. Color the triangles orange. Divide the shape B into a square and a rectangle.

Use a ruler! What shape do you get? ______________________________ 2.Review 2 1. Draw in the grid a square that has 4 little squares inside. Choose one corner of your shape. Now draw a line (with a ruler) from that corner to some other corner so that you will divide the shape into a triangle and a pentagon. 80 . Connect the dots. 4. 3. Draw in the grid a rectangle that has 18 little squares inside.

or cone. Label the pictures as box. cylinder. _________________________ 81 _________________________ . pyramid. _________________________ b. Sarah put together these two triangles. What is this shape called? ______________________________ How many faces does it have? _______ What shape are the faces? ______________________________ 6. c. a.5. What new shape did she get? →← 7.

Fill in. Write a multiplication for b. 3. Draw a quadrilateral that is not a rectangle. Find the perimeter and area of this rectangle. Find the rhombi among these figures. Draw a rectangle that has the the area of this figure. a. Use a centimeter ruler.Geometry Review 1. ___ units × ___ units = ____ square units 4 × 5 = 20 square units 4. 2. b. area shown by the multiplication. Find quadrilaterals that are not rectangles nor rhombi. Area: Perimeter: 82 . a.

7 × 70 = ________ b.5. Multiply using the shortcut. A = ________________________________ A = ________________________________ 7. a. 3 × (5 + 1) = ___ × ___ + ___ × ___ b. a. Fill in the missing parts. Fill in the missing parts. and then draw a two-part rectangle to illustrate this number sentence. 6 × 80 = ________ 8. Find the area and perimeter of these figures. Area of each part: Total area: 9. and then draw a two-part rectangle to illustrate this number sentence. and the area of each part. 40 × 7 = ________ . Write a multiplication and addition for the areas of these figures. Area: Area: Perimeter: Perimeter: 6. Find the total area of this rectangle. ___ × ( ___ + ___ ) = 4 × 2 + 4 × 3 83 c. a. Draw and fill in. b. a. b.

and 3 corners. a. The new shapes have 4 sides. 7 c. The new shapes have 3 sides. b. They are quadrilaterals Q d. a. and 3 corners. c. They are triangles. p. and 3 corners. 6 j. C d. The new shapes have 4 sides. They are triangles. a. 4 3. 3 f. 2. 4 c.Math Mammoth Early Geometry Answer Key Basic Shapes. 5. 0 d. e. b. The new shapes have 3 sides. You again get a triangle.” so that joining them you just get a line. a. 10 1. e. 5 g. They are triangles. unless you draw the three dots so that they are “perfectly aligned. 4 b. They are squares . and 4 corners. The new shapes have 3 sides. 0 i. Puzzle corner: 84 . R b. It is an oval. 5 h. and 4 corners. and 4. You get a triangle.

p. or the two rectangles side-by side 10. or 13. 15 1. b. 11. 2. For example: or 14. 4. 9. Answers vary. 12. One possibility: 3. For example: 85 . 7. or this combination in other positions 5. c. Answers vary.Playing with Shapes. a. 8. 6.

other four-sided shape Triangles are blue. Squares are purple. 2. triangle b. 3. other four-sided shape e. 16 4. Other four-sided shapes are red. 1. b. d. square f. For example: 1. Answers will vary. a. Rectangles are green. rectangle d. Answers vary since the student can choose the colors. square c. p. What kind of shapes do you get now? triangles How many parts does each four-sided shape have now? 4 What kind of shapes are these parts? triangles a. c. Circles are yellow. 86 .Drawing Basic Shapes.

2. The student's coloring will vary. 19 1.Practicing Basic Shapes and Patterns. Answers will vary. 87 . 4. As long as they are not 3. p. it does not matter what color they are. colored the same.

Answers can vary. or a vertical line in the middle. a pentagon d. a quadrilateral (a kite) c. Check the student's pictures. a. It has 3 vertices. a pentagon b. two pentagons d. 88 . 5-sided is a pentagon and 6-sided is a hexagon Shapes. 9. 5. It has 6 vertices and 6 sides. 4. 4. 6. 7. Answers vary. 2. c. Check the student's pictures. b. 25 1.Shapes Review. 22 1. a. 8. a quadrilateral and a pentagon c. i. Answers vary. A triangle and a hexagon b. g. a pentagon and a quadrilateral a. p. It has 4 vertices. f. d. e. These are example answers. Check the student's work. quadrilaterals b. e. A circle has no vertices or straight sides. 3. h. For example: 2. a hexagon 3. triangles c. p. It has 5 vertices and 5 sides. a.

octagon and a square a. Right angles in each part 0. There are right angles in the top figures. 31 1. Surprises with Shapes. Right angles in each part 1. Right Angles. c. A pentagon: 3. c. 4. b. Right angles in the big shape: 0. Pictures vary. Right angles in each part: 1. 4 angles. 3 angles. 4 right angles e. b and e 5. here is one example: 4. 0 right angles f. 1 right angle b. Right angles in the big shape: 1. Right angles in the big shape: 4. Check the students' pictures. Answers vary as it is possible to draw these lines in many different ways. Right angles in each part 0. d. 29 1. a. 5 angles. You can draw the one line from corner to corner in many different ways. A hexagon: 89 . 3 angles. p. 0 right angles d. 4 angles. b.5. p. One example: 2. a. 4 right angles 2. quadrilateral c. A triangle and a quadrilateral. Right angles in the big shape: 1. a. rectangle b. 3. 2 right angles c. 4 angles.

A six-pointed star: 7. e. f. A pentagon: Making Shapes. 10. a. A hexagon. c. Check students' work. 9. A hexagon: 8. 33 1. A five-pointed star: 11. p. & 6. d. 90 . b. A pentagon.5. 12.

b. b. d. 4 little squares a. 36 1.Rectangles and Squares. p. 91 . a. 16 little squares 3. d. 20 little squares c. c. 2. b. a. c.

Answers vary. 39 1. Some Special Quadrilaterals. because all of its four sides have the same length. a square d. j. 6. Yes. 92 . a. and n. p. Here are some examples: 2. The rectangles are c. a rhombus c. g. The rhombi are b. 4. a rhombus 5. and l. f. d. Other quadrilaterals are a. 6. e.4. and l. a square b. k. and m. The squares are h. a square is a rhombus.

no b. 45 1. and many more. any diameter of a circle (a line through the center point) is its symmetry line. yes c. Line Symmetry. p. Geometric Patterns. yes d. c. e. Circles and squares b. 4. a. f.7. f. 93 . 2.. yes 2. 42 1. yes i. no h. no b. no e. a. d. a.. no g. 3. p.

48 units c. I. I. a. or 27 units. C. c. Often you need to figure out some side lengths that are not given. 16 cm c. 11 in. U. d. 94 b. M. a. 48 1. X. 5. 24 units c. E. To find the perimeter. V. 10 in. b. 12 cm + 5 cm + 13 cm = 30 cm 4. a. b. O. Perimeter. and X. How many units is the perimeter of the triangle on the right? It is 8 + 9 + 10 units. D. 4. 16 cm 3. 24 cm f. O. and Y. H. simply add all the side lengths. 3 in. a. 18 units b. 6 in. d. a. What side lengths are not given? The perimeter is 24 cm. W. p.3. 12 units 2. 12 units f. 24 units b. b. 42 cm e. a. 12 units e. K. 14 units d. You can draw a vertical symmetry line to the letters A. 28 in. T. H. 52 cm . You can draw a horizontal symmetry line to the letters B.

The unknown ? = 3 in. Answers vary. P = 12 cm + 4 cm + 8 cm + 6 cm + 4 cm + 10 cm = 44 cm 3. 2. 12 + ? + 12 + ? = 82 or 12 + ? = 41. The perimeter is 48 in. 120 feet 5. ? + ? + ? + ? = 44 or 4 × ? = 44. you can count by tens as you count the units for the perimeter. 6 m 6. One side Other side Perimeter 3 units 9 units 24 units 1 unit 11 units 24 units 2 units 10 units 24 units 4 units 8 units 24 units 5 units 7 units 24 units 6 units 6 units 24 units Puzzle corner: Answers vary. c. d. 15 + ? + 15 + ? = 44 or 15 + ? = 22. 4. In each rectangle. The unknown ? = 4 cm b. for example: 8 units: 10 units: 14 units: 95 . p. The unknown ? = 11 cm. the two side lengths should add up to 12 units (half of the perimeter). Or. we get 18 × 10 feet = 180 feet. b. The unknown ? = 29 in.Problems with Perimeter. Just counting the units in the picture. The unknown ? = 7 cm c. 6 + ? + 6 + ? = 20 or 6 + ? = 10. a. ? + ? + ? + ? = 12 or 4 × ? = 12. the perimeter is 18 units. Since each unit is 10 feet. a. 51 1.

a. a. c. More About Area. p. b. or 4 × 6. 6 × 3 = 18 A = 18 square units. 54 1. 3 × 5 + 2 × 3 = 21 b. a. 31 square units 5. 3 × 3 + 3 × 5 = 24 c. The rectangles can be 1 × 24. 2 × 5 + 3 × 3 = 19 d. 4 × (2 + 5) = 4 × 2 + 4 × 5 b. 8 square units d. 3 × 8. a. 4 × (4 + 2) = 4 × 4 + 4 × 2 c. p. 8 square units b. 56 1. 2 × (3 + 3) = 2 × 3 + 2 × 3 96 . 6. 10 square units d. 2 × 12. 4 × 5 + 2 × 4 = 28 2. a. 15 square units b. 13 square units c. 2 × 5 = 10 A = 10 square units. 3 × (4 + 2) = 3 × 4 + 3 × 2 e. 17 square units 4.Getting Started with Area. or 4 × 4. 32 square units b. 12 square units 2. 5 × (3 + 4) = 5 × 3 + 5 × 4 d. 3. 12 square units c. a. 2 × 8. 3 × 3 = 9 A = 9 square units. The rectangles can be 1 × 16.

4 × (3 + 1) = area of the whole rectangle 4×3 + area of the first part 4×1 area of the second part d. 6 × 8 − 3 × 3 = 39 square units c. 3 × 4 + 4 × 6 − 4 × 1 = 32 squares 97 . 5 × (1 + 4) = area of the whole rectangle 5×1 + area of the first part 5×4 area of the second part c. 3 × (2 + 4) = area of the whole rectangle 3×2 + area of the first part 3×4 area of the second part b. a. 2 × (5 + 2) area of the whole rectangle = 2×5 area of the first part + 2×2 area of the second part 4. 3 × (2 + 1) = area of the whole rectangle 3×2 + area of the first part 3×1 area of the second part e. 7 × 4 + 5 × 3 + 7 × 4 = 71 square units or 13 × 7 − 5 × 4 = 71 square units Puzzle corner.3. a. 3 × 3 + 3 × 6 + 3 × 4 = 39 square units b.

Danny's room is bigger by one square meter. then tack on the zero. = 56 in2 2. 270 8. Danny's room is 16 m2. 170. 900 c. and the answer. 4 × 80 = 4 × 8 × 10 = 32 × 10 = 320 c. A = 5 in. 480 d. = 6 in2. a. Area of each part: 8 × 10 = 80 square units. The total area is then 280 + 280 + 280 = 840 square units. Also. 9 × 10 = 90 10 × 10 = 100 11 × 10 = 110 12 × 10 = 120 13 × 10 = 130 14 × 10 = 140 15 × 10 = 150 16 × 10 = 160 17 × 10 = 170 18 × 10 = 180 19 × 10 = 190 20 × 10 = 200 21 × 10 = 210 22 × 10 = 220 23 × 10 = 230 There is a pattern: Every answer ends in 0. 17 4. × 4 in. you could divide the rectangle into two parts. 0 3. × 8 in. A = 6 cm × 3 cm = 18 cm2 b. a. The area is 7 × 80 = 560 square units. = 5 in2 4. 6 × 40 = 6 × 4 × 10 = 24 × 10 = 240 d. 200 e. Each third has the area of 7 × 40 = 280 square units. 3 × 80 = 80 + 80 + 80 = 240 Multiply the numbers. Parts: 5 × 10 and 5 × 10 and 5 × 10. Or. 5. 50. 490 b. 2 × 80 = 80 + 80 = 160 c.Multiplying by Whole Tens. The pink area is 6 in. there is something special about the number you multiply times 10. Can you see that? You simply add a zero on the end of the number. each having the area of 5 × 8 = 40. Parts: 7 × 10 and 7 × 10 and 7 × 10. 9. 280 f. The total area is 160. A = 2 cm × 4 cm = 8 cm2 3. a. 3 × 40 = 40 + 40 + 40 = 120 b. 4 × 40 = 40 + 40 + 40 + 40 = 160 d. A = 8 in. A = 2 in. a. You can add 16 repeatedly: 16 + 16 + 16 + 16 + 16 = 80 squares. 990. − 3 in. d. = 8 in2 c. A = 11 m × 4 m + 4 m × 4 m = 60 m2 5. c. 6. a. Puzzle corner. 30 × 6 = 10 × 3 × 6 = 10 × 18 = 180 7. = 42 in2. × 7 in. Joe's room is 15 m2. The total area: 8 × 30 = 240 square units. 500 b. The total area is 150. The white rectangle has the area of 3 in. b. × 2 in. The rectangle is divided into thirds. a. Then the total area is 80 squares. f. 98 . A = 12 cm × 4 cm = 48 cm2 d. The total area is 210. × 3 in. p. × 1 in. The total area is 160. a. 820. Parts: 4 × 10 and 4 × 10 and 4 × 10 and 4 × 10. 9 × 90 = 9 × 9 × 10 = 81 × 10 = 810 e. 5 × 30 = 30 + 30 + 30 + 30 + 30 = 150 e. A = 4 cm × 3 cm = 12 cm2 d. A = 3 in. A = 8 cm × 2 cm = 16 cm2 c. a. p. A = 5 ft × 6 ft = 30 ft2 c. = 9 in2 b. 7 × 10 = 70 square units 10. 7 × 90 = 7 × 9 × 10 = 6 3 × 10 = 630 b. × 2 in. 110. 560 b. 900. 5 × 70 = 70 + 70 + 70 + 70 + 70 = 350 f. 7. Answers may vary. 180 c. a. 64 1. 60 1. Parts: 8 × 10 and 8 × 10. 2. 210 80 × 3 = 10 × 8 × 3 = 10 × 24 = 240 c. 11. Area Units and Problems. A = 4 m × 3 m = 12 m2 b. A = 4 ft × 6 ft + 12 ft × 6 ft = 96 ft2 6.

38 m b. b. p. p. More Area and Perimeter Problems. 5 m × 4 m = 20 m2 and 10 m × 4 m = 40 m2.. The area is then Puzzle corner. The perimeter is 4 cm + 8 cm + 7 cm + 4 cm + 11 cm + 12 cm = 46 cm. a. 118 m 2. 3. a. or 4 cm × 12 cm + 7 cm × 4 cm = 76 cm2. divide the shape into two rectangles. b. d. perimeter 12 in. a. a 14 × 4 rectangle. area 8 in2 5.Area and Perimeter Problems. For the area. 70 1. 2. That can be done in two ways. perimeter 14 m. area 36 ft2 c. 450 m2 c. perimeter 24 ft. Area of each little part is 6 m × 10 m = 60 m2. 68 1. 60 m2. c. a. each having the area of 16 m2. 16 m2 +16 m2 + 16 m2 + 16 m2 = 64 m2. 20 m × 9 m = 180 m2 and 30 m × 9 m = 270 m2 b. area 10 m2 4. You could get 11 cm × 4 cm + 4 cm × 8 cm = 76 cm2. area 9 cm2 The total area is 6 m × 60 m = 360 m2. a. The perimeter is 40 m. 13 × 3 rectangle. perimeter 12 cm. first side second side area Rectangle 1 2 units 12 units 24 square units Rectangle 2 3 units 8 units 24 square units Rectangle 3 4 units 6 units 24 square units Rectangle 4 1 unit 24 units 24 square units 99 . You can divide the shape into four 4 m by 4 m squares.

first side second side perimeter Rectangle 1 2 units 8 units 20 units Rectangle 2 3 units 7 units 20 units Rectangle 3 4 units 6 units 20 units Rectangle 4 5 units 5 units 20 units Rectangle 5 1 unit 9 units 20 units 5. first side second side perimeter area Rectangle 1 2 units 8 units 20 units 16 square units Rectangle 2 3 units 7 units 20 units 21 square units Rectangle 3 4 units 6 units 20 units 24 square units Rectangle 4 5 units 5 units 20 units 25 square units Rectangle 5 1 unit 9 units 20 units 9 square units 6. b.3. 90 m 100 . 30 m × 9 m = 270 m2 and 30 m × 6 m = 180 m2. one side second side area perimeter Rectangle 1 2 units 12 units 24 square units 28 units Rectangle 2 3 units 8 units 24 square units 22 units Rectangle 3 4 units 6 units 24 square units 20 units Rectangle 4 24 units 24 square units 50 units 1 unit 4. a. 450 m2. c.

Please check the student's work. 3 × (5 + 2) = 3 × 5 + 3 × 2 b. box d. 9. cylinder . a. box. 4 × (3 + 5) = 4 × 3 + 4 × 5 c. Answers will vary. 3. ball 6. 9 × (20 + 30) = 9 × 20 + 9 × 30 b. 4. cylinder 101 g. Answers will vary. ball d. cube e. 2 × (5 + 2) = 2 × 5 + 2 × 2 d. 10 × 20 = 200 m2 Three-Dimensional Shapes p. 8. box 2. box d. ball b. Answers will vary. Answers will vary. cube c. cylinder c. 73 1. a. cylinder. cylinder 5. Please check the student's work. a. cylinder c. box g. cube h. ball b. cylinder f. cylinder e. 3 × (2 + 1) = 3 × 2 + 3 × 1 Puzzle corner. Please check the student's work. ball h. cube 7. box f.7. a. Please check the student's work. box b. a.

a. rectangular prism 12 8 6 5 5 f. a funnel. cube e. 5 faces. 6 faces. p. cone f. pyramid d. pyramid k. d. cylinder b.Solids 1. They are rectangles. party hats. They are squares. tetrahedron 6 4 4 Faces Edges Vertices cube 6 12 8 rectangular prism 6 12 8 square pyramid 5 8 5 rectangular pyramid 5 8 5 tetrahedron 4 6 4 cone 2 1 1 cylinder 3 2 0 102 . The bottom face is a rectangle. c. cylinder c. b. cylinder Solids 2. a. box g. decorations on towers. The other four are triangles. pyramid j. p. cylinder 2 0 3 1 2 d. 2. box l. 4. pyramid 8 2. 6 faces. Name of Figure Shape Name E V F 6 b. The teacher will assist the student in making the shapes from the cut-outs. 77 Shape Name E V F a. cone 1 e. Examples: Ice cream cones. cone h. Just one face! 3. 75 1. cube 12 8 c. pyramid i.

For example: It is a quadrilateral (or. 5. 5 corners. 4. pyramid c. A cube. The faces are in the shape of a square. a parallelogram). 79 1. 4. cone 103 . 7. 80 1. a parallelogram). p. 2. Review 2.Review 1. It has 6 faces. She got a quadrilateral (to be exact. For example: 3. 6. a. 3. A hexagon 2. p. to be more precise. c: Answers can vary. Answers vary. box b.

Answers vary. Area 35 cm2 b. perimeter 24 cm 5. 82 1. A = 3 × 2 + 3 × 4 = 18 square units 7. a. 4 × (2 + 3) = 4 × 2 + 4 × 3 104 . 280 8. J b. perimeter 24 units b. A. 7 units × 2 units = 14 square units 4 × 5 = 20 square units 4. Check students' answers. b. K. A = 2 × 2 + 3 × 4 = 16 square units c. a. F. perimeter 14 units 6. a. 490 b. Total area 9 × 40 = 360 square units. 9. Area 11 square units. a. 3 × (5 + 1) = 3 × 5 + 3 × 1 b. C. a. p. B. L 2. E. Area of each part: 9 × 10 = 90 square units. 480 b. Area 12 square units. a. I. H. 3.Geometry Review. a.

Rectangular Prism Cut-out (A Box) 105 .

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Cube Cut-out 107 .

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109 . However.Cylinder Cut-out It might be easier to use a toilet paper roll as a model for a cylinder than to cut and glue/tape this cut-out together. putting this together will help the student to understand that the “body” of the cylinder is in the shape of a rectangle.

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Rectangular Pyramid Cut-out 111 .

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Square Pyramid Cut-out 113 .

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Tetrahedron Cut-out 115 .

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Cone Cut-out 117 .

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such as addition. www.MathMammoth.php  Frequently Asked Questions: www. or initial teaching.YouTube. www. clock.More from Math Mammoth Math Mammoth has a variety of resources to fit your needs.MathMammoth.MathMammoth.MathMammoth.MathMammoth. and use real data. geometry.com/teachers.MathMammoth.com/blue-series. division. Golden Series books are worksheet collections for grades 3-8.php 119 .MathMammoth. multiplication.com/MathMammoth  Subscribe to receive free sample pages and worksheets: www. The series includes various workbooks for grades 3-12.php  About the author.com/faq. Green Series books are worksheet collections by topics. answer keys. filling in gaps. measuring.com/complete-curriculum. All are available as economical downloads.com/worksheets/mirl/ Learn more about Math Mammoth:  Advice for parents: www.MathMammoth. They work best as review or supplemental material. They are not tied to grade levels.MathMammoth.com/parents. and a worksheet maker. cumulative reviews. reinforcement.com/worksheets/free. fractions. money.MathMammoth. ratios & proportions. www. www.php  Math Mammoth Golden Series Best suited for teachers and tutors or parents who can explain math. Maria Miller: www.com/about.com/worksheets/green. “Where is math used in real life?” The exercises or activities in these books are taken from real life. and more. tests. decimals. They work best as review or supplemental material.com/worksheets/  Math Mammoth Green Series Best suited for teachers and tutors or parents who can explain math.php  Advice for teachers: www.php  Math teaching videos: www.php  Math Mammoth Blue Series Blue Series books are worktexts that each concentrate on a few interconnected topics. and most are also available as printed copies. It includes two student worktexts (A and B).  Math Mammoth Light Blue Series This is a complete curriculum for elementary grades. which contain all the instruction and exercises all in the same book.php  Make It Real Learning These activity workbooks concentrate on answering the question. www. and are great for review.