Copyright 2012 Taina Maria Miller.
EDITION 2.2
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Math Mammoth Fractions 1

Contents
Introduction ........................................................................

4

Fraction Terminology .......................................................
Understanding Fractions ..................................................
Mixed Numbers .................................................................
Part of a Whole Group 1 ...................................................
Part of a Whole Group 2 ...................................................
Part of a Whole Group 3 ...................................................
Adding and Subtracting Like Fractions ..........................
Review: Mixed Numbers...................................................
Adding Mixed Numbers 1 ................................................
Subtracting Mixed Numbers 1 .........................................
Subtracting Mixed Numbers 2 — Renaming .................
Subtracting Mixed Numbers — Extra Practice .............
Equivalent Fractions .........................................................
Equivalent Fractions 2 ......................................................
Adding Unlike Fractions 1 ................................................
Add Unlike Fractions 2:
Finding the Common Denominator.................................
Add and Subtract Unlike Fractions ................................
Mixed Numbers with Unlike Fractional Parts ...............
Add and Subtract Several Unlike Fractions ..................
Measuring in Inches .........................................................
Comparing Fractions 1 .....................................................
Comparing Fractions 2 .....................................................
Fraction Problems ............................................................
Review ...............................................................................

8
9
12
16
19
21
23
27
31
34
37
40
42
46
48

Answers .............................................................................

75

Fractions Cutouts .............................................................

99

51
54
56
60
62
66
68
71
72

More from Math Mammoth ............................................ 111

3

in turn. and 3 have to do with finding a part of a certain number of objects. Then they end up making lots of mistakes because they confuse the different rules and either apply the wrong one or apply the right rule but don't remember it quite right. This. not really understanding the underlying concepts and principles. When students work with this model from lesson to lesson. but try to emphasize the terminology of “splitting the existing parts into so-and-so many pieces” or something similar. it is time to study equivalent fractions. Then.com/videos/fractions_1.Introduction Math Mammoth Fractions 1 is the first book of two that cover all aspects of fractions in arithmetic. the student learns to draw pie models of certain common fractions.php Studying fractions involves lots of rules. fourths are the same color. and not just learn mechanical rules. The next lessons. The whole circle is there to illustrate “one whole” . titled Part of a Whole Group 1. and many students learn them only mechanically. Equivalent fractions are presented as parts that have been split further. You can use them to make your own fraction manipulatives. etc. the common denominator is either given. To avoid that. or the student figures it out using pictures. To make the manipulatives sturdier. You can use the white cutout fractions if you need to save on ink and let children color them. The lesson Mixed Numbers teaches the concept with pictures. because it uses a circle that can be divided into any number of circle sectors (slices). You are welcome to use manipulatives alongside the book. Next we study adding and subtracting like fractions. and cut the parts only after gluing. You can access them at http://www. I have also included (in the appendix) printable cutouts for fractions from halves to twelfths. adding and subtracting like and unlike fractions. This skill is needed later on in various exercises through the book. Next we add and subtract mixed numbers with like fractional parts. Understanding Fractions. That should help students to understand the concept instead of memorizing a mechanical rule. In this lesson.needed when studying mixed numbers. which is an easy topic. and comparing fractions. this book uses the visual model of a pie divided into slices all the way through the book. You will probably need to print at least two copies of each cutout page.mathmammoth. This book covers the concepts of fraction and mixed numbers. All this can make students even fear fractions in math. adding and subtracting mixed numbers. It ties the concept of a fraction with division of whole numbers. In the first lesson. equivalent fractions. as a prerequisite for adding unlike fractions. however the visual pie model is probably sufficient for most students in 5th grade level. Just use consistent colors so that thirds are always the same color. The book Fractions 2 covers simplifying fractions and multiplication and division of fractions. Next is lesson reviews mixed numbers and further practices changing mixed numbers to fractions and vice versa. and of course has lots of practical applications. they will eventually be able to “see” these pies in their mind. glue the printed pages on cardboard. The child also writes mixed numbers as fractions. gives them the ability to do many of the easier fraction calculations mentally. I have made a set of videos to match many of the lessons in this book. The rule is to multiply both the numerator and the denominator by the same number. Add Unlike Fractions 1 is an introductory lesson in the sense that the student is not yet introduced to the rule for finding the common denominator. 4 . It is a very natural model. 2. It also enables students to really UNDERSTAND these concepts.

org/ActivityDetail.html Equivalent Fractions Equivalent Fractions from National Library of Virtual Manipulatives (NLVM) See the equivalency of two fractions as the applet divides the whole into more pieces.asp 5 . See how many levels you can get! www.html Equivalent Fractions Draw two other. LCD.usu. I wish you success in your math teaching! Maria Miller. http://www. The last new concept in this book is that of comparing fractions.php Fractions and Mixed Numbers Clara Fraction's Ice Cream Shop A game in which you convert improper fractions to mixed numbers and scoop the right amount of ice cream flavors on the cone. the author Helpful Resources on the Internet Use these free online resources to supplement the “bookwork” as you see fit.mathmammoth. like fractions. equivalent fractions to the given fraction.mrnussbaum.htm Fraction Videos for Math Mammoth Fractions 1 book A set of videos by the author that tie in with the lessons in this book. Finally we also add and subtract mixed numbers with unlike fractional parts. That concept tends to be only memorized and poorly understood.com/weblinks/fractions_1.com/videos/fractions_1.Add Unlike Fractions 2 emphasizes the idea that we need to find a common denominator. You can access an up-to-date online version of this list at www. http://illuminations. so the lesson here does not overtly emphasize that one always needs to find the LCD. Answers are in the end of the book. Your student will encounter the concept of LCD again in 6th and 7th grade.aspx?ID=80 Fraction Frenzy Click on pairs of equivalent fractions. Once the student has mastered converting two fractions to equivalent. as fast as you can. www.learningplanet. and add & subtract several unlike fractions.com/sam/ff/index.com/icecream/index.nctm.edu/en/nav/frames_asid_105_g_2_t_1. this should be fairly easy. and then convert the fractions to like fractions before adding. which is the best common denominator to use since it is the smallest. Choose either square or circle for the shape.mathmammoth. Many textbooks introduce here the concept of Least Common Denominator. http://nlvm.

You have the option of getting more or “holding”.uk/schools/ks2bitesize/maths/activities/fractions. without going over.com/games/hilo. comparing. http://funschool.html Addition and Subtraction MathSplat Click on the right answer to addition problems (like fractions) or the bug splats on your windshield! http://fen.com/studentactivities/MathSplat/mathsplat. www. www. http://matti.com/com/L3?Area=FractionGame Comparing Fractions Comparison Shoot Out Choose level 2 or 3 to compare fractions and shoot the soccer ball to the goal.theproblemsite.html Fishy Fractions Select the correct answer and the pelican catches the fish. you drag five given fractions in the correct order.com/forums/arcade. www. http://fractionbars. by adding the fractions on your cards.funbrain.php?ID=47 Order Fractions On each round.html Old Egyptian Fractions Puzzles to solve: add fractions like a true Old Egyptian Math Cat! www. You make guesses and it tells you if your guess was too high or too low.fuelthebrain.co. and more.com/explore/oldegyptianfractions.shtml Comparing Fractions . The object is to get as close as possible to 2.iknowthat. www.php?do=play&gameid=8 Fractional Hi Lo Computer has selected a fraction.usu.html Fraction Bars Blackjack Computer deals you two fraction cards.com/Game/play. http://xpmath. Options for fraction addition or subtraction.com/Fraction_Bars_Black_Jack/ Action Fraction A racing game with several levels where you answer questions about adding and subtraction fractions.Fresh Baked Fractions Practice equivalent fractions by clicking on a fraction that is not equal to others.edu/nlvm/nav/frames_asid_106_g_2_t_1.asp 6 . http://www.htm Adding fractions Illustrates with pictures finding the common denominator.com/formula-fusion/number-fun/games/game_action_fraction. simplifying.XP Math Simple timed practice with comparing two fractions. The levels advance from using like fractions to using unlike fractions and eventually subtraction. like or unlike denominators.com/fract/index.mathcats.kaboose.bbc.

com/lesson/math/fractioncity.html Online Fraction Calculator Add.html Fractioncity Make “fraction streets” and help kids with comparing fractions.net/worksheets/fraction.com Conceptua Math Conceptua Math has free. multiplication. estimating. then has some interactive exercises. Multiplication.com Who Wants Pizza? Explains the concept of fraction. comparing. division. www. interactive fraction tools and activities that are very well made. www. subtraction.com/understanding-fractions.homeschoolmath.visualmathlearning. addition of fractions of like and unlike denominators while they drive toy cars on the streets. Convert to Mixed Numbers Create custom-made worksheets for some other fraction operations.html Fraction lessons at MathExpression. that allow students to develop conceptual understanding of fractions.com Tutorials. Also couple of games.html Visual Math Learning Free tutorials with some interactivity about all the fraction operations.conceptuamath.php Fraction Worksheets: Addition.net/worksheets/fraction-b.teachnet. finding common denominators and more. Look for the lesson links in the left sidebar.edu/~lanius/fractions/index.php 7 .net/worksheets/fraction_calculator.visualfractions. for example: make cookies for Grampy. and Division Create custom-made worksheets for the four operations with fractions and mixed numbers. addition and multiplication with a pizza example.mathexpression.php Fraction Worksheets: Equivalent Fractions. www. horizontal and vertical bars. equivalent fractions. examples.homeschoolmath. Subtraction. This is not an online activity but has instructions of how to do it at home or at school.All Aspects Visual Fractions Great site for studying all aspects of fractions: identifying. Each topic is illustrated by either a number line or a circle with a Java applet. www. www. addition. renaming. and videos explaining all the basic fraction math topics. http://math. subtract. www.com/pre_algebra/chapter_9/chap_9. Each activity uses several fraction models such as fraction circles.rice. The activities include identifying fractions. adding and subtracting. number lines.homeschoolmath. Simplifying. multiply or divide fractions and mixed numbers. www. etc. www. Emphasizes visual models and lets student interact with those.

” but they’re written using different denominators. or are “cut into different kinds of slices. It enumerates. 3 3 is a mixed number. for a given fraction.Fraction Terminology As we study fractions and their operations. that we use. Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . The bottom number is the denominator. how many pieces there are. 3 11 The top number is the numerator. 2/9 is a proper fraction. you find an equivalent fraction that has a “simpler. It is a little more complicated to add and subtract unlike fractions. 9 An improper fraction is more than 1 (more than a whole pie). are unlike fractions. and its fractional part is . It denominates. 11 is an improper fraction. or numbers (counts). Then you can add or subtract them. they have the same amount of “stuff to eat. This page is a reference. what kind of parts they are. Its whole-number part is 2. 7 7 For example. 2 9 7 9 and are like fractions. A mixed number has two parts: a whole-number part and a fractional part. 3 4 . 2 Like fractions have the same denominator.” Simplifying a fraction means that. It is easy to add and subtract like fractions. or names. They have the same kind of parts. You can even post it on your wall or make your own fraction poster based on it. it’s written as a fraction and not as a mixed number. 2 9 3 4 and A proper fraction is a fraction that is less than 1 (less than a whole pie).) 3 9 9 12 8 and 2 is a mixed number. 9 1 3 simplifies to are equivalent fractions. because all you have to do is look at how many of that kind of part there are. Unlike fractions have a different denominator. 7 7 3 3 The mixed number 2 actually means 2 + . But 1 Equivalent fractions are equal in value.” or smaller. They have different kinds of parts. it’s important that you understand the terms. or words. If you think in terms of pies. numerator and denominator. Since it’s called a fraction. (It has fewer but bigger slices. You need to first change them into like fractions.

Two parts are colored. two halves OR one whole. a. five equal parts. seven equal parts. three sevenths.Understanding Fractions Fractions are PARTS of a WHOLE. 1 2 One part is colored. We use ordinal numbers to name the fractional parts. 3 7 2 =1 2 Two parts are colored. two equal parts. 2 6 d. It enumerates or counts the colored parts. two equal parts. Color the parts to illustrate the fraction. It denominates or names the parts. two fifths. 4 6 i. 4 5 1 5 9 4 7 l. 1 4 Three colored parts. one fourth. k. f. 11 12 e. “three eighths” 1. c. 6 10 h. 5 9 2 4 9 10 2 7 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . four equal parts. One part is colored. The WHOLE is always divided into EQUAL parts. 7 8 g. 2 5 Can you tell what fraction this is? The number ABOVE the line tells HOW MANY PARTS are colored. j. b. one half. NUMERATOR DENOMINATOR 3 8 The number BELOW the line tells WHAT KIND OF PARTS the whole is divided into.

k. 2 5 c. then split those. Fourths: First draw halves. 4 o'clock. 2 3 b. then split those like a cross pattern. 4 4 10 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . b. then split those Eighths: First draw fourths. a. 6 8 e. c. and 8 o'clock. and read them aloud. 1 3 h. 1 6 d. 3. Draw the pie models and color the parts to illustrate the fractions. How to draw pie models Halves: split the circle with a straight line. f. d. Thirds: draw lines at 12 o'clock. Sixths: First draw thirds. 3 8 g. j. e. l.2. h. Write the fractions. 4 5 f. a. Fifths: Draw as a man doing jumping jacks. i. g.

c. < . 1 6 1 8 p.4. 3 8 5 9 3 6 2 4 4 4 6 10 7 10 f. Then compare: which is more pie? Write > . 1 9 1 6 i. 3 8 3 6 What can you notice about comparing two fractions when the numerators are the same? 11 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 2 6 1 2 4 8 4 5 1 2 2 4 o. l. 2 4 1 6 r. 2 3 1 3 d. 1 5 4 5 e. 6 8 7 8 g. 1 5 1 8 n. b. k. or = between the fractions. 1 8 h. 1 2 2 3 q. 5 12 3 12 What can you notice about comparing two fractions when the denominators are the same? j. a. Draw the fractions. 1 2 1 3 m.

i. Write what mixed numbers the pictures illustrate. d. b. e. c. 1 3 2 “One and one-third” “Two and three-fourths” 1 3 4 1. f. 1 5 6 e. 2 2 3 c. 3 5 8 12 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 2. 2 3 5 d. a.Mixed Numbers Mixed numbers have two parts: a part that tells you the whole number. h. g. Draw pictures to illustrate these mixed numbers. and a fractional part. a. 3 1 3 f. 1 1 2 b.

Find the matching pairs. 1 3 If I count all of the thirds. 4 I get four thirds: 3 2 3 4 If I count all of the fourths. One whole is three thirds. 13 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . . Fill in the blanks. 1= 6 c. 2= d. and then write the mixed number as a fraction. 3 b. 1 3 4 9 4 2 1 4 9 8 1 1 8 12 5 3 1 5 11 8 1 3 8 7 4 2 2 5 16 5 4.1 You can count all of the same kind of fractional parts from a mixed number. 1= 3 3 1= a. 11 I get eleven fourths: 4 3. 2= f. 2= e.

a. Then write the fractions as mixed numbers. f. c. Write these both as mixed numbers AND fractions. 8 = 5 d.5. 14 = 6 e. Draw enough “pies” so you can color all of the parts. 14 = 9 h. b. a. 5 1 =1 4 4 b. 6. 14 = 5 f. 7 = 3 c. 15 = 8 g. d. 21 = 6 i. e. 11 = 4 14 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) .

7. Label the tick marks between 1 and 2 with mixed numbers. and from 1 to 2. is divided into parts. Label the tick marks between 0 and 1 with fractions. 15 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . The number line from 0 to 1.

of all the fruit are mangoes. 2.Part of a Whole Group 1 Four of the ten parts are colored. and 3 mangoes of all the students are boys. (Hint: you need to think how many are in the whole group. of them are parallelograms. 10 3 of the apples are dark. of the trees are dark. 12 hours b. An egg carton contains a dozen eggs. 9 1. a. of them are not dark. 5 bananas. 3 hours 16 d. Write each part as fractions of the whole group. a.. In each group are two different kinds of things. of the objects are stars. of the shapes are rectangles. b.. Write as a fraction what part of the day is. Fill in using fractions. Write what fraction of the carton of eggs is 6 eggs 4 eggs 8 eggs 3 eggs 2 eggs 10 eggs 4. 4 of the parts are colored. of them are hearts. of the objects are carrots. 3. 9 hours e. of them are apples. of all the fruit are apples. There are 5 girls and 6 boys. c. 16 hours Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . b. There are 4 apples.) a. of all the students are girls. d. 6 hours c. Three of the nine apples are dark.

1 of __ flowers is __ flowers. Make 3 groups. Each group is a half of the whole. 12 ÷ 3 = 4 Twelve fish are divided into two groups. 2 12 ÷ 2 = 6 5. 3 1 of __ fish is ___ fish. 5 d. a. 5 6.12 flowers are divided into three groups. Circle to make groups. a. 1 of 18 is _____ 3 18 ÷ ____ = _____ b. 1 of 24 is _____ 4 ______÷ ____ = _____ Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 3 1 of 12 is 6. 1 of 20 is _____ 5 ______ ÷ ____ = _____ 17 c. 1 of 12 is 4. b. 3 1 of __ carrots is __ carrots. c. Make 3 groups. 4 f. 6 1 of __ berries is __ berries. and a division sentence. Each group is a third of the whole. e. Draw sticks. 1 of 12 flowers is __ flowers. Write a “part” sentence. Make 5 groups. Make groups. 1 of 9 apples is ___ apples.

of 10 is 2. 3 d. 3 2 of __ carrots is ___ carrots. 5 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 10 fish are divided into 5 groups. Make 5 groups. of 10 is 6. 5 One group is 1/5 of the total. f. e. of 10 is 4. 3 3 of __ carrots is ___ carrots. 7. of __ flowers is __ flowers. of __ fish is ___ fish. 1 4 2 4 3 4 4 4 of 12 flowers is __ flowers. Make 3 groups. of __ fish is ___ fish. of 10 is 8. of __ flowers is __ flowers. 3 2 of 9 apples is ____ apples.1 5 2 Two groups is 2/5 of the total. of 12 flowers is __ flowers. of 10 is 10. Make 3 groups. b. 5 2 of __ berries is __ berries. 1 6 2 6 3 6 4 6 1 5 2 5 3 5 4 5 of __ fish is ___ fish. Fill in the blanks. c. of 12 flowers is __ flowers. a. 1 of 9 apples is ____ apples. of __ fish is ___ fish. of __ flowers is __ flowers. 5 3 Three groups is 3/5 of the total. 3 3 of 9 apples is ____ apples. Look again. of __ flowers is __ flowers. 5 4 Four groups is 4/5 of the total. 18 1 of __ berries is __ berries. 5 3 of __ berries is __ berries. 5 5 Five groups is 5/5 of the total. 3 1 of __ carrots is ___ carrots. of 12 flowers is __ flowers.

5 1. 3 1 of a number. a. 18 ÷ 3 = ____ d. One third of twelve flowers is four flowers. divide by ______. 1 of 14 is _____ 2 ___ ÷ ___ = ____ 1 of 25 is _____ 5 c. you can use division: 12 ÷ 3 = 4. 3 b. To find To find 4 To find 1 of a number. or 12. divide by ______.Figure out these parts using division. 2 3 of 10 is _____. 2 To find a third part. Use the top problem to help you solve the bottom one. divide by ______. divide by ______. 19 1 of 10 is _____. 5 2 We also see that of 20 berries is double that. To find 2 1 of a number. 5 d. 2 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 1 of 12 is _____. of 20 is three times 4. 4 3 of 12 is _____. To find a half. or 8 berries. ___ ÷ ___ = ____ 1 of 20 berries is 4 berries. 1 of 12 is 4. 25 ÷ ___ = ____ 1 of 21 is _____ 3 f.Part of a Whole Group 2 One half of twelve fish is six fish. 5 3 Similarly. 1 of 10 is _____. 5 3 of 10 is _____. 6 c. 1 of a number. 3 1 of 12 is 6. 5 We can see that 2. 4 b. a. 1 of 10 is _____ 5 10 ÷ 5 = ____ 1 of 15 is _____ 3 ___ ÷ ___ = ____ e. Fill in the missing parts. 1 of 18 is _____. 6 2 of 12 is _____. 1 of 12 is _____. you can use division: 12 ÷ 2 = 6.

How much did she have in the beginning? How much does she have left now? e.3. of 21 is _____. 8 4. 7 b. Fill in the missing parts. 5. 3 2 of 21 is _____. and now she has 2 eggs left. which was 1/8 part of the nuts. of 21 is _____. 2 1 of 27 is _____. 7 1 of 20 is 4. which took 1/3 of her savings. 2 1 of 24 is _____. of ____ is _____. of ___ is _____. of ____ is _____. of ___ is _____. 1 of 55 is _____. How many nuts were there to start with? d. 3 of 21 is _____. 9 2 of 18 is _____. 9 c. 2 1 of 21 is _____. of ____ is _____. 7 2 of 20 is _____. Continue the patterns! 1 of 21 is 3. 5 1 of 10 is _____. 7 3 of 28 is _____. of 21 is _____. 7 3 of 20 is _____. How many are left? c. a. of ____ is _____. 1 of 18 is _____. Lisa used $5 to buy a gift. 11 d. of 20 is _____. 3 3 of 21 is _____. of 20 is _____. 8 7 of 56 is _____. How many are left? b. a. 5 1 of 12 is _____. 5 1 of 14 is _____. There were 16 apples. Tom ate 4 hazelnuts. of ___ is _____. 1 of 56 is _____. Mom used 2/3 of the eggs she had. of ___ is _____. 1 of 28 is _____. Mom used 1/3 of the 12 eggs. Solve how much is left or how much there was in the beginning! The bar models can help. 11 3 of 55 is _____. Rhonda ate 1/4 of them. How many did she have originally? 20 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) .

which is 3. What part (what fraction) are girls? What part of the team are not adults? How many are girls? How many people on the team are not adults? 3. 1/3 of the 33 club members are boys. The bar model can help you. Part 1 Amount 1/2 1/4 3/4 1/5 3/5 3/8 20 4. Fill the table. but the “helping problem” is not written. Solve these like you learned in the previous lesson. Of the 25 members of the stamp club. 7 of 54 is _____ 9 h. are adults. a. Answer the questions. How many are left? Color Part Amount Red 1/5 Yellow 1/2 Green 3/10 21 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . a. 2 of 36 is _____ 9 c. e. Half of the cookies is 20 cookies. How many hours is it not on? c. The store had 48 bananas. Fill in the rest of the chart. Solve the problems. The air conditioner is on for 5/8 of the day. b. 2/5 are girls. 4 of 30 is _____ 5 d. 5 of 42 is _____ 6 2. 1/6 of the team. 7 of 64 is _____ 8 f. How many boys are there? b. 9 of 90 is _____ 10 g. a. Jennie has 50 apples. d. 3 of 21 is _____ 7 b. and sold 2/3 of them. 2 of 45 is _____ 5 Find first 1/7 of 21.Part of a Whole Group 3 1.

Mom baked cookies again. Jerry has saved 2/5 of the price of a $625 notebook. 3 g. Maria has $50 in her savings. 2 b. Then. and 1/3 of the remaining ones to Seth. 3 c. of the remaining money she used 3/8 for some other fruit. Jamie started watching a 2-hour video at 4:15 pm but he only watched 2/5 of it. The word quarter means 1/4. 1 of _____ is 10. Can you figure these out? It requires some 'reverse thinking'! a. What common expressions about time use the word “quarter”? How many minutes is three-quarters of an hour? b. 10 f. How many did she bake originally? b. Then there were 12 cookies left.5. 4 e. How many did Mom bake originally? 22 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 5 h. 4 How many cookies? a. 9 of ___ is 45. Mom baked cookies. 3 of _____ is 33. Then she ate the rest herself. 2 of _____ is 12. she gave 2/3 to Seth. and of the remaining ones. How many dollars does she have left? 9. 1 of _____ is 18. She used 1/5 of it for apples. Find where all the word “quarter” is used! a. which was 4 cookies. 1 of _____ is 8. 1 of ___ is 6. At what time did he stop? 8. What do we call a quarter of a gallon? 6. How much does he still need to save? 7. and gave 1/2 of them to Beth. How many feet is a quarter mile (a mile is 5280 feet)? d. She gave 1/2 of them to Beth. How many cents is a quarter dollar? c. 5 d. 3 of _____ is 15.

= 4 9 + + 3 8 = + = 5 8 = =1 Adding the same kind of parts is easy . Check with your teacher. + = a. 23 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . f. d.just add the __________________.Adding and Subtracting Like Fractions Fractions that have the same denominator are called like fractions. 1. Shade parts in the answer picture. + 1 4 + = 2 4 + 2 9 = 1 2 and are like fractions since they have 4 4 the same denominator. + = c. + = e. Write the addition sentence and the answer. 4. Fractions that have a different denominator are called unlike fractions.fourth parts. In other words. Write the answers to the pictures. + = + = + = b. they are the same kind of parts . Give your final answer as a mixed number if possible.

5 5 c. Shade another . Shade another . 2. 4 4 h. Shade 5 6 . Shade another . Shade parts and write an addition sentence for each problem. = j. Shade 9 3 . Shade another . + = + + h. 4 4 g. Shade 3 2 .+ = g. Shade 3 1 . Shade 6 6 . Shade another . Shade another . 7 7 e. 8 8 b. Shade 6 7 . 10 10 24 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . Shade 5 7 . Shade another . Shade another . a. Shade 2 6 . 10 10 d. 14 14 f. + = i.

5 5 a. and write a subtraction sentence for each problem. Cross out . 2 6 + = 14 14 e. Shade 1 5 2 . Shade parts and cross out parts. Cross out . 4 4 h. 7 + 8 = 1 8 13 1 8 4. 5 1 . 3 + 4 = g. 2 + 13 = = 1 2 3 i. Fill in the missing fractions. 8 8 e. Cross out . 4 4 + = 7 7 d. Shade 2 1 2 . 7 7 f. Shade 1 5 7 . 10 + 20 = h. Cross out . Shade c. Cross out . 8 8 b. 10 10 d. Shade 1 3 6 . Cross out 1 . a.3. 1 + 3 j. 5 + 6 19 20 c. Cross out . 1 + 13 = 1 k. Cross out . 3 1 + = 2 2 b. Write your answer as a mixed number if possible. 4 + 5 = 1 = 1 2 6 l. 14 14 g. Shade 2 3 11 . 5 6 + = 10 10 6 4 f. Shade 1 2 3 . 4 4 25 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . Shade 10 3 .

4 2 + = 5 5 7 6 + = 10 10  6 7 + 7 7 26 =  = g. 1 2 + = 3 3 6 6 + = 11 11 2 6 + = 10 10 9 2 + = 8 8  2 = 3  6 = 11 e. 16  20 = k. a. d. The principle is the same as in adding: you just subtract the numerators. 1  1 4 = 6 4 b. 1  = 1 = 1 3 5 8 6. 9 9 + = 5 4 + = 5 5 + = 13 20 6 + = 5 4 + = 5 5 + = 13 20 6 + = 1 + = 1 + = 1 1 4 = 1 1 4 + 9 9 = 1 20 20 + 20 20 = 1 4 4 + 4 4 6 6 + + + + 6 6 6 6 = 1 = 1 = 1 5 6 = 1 5 6 7. Make your own fraction problems! Make two different problems for each answer. 12  15 = j. 6 4 =  7 7 f. 7 9 l. 3 1 =  5 5 e. Write a subtraction problem for each addition. Use mixed numbers when possible. 1  = 8 15 2 3 c. 8  4 = i. 1  = 12 6 =  14 14 d. f. 9 6 =  10 10 g. 11 20 5  3 h. b. h.5. Subtract like fractions. a. Add. = 3 7 + = 8 8 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . c.

2 3 5 c. 2. 4 7 8 e. b. c. Write the mixed numbers that these pictures illustrate. 3 2 6 d. But please don’t go on to the lessons about adding and subtracting mixed numbers until you understand well the concepts in this lesson. Mixed numbers as pictures 1. Draw pictures of “pies” that illustrate these mixed numbers. 4 2 3 b. 6 8 10 27 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . a. d.Review: Mixed Numbers This lesson should be mostly review. a.

Write the fractions and mixed numbers that the arrows indicate. 1 1 6 3 4 on the number line. 4 2 6 b. b. a. Draw arrows to indicate where these mixed numbers occur on the number line. 5. 6. b. a. Write the mixed number that is to its right: _______ 5 5 1 3 on the number line. Indicate 5 d. 4.Mixed numbers on a number line 3. d. c. a. Write the mixed number that is to its left: _______ 5 5 28 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 2 6 c. a. b. Write the mixed number that is illustrated by each number line. Indicate 2 c. 5 3 6 d.

= b. Fill in the blanks. 6 6 10 e. Think of the shortcut. The result gives you the number of fourths. 1 2 = 5 5 d. each one a 13th part. for the fraction. In total we get ____ slices. then add the numerator. = f. 8 1 12 g. and each pie has _____ slices. The total is 15 fourths or 15/4. 2 5 11 f. Numerator: 3 × 4 + 3 = 15 Shortcut: = Denominator: 4 15 4 Multiply the whole number times the denominator. = e. the incomplete pie has three fourths. 13 8. = 9 to a fraction. 8 3 9 d. 9. count how many fourths there are: 4 Each pie has four fourths. Write as fractions.Changing mixed numbers to fractions To write 3    3 as a fraction. Mae changed 5 There are ____ whole pies. 7 1 2 b. a. 6 2 3 c. or the numerator. 7. 2 5 16 h. Additionally. So the fraction is . 4 7 8 29 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . So ____ × ____ tells us the number of slices in the whole pies. Write as mixed numbers and as fractions. a. = c. The denominator will remain the same. Then the fractional part 9/13 means that we add _____ slices to that. so the three complete pies have 3 × 4 = 12 fourths. and explained how the shortcut works.

how many are left over? All that is solved by the division 58 ÷ 7! That division tells you how many 7s there are in 58. 4 4 Example: The Shortcut: Think of the fraction bar as a division symbol. 1 fourth-part or slice left over. 72 ÷ 10 = ___ R ___ = f. and How many slices are left over. Write these fractions as mixed numbers (or as whole numbers. 50 6 h. So you get 8 whole pies. and the remainder tells you the numerator of the fractional part. To write that as a fraction. 7 2 f.  Now. Rewrite the “division problems with remainders” as problems of “changing fractions to mixed numbers. 32 5 i. 32 9 e. 35 ÷ 6 = ___ R ___ = e. (How do you know?) So we ask: 7 How many 7s are there in 58? (Those make the whole pies!)  After those 7s are gone. with 2 slices or 2 sevenths left over. Writing that as a mixed number. 27 5 d.” b. In the case of 58 . we get 11 whole pies and 4 45 1 = 11 . 10. 24 11 j. 39 3 k. a.Changing fractions to mixed numbers To write a fraction. 7 7 45 is the same as 45 ÷ 4. then DIVIDE. 25 4 g. each whole “pie” will have 7 sevenths. 87 9 30 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . we get 58 2 =8 . 19 ÷ 2 = ___ R ___ = d. 57 8 l. So. 62 8 b. you need to figure out: 7 How many whole “pies” there are. 22 ÷ 7 = ___ R ___ = = 11. as a mixed number. 47 ÷ 4 = 11 R3 47 3 = 11 4 4 c. if you can). 35 ÷ 8 = 4 R3 a. such as   58 . 58 ÷ 7 = 8 R2. and 45 ÷ 4 = 11 R1. The quotient tells you the whole number part. 16 3 c.

Can you figure out these addition problems without reading the instructions in the blue box below? First write an addition sentence for each problem. 3 5 3 d. 6 7 4 e. Write the addition sentences that the pictures illustrate and then add. 31 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . b. + + a. simply add the fractional parts as usual.Adding Mixed Numbers 1 1. + 1 3 6 + = 1 4 6 = 7 6 2 → 3 1 6 So first. The first one is done for you. many times the sum of the fractional parts goes over one whole pie. Then. These mixed numbers have a fractional part that is more than one “pie. 2. 3 13 8 3.” Change them so that the fractional part is less than one. a. b. Then afterwards read the instructions below. Adding mixed numbers 1 1 7 You can simply add the whole numbers and fractional parts separately: 1 1 7 + 5 3 7 = 6 4 7 3 + 5 7 4 or in columns → 6 7 However. 3 3 1 →4 2 2 b. 1 11 9 c. + + + a. change the fraction that is more than one pie into one or more whole pies and a fractional part that is less than one pie.

a. a. 1 1 + 2 =3 b. Add. + d.4. 1 1 + 4 =5 d. 7 → 7. Add. + a. 3 8 1 → 10 7 7 c. 4 6 8 7 + 2 8 d. 3 6 4 + 2 = 7 7 6. c. Find the missing addend. 3 7 5 + 5 7 a. 6 8 2 + 1 = 9 9 d. 4 4 3 + 1 = 5 5 c. + b. 4 9 3 5 4 + 3 5 6 9 7 + 2 9 b. Write the addition sentences that the pictures illustrate and then add. + + 5. Imagine drawing the rest of the picture. + e. 3 2 1 + 8 = 3 3 b. 2 3 + 4 =8 32 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 2 2 + 3 =5 c.

a. Tom has one string that is 7 3/8 inches long and another that is 5 7/8 inches long. 7 9 5 2 9 8 3 9 a. Add the mixed numbers. he lost 1 4/8 inches from the total length. 10 + 15 5 6 4 5 6 3 + 2 6 5 11 9 3 11 8 + 2 11 b. 2 → d. 6 13 4 e. Just figure out how many whole pies you can make from the fractional part and add them to the whole number part. 3 11 3 d. In making the knot. 3 19 8 9. Add these mixed numbers. 2 1 1 +1 + 4 4 = 5 b. 2 1 2 + + 3 3 = 4 1 3 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . How long is the combined string now? 11. a. 4 4 2 + 1 5 5 c. 6 4 6 7 + 1 + 1 = 8 8 8 d. 1 11 4 c. Convert these mixed numbers so that the fractional part is less than one. Find the missing addends.Sometimes the sum of the fractional parts can be two or more whole pies. 3 1 5 + 2 = 6 6 b. 5 + 1 6 + 3 6 5 + 1 6 1 = 1 5 3 5 13 + 1 + 1 = 3 → 6 6 6 6 13 1 6 5 3 6 1 → 56 8. 3 2 2 +2 + 5 5 33 = 8 c. 3 6 8 + 3 + 10 10 + 5 2 = 5 9 = 10 10. a. He tied them together. 3 13 3 → 5 5 5 b. 1 → → 12. 1 20 → 9 7 10 9 10 6 + 10 10 c.

Subtract. Cross out 1 3 . 2 4 − 1 4 = 5 b. 3 7 1 4 1 − 1 4 a. 3 6 Shade 2 7 . 2 2 − 1 3 = Strategy 1: Subtract whole-number parts and the fractional parts separately. 5 11 − 3 11 = 4 3 2 2 4 11 9 8 5 3 d. Warm-up: see if you can subtract mixed numbers! 3 1 1 Shade 2 4 . − 4 9 b. Challenge. 2 7 − 1 7 = 2 d. 2 7 − 1 7 = f. 7 10 − 1 10 − 4 10 = Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . Cross out 1 4 3 5 Shade 2 8 . Cross out 8 1 1 a. Cross out 1 1/4. − 1 5 1 c.) 6 1 c. 7 6 8 2 − 3 8 5 8 3 2. Cross out 1 7 (Hint: Change the pictures into sixths. 6 2 e. 6 7 − 1 7 = 34 9 1 6 g.Subtracting Mixed Numbers 1 1. 2 8 − 8 = 1 3 2 Shade 2 2 . and it works well when the subtrahend (the number that you subtract) has a smaller fractional part than the minuend (the number that you start with). This is natural to do.

Then subtract the rest from one of the whole pies. The rest (4/8) of the 5/8 is subtracted from one of those whole pies. So. 2 7 39 − 29 = 2 2 39 − 29 = 5 − 9 = 5 4 − 9 = 9 1 3. d. 1 5 28 − 8 = 1 1 28 − 8 = 2 4 − 8 = 4 4 − 8 = 18 We can’t subtract 7/9 from 2/9. First subtract only 1/8 of the 5/8. 2 3 First subtract 6 . Subtract in parts. 2 5 a. then 5 .. then 6 . 2 6 − 6 = 1 7 5 2 1 3 2 6 b. 3 5 − 2 5 = c. 2 1 5 − 8 =? 8 2 7 3 9 −2 9 =? We can’t subtract 5/8 from 1/8. which leaves 1 whole pie.Strategy 2: Subtract in Parts First subtract what you can from the fractional part of the minuend. 3 8 − 1 8 = 2 1 First subtract 2. So . The examples show two slightly different ways to understand this. Remember: You can add to check a subtraction problem. and the rest (5/9) is subtracted from the last whole pie. which leaves 2 whole pies.. 3 7 − 2 7 = 8 e. then 5 . first subtract 2 2/9. 5 9 − 9 − 1 9 = 35 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) .

3 3 . 4 . 8 f. Write a subtraction sentence. Cross out 1 2 . a. Cross out 1 5 6 3 . Cross out e. 6 k. Cross out 1 g. 5 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . Subtract in two parts. Cross out 3 36 4 . Cross out 1 i. Cross out 1 5 7 7 . 5 d. Cross out 1 7 9 5 . Cross out 6 9 j.4. Cross out Cross out b. 4 c. 5 h.

We say that 2 1/8 has been renamed as 1 9/8. it becomes 9/8 after borrowing. 1 a. Now you can subtract 5/8. 2 5 8 5 3 36 −1 6 = 26 −1 6 = 16 1 9 5 Borrow 1 whole pie.Subtracting Mixed Numbers 2 — Renaming Strategy 3: Rename the mixed number. so that is why it becomes 8/6 after borrowing. 5 Rename 3 6 as 2 6 . Borrow 1 whole pie from the whole pies’ column into the fractional parts’column. In this method you divide one whole pie into “slices” and join these slices from the whole pie to the existing slices. 2 8 Borrow 1 whole pie. Rename 2 8 as 1 8 . The one whole pie is 6 sixths. 1 5 9 5 4 28 − 8 = 18 − 8 =18 1. 2 9 is renamed as Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . Since there was already one eighth in the fractional parts’ column. Then we can subtract 5/8 easily. The one whole pie is 8 eighths. Examples will make this strategy clear. After that. you can subtract. and then subtract 1 6 . It’s just like “borrowing” in the subtraction of whole numbers. Borrow 1 whole pie from the whole pies’ column into the fractional parts’ column. Then we cut one of the whole pies into 6 sixth parts. Now you can subtract the 5/6. Then we cut one of the whole pies into 8 eighth parts. At first we have three uncut pies and 2/6 more. 3 8 is renamed as 37 2 c. and then subtract 8 . and rename the mixed number. There were already 2 sixths in the fractional parts’ column. Now we can subtract 1 5/6 easily. Just cut up one whole pie into fractional parts. We say that 3 2/6 has been renamed as 2 8/6. Do not subtract anything. We end up with only one whole (uncut) pie and 8 eighth parts. 2 6 is renamed as 1 b. We end up with only two whole (uncut) pies and 8 sixth parts. At first we have two uncut pies and 1/8 more.

a. and rename the mixed number.2. Just cut up one whole pie into fractional parts. a. 4 2 5 − 1 = 6 6 b. Use the pie pictures to check your calculation. 2 3 is renamed as 5 3 b. 2 1 is renamed as 4 3. 3 − 1 10 10 ↓ 9 = = − 1 10 b. Subtract. 3 7 10 9 −1 10 3 8 7 − 1 8 3 7 d. You can draw a picture to help you. 3 2 7 − 1 = 9 9 c. 4 5 9 − 2 = 12 12 d. 2 − 1 8 8 ↓ 7 = = − 1 8 3 2 4. Rename. Do not subtract anything. 3 1 5 − 1 = 8 8 38 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 3 7 9 c. Be careful. 4 8 − 9 9 ↓ 8 13 − = = 2 9 9 3 7 − 2 12 12 ↓ 7 = = 2 − 2 12 12 a. 3 10 is renamed as c. then subtract.

9 12 11 − 6 12 12 d. 7 9 5 − 3 9 14 e. 4 9 7 − 2 9 7 c. 4 − =1 d. 4 − =1 5 6 e. Subtract.5. 5 − =1 1 8 f. 4 19 15 − 14 19 26 h. 9 2 8 − 5 = 15 15 e. f. 13 2 2 − 4 = 5 5 7 11 9 − 4 = 17 17 f. 16 5 11 − 4 = 12 12 a. a. 4 5 7 − 2 = 8 8 b. 1 7 3 − 1 7 3 b. a. Figure out what was subtracted. 3 14 9 − 5 14 8 3 20 7 − 5 20 10 6. 3 − =1 1 4 b. 4 − = 7 12 5 6 7. 4 − =2 3 5 c. Rename (if needed) and subtract. 5 21 15 − 7 21 11 g. c. 39 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 5 3 7 = −1 8 8 d. You can use the circle pictures to help you.

3 2 5 − 1 = 8 8 f.Extra Practice 1. Subtract. 4 1 3 − 2 = 4 4 d. 4 1 5 − 2 = 12 12 g. 4 1 2 − 2 = 3 3 b. 7 3 7 3 − 2 − 1 = 8 8 8 h. 7 1 3 3 − 2 − 2 = 4 4 4 i. 6 5 9 5 − 2 − 2 = 12 12 12 40 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 3 2 5 − 1 = 6 6 e. You can draw a pie picture to help you.Subtracting Mixed Numbers . a. 3 2 4 − 1 = 5 5 c.

(yellow) 15 12 − 10 12 e. (green) 7 1 − 3 8 8 1 3 11 5 6 12 9 5 10 − 3 10 41 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 7 − f. 1 6 d. 5 − e. 2 1 3 2 + 5 − 3 = 4 4 4 b. (green) 17 9 − 4 9 f. (blue) 7 8 11 − 4 15 15 k. Color the answer squares as indicated. (yellow) 4 10 − 2 10 i (green) 11 12 7 g. (blue) 7 11 − 3 11 c. 9 3 7 6 − 2 + 3 = 8 8 8 d. 2 7 a.2. (blue) 9 d. Add and subtract. (yellow) 5 9 − 2 9 1 5 1 5 j. (blue) 5 6 2 − 3 11 11 l. = 2 − 2 3 4 3 = 3 8 8 b. 2 − 5 1 = 1 6 6 − 5 h. (yellow) 8 8 − 2 8 b. 6 − 2 2 = 3 3 = 4 − 2 g. (green) 10 12 − 4 12 3 4 9 5 11 − 3 11 1 4 m. a. (yellow) 1 3 2 5 4 9 − 2 9 3 1 1 3 7 11 1 2 10 12 6 9 2 4 9 2 4 11 6 6 8 5 4 8 2 2 12 15 1 7 9 3 h. = 1 1 9 7 11 = 1 12 12 4. 4 5 3 4 + 6 − 1 = 6 6 6 c. a. 7 7 11 2 + 3 − 1 = 12 12 12 3. Subtract. − 1 = 6 1 5 c. Find the missing minuend or subtrahend.

3 total AFTER: 3 colored pieces. 42 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . = 1 BEFORE: 1 colored piece. 2 total AFTER: 4 colored pieces. Splitting the pieces The arrows above and below the equivalent fractions show into how many new pieces each old piece was split.) 1 1 4 = 1 8 2 4 2 Each slice has been split in two. = BEFORE: 1 colored piece. AFTER: 6 colored pieces out of 8. 8 total (The whole number does not change. 9 total = 3 9 3 4 Each slice has been split into four. 2 Each slice has been split in two. ___ total = 2 When all of the pieces are split the same way. = 1 3 = 2 6 These two fractions are equivalent fractions because they picture the same amount. both the number of colored pieces (the numerator) and the total number of pieces (the denominator) get multiplied by the same number. ___ total AFTER: ___ colored pieces. = 6 8 2 3 Each slice has been split into three. = 3 4 BEFORE: There are 3 colored pieces out of a total of 4.Equivalent Fractions This is an important topic. = 1 3 BEFORE: 1 colored piece. You could say that you get to “eat” the same amount of “pie” either way. In the second picture each slice has just been split into two pieces. You need to understand equivalent fractions well before learning how to add unlike fractions.

Split each piece into three. 1 2 2. Split each piece in two. = = = = = = g. Split each piece in two. h. you can also draw in the “helping arrows” above and below the fractions. b.1. Split the pieces by drawing the new pieces into the right-hand picture. 2 = 3 2 f. Split each piece in two. a. = = = 2 3 2 2 = 5 2 d. Split each piece in two. Split each piece in two. = = = = = = 43 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 1 = 2 3 e. i. Write down the equivalent fractions. Split each piece into three. Split each piece in two. Write the name of each fraction beside its picture. Split each piece into five. Connect the pictures that show equivalent fractions. If you get confused. c.

Imagine or draw the helping arrows. b. g. i. Split each piece into three. 2 = 7 d. 1 = 2 j. 2 = = = 7 14 21 = f. Split each piece into ten. 3 = 4 c. 1 = 2 5 = 8 f. Split each piece into four. Split each piece into seven. Split each piece into six. c. 5 = 8 e. 3 = 4 = = = 4 4 = = = = = 44 6 = = = 6 = 5 = 6 = 5 = = = 5 = = = = = = = = = = Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . Write the equivalent fraction. 3 6 = = = 5 10 15 = e. Split each piece into eight. a. 1 = 4 2 = 7 h. = a. Split each piece into four. Split each piece into five.3. 1 1 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 2 2 = = b. 1 3 1 2 2 6 = d. Split each piece into eight. Split each piece in two. Pay attention to the patterns formed by the numerators and the denominators. Make chains of equivalent fractions according to the model. 3 = 5 3 = 7 4.

Write it here → e. Find and mark the fraction that is equivalent to 1 = = 3 12 24 7 on the 24th parts number line. Pieces were split into ____ . Pieces were split into three.5. 5 15 = 9  l. 1 = 6 54 7 = 8 64 6.   7 14 = 10  h. What is it? 12 24 d. Pieces were split into ____ . Pieces were split into ____ .   j. thirds (3rd parts). and twenty-fourths (24th parts). Write it here → 45 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 4 = 7 56 o. Find and mark a fraction on the 12th parts number line that does not have an equivalent fraction on the 3rd parts number line. 1 = 6 18  g. c. 3 9 = 10 i.  4 = 9 54   8 = 11 44  m. d. Figure out how many ways the pieces were split and write the missing numerator or denominator. Find the fraction that is equivalent to 2 on the 12th 3 parts number line and on the 24th parts number line. 6 = 7 14  n. b. Mark all three fractions on the number lines: 2 = = 3 12 24 b.     3 4 = 7 21 4 = 5 20 3 f. Do the same with 1 . Find and mark a fraction on the 24th parts number line that does not have an equivalent fraction on the 12th parts number line. Mark the equivalent fractions on the three number lines: 3 c. Pieces were split into ____ . 2 6 = 11 2 8 = 3  6 1 = 8  k. The three number lines have been divided into twelfths (12th parts). a. e. a.

9 = 3 18 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 8 = 3 15 j. a. 7 = 1 6 i. 1 f. 9 36 = 4 d. = 7 3 14 6 = 2 7 14 and are equivalent fractions. 6 2 = 9 12 c. Fill in the missing numbers in the equivalent fractions.   12 = 5 =  d. 7 = 4 =  b. But this time the whole pies are cut up into slices. Split the slices in the right-hand picture. Split each slice into four. Split each slice into three. Split each slice in two. 3 = 2 =   2. 1. = The fractional parts and are 3 6 equivalent fractions. 5 = 3 =  c. 5 46 2 = 3 7 = 10 12 80 e. Write the equivalent fractions. 1 2 1 3 2 2 6 Here you see almost the same thing. 3 6 We use equivalent fractions both with mixed numbers and with improper fractions. These are improper fractions. so we can write the whole amount as a single (improper) fraction. 5 7 = 10 28 g. 3 h. 3 12 = 1 4 7 21 = 2 b.Equivalent Fractions 2 = These are mixed numbers: There is a whole-number part and a fractional part (some whole pies and some cut-up slices).  a. Note that the whole number 2 does not change. Split each slice in two.

The pieces were e. then cross the whole problem out. b. Explain in your own words how you can know when an equivalent fractions problem is not possible to do. The pieces were b. 8 3 = 8 1 5 = 3 5. If you can find an equivalent fraction. The pieces were split into ____ . split into ____ . a. split into ____ . whole pies halves 3 1 2 thirds fourths 47 fifths tenths hundredths Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . then write it. 6.3. 5 = 32 4 j. e. d. split into ____ . The pieces were i. Each column contains a set of equivalent fractions (or mixed numbers). The pieces were split into ____ .. 2 = 3 12 5 8 = 6 h. 5 = 7 28 2 = 5 18 f. 5 5 3 4 4. split into ____ . g.. The pieces were c. 1 = 28 6 1 = 24 6 1 = 4 14 d. The pieces were split into ____ . c. Fill in the missing numbers. The pieces were split into ____ . 5 3 11 5 9 2 2 f. Write the number 3 as a fraction using. The pieces were split into ____ . You can use an example problem or problems in your explanation. 3 10 2 1 9 6 10 40 2 12 24 12 15 50 3 24 48 21 25 80 4 36 96 30 50 100 5 54 100 a. The pieces were split into ____ . If you can’t.

↓ + = + = Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . convert them into equivalent fractions. and then add them. + 1 3 ↓ + + 1 2 ↓ 1 3 ↓ + 2 6 + + = 3 6 = + 1 4 ↓ 1 6 ↓ + 5 6 4 12 + + = 3 12 = 7 12 1 2 ↓ + = + = To add unlike fractions. Write the fractions. + + + + + + ↓ a. Then add. Discuss them with your teacher. Then try to figure out additions below. ↓ ↓ + = + = 48 c. 1. Color the missing parts. first convert them to ____________ fractions. + 1 3 = 1 2 + = + 1 3 What fraction would this be? + = 1 4 = What fraction would this be? Did you solve the problems above? Study the pictures below for solutions.Adding Unlike Fractions 1 Cover the page below the black line. ↓ ↓ + = + = b.

In the bottom problem. + = + = + = + = + = + = + = + = + = + = + = + = + = + = + = + = 3. 4th parts + 6th parts ___ parts c. Look at the problems above in exercise (2). d. 2nd parts + 6th parts Converted to: Types of parts to add: Converted to: 6th parts b. What kind of parts did the fractions have? What kind of parts did you use in the final addition? Fill in the table. 8th parts + 4th parts ___ parts d. Types of parts to add: a. Change these to equivalent fractions first and then add them. = + = + 6 1 6 = + = + = = + = + = + = + = + = + = + = + = + = + = c. 3 10 = 2 5 + + 3 10 = = 4 10 + = 10 2. Each box below has TWO problems. + 1 2 + 1 6 b. but the top problem will help you do that! a.+ Let’s write the addition all on the same line now (horizontally). 2nd parts + 8th parts ___ parts 49 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . you need to figure out what kind of pieces to use.

... 2nd parts + 4th parts ___ parts e. Fill in the table based on the problems above in exercise (4). + = c. 3rd parts + 2nd parts ___ parts 6.. Challenge: If you think you know what kind of parts to convert these fractions to. + = e. Don’t worry if you don’t know how to do them—we will study this more in the next lesson. + = 5. . a. + = b. 1 1 + = 3 4 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . These pictures change into. split the parts (as in the example at the right) so that both fractions will have the same kind of parts.4. Types of parts to add: Converted to: Types of parts to add: Converted to: a. 3rd parts + 5th parts ___ parts c. then try these problems. 2nd parts + 8th parts ___ parts d.these. 2 2 + = 5 3 50 c. 1 3 + 4 8 2 3 5 + = 8 8 8 a. + = d. In the problems below. 1 2 + = 2 3 b. Example: Write an addition sentence. + = f. 3rd parts + 6th parts ___ parts f. 2nd parts + 5th parts ___ parts b. Now think: How can you know into what kind of parts to convert the fractions that you are adding? Can you see any patterns or rules in the table? 7.

Like fractions have the same kind of parts: they have the same denominator. we need to decide what kinds of parts we can convert them into so that the converted fractions have the same denominator.Adding Unlike Fractions 2: Finding the Common Denominator How do we add unlike fractions? The principle is very simple: First convert the unlike fractions to like fractions. Convert the fractions using the rule for writing equivalent fractions. 2 1 + 5 4 20 + = 51 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . We call this same denominator the common denominator because all of the converted fractions that we add together will have this same denominator in common. After you know what denominator to use (the kind of parts to convert to). fractions to add denominator fractions to add addition sentence a. Then add. 1 1 + 3 2 6 2 + 6 b. denominator addition sentence 3 5 = 6 6 f. e. 1 1 + 8 4 d. 1. not both. Note: sometimes you need to convert only one fraction. 1 1 + 3 4 12 c. you can use the principles of equivalent fractions to do the actual conversion. In this lesson we study how to do this conversion. 3 1 + 7 3 21 + = 2 1 + 7 2 14 + = j. 1 3 + 5 3 15 + = + = g. This table gives you some example additions and tells you what denominator to convert to. 2 1 + 5 2 10 + = 1 1 + 2 6 6 + = i. 5 1 + 9 3 9 + = 8 + = h. Then add them. When we add unlike fractions.

So in this case. 16. Fractions c. Fractions c. Use the common denominators you found above. 4th parts and 5th parts e.d. and 3 goes into 15. Or. Let’s check the multiples of 8: They are 8. Now let’s add the fractions in Exercise #3. and we notice that 24 is the smallest one that is also a multiple of 6. Fifteen will work because 5 goes into 15. the individual denominators have to “go into” the common denominator. 10th parts and 2nd parts g. the smallest such number is 8 itself.) that will work for adding these fractions. Examples: 2 1 + = + 3 5 15 15 The common denominator must be a multiple of 5 and also a multiple of 3. 24. 3rd parts and 12th parts h.” Actually. 7 3 7 + = + 8 4 8 8 We need a number that 4 can “go into” and that 8 can “go into. a. 9th parts and 6th parts c. 4th parts and 6th parts d.The rule for finding a common denominator The common denominator has to be a multiple of each of the denominators.d. 3rd parts and 7th parts f. 2. fractions to add a. the 7/8 does not need to be converted at all.) that will work if you are adding these kinds of fractions. 1 4 and 5 4 b. you just convert the 3/4 into 8th parts. 1 1 and 9 2 c.. a. 1 3 + = + 8 6 24 24 We need to find a number that is both a multiple of 8 and a multiple of 6. In other words. 32.d.d. etc.d. 2nd parts and 7th parts b. 3 1 and 4 12 4. just like 5 goes into 30. 5th parts and 10th parts c. Find a common denominator (c. fractions to add c. 3.d. ↓ ↓ + 20 1 1 + 9 2 = c. Find a common denominator (c. the common denominator has to be in the multiplication table of the individual denominators. 4 1 + 5 4 ↓ 20 b. so 24 works. Fractions c.d. ↓ + 3 1 + 4 12 ↓ = 52 ↓ + = Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) .

7 4 and 9 11 d. and is smaller! 2 1 and 7 6 Use 7 × 6 = 42.d.d. Fractions c. 3 4 1 6 i. Fractions c. 5 and 12 1 2 f. a. and is smaller! 7 1 and 10 15 You could use 10 × 15 = 150. Add the fractions in the above exercise.You can always multiply the denominators to get a common denominator. 7 9 + 4 11 ↓ 5 1 + 12 2 ↓ 3 1 + 5 2 c. = 1 7 + 6 9 ↓ = ↓ + 3 1 + 4 6 i. 3 5 1 2 h.) that will work for adding these fractions. ↓ + ↓ ↓ 4 3 + 7 2 ↓ 7 1 + 12 6 ↓ g. Use the common denominators you found above. 5. = e. Fractions c. + = ↓ + f. 1 1 + 12 9 ↓ = ↓ + 53 = = Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . b. That is one possibility. But you can often find a common denominator that is smaller than the one you get by multiplying the denominators.d. Try to find the smallest common denominator (c. but actually 30 works as well. There are no smaller numbers that would work. but actually 18 works as well. 2 5 + 3 9 ↓ ↓ + d. 4 7 and 3 2 c. 7 and 12 1 6 e. 2 3 and 5 9 b. 1 6 and 7 9 g.d. a. 1 and 12 1 9 and and 6. Just compare the multiplication tables of the denominators. ↓ + ↓ + ↓ ↓ = = + h. Fractions Common denominator 2 5 and 3 18 You could use 3 × 18 = 54.

Then convert the fractions. and simplification of fractions are much easier than adding unlike fractions. Why did the banana go to the doctor? 23 36 5 6 7 15 17 21 9 10 9 35 3 1 4 5 10 10 15 6 83 72 11 24 11 27 24 40 23 30 7 8 31 17 45 15 30 28 23 30 5 9 1 1 104 7 13 6 14 63 6 20 ! L 1 2 + 2 3 6 E + 6 W = 2 1 + 6 2 C 1 1 + 10 5 S 15 = 2 1  5 3  I = + 15 = A 1 1 + 5 3  G = 5 2  3 6  = 1 13 + 3 30 + 2 2  5 15 U = 3 1  5 2  = 54 = Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . Then add or subtract. Write them in the boxes to solve the riddle. we convert them to like fractions first. 1.Add and Subtract Unlike Fractions Whether you add or subtract unlike fractions. find a common denominator. the principle is the same: To add or subtract unlike fractions. To do the conversion. find the letters that match these answers. division. Once you learn this well. In the problems below and on the following page. you will have mastered the hardest part of fraction math! Multiplication.

E 1 1 + 3 8 T 2 5  5 9 N 2 1 + 3 7 +  = E 5 3  6 8 O L 3 4  5 20 S 6 3  7 5 A 2 1  3 9 B  = E P 10 2 + 7 9 = + L + Find the fractions that can go into the puzzles.These problems belong to the riddle on the previous page. think what the denominators of the two addend fractions could have been. as well. + = 13 15 + + = 5 6 55 = + + = = 9 20 = 7 1  8 5  = = 2 11  8 9  = = 2 5 + 9 12 + 1 5 + 5 6 + 4 1  7 2  = 1 6  7 4 = N W + = T = 1 4 + 2 10 = = 5 12 13 42 = 17 72 + + = 7 24 = = 16 63 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . Hint: If the answer fraction's denominator is 15.

a. Split the pieces in such a way that you can cross out what is indicated. 3 Cross out 1 4 . Then add or subtract the mixed numbers. 8 c. 2 2 4 3 8 Split the pieces so you have sixth parts. Cross out 1 7 . change the improper fraction 11/8 into 1 3/8. 10 b. Then. You already know how to do both steps.Mixed Numbers with Unlike Fractional Parts Adding and subtracting mixed numbers when the fractional parts are unlike This is easy: First convert the unlike fractional parts into like fractions. 11 1 7 4 7 11 3 3 2 2 + 1 8 = 2 8 + 1 8 = 3 8 = 48 8 Convert 1/2 into 4/8 and add. 1. you also need to rename 2 3/6 as 1 9/6 (that is. 56 Cross out 1 1 . But before you can subtract. 1 2 7 +1 8 4 8 + 7 +1 8 Split the half into eighths. 9 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . Cross out 1 3 . to borrow 1 whole pie). d. Write a subtraction sentence. 1 2 3 4 9 4 2 2 − 1 3 = 2 6 − 1 6 5 = 1 6 − 1 6 = 6 First convert 1/2 and 2/3 into like fractions.

Split the pieces so you have like fractional parts. 3. 15 f. + b. 11 i. First convert the fractional parts into like fractions. 57 8 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 16 1 12 1 + 3 4 2 9 3 − 2 4 h. Before subtracting.2. 6 2 3 6 + 3 4 5 + 3 a. + a. 17 4 8 5 − 8 6 5 9 1 − 10 2 e. you may need to change the mixed number so that its fractional part is a proper fraction. Write an addition sentence. you may need to borrow. then add or subtract. + d. 10 c. 1 2 4 − 2 5 d. After adding. + c. 5 1 6 3 − 2 5 g. 4 1 8 2 + 3 5 1 16 3 + 3 8 b.

5 3 7 − 1 = 5 4 8 = 5 − 1 − 9 4 − 5 = 8 15 5 b. Follow the model. Then subtract in parts. Cross out 2 5/6 = 2 10/12. 7 3 5 Finish the subtraction. 8 (like fractions) − = 8 = c. 7 = 5 12 − 2 12 − 12 = − 12 = 2 12 Break 2 10/12 into two parts. a.We can also subtract in parts. First convert into like fractions. 8 − 5 − 2 (like fractions) − − = 3 4 − 2 = 10 5 f. 6 58 2 1 − 1 = 3 7 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . But we still need to convert unlike fractions into like fractions: Split the fourth and one whole pie into twelfths. 7 2 1 − 2 = 7 7 2 = 7 = e. 1 5 3 10 3 3 5 4 − 2 6 = 5 12 − 2 12 First convert into like fractions. 3 2 1 − 1 = 3 9 3 = 3 (like fractions) − − = − 1 (like fractions) − − d. 4.

What size should her picture be (width and length)? 7. He has a 24-inch strip of wood of the correct width. (The abbreviation dl means deciliter. one batch of pancakes. She needs 3 1/2 dl of flour for a cake. Sally needs 3 1/4 feet of material to make a blouse and 4 1/2 feet to make a skirt. Cindy needs to make two cakes. Will that one bag of flour be enough for her? 59 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . She made one shirt from each piece of material. A picture that is 10 inches high and 4 1/2 inches wide needs a frame. She wants to glue a picture on the front so that the margins on all sides are 3/4 in. long. Mark the measurements in the picture. Lily's notebook measures 3 1/4 in. How long a piece of wood will be left after he finishes? 6. will she have enough to make a third shirt? c. high and 2 3/4 in. How long a piece of wood is needed to make the frame? 8. and some sauce. if she combines the remnants left over from both pieces. and 3/4 dl of flour for the sauce. The gray outline shows how the wood needs to be cut. wide and 6 1/8 in. The frame is made out of wood that is 1/2 inch wide. 5 dl of flour for a batch of pancakes. Betty uses 3 1/4 feet of material to make one shirt. She has one piece that is 5 1/2 feet and another piece that is 4 1/2 feet. wide on both sides. Now. Hal wants to make a picture frame out of wood. The frame needs to be 4 1/4 in.) A 1 kg bag of flour is about 15 dl. a.5. How many feet of material should she buy? b.

Find a common denominator (c. and 6 all go into 24 evenly. The “obvious” one is obtained by multiplying all three: 3 × 5 × 2 = 30. 15. but 6 does not go into 16. such as 5. Students who are struggling to add or subtract just two fractions may skip it. a multiple of 3. or 25 work. The answer 41/30 is not wrong. find a common denominator for all of the fractions. None of the smaller numbers. This common denominator has to be a multiple of each of the individual denominators. 1 1 2 +  2 10 3 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) .) that will work to add or subtract these fractions. but it’s customary to give the final answer as a mixed number when possible.) When we add or subtract more than two unlike fractions. 1 1 2 + + 6 4 3 fractions c.d.d. fractions a. Then add or subtract.d. The first “candidate” that might come to mind is 16. 1 7 5 + − 2 8 6 ↓ ↓ ↓ 21 20 13 12 + − = 24 24 24 24 Notice that we add the first two fractions. 8. Indeed. Next. 24 will work because 2. 2 1 1 +  6 3 2 c. c. 10.d. a. So let’s keep checking the multiples of 8. 1 1 2 + + 6 4 3 60 c. b. Use the common denominators that you found. convert all the fractions to like fractions. 1 1 2 +  2 10 3 2. then subtract the third. 20. 1. Add or subtract the fractions from Exercise #1. fractions c. 2 1 1 + + 3 5 2 ↓ ↓ ↓ 20 6 15 41 11 + + = = 1 30 30 30 30 30 Notice that we give the answer as a mixed number. and a multiple of 2.Add and Subtract Several Unlike Fractions (This lesson is challenging. the principles remain the same: First. 2 1 1 +  3 6 2 b. Study these examples carefully: The common denominator must be a multiple of 5.

Solve the equations for x. x− e. 5 1 1 + + 6 9 2 4. 7 1 1   4 3 8 b. x + c. a. 7 1 1 − − 4 5 2 e. a. 9 1 + x = 2 10 5 5 3 = 6 8 d. 2 1 2 + + 9 2 3 f. x + 1 7 = 4 8 b. Add or subtract. d.3. x− 1 2 + = 4 3 7 f. Remember. 2 61 1 2 1 − = 6 3 2 7 1 − x = 1 11 2 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . the connection between addition and subtraction works even when the numbers are fractions. 1 1 2 + + 5 10 3 1 3 1 + − 7 4 2 c.

1 -inch mark. Find these same points also on the ruler that measures in 1/16-inches. the 5/8-inch point. 2 2 2 1 3 1 3 1 -inch mark. Label them. the 1 -inch mark. and the 3 -inch mark on the bottom three rulers above. Find the 3. the 7/8-inch point. 4. the 2 -inch mark. On that ruler find tick marks for these points: the 1/16-inch point. the 9/16-inch point. the 5/16-inch point. 62 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 4 4 2. the 7/16-inch point. the 11/16-inch point. the 1 -inch mark. 4 4 4 4 4 3 1 the 2 -inch mark. Instead. Look at the ruler that measures in 1/8-inches.Measuring in Inches Here are four rulers that all measure in inches. Find the 1 1 1 -inch mark. so you can see the divisions better. they are “blown up” to be “bigger” than the actual rulers. Label them. They are NOT to scale. the 1 5/8-inch point. The tickmarks are: every 1/2-inch: every 1/4-inch: every 1/8-inch: every 1/16-inch: 1. Look at the ruler that measures in 1/16-inches. and the 2 3/8-inch point. and the 15/16-inch point. the 13/16-inch point. the 3/16-inch point. and 2 -inch mark on all of the rulers above. On that ruler find and label tick marks for these points: The 1/8-inch point. the -inch mark.

63 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . f. If the end of the line does not fall exactly on a tick mark. Measure the following colored lines with the rulers given. k.5. a. h. l. d. b. g. then read the mark that is CLOSEST to the end of the line. c. j. i. e.

Using the 1/8-inch ruler: __________ in. f. Using the 1/4-inch ruler: __________ in. Using the 1/4-inch ruler: __________ in. c. Using the 1/16-inch ruler: __________ in. Using the 1/4-inch ruler: __________ in. d. Using the 1/16-inch ruler: __________ in. Using the 1/8-inch ruler: __________ in. Using the 1/4-inch ruler: __________ in. Using the 1/8-inch ruler: __________ in. Using the 1/16-inch ruler: __________ in. Using the 1/4-inch ruler: __________ in. Using the 1/16-inch ruler: __________ in. e. Using the 1/8-inch ruler: __________ in.6. Using the 1/4-inch ruler: __________ in. Cut out the rulers from the bottom of this page. a. Using the 1/16-inch ruler: __________ in. b. Measure the following lines using different rulers. Using the 1/16-inch ruler: __________ in. Using the 1/8-inch ruler: __________ in. You may cut out the following rulers: 64 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . Using the 1/8-inch ruler: __________ in.

Each jar is 1 3/8 inches high. A company packs little jars of skin salve in boxes. Carefully measure the sides of the purple quadrilateral at the right and find its perimeter. b. What is its perimeter? d. a. and find its perimeter. f.7. by 9 1/8 in. e. Find six items in your home that you can measure with your ruler and measure them. How many of those jars can be stacked on top of each other in a box that is 6 inches tall? 10 inches tall? c. 8. b. It’s time to put your fraction skills to use adding and subtracting fractions of inches! a. __________________________ _______ in. __________________________ _______ in. d. __________________________ _______ in. __________________________ _______ in. 65 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . __________________________ _______ in. Draw below any triangle. c. A small rectangular bulletin board measures 15 3/4 in. __________________________ _______ in.

and 9/10 is less than 1. a. and write > or < . Here. it’s easy to see that 2/5 is more than 1/4. and write > or <. Compare them. 1 8 1 10 b. then you can “see” which fraction is bigger. 21 16 25 16 c. a. 8 11 4 11 b. 4 20 2 20 61 100 2. 3 8 < 7 9 Sometimes you can see that one fraction is less than 1/2 and the other is more than 1/2. These are like fractions. 1 20 1 8 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 3 9 3 7 66 c. With like fractions. 1 4 > > Any fraction that is bigger than one must also be bigger than any fraction that is less than one. These fractions have the same number of pieces.Comparing Fractions 1 Sometimes it is easy to know which fraction is greater. 6/5 is more than 1. 49 100 If you can imagine the pie pictures in your mind. 5 14 5 9 f. For example. all you have to do is to check which fraction has more “slices. 9 10 > 4 7 1. 4/7 is clearly more than 1/2. Compare them. 2 11 2 5 e. and 5/12 is clearly less than 1/2.” and that fraction is greater. 6 5 2 5 5 12 d. Here. 7 4 7 6 d. 3 9 > 2 9 If both fractions have the same number of pieces. then the one with bigger pieces is greater.

3 4 d. 5 6 7 8 e. <. a. f. ___< ___< ___ < ___ < ___ 7 3 4 6 2 . or =. 3 9 6. find one that is between them. Compare these fractions to one half. Any such fraction will do! (Hint: You can visualize pies in your mind. 3 4 5 6 1 3 b. . <. e. 5 8 6 10 1 2 5 11 1 2 h. 5 8 3 4 5. 12 9 8 11 d. d. a. Use them to help you put the given fractions in order.) a.3. and fifths. 3 5 3 5 2 b. . 4. . from the least to the greatest. Compare each fraction to one. Here are three number lines that are divided respectively into halves. 8 7 3 3 4 4 b. 9 11 6 5 c. . . thirds. 5 2 3 5 2 ___< ___< ___< ___ < ___ 7. 1 < 6 < 1 3 b. . or convert the fractions into like fractions. 7 8 8 7 e. For each pair of fractions. or = in the box. 1 2 2 1 1 . 1 2 4 9 a. 2 < 3 < 67 7 8 c. 1 2 3 4 4 7 1 2 b. 2 8 1 3 c. Then write >. Compare these fractions by imagining the pies in your mind. Then write >. 3 < 8 < 1 2 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 1 2 g. 3 6 1 2 1 2 7 12 c. a.

it’s hard to be sure if 3/5 is really more than 5/9. though! ↓ ↓ 27 45 25 45 > 1. Not by much. 7 10 2 3 ↓ ↓ Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . f. a. and then it is easy to see that 27/45 is more than 25/45.Comparing Fractions 2 Comparing unlike fractions Sometimes none of the “tricks” explained in the previous lesson work. h. 1 3 3 10 ↓ ↓ 6 9 8 12 ↓ ↓ d. Convert both into 45th parts. Then compare. 7 10 5 7 ↓ ↓ b. 5 6 7 8 ↓ ↓ 3 8 4 10 ↓ ↓ c. 2 3 5 8 ↓ ↓ 5 8 7 12 ↓ ↓ b. Convert the fractions into like fractions and compare them. 3 5 5 9 In the picture on the right. But we do have one more up our sleeve! Convert both fractions into like fractions. 68 7 8 6 7 ↓ ↓ d. and then compare them. a. g. e. 8 12 7 10 ↓ ↓ 1 5 2 9 ↓ ↓ 2. 4 9 3 7 ↓ ↓ c. Convert the fractions into like fractions.

Find the equivalent fraction when the denominator is 100.3. 4 15 1 3 f. 69 1 4 2 . Compare the fractions using any method. 1 = 5 100 f. a. Write the three fractions in order. a. 3 = 4 100 h. 1 2 40 100 b. 7 6 10 8 h. Compare these fractions with hundredth parts. 3 10 1 5 d. a. 75 100 7 10 d. 6 = 10 100 d. 3 = 10 100 c. a. 3 8 4 7 e. 1 10 9 100 7. 5 12 3 8 b. 6 10 42 100 c. 1 10 1 11 5. 2 = 5 100 6. 3 4 4 11 j. 13 10 9 8 k. 3 10 9 ___< ___< ___ Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 5 12 5 8 i. or 3/10 off the normal price? Does your answer change if the original price of the coat was $60 instead? Why or why not? 4. 5 6 11 16 g. 1 = 4 100 e. 1 4 23 100 e. Which is a bigger discount: 1/4 off the normal price. . A certain coat costs $40. Write > or <. 2 = 10 100 g. 8 10 9 ___< ___< ___ b. 5 12 4 11 c. 2 13 1 5 l. 1 = 2 100 b. 7 9 7 . .

___< ___< ___ < ___ < ___ 9 11 7 12 10 . 5 8 7 9 7 . . Which was a bigger group. and sixths. let each dwarf have one piece. The number lines below are divided into eighths.” Which suggestion would give more pizza to the dog? 70 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . and the dog gets the 1 1/2 pieces left over. . She found that 1/3 of them never exercised. and give the last piece to the dog. Rebecca took a survey of a group of 600 women. Use the number lines to put the given fractions in order. . The oldest suggested. . the women who jogged or the women who swam? How many women in her survey sample do exercise? 9. and give each of us 1 1/2 of those pieces. 6 10 8 10 10 b. . and the rest did other sports. “No! Let’s cut it into 12 slices instead. that 22/100 of them swam regularly. tenths.8.” But then another dwarf said. 1/5 of them jogged regularly. a. 8 10 6 10 8 ___< ___< ___< ___ < ___ The seven dwarfs could not divide a pizza into 7 equal slices. “Let’s cut it into 8 slices. .

floor does a 4 ft x 3 ft carpet cover? 5. Shirley's skirt was 2 ft. A company divided a project so that Mark would do 1/10 of it. long. how much time does it take for one person to cover those books? 7. What part is left? How long is it? 3. What part did Mom get? 71 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . each of the four kids got 1/8. How long will her skirt be after she shortens it? 6. How much does it cost now? 4. She decided to cut off 1/4 of her skirt's length. ft. If it takes one person 2 minutes to cover a book. and Jerry the rest.400 books need protective covering. 8 in. Dad got 1/4. a. What fractional part of a 36-sq. Mom needs to give her child 3/4 of the adult dose (which is 600 mg) of medicine.Fraction Problems 1. What part was left for Jerry? 9. and Mom the rest. How much is that? 8. Julie cut off 1/4 of a 1-m ribbon. Leslie would do 1/2 of it. A family shared a 4x8-chocolate bar. A store discounted a $45-jacket by 1/5. which is 1/5 of her mother's weight. Angela weighs 25 lb. What does her mother weigh? 2. How many books is that? b. 2/9 of the library's 5.

3 months d. Add. 9 months e. a. 1 7 6 + 3 10 10 f. 4 3 56 + 10 100 72 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . a. 5 1 + 6 2 d. 8 months c. 4 of 30 5 1 of 60 3 c. Fill the subtraction table and the addition table. 2 of 700 10 6 of 700 10 4. 2. What part of the year is a. Give you answer as a mixed number. Write the colored part and the white part as fractions of the whole group. 4 months b. b. d. 1 of 24 6 2 of 49 7 5 of 40 8 1 of 600 3 d. c. 3 7 + 4 8 c.Review 1. e. 3 3 3 + 2 4 4 g. 1 of 35 5 2 of 35 5 a. 10 months? 3. Find part. 6 9 5 + 2 12 6 h. 3 2 + 10 5 b. 6 10 x 1 4 1 y x+y 1 2 5 3 10 7 10 2 2 10 5 10 3 4 1 1 4 6 8 1 5 2 5 x 1 3 y 7 12 1 7 x−y 3 2 7 3 5 5 12 2 5 5 8 1 1 8 1 1 6 3 6 1 3 7 6 7 5. 3 5 + 4 6 e. b.

How many seats are still empty? d. c. did housework for 1/8 of the day's hours. – 1 6 3 2 5 9 – 7 20 3 5 4 12 f. Subtract. a.560 to be used for school lunches during the nine school months. worked for 1/3 of the day's hours. a. Baby has gotten in 2/5 of her 20 baby teeth. 3 10 2 5 5 9 – e. 1 2 3 5 8 8 – 7. How much of that money is meant for January and February? f. The bus can seat 44 passengers. Solve the problems. and 3 1/8 inches tall. 3/10 of the 50 states have implemented the newest education policy. How many hours total did she spend on those? 73 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . Jane slept 5/12 of the day's hours. d. Is that more or less than one month? e. The school has budgeted $7. 1 3 5 – 1 12 5 3 4 8 – 2 9 6 b. The Hill family spends about 1/10 of the year in Florida. It is now 3/4 full. How many have not? g. How many are still to come? b. A picture is 5 1/4 inches wide.6. What is its perimeter? c.

1 2 5 7 b. .8. a. 4 7 7 3 4 6 8 3 5 3 . 1 100 2 100 5 100 11 100 1 100 3 10 12 100 7 100 1 100 3 100 2 10 1 2 2 20 2 25 1 10 2 11 4 9 4 11 2 5 1 11 2 7 1 9 1 10 3 7 2 9 6 11 7 20 34 100 9 25 1 3 2 11 7 20 1 2 3 4 3 5 9 20 3 7 2 5 5 9 2 21 17 20 4 9 3 7 1 2 9 11 1 2 9 20 1 2 5 8 2 3 3 4 6 13 5 11 2 7 7 15 5 8 2 3 7 13 3 5 4 5 21 25 19 20 7 10 7 8 5 9 17 100 8 15 19 20 17 25 7 11 24 25 5 6 74 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 4 9 1 3 h. Compare and write <. 1 2 1 3 f. ___< ___< ___ < ___ ___< ___< ___< ___ 10.but not up. . 2 9 2 7 9. Put the fractions in order by using the number lines. 5 5 8 9 d. 2 10 22 100 j. Find your way thru the maze! Start at the top. and find your way to the bottom. or = between the fractions. 2 5 1 2 i. . Each fraction on your path must be greater than the one before. >. 3 4 8 12 e. right. . . 1 3 2 6 c. or left . 2 2 3 1 1 . a. You can go down. . 3 10 1 5 g. 7 7 3 4 4 b.

2 2 > 4 6 q. three-twelfths 4 18 c. three-sixths g. 1 4 < 5 5 c. 2 4 < 4 4 g. The student might color different pieces than what is shown below. b. f. d. e. the fraction with the smaller denominator is more. a. In other words. 3 3 < 8 6 r. 3 12 h.Math Mammoth Fractions 1 Answers Note: The answers are not simplified to the lowest terms since that is only studied in Math Mammoth Fractions 2. one-fifth 5 10 k. j. 9 Teaching box: Can you tell what fraction this is? 7/10. 1 1 < 6 2 m. 2 8 i. f. five-tenths b. 1 1 > 6 8 n. j. h. 4 7 3 6 7 8 e. f. 1. 1 2 = 2 4 What can you notice about comparing two fractions when the numerators are the same? The fraction with the bigger size pieces is more. 2 1 > 3 3 b. 2. a. In other words. d. 4. 1 5 < 9 9 h. 1 1 > 2 3 k. 5 3 > 12 12 i. four-eighteenths 3. two-fifths 7 12 j. four-sevenths l. 4 4 < 8 5 p. p. g. Understanding Fractions. If your student gives the answer in lowest terms. seven-twelfths l. e. seven-eighths d. 75 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . three-fourths 3 4 h. two-eights i. the numerators tell you which is more. that is of course still a right answer. 1 2 < 2 3 o. 1 3 < 6 6 d. 1 1 > 5 8 l. 6 7 < 8 8 e. a. b. 1 5 c. 6 7 < 10 10 What can you notice about comparing two fractions when the denominators are the same? You can just compare the numerators. a. 3 1 > 8 8 f. 2 5 k. one-third c. 1 3 g.

b. 21 3 =3 6 6 i. 1 5 6 e. 1 1 2 b. 2 3/4 h. 2 3/8 e. a. 6/6 c. 1 2/10 = 12/10 c. 5/5 d. 6/3 e. 1 2/9 i. 8 3 =1 5 5 d. 11 3 =2 4 4 76 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 3 2/3 = 11/3 e. 2 3 5 d. 2 2 3 c. 2 1/5 g. 1 1/4 d. 14 = 1 5/9 9 h. 3 5 8 3. a. 12/6 f. 2 1/6 = 13/6 f. 1 4/6 c. 1 2/5 b. 12 1. 14 2 =2 6 6 e. 2 3/4 = 11/4 d. 10/5 5.Mixed Numbers. 6. 14 4 =2 5 5 f. a. 4 5/10 = 45/10. 4. 3 1/2 = 7/2 b. 3 1 3 f. p. 15 7 =1 8 8 g. 1 1/3 f. 5 1 =1 4 4 b. 1 5/12 2. 7 1 =2 3 3 c. a.

4/9. 3 c. Make 3 groups. 3 d. 1 of 9 apples is 3 apples. 1 of 12 flowers is 3 flowers. 5 f. 6 eggs 4 eggs 8 eggs 3 eggs 2 eggs 10 eggs 1 6 or 12 2 1 4 or 12 3 2 8 or 12 3 1 3 or 12 4 1 2 or 12 6 5 10 or 6 12 4. 9 3 or 24 8 e. 5/11 of all students are girls. a. a. 4/7 b. Accept either answer from the student. 3/12 of all fruit are mangoes. 12 1 or 24 2 b. Make 5 groups. 6/11 of all students are boys. p. a. 3/7. 1 of 10 fish is 2 fish. 2 16 or 3 24 5. 5 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 16 1. Part of a Whole Group 1. 4 b. 1 of 15 carrots is 5 carrots. 5/9 c. 6 1 or 24 4 c. 3. 5/8 2. 1/6. 5/6 d 3/8.7. 4/12 of all fruit are apples. e. 3 1 or 24 8 d. Accept either answer from the student. 6 77 1 of 20 berries is 4 berries. 1 of 12 flowers is 2 flowers. a. Two kinds of answers are given below: the non-simplified ones and simplified ones. Make 3 groups. Two kinds of answers are given below: the non-simplified ones and simplified ones. b.

of 15 fish is 3 fish. a. of 12 flowers is 9 flowers. f. 1 of 10 is 2 5 10 ÷ 5 = 2 c. 3 3 of 15 carrots is 15 carrots. of 12 flowers is 12 flowers. 4 of 20 berries is 16 berries. 5 of 12 flowers is 8 flowers. d. 2 of 20 berries is 8 berries. 1 4 2 4 3 4 4 4 of 12 flowers is 3 flowers. 1 5 2 5 3 5 4 5 Make 5 groups. of 15 fish is 6 fish. Make 3 groups. 5 78 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 4 24 ÷ 4 = 6 7. 5 of 12 flowers is 4 flowers. 3 3 of 9 apples is 9 apples. 1 of 9 apples is 3 apples. 3 e. 3 2 of 15 carrots is 10 carrots. 3 1 of 15 carrots is 5 carrots. 3 of 20 berries is 12 berries. b. 1 of 18 is 6 3 18 ÷ 3 = 6 III III III III III III III III II II II II II b. 1 of 24 is 6. of 12 flowers is 6 flowers. of 15 fish is 9 fish. of 15 fish is 12 fish. 1 of 20 berries is 4 berries. 1 6 2 6 3 6 4 6 c. of 12 flowers is 2 flowers. Make 3 groups. 5 of 12 flowers is 6 flowers. 3 2 of 9 apples is 6 apples.6. III III III III III III a.

1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 of 21 is 7. 6 2 of 12 is 4. 5. of 33 is 11 of 36 is 12. p. of 21 is 6. 11 d. 7 b. 1 5 2 5 3 5 4 5 5 5 of 20 is 4. 5 1. e. 1 of 18 is 6. 4 b. divide by 4. 5 3 of 10 is 6. of 20 is 12. divide by 3. 3 1 of a number. 1 of 56 is 7. 1 of 55 is 5. of 21 is 15. of 27 is 9. 7 3 of 28 is 12. 2 3. of 21 is 9. of 24 is 8. 8 7 of 56 is 49. 4 3 of 12 is 9. 1 of 12 is 3. To find 4 To find 1 of a number. 11 3 of 55 is 15. 19 1 of a number. a. 1 of 10 is 2. of 12 is 6. She originally had 6 eggs. 1 of 12 is 2. of 14 is 7. 1 of 10 is 2 5 c. of 21 is 12. 1 of 10 is 5. 2 3 of 10 is 15. of 21 is 18. 10 ÷ 5 = 2 1 of 15 is 5 3 e. of 18 is 9. of 22 is 11. a. of 20 is 8. 18 ÷ 3 = 6 d. 6 c. 15 ÷ 3 = 5 1 of 25 is 5 5 25 ÷ 5 = 5 1 of 14 is 7 2 f. 1 of 28 is 4. of 20 is 20. of 16 is 8. 32 hazelnuts to start with d. 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 of 10 is 5. 3 b. 9 2 of 18 is 4. 9 c. of 20 is 16. 5 d. 1 of 18 is 2.Part of a Whole Group 2. divide by 5. of 21 is 21. a. 8 4. To find 2 1 To find of a number. of 30 is 10. 1 7 2 7 3 7 4 7 5 7 6 7 7 7 of 21 is 3. 8 eggs are left c. of 39 is 13. divide by 2 . She had $15. a. 12 apples are left b. now she has $10. 14 ÷ 2 = 7 1 of 21 is 7 3 21 ÷ 3 = 7 2. 79 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . of 20 is 10.

16 bananas are left. 4 10 3 5 b. He stopped watching at 5:03. 21 1. a. f. d. h. a. she originally baked 36 cookies. 18 2. She has $25 left. Since 5 is 1/5 of this number. or 5. notice that if 3/5 of a number is 15. 81 g.Part of a Whole Group 3. 9 b. 24 d. So after giving some to Beth.which makes 18 cookies left after giving some to Beth. c. of 25 is 15. Part Amount 1/5 10 Yellow 1/2 25 Green 3/10 d. 35 f. 1 1 1 of 54 is 18. This can be solved by thinking from the end to the beginning: 4 cookies is 1/3 of what was left after giving some to Seth. 3. Jerry needs to save $375. 8. the number is 5 × 5 = 25. 8 c. 7. 4 3 5 Puzzle corner: a. She baked 24 cookies. a. 80 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . The air conditioner is not on for 9 hours each day. 15 5. 25 cents c. of 44 is 33. 15 are not adults. a. 9 2 3 3 of 50 is 45. then 1/5 of a number is a third of 15. and $40 − $15 = $25.320 feet d. p. Since 18 was half the batch. 3/8 of $40 is $15.) 9. 22 are girls b. 2/3 are girls. 2 e. 12 cookies is 2/3 of what was left after giving some to Seth . Mom baked 36 cookies. she had 12 cookies. 1 of 12 is 6. a. To solve for example (g). 42 h. Those 12 were half of the original batch. of 18 is 12. 56 e. 3/5 of what number is 15. b. one quart 6. of 50 is 10. 5/6 are not adults. 1. Part 1 1/2 1/4 3/4 1/5 3/5 3/8 Amount 40 20 10 30 8 24 15 4. a quarter till or a quarter after. 45 minutes b. There are 15 boys c. Color Red b. (She used $10 for apples and had $40 left. g. of 32 is 8. so originally she had 24.

6/13 g. 12/13 k. In other words they are same kind of parts . 3 7 1 4 + = =1 6 6 6 6 f. 1 3 − 7 6 4 = 7 7 h. 9/20 4. 1/3 k. 2/7 c. 2. 5 2 7 + = 10 10 10 d. 5 6 3 + = 2 4 4 4 h. 1 2 − 4 5. 2 2 4 1 + = = 1 3 3 3 3 i. 3/4 j. Fractions that have a different denominator are called unlike fractions.just add the numerators. 5 − 8 10 − 14 7 8 = 6 8 3 7 = 14 14 b. = = 3 4 = 4 9 + = + 3 8 6 9 = 5 8 + = 8 =1 8 Adding the same kind of parts is easy . Answers will vary. 1 1/7 c. 6 7 3 + =1 10 10 10 d. 3/10 d. a. 3 4 3 10 2 + + = = 1 8 8 8 8 8 5 7 4 + = 1 8 8 8 b. 3 1 4 + = 5 5 5 c. 1 1/3 i. 1/3 i.fourth parts. 5 − 5 f. 3 2 1 + = 1 4 4 4 g. 5 8 13 1 + = =1 12 12 12 12 g. 3/4 f. 2/8 d. 5/20 h.Adding and Subtracting Like Fractions. 81 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 4/15 g. 2/4 1 5 4 5 = 3 4 = 3 4 h. 1 e. 3. a. 2 b. 1 5 6 + = =1 6 6 6 e. 2 6 1 + = 1 7 7 7 6 6 12 + = 14 14 14 f. Check with your teacher. 2 4 2 + = 5 5 5 b. 1 3 4 + = 10 10 10 c. 2/5 b. 9 3 2 + = 1 10 10 10 1. 4 8 12 2 + = =1 10 10 10 10 h. 8/14 e. a. p. 23 Fractions that have the same denominator are called like fractions. 2 1 2 3 − 1 = 4 4 4 l. 3/8 6. a. Write the answers to the pictures. 1 1/10 d. 1 5 − 10 2 3 = 1 10 10 g. 2 3 − 8 11 = 1 8 f. 3/6 c. e. 6/14 e. + 1 4 2 4 + + 2 9 1 2 and are like fractions since they have the 4 4 same denominator 4. 1 2 3 1 + = =1 2 2 2 2 j. 1/5 j. Check the student's work. 2/9 l. a.

6 13 3 7 + = = 1 10 10 10 10 3 6 7 1 − = 10 10 10 7 13 6 6 + = = 1 7 7 7 7 6 6 1 − = 1 7 7 h. 2 3/8 = 19/8 d. 2 3 1 + = = 1 3 3 3 2 1 = 1− 3 3 c. a. 3 1/4 = 13/4 f. 2 11 3 9 + = = 1 8 8 8 8 3 2 1 1 − = 1 8 8 8 g. 6 12 1 6 + = = 1 11 11 11 11 1 6 6 1 − = 11 11 11 e. d. a. e. 5 2/9 = 47/9 8. 4 3/5 7. a. 2 4/6 = 16/6 c. 2 2/6 c. 6 4/12 2. & c. 13 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 3 3/5 d. a. 1 1/3 b. 3 2/5 d. There are 5 whole pies. All total we get 74 slices. 6. and each one is 13th part. Then the fractional part 9/13 means that we add 9 slices to that. 27 1. see image: b. 1 2/5 = 7/5 b. c. So 5 × 13 tells us the number of slices in the whole pies. a. b. and each pie has 13 slices. 2/4 b. 3 3/4 d. p. 4 2/4 5. 7 10 2 3 + = = 1 8 8 8 8 2 7 3 1 − = 8 8 8 Review: Mixed Numbers. 1 6/7 b. 3. a. 6 8 2 + = 10 10 10 8 6 2 − = 10 10 10 f. b. 4 5/12 = 53/12 e. 2 6 1 4 + = = 1 5 5 5 5 1 2 4 1 − = 5 5 5 d. 1 1/4 c.7. So the fraction is 82 74 . 2 2/5 4. a.

3 3/4 d. 8 2/6 h. 6 2/5 i. a. a. 5 1/3 c. 6 1/4 g. 9 6/9 Adding Mixed Numbers 1. 27/11 f. 7 6/8 b. 6 b. 6 3/7 3 5 4 3 5 6. 3 13 5 → 4 8 8 d. 72 ÷ 10 = 7 R 2 f.9. 11 3/5 c. a. 3 3/4 c. 15/2 b. 2 2/11 j. 3 5/9 e. 2 1 3 + 8 8 e. 5 3/8 9. 39/8 10. 1 = 2 = 3 → 4 2 3 1 2 4 8 2 2 + 1 3 3 b. 3 1/2 f. 20/3 c. 97/12 g. 7 9 13 5 → 10 8 8 7. 35 ÷ 6 = 5 R 5 e. 5 1/4 8. p. 1 3 3 + 1 4 4 2 8 = 3 2 4 3 5 6 4 + 1 + 1 = 5 10 10 10 10 5. 8 3/10 10. 4 + 7 2 → 7 5 5 6 13 4 → 7 9 9 6 8 7 + 2 8 d. 83 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . b. 9 1/4 e. b. 3 5 3 + 2 6 6 8 1 → 10 7 7 6 6 9 7 2 9 c. a. 1 1/2 b. a. 22 ÷ 7 = 3 R 1 5 35 = 5 6 6 2 72 = 7 10 10 1 22 = 3 7 7 11. a. 1 1 1 + 2 3 3 2. 2 5 5 + 1 8 8 c. 6 2/3 d. 2 7 3 + 8 8 = 4 = 3 2 8 e. 75/9 d. 7 3/8 + 5 7/8 − 1 4/8 − 1 4/8 = 10 2/8. 6 7 3 → 7 4 4 b. 37/16 h. a. 8 1/9 d. a. a. 35 ÷ 8 = 4 R3 c. 13 k. 19 ÷ 2 = 9 R 1 3 47 = 11 4 4 3 35 =4 8 8 1 19 = 9 2 2 d. 1 1 1 1 + 1 + 2 2 2 4. a. 1 11 2 → 2 9 9 3. 31 1. 3 + + 9 5 3 c. 4 b. 6 2/5 3 7 5 5 7 c. 66/10 e. 47 ÷ 4 = 11 R3 b. 5 2/5 d. 2 = 3 2 3 b. 12 b. 1 = 3 1 3 = 4 2 6 d. The combined string is 10 2/8 inches long now. 2 1/3 c. 7 1/8 l. 10 1/8 d.

a. 2/4 b. 1 4/8 5. 1 8/12 1 8 10 11 8 7 1 8 1 4 8 d. 1 11/9 2. 3/5 c. 1 4/9 c. 5 4 1 − 3 5 5 = 1 =1 2 4 4 5 d. 1 2/5 c. 11 6/12 84 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 2 1/6 e. a. p. 11 8/19 h. 2 9/8 c. 1 5/4 3. 2 3 5 − 1 7 7 = 5 7 h. 1 12 → 11 6 11 2 22 → 13 10 10 12. 37 1. 3 2/17 d. 2 2 6 − 9 9 = 1 5 9 2 5 Subtracting Mixed Numbers 2 — Renaming. 2 b. 2 3 7 − 1 8 8 = 4 8 f. 2 1 5 − 1 6 6 = i. 3/7 e. 11 2/9 f. a. 2 3/6 b. 5 10/12 d. 2 13/10 c. p. 1 3/6 b. 1 2/8 d. a. 10 + 15 2 20 → 17 9 9 6 5 6 4 5 6 3 2 6 7 10 9 10 6 + 10 10 c. 1 3/4 b. 1 3 4 − 5 5 e. 2 d − − − 8 12 4. a. 2 c. 1 2/4 b. 2 1 2 − 1 3 3 = 2 3 b. 1 + 22 → 8 11 9 d. 3 7/8 f. 2 5 7 − 1 9 9 = = 1 3 6 = 4 5 c. a. a. 2 2/10 3. 5/6 2. 1 5/7 b. 2 − 2 13 9 8 9 5 9 15 12 7 2 12 17 10 9 1 10 b. 3 9/15 c. 34 1. 5 g. 1 1/3 Subtracting Mixed Numbers 1. a. 2 8/14 e. 3 4/8 b. 3 11/21 g. 2 4/11 f. 2 1 3 − 4 4 2 6 g. a. 7 4/9 d. 1 4/8 c. 3 1/6 7. 9 f. 1 2/4 b. 4/7 d. a. a. 4 6/9 c.7 9 5 2 9 8 3 9 5 11 9 3 11 8 + 2 11 11. 7 3/5 e. a. 1 8/5 b. 2 1/5 c. 1 7/6 b. 2 3 2 − 1 5 5 = 7 9 k. 2 5/12 d. 1 6/8 e. 2 2 5 − 6 6 j. a. 4 16/20 6. 1 1/7 c. 2 7/9 4.

2 12 b. h. 1 3/12 2. Split each piece in two. 1 3 6 g. Split each piece in two. Split each piece into three. e. 1 8/12 g. 1 7 9 f. 3 7/8 b. 9 4/6 c. f. 5 11 12 Equivalent Fractions 1. Split each piece in two. 7 6/12 h. 2 4 9 k. 3 7 11 c. 1 5/8 f. b. 42 1. 1 3/5 c. 2 3 2 2 4 = 5 10 3 1 = 6 2 4 2 = 6 3 2 3 2 d. 12 12 10 9 a.Subtracting Mixed Numbers .Extra Practice. 40 1. Split each piece into five. p. Split each piece into three. 2 15 d. 6 6 8 j. 3 1/8 h. 4 h. 4 11 2 6 i. Split each piece in two. 2. a. i. 2 2 5 1 2 = 2 4 3 6 = 8 16 1 5 = 2 10 2 2 5 85 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 2 3 2 1 2 = 4 8 9 3 = 9 3 2 1 = 10 5 2 3 2 g. 10 4/12 c. c. 1 5/6 d. 1 3/4 i. a. 2 4 11 l. 2 1/3 4. Split each piece in two. 1 2/4 d. 1 2/3 b. m. 4 2/4 b. a. 10 2/8 3. p. 8/9 g. 5 4 8 d. a. 4/5 f. Split each piece in two. 2 1/3 e. 1 3/6 e. 1 e.

5 1 = 4 20 f. 2/11 = 6/33. a. nine. 3/12. four. 5 10 = 8 16 c. 7/10 = 14/20. 3 24 = 7 56 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = = = = = = = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = = = = = = = 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 c. 5/12. 6/7 = 12/14. h.3. Answers vary. 4/7 = 12/21 b. or 23/24. 4/7 = 32/56. c. 4/9 = 24/54. e. 8/11 = 32/44. 1/6 = 9/54. a. 2/12. 5/9 = 15/27. two. m. two. three. 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 = = = = = = = = 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 f. 15/24. 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 = = = = = = = = 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 5. 3/24. 2/3 = 8/12. 8 1 = 2 16 i. 6. o. eight. 86 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . four. 9/24. 9/12. 1/3 = 4/12 = 8/24 c. 7/24. 3 21 = 5 35 j. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = = = = = = = 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 d. 4/5 = 16/20. b. a. three. 17/24. 8 2 = 7 28 e. 21/24. e. 6/12. n. b. 13/24. 11/24. any of the following will do: 1/24. 5 50 = 8 80 h. g. k. 6 2 = 7 21 g. eight. 19/24. three. a. i. 10/12. 2/3 = 8/12 = 16/24 b. 7/8 = 56/64. Answers vary. six. f. j. l. d. 3 12 = 4 16 4. 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 = = = = = = = = 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 e. any of the following will do: 1/12. three. 1/6 = 3/18. 3/10 = 9/30. 5/24. six. 14/24 d. 7/12. 6 1 = 2 12 d. or 11/12. 1/8 = 6/48. four.

eight i. If we know the new numerator is not divisible by the old one. 6. 3 12/18 10 6  2  2 = = e. In other words. then we cannot find an equivalent fraction. if the numerator does not “go into” or divide into the new numerator and similarly with the denominators. NOT POSSIBLE d. 6 12/54 h. 5 56/80 j. 21/6 g. five 4 1 = 24 6 e. 5 3 11 5 15 9 4. 5 3 =  3 c. a.  3 a. 1 12/16 b. Split each slice into three. j.  4 d. d. Split each slice into four. Split each slice in two. 54/18 3. 40/15 f. 5 28/40 c.a. Answers vary. then the conversion is not possible. 12 24 = 5 10 12 3 = 8 2 =  4  2 2. 7 21 = 4 12 =  2 b. 36/16 d. four g. b. four 5 20 = 7 28 f. Split each slice in two. NOT POSSIBLE 5 1 = 3 15 5. NOT POSSIBLE b. NOT POSSIBLE c. p. four h. 3 halves thirds fourths fifths tenths hundredths 6 2 9 3 12 4 15 5 30 10 300 100 87 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 46 1.Equivalent Fractions 2. 2 3 10 2 1 9 6 5 3 4 22 10 2 12 40 4 2 18 12 5 18 24 20 12 33 15 2 15 50 6 3 36 24 5 36 48 35 21 55 25 2 24 80 8 4 54 36 5 72 96 50 30 110 50 2 30 100 10 5 81 54 5 75 100 a. or if the new denominator is not divisible by the old one. NOT POSSIBLE 2 8 = 3 12 40 5 = 32 4 f. e. c. 42/6 i.

Adding Unlike Fractions 1, p. 48
+
1
3

+

+
1
2

1
3

+
2
6

+

=
3
6

=

+
1
4

+

1
6

+
5
6

=

3
4
+
=
12
12

+

1
2

+
1
6

7
12

+

=
3
6

4
6

=

To add unlike fractions, first convert them to like fractions. Then add.

1. a.

1
1
+
2
4


1
3
2
+
=
4
4
4

b.

1
1
3
1
4
+
=
+
=
2
6
6
6
6

2. a.

2
1
+
5
2


5
9
4
+
=
10 10 10
b.

2
3
2
5
1
+
=
+
=
6
6
6
6
2
c.

1
1
1
2
3
+
=
+
=
8
4
8
8
8

c.

3
1
+
9
3


3
6
3
+
=
9
9
9

1
1
3
2
5
+
=
+
=
4
6
12 12 12
4
3
8 11
1
+
=
+
=
6
12 12 12
4

d.

1
3
2
5
3
+
=
+
=
4
8
8
8
8

1
1
4
1
5
+
=
+
=
2
8
8
8
8
3
4
3
7
1
+
=
+
=
8
8
8
8
2

3. b. 12th parts c. 8th parts d. 8th parts

4. a.

b.
4
8

+

5
=
8

9
8

c.
2
4

d.

+

3
=
4

e.
5
+
10

4
9
=
10
10

5. a. 8th parts b. 4th parts

+

5
=
6

7
6

f.
5
+
15

c. 6th parts

2
6

5
4

6
11
=
15
15

2
6

+

3
=
6

5
6

d. 10th parts e. 15th parts f. 6th parts

88

Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series)

6. The two denominators always “go into” the number that tells us what kind of parts we are converting to.
In other words, we need to find a number that is divisible by the two denominators, or in yet other words,
a number that is a multiple of both of the denominators.
7. a. 7/6 b. 16/15

c. 7/12

Adding Unlike Fractions 2: Finding the Common Denominator, p. 51
1.
fractions
to add

denominator

addition
sentence

fractions
to add

denominator

addition
sentence

1
1
+
a. 3
2

6

2
3
5
+
=
6
6
6

f.

3
1
+
3
5

15

5
9
14
+
=
15
15
15

b.

1
1
+
3
4

12

4
3
7
+
=
12
12
12

g.

5
1
+
9
3

9

5
3
8
+
=
9
9
9

c.

1
1
+
8
4

8

1
2
3
+
=
8
8
8

h.

2
1
+
5
2

10

4
5
9
+
=
10
10
10

d.

1
1
+
2
6

6

3
1
4
+
=
6
6
6

i.

3
1
+
7
3

21

9
7
16
+
=
21
21
21

e.

2
1
+
7
2

14

4
7
11
+
=
14
14
14

j.

2
1
+
5
4

20

8
5
13
+
=
20
20
20

2.
fractions to add

c.d.

fractions to add

c.d.

a. 4th parts

and

5th parts

20

e. 2nd parts

and

7th parts

14

b. 3rd parts

and

7th parts

21

f. 5th parts

and

10th parts

10

c. 10th parts

and

2nd parts

10

g. 4th parts

and

6th parts

12

d. 3rd parts

and

12th parts

12

h. 9th parts

and

6th parts

18

3.
Fractions
a.

1
4
and
5
4

Fractions

c.d
20

b.

1
1
and
9
2

Fractions

c.d
c.

18

89

1
3
and
4
12

c.d
12

Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series)

4.
a.

4
1
+
=
5
4


21
16
5
=
+
20 20 20

b.

1
1
+
=
9
2

3
1
+
=
4
12


1
10
9
+
=
12
12 12

c.

9 11
2
+
=
18 18 18

5.
Fractions
a.
d.
g.

2
3
7
12
3
5

and
and
and

c.d
5
9
1
6
1
2

Fractions

9

b.

12

e.

10

h.

4
7
5
12
3
4

and
and
and

c.d
3
2
1
2
1
6

Fractions

14

c.

12

f.

12

i.

7
4
1
6
1
12

and
and
and

c.d
9
11
7
9
1
9

44
18
36

6.
a.

2
5
+
=
3
9

b.

6
5
11
+
=
9
9
9
d.

7
1
+
=
12
6

e.

3
1
+
=
5
2

6
5
11
+
=
10
10
10

c.

5
1
+
=
12
2

f.

3
1
+
=
4
6

1
7
+
=
6
9

3
14
17
+
=
18
18
18
i.

1
1
+
=
12
9

9
2
11
+
=
12
12
12

3

77
36
113
+
=
44
44
44

5
6
11
+
=
12
12
12
h.

7
9
+
=
4
11

8
21
29
+
=
14 14
14

7
2
9
+
=
12
12
12
g.

4
3
+
=
7
2

36

90


+

4
36

=

7
36

Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series)

p. 2 1 4 + 1 1 3 = 2 3 4 7 + 1 = 3 12 12 12 b. 23 36 5 6 7 15 3 10 1 4 5 10 15 B E C A U 17 21 9 10 9 35 N O T Puzzle Corner 45 8 15 31 30 17 28 I T W A S 5 9 1 6 1 14 104 40 23 30 L I N G W 6 23 30 S E 83 72 11 24 11 27 24 P E E 13 2 1 + = 15 3 5 13 1 1 + = 42 6 7 + + + 63 7 6 13 20 E L L ! + 1 1 5 + = 6 4 12 1 1 17 + = 8 9 72 = 5 6 = 7 24 = 9 20 7 = 16 63 Mixed Numbers with Unlike Fractional Parts. 2 3 3 6 3 3 − 1 = 2 − 1 = 1 4 8 8 8 8 b. p. 54 1. 1 1 2 + 1 3 5 = 1 5 6 1 + 1 = 3 10 10 10 d. 2 1 3 + 1 7 9 = 2 3 9 c.Add and Subtract Unlike Fractions. 2 1 1 3 2 1 − 1 = 2 − 1 = 1 2 3 6 6 6 c. a. 2 1 7 12 7 5 − 1 = 1 − 1 = 5 10 10 10 10 d. 56 1. a. 3 1 3 − 1 4 24 8 16 = 2 − 1 = 1 9 18 18 18 2. 1 2 3 + 2 1 5 = 1 10 3 13 + 2 = 3 15 15 15 91 + 1 7 9 = 3 10 1 = 4 9 9 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) .

17 21 40 13 4 1 16 3 + 3 8 5 40 16 + 3 40 10 7 22 = 10 15 15 15 10 8 − 2 10 5 2 g. 3 3 − = 2 2 − 1 9 9 1 = 8 7 8 = − d. 10 6 9 d. 15 1 12 1 + 3 4 h. b. 1 8 2 + 3 5 10 15 12 + 3 15 6 1 18 44 36 27 − 2 36 7 5 17 36 4. 6 3 3 − 2 − 10 10 5 10 5 2 3 15 12 15 4 4 −2 − 14 14 4 3 14 11 14 2 1 14 3 − 1 = 6 − 1 (like fractions) 3 7 21 21 = = 9 9 − 5 − 15 15 2 1 4 7 − 2 = 7 − 2 (like fractions) 7 2 14 14 1 9 3 4 3 8 − 2 = 8 − 2 (like fractions) 10 5 10 10 = 8 9 4 9 12 − 5 = 8 − 5 (like fractions) 15 5 15 15 1 8 2 1 2 3 − 1 = 3 − 1 (like fractions) 9 3 9 9 = 3 e.3. a. 1 2 4 − 2 5 4 8 5 − 8 6 1 6 3 − 2 5 e. 8 4 12 14 7 16 10 18 9 − 10 18 16 6 11 + 1 16 6 + 3 16 17 20 14 7 10 35 30 18 − 2 30 4 c. 2 3 4 + 3 5 a. 8 6 6 − 1 8 8 b. 16 16 24 6 1 12 3 3 12 2 9 3 − 2 4 i. 8 5 10 92 5 11 21 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 11 3 1 36 24 20 − 8 24 17 30 5 9 1 − 10 2 f. 5 3 7 6 7 − 1 = 5 − 1 (like fractions) 4 8 8 8 = 5 = c. 7 = 7 8 9 = f.

x = 1 5/24 f. a. 1 1/12 3. = 1 1/2 inches. 12 c. 8. which should be enough even with material allowed for hems. 7/24 b. − 1 1/2 in. The total width = 4 1/2 + 1/2 + 1/2 = 5 1/2 inches. 2 3/4 + 2 3/4 + 4 1/4 + 4 1/4 = 14 inches. + 3/4 in. a. The total height is 10 + 1/2 + 1/2 = 11 in. it is enough. x = 3 8/21 93 f.5. The margins are a total of 3/4 in. x = 5/8 c. 1 2/30 b. You need 11 + 11 + 5 1/2 + 5 1/2 = 33 inches of wood. 29/30 c. 1 2/6 b. c. 1 7/18 4. She could probably buy 8 feet. x = 1 3/22 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 60 1. 7. p. She will have left 5 1/2 − 3 1/4 = 2 1/4 feet from one piece. 6. 6 b. b. Subtract that from the width and height of the notebook. = 4 5/8 in. She needs 3 1/2 + 3 1/2 + 5 + 3/4 = 12 3/4 dl of flour. Sally needs 7 3/4 feet of material. Combining both of those gives 2 1/4 + 1 1/4 = 3 1/2 feet. x = 1 3/10 d. The width of the picture will be 3 1/4 in. 1 8/18 d. and 4 1/2 − 3 1/4 = 1 1/4 feet from the other piece. Add and Subtract Several Unlike Fractions. He will have 24 − 14 = 10 inches of wood left. 11/28 c. a. Yes. a. − 1 1/2 in. just to make sure she has enough after cutting. 30 2. a. and the height will be 6 1/8 in. x = 1 2/6 e. 1 1/20 e. = 1 3/4 in. Since 1 kg is 15 dl.

. 1 11/16 in. f.Measuring in Inches.. b. 2 1/8 in. The sides measure: 1 1/2 in. 2 5/8 in. 1 3/8 in. j. 62 1. 2 1/4 in.. e. Answers will vary. 6. 10/16 in. 2 3/16 in. 3 1/8 in. Check the student’s work. seven in a 10-inch high box. 2. 3 1/8 in.. on all rulers d. 1 3/4 in.. a. either 1/2 in. 2 11/16 in. b. d. 94 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 3 15/16 in. 1 1/4 in. d. 5/8 in. 3. a. l. f. 3/4 in. c. either 1 2/8 in. 1 1/4 in g. a. 1 in. p. either 3 inches or 3 1/4 inches. or 3/4 in. The perimeter is 10 3/8 in. and 3 1/4 in. e. 2 3/4 in. 7. 1 5/16 in. 49 3/4 in. 8.. c. 11/16 in. Answers will vary. or 1 3/8 in. 5. 1 5/16 in. 15/16 in. 4.. c. i. Please check the student’s work. 1 in.. either 5/8 or 6/8 in. 2 3/4 in. b. k. h. on all rulers. Four jars can be stacked on top of each other in a 6 inch high box.

1/4 of $40 is $10. a. > g. < e. < < < < b. so 3/10 is the bigger discount. 19/24 c. 50/100 b. because the fraction 3/10 is bigger than 1/4. a. < e. > e. > 5.Comparing Fractions 1. 20 21 < 24 24 c. > 5. 66 1. = d. 5/11. a. 15 14 > 24 24 f. 4. 17/24. a. a. < f. > 7. < f. a. 4/10. e. a. 3/4. 40/100 6. < h. > c. d. 40 42 < 60 60 9 10 < 45 45 21 20 > 30 30 3. a. 95 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . 7 8 5 7 9 11 9 7 12 10 9. > d. = 4. 60/100 d. a. < e. < c. 2 6 4 7 3 < < < < 2 5 3 5 2 7. Comparing Fractions 2. < 1 1 2 1 2 < < < < 5 3 5 2 3 6. < 2. < i. 2. < b. 4/9. 400 women of that group do exercise. The women who swam were the bigger group. a. For example 1/4. > d. < < < < 10 8 10 10 6 8 10 10 8 6 Puzzle corner. g. 16 15 > 24 24 b. and 3/10 of $40 is $12. > f. > j. > b. Either way. > e. < l. > c. a. p. > b. a. < b. h. 6/7. < d. the dog would get 3/24 (or 1/8) of the pizza. b. > b. 2 1 4 < < 9 3 10 8. 10 9 > 30 30 24 24 = 36 36 49 48 > 56 56 d. p. 25/100 e. > b. 20/100 g. < b. > d. < h. > c. a. For example. 49 50 < 70 70 b. b. 15 16 < 40 40 g. > b. The answer does not change at $60. 5/6. 4/5. 7/16. 1/5. < c. For example 3/7. 20/100 f. 2/9 or their equivalent fractions. 28 27 > 63 63 c. 75/100 h. < e. 5/7. 30/100 c. < c. > k. < 3. 68 1. Answers will vary. 5/12. a. < 7 7 9 < < 9 8 10 d. > d. > c.

14 c.200 books need covered. 200 e.3/8. a. 6. pink . 4/12 or 1/3 b.1/2 (or 3/6 and 3/6) c. a. The jacket costs $36 after the $9 discount. (Its area is 12 sq.5/8 2. 20 c. > 9. 6 1 2 d. 1/10 of a year is 36. p.680. 3/4 < 6/7 < 3/3 < 8/7 < 5/4 96 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) . The carpet covers 1/3 of the floor. 24. 3 1/8 7. g. c. 3.1/2. 8. a total of 21 hours. which IS more than one month. 4. white . 5 1/4 + 3 1/8 + 5 1/4 + 3 1/8 = 16 3/4 inches. 140. pink . > d. e. It would take one person 40 hours to cover all of the books that need covered. a. 9 7 12 e. and did housework for 3 hours. 11 seats are still empty. a. It is 75 centimeters long. 2/5 or 4/10 was left for Jerry to do. 7 10 b. 12 teeth b. The skirt will be 2 ft or 24 inches long after she shortens it. 3 9/10 d. < b. a. 9/12 or 3/4 e. white . 3/4 of the ribbon is left. a. 71 1. 8. = c. Review. 6 17/30 3 2 5 5 1 3 5 5 1 1 7 7 12 8 6 2 7 3 3 h.) 5. 7. 3 31/36 g. ft. 35 have not. b. a. < j.560 ÷ 9 = $840 for each month. 3/12 or 1/4 d. 6 12/20 5 6 2 12 7 x−y 3 10 f.Fraction Problems. > e. 25. a.2/7 b. p. 10/12 or 5/6 d. pink . < i. 3 11/12 2 6 b. < b. 4 5 1 1 12 8 4 6 4 7 4 8 3 6 6 7 2 4 86 100 f. 1 7 12 e. f. 8/12 or 2/3 3. 2. white . worked 8 hours. 9. Jane slept 10 hours. white . 1. 1 6. x 6 1 3 7 1 5 10 4 10 10 3 4 6 1 5 x 1 3 y 4 10 3 4 2 2 5 10 10 2 4 2 1 5 y 7 12 1 7 x+y 1 2 7 5 2 1 2 1 1 8 10 10 4 5 5 8 c. 14 b. 1 5. > h. 7.5 or 36 1/2 days.5/7. She needs to give the child 450 mg of the medicine.4/5. 72 1. d. The budget has 7. a. 420 4. for two months the budgeted amount is $1. 1/4 < 2/7 < 1/3 < 3/7 < 2/4 g. 5 c. 4.1/5 d. Mom got 1/4 of the chocolate bar. pink . > f. Angela's mother weighs 125 pounds.

1 2 5 11 1 100 100 100 100 100 3 10 12 7 1 100 100 100 3 100 2 10 1 2 2 20 2 25 1 10 2 11 4 9 4 11 2 5 1 11 2 7 1 9 1 10 3 7 2 9 6 11 7 20 34 100 9 25 1 3 2 11 7 20 1 2 3 4 3 5 9 20 3 7 2 5 5 9 2 21 17 20 4 9 3 7 1 2 9 11 1 2 9 20 1 2 5 8 2 3 3 4 6 13 5 11 2 7 7 15 5 8 2 3 7 13 3 5 4 5 21 25 19 20 7 10 7 8 5 9 17 100 8 15 19 20 17 25 7 11 24 25 5 6 97 Math Mammoth Fractions 1 (Blue Series) .10.

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