NOTES ON HANDLING SHIPS IN ICE

A MONOGRAPHE FOR HANDLING 1A AND 1AS CLASSED SHIPS
By
Captain Johan Buysse
Master Mariner, M. Sc. (Nautical)

Copyright © 2005, Johan Buysse

PUBLISHED BY SEATEC CONSULT bvba
Belgiëlei 92, B-2018 Antwerp, Belgium
buysse@seatec-consult.be
tel/fax: +32.3.239 50 33
mob: +32.475.72 68 88

FRONT COVER: Finnish icebreaker “URHO” notch towing in a
consolidated track

The company’s crew manager informed the Master of a vessel trading in the
Baltic Sea that the present chief officer would be replaced by a Canadian one.
“Being Canadian, he should have enough ice experience” he assured him.
Upon signing on the new mate, the captain asked him about his ice experience.
“Ice experience?? Captain, I have been staff captain (= chief off) on cruise
vessels in the Caribbean, the only ice I’ve ever seen was in my whisky !!”

SUGGESTIONS OR CONCLUSIONS GIVEN IN THIS MONOGRAPHE. ADVICE. .DISCLAIMER NO LIABILITY WHATSOEVER SHALL LIE WITH THE AUTHOR OR PUBLISHERS AS A RESULT OF RELIANCE ON THE INFORMATION. THE ADVICE GIVEN IS THIS OF THE AUTHOR ONLY AND IS NOT NECESSARILY TO BE TAKEN AS A STANDARD OR TO BE INCLUDED IN SHIPPING COMPANIES’ FLEET MANUALS.

the Finnish Institute of Maritime Research. Saikko (retired. for authorising me to use some of their publications. The Finnish and Swedish Maritime Administrations. for labouring through and editing my first drafts. . Swedish & Russian pilots for their advice. Chaidron (m/v Transbaltica. The owners of all ice-classed ships which they trusted him to command. Antwerp). Numerous Finnish. Beeckman (Continental Marine Services. Masters & mates of Finnish & Swedish icebreakers for assisting his various commands. Ahlers Shipping) for showing him how to handle his eye’s apple and for letting me share his vast experience on 1A Super classed Ro-Ro’s.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author would like to express his sincere gratitude to: Captain O. especially when the going was tough. Finncarriers) for initiating undersigned to the tricky business of ice seamanship and for passing on his vast and invaluable experience. Captain Y. Captain B.

.

etc. assisting other less classed vessels. a few days later I had to handle what seemed like an untamed beast. Even so. practical knowledge of ice navigation in narrow channels. 13 kt vessel to a 21. ergo the commercial results of a voyage to or fro an ice-bound port of any merchant vessel. which could decide. which. the company decided not to set me loose without me initially being assisted by a 1AS and ice experienced master. operational instructions and routines related to the navigation in ice have been identified as some of the causes of accidents. signals and orders. damage to hull and machinery and serious commercial loss. At one moment in my career at the beginning of a winter. Although one’s own vessel may meet all requirements as to its ice-class. will result in building up “credit” with the ice-breakers and a good reputation with the administrations. navigating alone in ice covered seas. not to speak of the serious risk of damage to their machinery and hull and the risk of collisions with structures. movement and dispersal of ice in a certain area. knowledge of the formation. an owner transferred me from a 4. all hell broke loose: from a leisured chugging along on an old lady. (un)berthing. Hence the importance of having ice-experience. The very nature of their design. All of a sudden. I found out that ice navigation is a vast subject which covers at least following: - knowledge of the winter season and knowledge of the micro-climates of the trading area. Moreover.FOREWORD Ice seriously effects the speed and manoeuvrability. most of my present grey hairs appeared during the first month while on this command.g. is very high. Lawrence. berths.000 dwt 1A. Over the years and after 8 winters in the Baltic. ice-breaker characteristics. combined with the ice-breaking capabilities of one’s own vessel. fairways and ice bound ports and their basins. speed and power has the perverse effect that when not carefully handled. Some ships. owner and/or charterer. their manoeuvrability. Deficiencies regarding communication. reports about this performance are drawn by them and sent to local maritime administrations. organisation. the Baltic Sea or the St. Luckily for all concerned (and especially the owners). regardless their type. I . grounding. are designed and built to operate in heavy ice conditions. e. size or class. navigating in convoy or under ice-breaker escort. one’s own performance will be closely watched by the pilots and ice-breaker staffs. the risk of collisions in ice. manoeuvring in close quarters. 1A Super. especially the so called powerful “1A Super” class. ship classification as it applies to ice navigation. the phenomenon of icing. overtaking and meeting other vessels. icebreakers or other vessels. 19 kt Ro-Ro. based on those reports that a particular vessel is not suited for winter navigation as it is causing unacceptable delays to other vessels.000 gt. sustaining damage due to extreme loads on their mid-bodies in harsh ice conditions.

FinnishSwedish 1AS and 1A class in the Baltic (and St. Of these items related to ice-navigation I shall address only a few ones.- precautions regarding prevention of ice-clogging of intakes and cooling systems. while briefly referring to the other subjects if need be.-Laurence). Some remarks or advice given could be applied to any vessel whether or not ice-classed. Capt. iceberg infested waters and polar navigation.g. e. January 2005 II . concentrating specifically on the seamanship of handling powerful ice-classed ships in ice. Johan Buysse Antwerp.

............................................................2......... 8 1.................................................................2................................ Ramming.................................2................. Hazard and damage identification:............................................................................................................... 14 1................ Which track to choose ............................................................7.............. Pilots .......................3...... X PART 1........................................................... Voyage planning and routeing................6.......2..... Breaking out other ships ..................................1....... Ice bridges.......................................................2...............7...................................................... III LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ....................................................................................... 29 2...................................................................... 9 1............................................................................................. 49 3................................2................... 46 3.......................................................................................................... 54 3....8.6................................. Close quarters situations ..................................................... 52 Following a track in reduced visibility: ......................2......... Boarding and disembarking of pilots................................................. By facsimile.............. Vessel’s preparedness ..................................... 40 3..... 9 1..........................1............ 40 Introduction.............................. 2 1................................................ By daylight................2..... 14 1........................................... 20 Introduction................ 40 NAVIGATION BY FAIRWAYS AND UNDER PILOTAGE.........................................................5................................................ Look-out and radar..............................................................4...............3....9............................................................................................................................. 10 1........CONTENTS LIST FOREWORD............................ 2 Introduction................................................................................................................... 10 1.............................................................................6..........................................................................5........................................................................ Using tracks along charted fairways .. 36 PART 3....... 40 3............................7...........3........................2.....4............................... Through agents... 35 2................ When beset (stuck).............................................................................................................................. 50 Engaging a bend:........... Instructions for merchant vessels by local administrations........................................ 9 1.............................................. 41 3... Through ice-breakers............................................................................................................................................................................. 27 2.............................................. 2 1......2......................................... At night ........... 15 1.......... 44 Meeting in a track: .....................3...................... 20 2........................... 2 VOYAGE PREPARATION.................................................1.........................................................I CONTENTS LIST ................. By internet ..................................................................................................... Nautical publications .....................................................1........ Company’s and charterer’s instructions ........ 14 1............................ 10 1............. 20 2.................................................... Means of gathering information ..............................................................4..................................................................................4............................................. 50 Following a track in reduced visibility: ....................................... Entering the ice-edge ............................................... 55 3..................................................................................................................... 44 Overtaking in a straight and narrow track: .................................... 26 2...... Lights and shapes............................................................................. 16 PART 2....... 55 III ......... By (Call-)fax ....................................... pilot and coast radio stations ............................................................... 21 2.........2........................................ 19 IN ICE AT SEA................. Navtex.............2..........................................................5.....................2........................................................................

....2............................................................................. Mooring stern in first..............6...................................................................…………………… 70 PART 5........................................................................................................................................................................................... 114 ADDENDUM D.................................................................................. 86 5................................................................................................................ 60 4................................... Breaking out ....... 58 Introduction.............................................................. 58 4............................................................................ 76 5..................................................................................5............................................................................... 78 5.............. 152 ADDENDUM F………………………………………………………………………… 165 DANISH ICE BREAKER DUES…………………………………………………… 165 REFERENCES...........................1.... 110 Ice-breakers particulars .......... 88 5...........................................3........................... 88 ADDENDI............Signals.. Mooring bow in first .... 94 ADDENDUM B ................... Under tow………………………………………………… .................................................................. Following ice-breaker (pre-break escort) .......................... 152 SEA ICE NOMENCLATURE.................... 169 IV ...................... In convoy .................................................. Approaching the berth ............ 76 5..... 68 4................................................2...................................................2. 60 4.................................................................................................................... Forward mode ................................................................................................................................PART 4.......... 92 ADDENDUM A...............................................................................................................2...................................1..........................3................... Unmooring/casting off ..... 122 ADDENDUM E ............. 86 5..................................................................... 76 Introduction....................................................................................................................... Alongside in port ........ 61 4.......... 58 ICE-BREAKER ASSISTANCE ....1................ Sternboard mode...................................................................................................................................................... 60 4........2..............................5................ 110 ADDENDUM C..........2....................................... Quarter pass ....................................... 58 4.................................................................................................... Communications .................................................................................................................. 94 Finnish Icebreaking Service..................................................................................................2.............................................4...................................................................... 167 INDEX........ River berths ....................................................4................................................................................................... 65 4............................................................................................................................................. 122 FINNISH-SWEDISH ICE CLASS RULES ....................................... 114 FINNISH-SWEDISH ICE CLASS EQUIVALENTS................................................................................ 76 BERTHING & (UN)MOORING................................................................................................................

COLOURED 8 PLATE 6: SWEDISH ICE-CHART 11 PLATE 7: FINNISH ICE-CHART (COLOURED) 12 PLATE 8: CANADIAN 30-DAY ICE FORECAST 13 PLATE 9: SATELLITE PICTURE BALTIC SEA 18 PLATE 9B: SWEDISH ICE-CHART 19 PLATE 10: APPROACHING THE ICE LIMIT.C. ICE-BREAKER) 26 PLATE 18: RADAR PICTURE OF RIDGED ICE FIELD 27 PLATE 19: RADAR PICTURE OF OPEN WATER OR LEAD BETWEEN ICE FIELDS 28 PLATE 20: BESET IN CONSOLIDATED ICE 32 PLATE 21: BESET 32 PLATE 22: GETTING UNSTUCK 33 PLATE 23: GETTING UNSTUCK BY TRANSFERRING WEIGHTS 34 PLATE 24: RAMMING SMALL RIDGE 35 PLATE 25: BREAKING OUT 37 PLATE 26: BREAKING OUT.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (source: author. BESET VESSEL IN FROZEN CONSOLIDATED TRACK 38 V . unless stated otherwise in text) PLATE 1A: NAVTEX GALE & ICING WARNING REPORT 1 PLATE 1B: NAVTEX ICE BREAKING SERVICE REPORT 1 PLATE 1C: NAVTEX ICE REPORT 1 PLATE 2: ICING 4 PLATE 3: TYPICAL (MINOR) ICE DAMAGE 6 PLATE 4: BY CALL-FAX OR INTERNET: ICE CHART BALTIC SEA (GERMAN ICE MAP) 7 PLATE 5: GERMAN ICE MAP XE "ICE MAP: GERMAN" . DOWNWIND 22 PLATE 11: ENCOUNTERING FIRST ICE. DOWNWIND 22 PLATE 12: SKIRTING ALONG THE ICE EDGE 23 PLATE 13: RADAR PICTURE OF ABOVE 23 PLATE 14: SHORE LEAD ON ICE CHART 24 PLATE 15: ALTERNATIVE TRACK BETWEEN FLOES 24 PLATE 16: LEAD AND FRACTURE 25 PLATE 17: TRACK MADE BY POWERFUL VESSEL (I.

WELL FENDERED BERTH 80 PLATE 57: MOORING BOW FIRST.VARIANT OF STERNBOARD MODE 65 PLATE 49: FOLLOWING ICE-BREAKER “KONTIO” AT 15 METER 68 PLATE 50: ICE-BREAKER CLOSING IN 69 PLATE 51: IN CONVOY 69 PLATE 52: SMALL INDENTS IN BOW SECTION DUE TO NOTCH-TOWING BY ICE-BREAKERS 72 PLATE 53: “URHO” NOTCH TOWING 74 PLATE 54: UNDER TOW 74 PLATE 55: MOORING BOW IN FIRST 79 PLATE 56: MOORING BOW FIRST.PLATE 27: SWEDISH AND FINNISH PILOT BOAT PLATE 28: HYDROCOPTER 40 40 PLATE 29: BOARDING OF PILOT IN ICE TRACK 43 PLATE 30: IB URHO IN CONSOLIDATED ICE. FORWARD MODE 64 PLATE 48: BREAKING OUT . "CHERRY-PICKER" ON BOW 44 PLATE 31: MEETING OR OVERTAKING IN NARROW TRACK 46 PLATE 32: MEETING IN A WIDE TRACK 48 PLATE 33: WIDE TRACK IN 15-30 CM ICE 48 PLATE 34: MEETING IN TRACK 49 PLATE 35: RADAR PICTURE WHEN FOLLOWING STRAIGHT TRACK 52 PLATE 36: ENGAGING A SHARP BEND 53 PLATE 37: RADAR PICTURE WHEN APPROACHING A BEND 54 PLATE 38: ENGAGING A BEND IN POOR VISIBILITY 55 PLATE 39: ICE BRIDGE 57 PLATE 40: M:S GEUULBORG AFTER COLLISION IN ICE 58 PLATE 41: HEAD TO TAIL COLLISION IN ICE TRACK 58 PLATE 42: STERNBOARD MODE 60 PLATE 43: SWEDISH IB ATLE GOING ASTERN AND PASSING CLOSE TO OWN (BESET) VESSEL 60 PLATE 44: FOLLOWING CLOSE ICEBREAKER 62 PLATE 45: QUARTER PASS 62 PLATE 46: FORWARD MODE 63 PLATE 47: “SISU” HEADING TO OWN VESSEL’S BOW. DOUBLE SPRING MOST ICE REMOVED 81 VI .

ICE PRESSURE. STRIPS OF GREASE ICE AND SLUSH 152 PLATE 68: SHUGA WITH BRASH ICE AND ICE CAKES 152 PLATE 69: BOUNDARY OF NILAS (< 10 CM) AND GREY ICE (THICKNESS 10-15 CM) WITH RAFTING152 PLATE 70: BROKEN AND PARTLY RAFTED GREY ICE (10-15 CM) WITH SHIP TRACK 152 PLATE 71: RIDGED ICE WITH SMALL FLOES OF LEVEL GREY-WHITE ICE (15-30 CM) 153 PLATE 72: RIDGED ICE WITH SMALL FLOES OF LEVEL GREY-WHITE ICE (15-30 CM) : 153 PLATE 73: RIDGE IN LEVEL GREY-WHITE ICE (15-30 CM) 153 PLATE 74: FLOES 153 PLATE 75: PANCAKE ICE 154 PLATE 76: OPEN ICE 154 PLATE 77: OPEN ICE. POOR FENDERED QUAY 83 PLATE 59: USE OF HARBOUR TUG 84 PLATE 60: HARBOUR TUG ASSISTING IN REMOVING ICE 85 PLATE 61: MOORING STERN FIRST IN 87 PLATE 62: CASTING OFF 90 PLATE 63: GETTING UNDERWAY.PLATE 58: MOORING BOW FIRST IN. CLASSED 1A SUPER 151 PLATE 67: FIRST ICE FORMATION. NO OBSTRUCTIONS AHEAD 91 PLATE 64: ICE-BREAKER “SAMPO” IN FROST SMOKE 92 PLATE 65: EXAMPLE OF A FINNISH ICE CLASS CERTIFICATE 121 PLATE 66: M/S TRANSBALTICA. SNOW COVERED 154 VII . SMALL FLOE OF 30 CM THICK 154 PLATE 78: VERY CLOSE ICE .

VOYAGE PREPARATION Plate 1a Navtex gale & icing warning Report Plate 1b Navtex ice breaking service Report 1 Plate 1c Navtex ice Report .

will especially apply when planning a voyage to or between icebound ports. are perfectly able to operate successfully in ice-covered waters. preparing a passage plan. unexpected restrictions of movements Deviations from the originally planned route Ice impacts due to ship speed & ship motion Noise & vibrations increase Increased time needed for voyage. Safety and the economics of transportation. one can expect following hazards: List of key words. Helsinki Commission. handled by an experienced staff. 18 November 2003) Ice => => => => => => => => => => Difficulties in keeping the ship moving. e.g. it is of utmost importance to keep freedom of manoeuvre when passing through the ice. as once one’s ship is beset. taking pilot.1. 1. the total passage time and total bunkers consumption. problems or deviations related to winter navigation hazards (source: 4th Meeting of the Ice Expert Working Group. unexpected loss of speed Difficulties in manoeuvring. Hence the importance of gathering all possible updated information about the weather and ice situation to be encountered and the position of all icebreakers posted along one’s route. it would be reckless for him to rely solely on the icebreaking capabilities of his vessel and on scanty or not updated information regarding the ice situation about to be encountered. Moreover. Even so. for the mariner. speed loss. berthing Increased time and restrictions to rescue units arrival on accident site Difficulties in finding objects or substances (oil) that are below ice cover or under ice floe(s) Difficulties to find shoreline from radar based information Abrasive effects on ship hull painting => increased rate of rusting 2 . unexpected motions of the ship. initiating events. Hazard and damage identification: When heading for ice-bound waters.VOYAGE PREPARATION PART 1 VOYAGE PREPARATION Introduction High ice-classed ships. it will drift towards wherever the ice sets.

listing Ice on outer decks and other surfaces.VOYAGE PREPARATION Drifting ice => => => => => => Damage or other effects (e. change of location) to the aids to navigation Compressive ice: ice loads due to ice movement & pressure Ship stuck in ice (see plates 8 & 9)/ Ship movement with ice Anchoring not possible due to Movement of newly broken channel / old channel from its original location Ice accumulation on the side of the ship. on the deck Ice blocks. clogged deck drainage pipes. lubricating oil Moisture condensing and/or freezing on cold surfaces Freezing of cargo.g. deck equipment etc. ice floes => => => => => => => => => Extra echoes on radar screen Ice blocks below the ship bottom Echo depth sounder may not work properly Ice block jammed in front of the propeller or between hull appendages Ice in the sea-water intake for machinery cooling system. brittleness. fire main Ice in the transverse thruster tunnel Ice loads on the propeller Ice loads on the rudder and other appendages Stones from sea bottom sticking fast to ice blocks in shallow water Snow => => => Difficulties with visual observations Difficulties with radar based information Makes the channel more heavy to navigate Low temperature => => => => => => => => All effects of low temperature (e. hydraulic oil. frozen life saving equipment (lifeboats. loss of freeboard Deteriorating of ship stability. davits etc. Difficulties with battery operated devices Hypothermia Spray ice. icing (see plate 2): => => => => Difficulties with visual observations (frozen windows on bridge) Weight increase in the upper structures.) 3 .g. draught increase. ice on deck equipment. => -35°C in the Gulf of Finland) All effects of temperature changes and temperature differences Effects on materials: thermal strains. thermal expansion Effects on oil viscosity: effects on fuel oil.

awaiting better conditions 4 . crew clearing ice Heavy icing on deck cargo. vessel at anchor in sheltered waters.VOYAGE PREPARATION Plate 2: icing Light to moderate icing on f’csle and hatch-coamings Result of moderate icing on f’csle.

VOYAGE PREPARATION Others => => => darkness sea or frost smoke from broken channel and other areas of open water occupational safety matters onboard: equipment & effects on crew members These hazards could result in following damage: - dents and fractures due to ship-ice contact (see plate 3) - ship collisions in ice (see plates 40. 41 & 52) - grounding events due to difficult ice conditions - ships in bad condition or inadequate ice strengthening - propeller damages (see plate 3) - rudder damages (see plate 3) - surface damages (painting). (see plate 3 & 52) - main engine or other machinery malfunction Risk assessment for hull ice damage: Ship assisted by ice-breaker in compressive ice field Ship sailing alone in compressive ice field Ship assisted by ice-breaker in ice covered sea Ship sailing alone in various ice conditions Due to difficult ice conditions it takes time for ice-breaker to break out ship while ice presses on hull Ship gets stuck/beset and ice starts pressing on its sides High stresses and possible hull’s structural failure Moderate speed and sudden heavy impacts with large floes/track or channel’s side/ice edge 5 .

after 2 winters in the Baltic) Bilge keels partly torn off Indents in leading edge of rudder blade Indents in shell plating and surface paint damage Propeller tip bent 6 . 1a class vessel.VOYAGE PREPARATION Therefore: RULE ALWAYS RESPECT THE POWER OF ICE IN ALL ITS APPEARANCES !!! HEADING OVERCONFIDENTLY INTO ICE EQUALS HEADING FOR TROUBLE ! Plate 3: typical (minor) ice damage (in casu a 6.000 t dwt.

VOYAGE PREPARATION Plate 4: by call-fax or internet: ice chart Baltic sea (German ice map) (source: BSH. Germany) 7 .

VOYAGE PREPARATION Plate 5: German ice map. Germany) 8 . for colour code see also addendum e (source: BSH. coloured.

By (call-)fax Various organisations offer the possibility of automatic send-out (or in combination) with a call-fax-service to vessels by fax. check whether they are programmed in the Navtex’s stations list.9.3. As an example (see also plates 4.fi 1. 1c) 1.fmi.fimr. Check if the ice-report option is activated. Swedish and German ice service o Http://www. updated ice charts. Therefore. Navtex Navtex stations in northern and arctic waters broadcast ice reports.se/ The Finnish ice service of the Finnish institute of marine research Tel + 358. By facsimile .smhi.fi/en. providing the ship owner has an agreement with those organisations and that the vessel has an Inmarsat link or is in reach of a mobile telephone network. Means of gathering information 1. Ref: admiralty list of radio signals (see plates 1a. 5.html/ o Http://www.VOYAGE PREPARATION 1. stating the position. thickness and type of ice.2.2.bsh.6857659 o Http://www.jsp o Http://www2.2. on a daily basis. 1b. 6. 8.de/de/index. See the proper volume of the admiralty list of radio signals 9 .2.1.ice. At times the print-out is of poor quality due to tenature of its transmission (by short wave) but sometimes it turns out to be the only alternative if no fax reception or internet link possible and/or when out of Navtex range.2. Gale and icing warnings are transmitted separately as well as the latest icebreaking service and ice-class restrictions reports. 9b): Icemap by the Finnish.

L.ec. the vessel should as soon as possible contact the nearest icebreaker.g. pilot and coast radio stations Upon approaching ice bound waters.R.5.gc. information regarding the ice situation can only be obtained by Navtex.fi/en. it offers countless possibilities as to get the latest information and this in various languages.2. and a whole new world opens.2. 10 . by the very nature of their work.de/de/meeresdaten/beobachtungen/eis (see plate 4. try to obtain info regarding ice.) on VHF and MF frequencies. especially during strong winters. icebreakers assigned to the destination port and/or waypoints through the local VTS or/pilot station. pilot station or ice-breaker. where the difficult spots are and therefore will give some ice waypoints * along the calling vessel’s route towards its destination. * ice waypoint: a waypoint given by a VTS. For instance. We advice the ship owners to study on this medium which link would offer the best suited information to their vessels. 5. Ice reports are also being transmitted by local coast radio stations (see A.bsh.S.4. VTS or pilot station by vhf or mobile/satellite phone and ask for the latest update regarding the ice situation. Through ice-breakers. Some suggestions: Http://www. If no icebreakers can be raised. When passing the Kiel canal) to provide them with the latest ice chart available to them prior to departure. see also plate 8) Http://www. ice-breakers will not assist vessels which deliberately ignore their instructions. masters should request their agents (e.2. They know.fi/tte/projects/icemap 1. with references as “ice charts”. some pilot stations could be closed and vessels are diverted to other pilot stations.ice-glaces.html Http://www. 1.vtt. use “Google” as search engine. Through agents When for one reason or another. Some icebreakers regularly carry out visual reconnaissance by their shipbased helicopter. One should have good reasons as not to use these waypoints as in most cases.fimr. By internet The most recent means of gathering information.VOYAGE PREPARATION 1. 9) Http://www2.6. to where all in and outward bound traffic is directed. Bear in mind that.ca (for Canadian waters.

Sweden) 11 .VOYAGE PREPARATION Plate 6: Swedish ice-chart (source: SMA.

VOYAGE PREPARATION Plate 7: Finnish ice-chart (coloured) (source: Finnish institute of maritime research) 12 .

AS WELL OCCASIONAL ICE PRESSURE MAY DEVELOP ALONG THE EASTERN COAST OF CAPE BRETON DUE TO ONSHORE WINDS. A SERIES OF LOW PRESSURE SYSTEMS WILL MOVE ACROSS THE GULF OF ST LAWRENCE DURING THE SECOND HALF OF MARCH AND TEMPERATURES WILL BE SLIGHTLY ABOVE NORMAL. TEMPERATURES WILL BE SLIGHTLY ABOVE NORMAL FOR THE FIRST HALF OF APRIL. FORECAST ICE CONDITIONS FROM APRIL 01ST TO APRIL 15TH. THE BAND OF ICE CURRENTLY SOUTH OF CAPE BRETON IS EXPECTED TO BE PUSHED INTO WARMER WATERS BY STRONG WINDS AND MELT RAPIDLY OVER THE NEXT FEW DAYS. FORECAST ICE CONDITIONS FROM MARCH 17TH TO MARCH 31ST. END 13 . OPEN DRIFT TO CLOSE PACK CONDITIONS WILL PERSIST IN THE NORTHEAST ARM AND IN BELLE ISLE STRAIT AS THICK AND MEDIUM FIRST YEAR WITH A TRACE OF OLD ICE KEEP MOVING SOUTHWESTWARD FROM THE SOUTHERN LABRADOR COAST BUT SOME AREAS OF OPEN WATER WILL DEVELOP AND EXPAND SPECIALLY DURING THE SECOND WEEK OF THE PERIOD. THE NEXT 30 DAY FORECAST WILL BE ISSUED ON 05 APRIL 2004. AT TIMES. LAWRENCE RIVER. ICE WILL CONTINUE TO ROUND CAPE NORTH DURING THE PERIOD AND MOVE INTO THE WESTERN SECTION OF CABOT STRAIT. THE ICE EXTENT IS NEAR NORMAL IN THE WESTERN PORTION OF THE GULF. MOVE BACK ALONG THE SOUTH COAST OF CAPE BRETON AS FAR WEST AS CHEDABUCTO BAY. OTHERWISE OPEN WATER TO ICE FREE CONDITIONS WILL PREVAIL. MUCH OF THE ICE NORTH AND WEST OF ISLES DE LA MADELEINE WILL BE DESTROYED OR DRIFT AWAY EARLY IN THE PERIOD. A TRACE OF OLD ICE WILL REACH THE STRAIGHT OF BELLE ISLE DURING THE LAST WEEK OF THE MONTH.VOYAGE PREPARATION Plate 8: Canadian 30-day ice forecast FECN01 CWIS 172100 THIRTY DAY FORECAST FOR THE GULF OF ST LAWRENCE FOR MID-MARCH TO MID-APRIL ISSUED BY ENVIRONMENT CANADA FROM CANADIAN ICE SERVICE IN OTTAWA ON 17 MARCH 2004. PATCHES OF ROTTEN THICK FIRST YEAR ICE WILL PERSIST ALONG THE NORTHWEST AND EAST COASTS OF CAPE BRETON. AREAS OF FIRST YEAR ICE WILL PERSIST IN THE SOUTHWESTERN SECTION OF THE GULF OF ST LAWRENCE AND ALONG THE NORTHWESTERN COAST OF CAPE BRETON BUT THE EXTENT WILL SIGNIFICANTLY DIMINISH DURING THE PERIOD. AS WELL WE CAN EXPECT A GRADUAL DECREASE IN ICE EXTENT OVER THAT AREA. FAST ICE WILL PERSIST IN MIRAMICHI BAY BUT WILL START TO BREAK UP LATE IN THE PERIOD. A GENERAL DECREASE IN ICE EXTENT CAN BE EXPECTED IN NORTHUMBERLAND STRAIT DURING THE NEXT 2 WEEKS WITH OCCASIONAL ONSHORE ICE PRESSURE DEVELOPING WITH STORM PASSAGES. THE FAST ICE ALONG THE NORTHERN SHORE OF THE NORTHEAST ARM WILL PERSIST THROUGHOUT THE PERIOD. THE ICE IN THE ST. OPEN WATER WILL ALSO DEVELOP IN CHALEUR BAY BY THE END OF THE MONTH EXCEPT FOR A NARROW BAND OF FIRST YEAR PERSISTING ALONG THE SOUTH SHORE. BREAK UP CONDITIONS IN THE REST OF THE GULF ARE ABOUT 2 TO 3 WEEKS AHEAD OF NORMAL EXCEPT FOR A BAND OF FIRST YEAR ICE EXTENDING FROM CABOT STRAIT SOUTHWESTWARD TO SOUTH OF CHEDABUCTO BAY. THICK AND MEDIUM FIRST YEAR ICE WILL CONTINUE TO MOVE FROM THE SOUTHERN LABRADOR COAST INTO BELLE ISLE STRAIT. THE ICE EDGE OVER THE NORTHEAST SECTION OF THE GULF WILL GRADUALLY RETREAT NORTHEASTWARD AND WILL LIE NEAR 50N AT THE END OF THE MONTH. ICE FROM CABOT STRAIT WILL. THE ESTUARY AND IN DETROIT D' HONGUEDO WILL GRADUALLY MELT DURING THE NEXT WEEK AND THOSE AREAS WILL BECOME OPEN WATER DURING THE LAST WEEK OF MARCH. HOWEVER DUE TO PERIODS OF EASTERLY WINDS. TEMPERATURES WERE ABOVE NORMAL OVER THE REGION FOR THE FIRST 2 WEEKS IN MARCH. NORTHUMBERLAND STRAIT AND CHALEUR BAY WILL BECOME OPEN WATER DURING THE SECOND WEEK OF APRIL EXCEPT FOR FAST ICE PERSISTING IN SOUTHEASTERN CHALEUR BAY.

They can be obtained through owners.de Poland : mail zenni@umgdy. And any advice given by charterers.sok.wsa-ki.gov. NP 100.se 14 .2.sjofartsverket.de Icebreaking services : Denmark : http://www. NINTH EDITION CODE OF SIGNALS AMENDED EDITION 1987 1.dk/info/info.8. Company’s and charterer’s instructions Look for any specific operational instructions and routines from ship owner in circular letters.9. Nautical publications As to navigation in ice.fi/e/functions/icebreaking Germany : http://www.htm Estonia: http://www. etc.pl Sweden: http://www.VOYAGE PREPARATION 1. VOLUME III . 1. Instructions for merchant vessels by local administrations One should have on board the instructions for ice navigation and ice-breaking services issued by local maritime administrations.fma.7.bsis-ice. NP 20.html?Id=664 Finland : http://www. mariners should at least familiarize themselves with the information given in following nautical publications (list not limited): - THE MARINER‘S HANDBOOK . the ism’s fleet manual. agents or on the internet on following sites (see also addendum a for an example): Common website of the national ice services of the Baltic sea (established by the Baltic sea ice services): Www.2. - BALTIC - INTERNATIONAL SEVENTH EDITION PILOT.vta.wsd-nord.ee/atp/index.2. These are usually published in the form of brochures.

Especially for overpowered ships: do not rely solely on one’s vessel ice-breaking capabilities as one can get in too heavy ice conditions.ca.sok. then once reached the ice limits.de/en/marine%20data/observations/ice/index.fimr.de/de/meeresdaten/beobachtungen/eis/index./app/wsvpagedsp. one has to choose a track were the least of ice or ice-pressure can be expected. vts or pilot stations are very helpful but still.infocentrum-binnenwateren. Note that during ice periods. For instance.dk/info/info.htm Finland: http://www2. As to the matter of choosing a point of entry into the ice and the course set out thereafter. and set and drift of the prevailing currents.bsh. The waypoints given by the ice-breakers. big leads (see plate 16) or shore leads (from latest ice charts. the Gulf of Finland maritime district will communicate this decision through the notices to mariners and as a navigational warning via Turku radio. the ice situation could change in a matter of hours.VOYAGE PREPARATION Ice services: Canada: http://ice-glaces.kystverket. one has to head for them by using all latest information as during some periods. If strong winds are blowing or have been forecasted.cfm?Id=1&lang=eng Denmark: http://www. areas with low ice concentrations . http://www.ec. lay out a track. local maritime administrations may remove the traffic separation zones for a certain time. Trying to avoid as long as possible any consolidated.bsh. namely at the beginning and end of the winter season. one should take into consideration the forecasted wind force and direction. especially when vast areas are covered by ice. a vessel should have only enough power to operate in ice for which the ship’s structures have been designed. see plate 14). one should use the old sailing ships’ rule of choosing a windward track which allows for a safety margin in case of drifting towards shallow waters when own vessel gets beset in the ice. 15 . using as long as possible any open water.nl Norway: 1.3.no Voyage planning and routeing Using all obtained ice info and weather forecasts. plot a route through new or thin level ice or very open or open ice etc. as these points are usually about 20 to 60 miles from the pilot station at the destination port. resulting in loads on the midship’s sections for which one’s vessel is not designed.html Germany: http://www. rafted or ridged ice areas (see plate 15).fi/en/palvelut/jaapalvelu.gc. From open water to the ice waypoints (from ice-breakers).jsp http://www.jsp Netherlands: http://www. Odd as it may seem.

could be adrift in ice or are pressed under the ice. All radars should be in optimal condition. RULE DO NOT ENTER ICE IF ANY LONGER BUT EASIER GOING ROUTE IS AVAILABLE 1.g. Adjust draught/trim as to be within limits of the “ice belt” *. as many of them are removed or replaced by winter spars for the winter season. Finnish-Swedish ice class rules 1985. one has to review all information. Vessel’s preparedness The class and administration rules are primarily dealing with the vessel’s capability to advance in ice. with amendments dated October 2002). the ship’s staff should take in time some precautions as to safety and operation. Check if draughts are in accordance with the ice class. waiting for free berth. stated in the fleet manual or the ship’s specific manual should be adhered to. Specific instructions. See also addendum d: Finnish-Swedish ice class rules and example of Finnish ice class certificate in addendum c. For none ice class vessels: ballast/trim vessel as to have maximum rudder/propeller and sea-chests immersion. * ice belt: the area over which the shell plating is required to be reinforced for navigation in ice (as per class rules and administrations e. It goes without saying that the final chosen route will also largely depend on own vessel’s draught. 16 . ice-breaking capabilities and ship’s staff ice experience.4. Heating coils) in all tanks.VOYAGE PREPARATION Once near the ice edge. Trim. Avoid topping off WB tanks and keep them slack. During winter or when sailing in ice. Check rudder angle indicators: midships position should be exactly zero when zero on rudder stock in steering gear room. When winter conditions are expected. to avoid damage to hull and machinery and to minimise the risk of commercial losses in port. manoeuvring or waiting for icebreaker. Prior to winter season: check WB heating systems (e. do not rely on the sighting of buoys. Following list (not limited to) applies to any vessel: - - Carry out all items on checklists regarding winter/freezing/icing. Check bunker status of IFO/HFO and especially DO or MDO as consumption can increase substantially when trying to get free after being beset. draught and stability permitting: drain all useless water ballast (WB) in side. wing or top tanks.g. including any updates from icebreakers or other outbound vessels and if necessary adjust the voyage plan.

check.). Check if enough wooden hammers (sledge type and smaller ones). any other cooling water systems. emergency fire pump room. runner drums from cranes and any other critical deck equipment in order to minimise the effects from icing.P.C. Drain all deck lines from water. If provided. PUMPS WHEN IN FREEZING CONDITIONS !! 17 . Test the seawater cooling recirculation system on the sea-chests. lashing pods. Check if enough winter working clothes (e. Start in time heating systems in forecastle and crane deck houses (bowthruster room. etc. prior any ballast or bunker operation.P. that de-aerators are free from ice.U. After having experienced icing. Check all heating systems on electrical motors on deck and of all hydraulic power packs.: NEVER STOP THE HYDLAULIC C. Order extra anti-slip sand. hydraulic unit stations etc.. Order extra salt which can be used in hold bilges..g. Test the steam-heating/compressed air system on the sea-chests. etc.P. Protect windlasses.P. Bunker tanks temperatures to be maintained above pour-point. Test the engine room space heating. check pre-heating on lifeboat motors (for enclosed type). Choose the bottom/low suction sea-chest for cooling or intake. Start all deck machinery in due time as to warm up any circulating hydraulic oil. Engineers should check the following: - Avoid engine room ventilation directed onto pipes. Check antifreeze additive in lifeboat motors. Status of the active cathodic protection (impressed current). cargo space heating systems. Winter overalls) on board. Check bridge window heating. bosun stores. mooring ropes. emergency generator. Provide heating in bow/stern thrusters rooms. RULE FOR SHIPS WITH C. Start the heating of the steering gear room. lights. Check N.VOYAGE PREPARATION - Check if searchlight(s) is working and if enough spare bulbs are available. snow shovels and stiff brooms on board for removing ice (icing) and snow.

Germany) 18 .VOYAGE PREPARATION Plate 9: satellite picture Baltic sea (source: BSH.

AT SEA Plate 9b: Swedish ice-chart (source: Swedish Meteorological & Hydrological Institute) 19 .

shift to that one. fast or level ice the best for finding or following an ice track (see plates 35. switch on a forward facing floodlight on the foremast or f’csle (or even better the Suez-canal searchlight) and at least one searchlight. If vessel is equipped with a 3-cm radar scanner on the foremast. leads. 2. Look-out and radar Man the engine room and post in time an experienced look-out for visual detection of any type of ice. From a commercial point of view. etc. with preference on a fixed landmark. growlers. hence the importance to elaborate on some aspects of sailing unassisted through ice. ice fields. 20 . see also addendum e). 3-cm radar (X-band): once in very close. and adjust the 10-cm radar (or 3-cm if no s-band) to a range of 3 miles. adjust sea clutter to a minimum.1. as buoys can drift or be confounded with a big ice growler. for which we refer to that particular part of the mariner’s handbook (ice glossary and ice photographs. this part. Switch on deck-lighting aft. when first ice in any form is detected. One should familiarize himself in time with all types of ice.AT SEA PART 2 IN ICE AT SEA Introduction The longest part of a journey through ice-infested waters is usually the part where the ship has to battle its way through entirely on its own. where the vessel ventures on her own in ice is the one where losses can be considerable. be sure these are correctly positioned.) As the 3-cm picks up too much sea clutter. edge. At night. 37 ) or when sailing in convoy or following an ice-breaker. barrier. When using electronic radar maps. from the ice edge towards the pilot station or to the ice waypoints where ice-breaker assistance can be obtained. 10-cm radar (S-band): better suited for detecting ice (floats. so one can easily determine what type and thickness of ice floating past.

inform asap the engine room as to prepare engines for the passage through the ice. one can expect more ice pressure and thicker or rafted ice. reduce the speed according to the ships’ ice-class. then head into the chosen point of entry at a right angle with the edge. Shifting main engine(s) from ifo/hfo to do/mdo. one should take off the top of the speed. When entering the ice edge from leeward. Adjusting the settings of the load limit on the main engine(s). This will also increase total available power to the shaft/propeller. In and outbound vessels should be plotted on the ARPA as their speed and heading data reveal which areas to avoid or to steer to. 13). To avoid power black-out. If still on shaft generator: shifting to auxiliary generator(s). Entering the ice-edge When the first signs of ice are detected (see plates 22. If one enters the ice edge from the windward side. As the stem is the strongest part of a ship. damage to the bow area is quite probable. will show which echo is an ice-breaker. try to hit the floes squarely with the bows if a collision with a floe is unavoidable.g. 21 .I. one can keep initial speed. When one’s ship has a high propulsion power compared to its size (e. Hit the ice edge at a right angle with minimum rudder as to avoid damage to the bows and the risk of bouncing off the ice edge or big floes. but avoid hitting the bigger floes (see plates 10. the edge announces itself by an abrupt smoothing of the sea state (waves.S. with open water speeds of more than 18 knots). fast ferry. Once detected the edge. In this case. When approaching the ice edge or big ice fields or when making way through the ice. At least the following should be considered: - Choice of sea-chest or cooling water intake/recirculation. look for a lead or try to spot an area of rather loose ice if necessary by skirting the edge (see plates 12. Ice class 1A Super. Availability of all starting air compressors.2. for instance at full displacement (draught !) Combined with the bow wave lifting up the ice floes above the (upper forward) ice belt. as to avoid colliding with loose ice floes at full speed (force of impact is directly related to one’s displacement and the square of the speed). Ro-Ro or powerful and fast vessel.AT SEA 2. shift in time from shaft generator to auxiliary power. 23). 11 ). Additional data obtained from the A. try to obtain by vhf any useful information from outbound vessels about the ice conditions they just encountered. Prepare sea-chests for avoiding frazil or Shuga problems. Stopping the fresh water generator. In open drift ice (see plate 76). swell). then open ice. appearance of brash ice followed very open ice. increasing gradually to full power once in the ice.

downwind.AT SEA Plate 10: approaching the ice limit. keeping initial speed 22 . downwind Plate 11: encountering first ice.

AT SEA Plate 12: skirting along the ice edge Plate 13: radar picture of above (x-band) 23 .

AT SEA Plate 14: shore lead on ice chart SHORE LEAD Plate 15: alternative track between floes Big floe Risk of getting beset Actual followed (safer/faster) track through leads or lighter ice Planned track 24 .

fracture (bottom) 25 .AT SEA Plate 16: Lead in ice (top).

a good look out and preferably the most experienced officer or a/b and helmsman at the wheelhouse is of utmost importance as to spot in time any lead and avoid the patches with too much pressure or thickness. For rough sea condition and rudder limit set to 10°. echo trails on at least 30 minutes. exhaust gas temperatures permitting and use both steering gear pumps. Plate 17: track made by a powerful vessel (in casu ice-breaker) (source: the Swedish maritime administration) 26 . adjust its settings e. It is very helpful to know which ships are regularly trading in the area or to know where the ferries’ tracks are (see plate 17). preferably of a powerful ship (ferries. 16.3.I. can be very helpful as to determine what ships made these tracks. it will take some time before these tracks close up.S. 28). The A. Plot all vessels ahead with ARPA. very close ice or fast ice and especially in rafted or consolidated ice. Head for patches of open water or follow any leads or fractures in the vicinity which are generally heading to the next waypoint. Try to find any recent tracks.g.AT SEA 2. Keep full power on engines. big Ro-Ro’s. as to follow their progress and speed and if necessary to pick up their track or to avoid their position if they get beset or if they are making almost no headway. If no or weak wind or drifting ice. true-motion presentation. icebreaker convoy). true vectors. especially for powerful ships. but keep in mind that. Steer with a minimum of rudder and give instructions accordingly to the helmsman or when using the autopilot. Leads are normally directed perpendicular to the wind direction (see plates 14. By daylight Once in close. the speed will increase rapidly when encountering lighter ice or a patch of open water.

above). (see 2.3. Monitor all vessels ahead with ARPA and/or A.AT SEA 2.4. gain and sea clutter of radar sets. Plate 18: radar picture of ridged ice field ridge ridge ridge 27 .5 miles and off centre range. the other on 6 miles when vessel capable of speeds in ice between 8-13 knots. one set at 1. or 3 miles and off centre and 12 miles if capable of speed in ice in excess of 14 knots.I. Distrust your judgment regarding the ice thickness or type when it is snow covered. Adjust the range.S. At night Use all searchlights (and Suez light if fitted) as to monitor the type and thickness of the ice or to find leads or recent made tracks.

AT SEA Plate 19: radar picture of open water or lead between ice fields icefield Open water or lead Ridged icefield 28 .

give alternately hard port and starboard rudder as to “wriggle” the ship and to clear ice from aft part of the vessel. at the same time watching the gyro compass rose closely. it will waiver at least about half a degree to port or starboard. When beset (stuck) Excessive ice load on the midships body is one of the major causes of deformed plating. hence one should avoid of getting completely stuck and if beset one should try to get unstuck as soon as possible. Give slow ahead as to clear the stern from ice by using the propeller wash. The risk of sustaining this kind of damage is high when one gets beset in ice. With half ahead. as long the vessel is not stuck completely. Great care should be taken when the periods of speed drops become longer and the vessel is not speeding up to normal speed between these periods. on has to stop engines immediately so that vessel stops thus avoiding to get completely stuck at full power. try to find a weaker spot in the ice (at night using the searchlights). If one feels that getting stuck is unavoidable. Keep rudder amidhips as not to loose power and let the ship find its own way. as.5.AT SEA 2. By looking over the side (at night deck lighting aft on!) One can also check if the spot of pressure is only a narrow one or whether vessel is heading into a big ridged area. Once the speed drops below 3-4 knots and then becomes gradually lower. 29 . one should not trust the speedlog or gps speed output (time delay) and check visually the ship’s progress by looking over the side as the risk of becoming stuck is very great. (see plate 22) Once the ship is stopped. A continuous check of the speed (by speedlog or gps) is highly recommended as it is a good indication of the ice pressure encountered. Short drops of speed between periods of building up back to almost normal sea speed are not really worrying. frames and structural damage.

If there are powerful vessels in the vicinity. then start transferring ballast water from one side to the other and vice versa. stability and quantity of ballast to be transferred). vessels equipped with an iceheeling system should start it now) try to wriggle for a longer period with lots of power and hard rudder. then there is usually one thing left and that is to determine and monitor its drift over the ground and ask asap for ice-breaker assistance. then try to back with full astern as soon as when one sees the gyro compass rose quiver a few tenths of a degree to either side. once she starts moving increase to half ahead and as soon as possible apply all possible power. sweat and fuel in the process with little advance.C. If this doesn’t work out.AT SEA Then. it could be more economical to give up breaking loose with the risk of getting stuck again a few cables further on. back the vessel in its own initial track for a few ship lengths. as from here on. then try to get unstuck after at least one rolling period. once firmly beset and attempts of breaking out are abandoned. and to decide to stay put and to resume the sea passage upon arrival of the ice-breaker and let her do the job. At this point. Listing the vessel will usually break up some ice on its sides and thus reducing the ice pressure on its sides. * ice knife: see addendum d 30 . let her build up speed. lights. the presence of an ice-breaker in the vicinity and its estimated time of arrival. At night. as to give the vessel lists of at least 5° (check on loadmaster or stability booklet about stresses. taking into account the distance to the nearest ice way point. smaller cargo ships with a low g’m and equipped with cargo gear could try to “roll” the vessel by swinging cranes or derricks simultaneously to port and starboard. using side or wing tanks. If indeed the vessel can be listed. spending time. (gyro heading not moving or only 1/10 or 2/10 of a degree to either side. give slow ahead. she is not moving. rudder still amidships. As an alterative for transferring ballast. one should switch off navigation lights and all searchlights and switch on the N. then apply rudder to get out off its previous track and try to head for the easier spot with minimum rudder. one has to reconsider the situation. giving at least half astern. with rudder exactly amidships. stop engine.U. with 2 pumps if possible. RULE RUDDER AMIDSHIPS WHEN BACKING IN ICE. Back out with the vessel in upright position as to avoid damage to the bilge keels (see plate 23). If vessel cannot be given a list. one can try to obtain their assistance by asking if they could divert and pass close to own vessel’s position. DO NOT BACK IN FAST ICE IF NO ICE KNIFE * FITTED ABAFT OF RUDDER BLADE If the vessel is stuck and with above procedure.

bow pointing seaward . lights/black balls. head for the spot. then stop engine. rudder amidships and back about half a ship’s length as to have some broken ice forward of the bow.C.with just enough power to keep headway.g. they should also show N.AT SEA RULE AVOID GETTING BESET WHEN BESET: GET UNSTUCK OR CALL FOR ICE-BREAKER ASSISTANCE ASAP Vessels can decide to stay deliberately stuck e. once vessel stopped. RULE NEVER ANCHOR NEAR OR IN HEAVY CONCENTRATED ICE AS TREMENDOUS LOADS CAN SNAP THE CHAIN WHEN THE ICE STARTS DRIFTING !! 31 .U. Waiting for pilot or ice-breaker assistance or when their berth is not available. In this case. choose a spot with rather thin or level ice and with plenty bottom clearance around. When opting to stay stuck for any reason (see above).

Plate 21: beset in a ridged ice-field 32 . Remark stern cleared from ice and pressure building up against ship’s sides.AT SEA Plate 20: beset in consolidated ice.

If vessel equipped with ice heeling system then start it after stopping engine. Stop engines before complete standstill. closing quickly when pressure by wind 33 . let speed build up. then full ahead again. then apply rudder and try to steer to area of less rafted ice or open water.AT SEA Plate 22: getting unstuck Avoid getting stuck with full power still on. rudder amidships and full astern. Area cleared of ice by propeller wash Vessel’s own track. back at least a few ship lengths. when ice breaks. rudder midships and back vessel with full astern With engine stopped. give first hard rudder and then give at least half ahead while « wriggling » with rudder moving alternately to port and Sb When stern cleared of ice.

AT SEA Plate 23: getting unstuck by transferring weights Transferring ballast by ice-heeling system or ballast pumps (alternatively by swinging cargo gear) beset Ice belt range Pressure being reduced pressure Bilge keels Back out after at least one rolling period. upright as not to damage bilge keels 34 .

this method may result in damage.6. the lower the ice class.g. to reach open water nearby. When not used with discretion. Thickness of ice and/or height and wideness of the ridge or rafted ice area to be rammed. the heavier the damage. Past experience with same vessel or type of vessel in same situation. remark pressure building up on ship’s side 35 . It can be justified for instance in following cases: - rendering assistance to vessels in danger. Before opting to ramming. is it worth it (in relation to nearest/earliest ice-breaker assistance available)? Own ice-class (e. then to back into one’s own track and repeat the process as to reach less concentrated ice or open water. Ramming Ramming is the method to break ice by sheer impact and weight. Plate 24: ramming small ridge. own vessel in risk of grounding. one should at least consider following: - Is there an urgency.AT SEA 2. class 1AS has a well protected bow plating and fore foot). Actual draught/trim in relation to the vertical extent of the ice belt.

one should be well experienced in ice-handling one’s own ship as this procedure is a rather risky business. When deciding whether to break out the other vessel. one should carefully consider: - Commercial loss by diverting. Ice-situation near beset vessel and own ice-breaking capabilities in same condition. Is other vessel in danger. Wind direction and force. keeping at least 25 meters of solid ice (which will act as fender) between both tracks or beset vessel. When both vessels are heading in the same direction. less risky when both vessels meeting. whether in. the thicker the ice. See also chapter 4. power.AT SEA 2. other vessel blocking fairway to or fro port and no alternative fairway available for own vessel. the riskier the manoeuvre (see plate 26). When considering rendering such an assistance to another vessel.or out-bound. draught. Breaking out other ships Breaking out vessels in ice by other non ice-breaker vessels is not an unusual event. on request of other vessel and general track of own vessel passing nearby. for breaking-out methods. The trickiest situation is when the other vessel is beset in a narrow fairway. the assisting vessel should watch out not to cross or venture into the beset vessel’s old track. one has to get out well in time of the beset vessel’s track as to cut some solid ice before passing beset vessel. Own vessel’s ice-class. Etc. and making its own (new) track. Water depths near beset vessel. tonnage. Passing rather close on the other’s leeward side at close distance is the most common procedure. towards or in another dangerous situation. Other vessel’s class. stuck near pilot station and no ice-breakers in the vicinity. present draught and speed in present ice-condition. the so called “forward mode” (see plate 25). Position of nearest ice-breaker.7. type etc. Assistance to beset vessels could be rendered in following cases: - other vessel drifting with the ice. 36 .2. request by local pilots to assist other vessel.. as no risk of bow of assisting vessel getting into beset vessel’s track prior meeting.

both vessels having same heading“forward mode” or “quarter pass” Ice cracking up in front Moving towards Track of assisting vessel Beset vessel with rudder midships and engine slow ahead. watch that bow does not head towards beset vessel Ice cracking up and moving towards beset vessel’s track 37 .AT SEA Plate 25: breaking out vessel. no obstructions near-by. giving full ahead when own vessel abeam wind Own vessel in its own track.

when other vessel cutting though border. helm hard to SB. beset vessel in frozen consolidated track or narrow fairway Hitting side of track at max power. Beset vssl in frozen track. as soon as bow cuts though border. keep bow scraping against side. keep full ahead. keeping left of centre line of track. reduce to slow ahead. watch distance between stern and track’s side Vssl at max sideward drift with max angle to hit track’s side Swing slightly to Sb assisting vssl. due to sideway drift has collected enough brash ice between both vessels Big piece of fast ice broken off. she starts giving full ahead If bow bounces back. full rudder and sideways drift will decrease speed rapidly. keeping the power on at full. when bows at same height hard to starboard and increase power ahead to keep steering power and hope that your ship. full ahead 38 . keep rudder full to port.AT SEA Plate 26: breaking out. when almost close to other vssl. .. acting like fender Min 5 cables Brash ice being massed by side drift Full to port as to give vessel a good drift. rudder midships.

pilot walks Over the ice from pilot ladder towards this contraption) 39 . right = Finnish) Plate 28: “Hydrocopter” used in fast ice (port of Kemi. In this particular case.PILOTAGE & FAIRWAYS Plate 27: Typical pilot boat used in ice in Baltic sea (left = Swedish.

ask the pilot to tell what has been agreed with the other vessel. rarely used fairways are used and the pilots are not exactly familiar to them (these fairways are used every 6 or 7 years). most pilots are communicative and willing to learn you some of their tricks. e. All this and more is bound to result in some hair-rising situations for the mariner before he can finally ring off the engine room. Pilots Although all pilots of ice-bound ports are well experienced in handling ships in ice.1. their stability status in some cases causing big lists when engaging sharp bends in the tracks.g. ice-breakers and pilots offering or providing extra advice and services. especially when sailing in ice. The 9-meter fairway between Porkkala and Helsinki/Hamina inside the archipelago (Finland). 3. the ice restricting or interfering with the vessel’s normal manoeuvrability. 40 . - When meeting or overtaking another vessel in the track. other pilot station are used. - Some pilot stations will be working overtime as they are overwhelmed by the additional traffic normally not using their services or passing by their station (lots of stress. especially at their beginning. the master being always in command and pilots are only advising. the pilots not familiar with that particular ship or certain type of ships. e. - During the same winters. good seamanship dictates that.g.PILOTAGE & FAIRWAYS PART 3 NAVIGATION BY FAIRWAYS AND UNDER PILOTAGE Introduction Closing in on one’s final destination. traffic and ship movements will become more dense. bigger. the navigable waters becoming more restricted while on top of that. finally being moored safely alongside. On the other hand. - The tracks being followed have to be double-checked by radar and leading lights as these tracks can shift when the ice starts moving about during early winter or spring or if strong winds have been blowing. with VTS. long working days = fatigue of pilots!). a constant supervision of the pilot’s performance is required for following reasons: - During exceptionally harsh winters. faster. for Ro-Ro’s and container vessels. shortage of pilots.

then order half ahead and increase to full once she starts moving ahead. perpendicular to the main fairway. vessel to get underway asap. then transfer the pilot to own vessel (usually onto one of its hatchcovers or any other convenient clear deck) using a basket platform at the extremity of a cherry-picker’s arm which is fixed on the ice-breaker’s f’clse or aft deck (see plate 30). Boarding and disembarking of pilots Means of boarding: - By usual pilot boat. pilot boat will turn in vessel’s wake and return to its own track (see plate 29).PILOTAGE & FAIRWAYS 3. Usual boarding speed 1-2 knots or own vessel completely stopped. it is usually rather difficult to get her underway. with rudder amidships. even by giving full ahead. plate 27) standing by in its own track. - By aluminium gangway on fast ice: during stable ice situation and in fast ice. without damaging it. back about 20-30 mtrs by giving slow astern. One has to head for the boarding spot as close as possible to the fast edge (“hugging”). and stop vessel completely with pilot ladder near the pilot’s gangway or with a minimum speed if requested to do so (see plate 29). car (taxi !). The ice-breaker will then approach own vessel (stern or bow first) till a distance of about 5 meters. pilot is brought over the ice to the boarding spot by snowscooter. vessel will stop completely according to ice-breaker’s instructions.2. - By ice-breaker: in some cases. When own vessel is a bit underpowered and stopped completely during the boarding of the pilot. pilot boat (capable of operating in ice. 41 . snow-cat. small hovercraft or other strange devices (see plate 28). Once pilot boarded. In this case.

snow-cat Brash ice wedgeing itself between bow and track side Tent for shelter Once pilot boarded.PILOTAGE & FAIRWAYS Plate 29: boarding of pilot in ice track Pilot boarding by gangway . e.snow-scooter . once bow off. increase to full ahead and steer towards middle of track gangway Come to a complete stop and await pilot Pilot boat returning into its own track after boarding and vessel underway Pilot boat waiting in its own track ‘Hug’ the hard side of the track. scraping along at 2-3 knots. let brash ice collect itself between bow and side of track. as not to damage track’s side Reduce speed to 6-7 knots 42 Pilot station.g.car . proceed slowly with rudder midships. island or mainland . rudder to port as to press hull against side Approach side ridge of track at small angle with 5 knots (slow to dead slow).

PILOTAGE & FAIRWAYS Plate 30: Finnish ice-breaker “Urho” in consolidated ice. (source: the Finnish maritime administration) “Cherry-picker” 43 . Note the “cherry-picker” on f’csle for transferring pilots.

let own vessel’s side mass as much brash ice as possible. then when closing in. one has to be sure that the advising pilot is used to handle your type of vessel (see plate nr 31). reduce to slow ahead. One can try to avoid the imminent collision by keeping hard rudder as to keep maximum sideways drift. If one’s ship bounces back or the bow is scraping along the track’s side and the distance to the other vessel is less then the stopping distance with full astern. who will stay in or stay clear of the track? Where will be the meeting point: is there enough room.PILOTAGE & FAIRWAYS 3. type and draught? What will or has been agreed upon: who will reduce or stop. the bigger the angle with the track. and give opposite rudder as to keep own vessel’s stern clear of other vessel. Overtaking in a straight and narrow track: If the ship to be overtaken or met is small and/or underpowered.3. one should override the main engine(s) run-up program as to have enough steering power on the rudder and to stay in control while breaking through the track’s side (usually hard. It is quite a spectacular manoeuvre and if one is performing it for the first time. once stopped. apply enough rudder ( with stern still in track) as to head parallel with track while passing the ship being overtaken. Close quarters situations Once underway with pilot. the general rule is that the more powerful ship will leave or stop just outside the track. does the track bend or is it straight? Are the sides of the track hard or soft? When meeting or overtaking ships in fairways or ice tracks. increase engine if need be as to keep steering power and hope that meanwhile enough brash ice has been massed between both vessels to act like a fender. the stronger the winter the harder the track’s sides) and to reduce the risk of bouncing off the track’s side. Break through the track’s side. try to obtain as early as possible following information: - If any vessels will be met or overtaken along the fairway or in the ice channel between the pilot station and port. let bow scrape against the track’s side. there is a great risk of collision. 44 . keeping about 15. ease rudder to midships. depth. If so. If need be.. then once bow is well outside the track. is difficult to get underway again. she will keep some headway in the track while the overtaking ship will leave the track with enough speed and all power available.25 meters of solid ice between both vessels. as an underpowered ship. its size. the lesser the risk of bouncing back. what kind of vessel: powerful or not.

rudder midships.PILOTAGE & FAIRWAYS Plate 31: meeting or overtaking in narrow track Hitting side of track at max power. she starts giving full ahead If bow bounces back. watch distance between stern and track’s side Swing slightly to Sb Powerful vssl. keep full ahead. keeping the power on at full. full rudder and sideways drift will decrease speed rapidly. reduce to slow ahead. acting like fender Min 5 cables Brash ice being massed by side drift Full to port as to give vessel a good drift. keeping left of centre line of track. due to sideway drift has collected enough brash ice between both vessels Big piece of fast ice broken off. when almost close to other vssl. at opposite side of track. as soon as bow cuts though border. making no way at meeting point. when bows at same height hard to starboard and increase power ahead to keep steering power and hope that your ship. when other vessel cutting though border. full ahead 45 . keep bow scraping against side.. keep rudder full to port. helm hard to SB. Less powered vssl.

PILOTAGE & FAIRWAYS RULE ICE IS A GOOD (BUT HARD) FENDER Meeting in a track: One can decide to carry out the same manoeuvre as above or to opt for the safest way by stopping just outside the track. 34). At night. give hard rudder once engine is at least half ahead (see plates nr 32. choosing the outer side of a bend if the track or fairway is not straight at the meeting point. 46 . Once the bow is clear of the track’s side. one can easily get unstuck by backing back into the track with full astern. Doing so. lower the beams of the ice searchlights as to avoid blinding the meeting vessel.

less powerful. own vessel.PILOTAGE & FAIRWAYS Plate 32: Meeting in a wide track. waiting in the track before the bend Plate 33: wide track in 15-30 cm ice 47 .

safer method SHOAL Shoal water near bend Smaller and/or less powerful or underpowered Once other vessel has passed. backing into track Once stern is clear of track. stop vessel 48 .PILOTAGE & FAIRWAYS Plate 34: meeting in track.

49 . causing the consolidated channel to be thicker then the surrounding level ice. fresh/recent made and/or frequently used tracks are the best as less resistance can be expected.4. Tracks in an apparently good condition can actually turn out to be old and frozen (consolidated) tracks and be very difficult (strong) to follow as the brash ice is frozen. great care should be taken when choosing them as these tracks could have been made by shallow draught vessels. large. ask the pilot whether he knows the draught of the ship which made the track.PILOTAGE & FAIRWAYS 3. one has to determine as to which direction the ice is breaking up or pushed by one’s vessel’s side as the ice forced away will move towards an open or still not frozen track. Another trick is to steer a moment with rudder amidships and then observe as to which track the vessel is heading. Therefore. frozen in old track Recent snow fall also complicates matters as to judge the condition of tracks. Track/channel Side ridge Level ice Brash ice. Which track to choose Obviously. When numerous tracks are close to one another. However.

50 . Engaging a bend: When approaching a sharp bend in the track.5. ETC. make maximum use of all searchlights as to detect bends. or worse. reduce power to half ahead as to take off the top of the speed (especially for CPP: reduce in time and not abrupt as not to loose steering power) and steer for the inner side of the bend as to avoid the risk of the stern hitting the opposite side of the track.. sticks etc. Keep at least one searchlight directed forward and slightly to one side as to keep one of the track’s sides in sight. Using tracks along charted fairways RULE ALWAYS CHECK AND DOUBLE-CHECK VESSEL’S POSITION BY RADAR .PILOTAGE & FAIRWAYS 3. IN CASE OF DOUBT. ONE HAS TO MAKE HIS OWN NEW TRACK BY STAYING EXACTLY ON THE CHARTED FAIRWAY. especially in old channels were the edges have grown thick. buoys. Post an ice-experienced helmsman at the wheel and keep him informed as to when and whereto the track will bend or lead. of running aground (see plate 36) Hitting the track’s edges with the midbody or aftship when turning may damage the bilge keels. LEADING LIGHTS. resulting in the ship being forced out of the bend with the possible risk of getting beset. At night. along the track. AS THE TRACK CAN HAVE MOVED (ESPECIALLY IN THE BEGINNING OF THE WINTER AND NEAR SPRING DUE TO CURRENT AND/OR PREVAILING WINDS).

PILOTAGE & FAIRWAYS Plate 35: radar picture when following straight track (outward bound from Tornio) Ice clutter Small ridge Straight track in fast ice islands Bouys in bouyed channel 51 .

Vssl will drift crabwise through bend.o . to stop vssl before bow cuts right side of bend Steering slightly towards left side border of track. vssl in middle of track. bow swinging to SB. vssl will start drifting sideways. if fast vessel. give more engine if needed. full ahead 52 Stern hits side . go FULL ASTERN i. In case stern touches border and even with full rudder to port. Steer bow towards left side of track. so that stern does not touch the track’s right border. reduce to half ahead (with CPP: not abrupt as to keep steering control) Approaching sharp bend.PILOTAGE & FAIRWAYS Plate 36: engaging a sharp bend Being forced out of track after sliding along its side Vssl drifting back towards middle of track Give more rudder. but watch that stern does not touch the right side of track.

PILOTAGE & FAIRWAYS Plate 37: radar picture when approaching a bend along a fairway Islands Clutter from ice Approaching bend Ice-breaker awaiting Stick with radar-reflector Main track Secondary track !!! 53 .

the helmsman should act accordingly by steering towards it. Meanwhile. inform helmsman. master. reduce speed. fog or snow showers). ergo a bend in the track. especially when a change of course can be expected. keep bow against sb side of track E. hugging it. ICE-BREAKER PARKING TRACK !!! Bend expected. reduce speed if sharp bend to be engaged 54 . If the widening of the track to one side corresponds with the inner side of an expected bend in the followed track. Plate 38: engaging a bend in poor visibility Steer back to middle of track and increase to full ahead searchlight Track widens to one side. in casu to sb.PILOTAGE & FAIRWAYS Following a track in reduced visibility: When following a track in poor visibility (sea or frost smoke.g. post a look-out on both bridge wings and at night light the ship’s sides. steer for inner side of track. The look-outs (a/b’s. mates. (see plate 37). pilot) must report as soon as they detect a widening of the channel on their side. a constant check of one’s position (and speed) along the track being followed by means of radar is of utmost importance as a sudden unexpected widening of the track could have previously been made by another vessel leaving the intended track for any reason (e. an ice-breaker parking outside the track).G.

g. in convoy.6. one can detect the crossing point by the sticks and road traffic signs erected on both sides. Lights and shapes - When making way in ice: switch on searchlights but avoid blinding ships (e. By day: 2 black balls.g. 3. some islanders in the Baltic may erect an ‘ice bridge’ which allows them to reach the mainland over the ice. 55 . When being followed by other vessel: switch on accommodation lighting or aft deck lighting. especially during early winter or in spring. when the track’s sides could be breaking up. This bridge consists of a long ladder or gangway (sometimes as long as 40 mtrs). When beset and attempts of breaking out are abandoned or when stuck intentionally (e. One should approach such a crossing point with great care as the passage is maximum 30 meters wide. awaiting pilot or free berth): navigation lights off. used by the islanders or a watchman who listens to vhf channel 13. During daylight. which is pulled over and across the ice track by means of a wire and winch.7. lights and reflectors will mark the track’s sides.g. so that following ship can visually judge more accurately the distance. thus widening the track/fairway. in order not to break up or damage the track’s sides near the bridge point. NUC lights and deck lighting on. Ice bridges (see plate 39) Once the ice has grown thick enough and the sides of the ice tracks/fairways are consolidated. meeting ships). Ice-breakers being followed.PILOTAGE & FAIRWAYS 3. At night. When beset: switch off all searchlights. One can also expect to see some small rowing boats moored near the bridge. but keep navigation lights on if one is trying to get unstuck. a tent) near the ladder. Usually there is also some kind of shelter (e. passing with a speed of not more than 5 knots.

090° 9 m fairway Ice bridge 56 .0) 270° .PILOTAGE & FAIRWAYS Plate 39: ice bridge Ladder/gangway shelter winch signs Broken ice in track light Abt 30m wide cable Row boat On Finnish charts: (9.

ICE-BREAKER ASSISTANCE Plate 40: m/s Geulborg after collision in ice (source: Finnish maritime administration) Plate 41: head to tail collision in ice track (source: Finnish maritime administration) 57 .

Keep one vhf-set on the ice-breaker’s working channel and keep it always manned. etc. Contact asap the nearest ice-breaker by vhf or by mobile phone. Watch for sound/light signals and listen out for any order from the icebreaker. The mobile phone numbers can be found in the proper volume of the admiralty list of radio signals. When the going gets really tough. They can be categorized as follows: break - Pre-break escort. ice-breaking assistance will make a big difference as to the total time of the sea passage and hence to the fuel bill or stevedore’s idle time. Immediately confirm receipt of any signal or order by sound signals or by vhf. Lawrence. one should stay in contact with them. Even if one does not need ice-breaker assistance and decides to rely solely on his own vessel’s icebreaking capabilities. especially when being assisted or when the ice-breaker is in sight. pilot stations and vts centres. sooner or later. Ice management: to direct traffic. Depending on the general situation. This information can be obtained from the latest icecharts. will.1. the ice-breaker will give no priority to vessels having deliberately neglected their advise. For signals between ice-breaker and assisted vessels. even a high ice-class vessel will need the assistance of an ice-breaker. as once one gets in trouble. see Addendum A. Communications . The very fact of following another vessel in the ice. inevitably lead to some hair raising situations. sometimes with catastrophic outcome (see plates 40 & 41).signals One should always be well informed about which ice-breaker is on duty in the area or along one’s intended track. to maintain ice tracks as to improve conditions for the independent traffic.ICE-BREAKER ASSISTANCE PART 4 ICE-BREAKER ASSISTANCE Introduction Ice-breaker escort operations take place in the Baltic and the gulf of the St. Even so. 4. the ice-breaker will give specific advice and it is strongly recommended to follow it up. ice conditions reconnaissance. even for the most ice-experienced mariner. informing them about the ice situation. Breaking-out assistance when the assisted vessel cannot follow in the premode. 58 . when the above is not possible or when it is considered more efficient for all parties concerned. Towing. whether directly behind an ice-breaker (pre-break escort) or another cargo vessel when in convoy. own vessel’s performance and position.

Remark channel in front of her and ice breaking up between vessels 59 .ICE-BREAKER ASSISTANCE Plate 42: sternboard mode Beset vssl Ice breaking up Wind direction Plate 43: Swedish ice-breaker "Atle" going astern and passing close to own (beset) vessel on leeside.

give the order to go full ahead and to follow her (see plates 42 & 43). passing on the other side. beam. 60 .). then landing her stern against the bow. Forward mode In heavy ice conditions and/or when the ice-breaker is coming to the assistance from further away. Bear in mind that. the ice-breaker’s master or duty officer will decide which breaking-out method is the most appropriate in the given situation. when ahead of the assisted vessel. will stop. as the ice-breaker will push vessel slowly a few meters astern. Own vessel should keep engines running slowly ahead. etc. ordering at the same time the beset vessel to give full ahead while the icebreaker will keep contact between her pudding fender (notch) on her stern and vessel’s bow.2. own vessel should keep full ahead all the time. The most common methods are the sternboard and forward mode and the quarter pass. the icebreaker will increase power and increase slowly the distance to about 10 to 20 mtrs as long as she deems necessary. pass again at the vessel’s leeside. regardless the method eventually chosen. breaking-out can be a time consuming business and that one should strictly follow any instructions given by the assisting vessel. 4. pass the stern and making a 180° turn. power.2. she can decide to apply the forward mode which is to pass along the beset vessel’s leeward side at speed (when in convoy first making a 180° turn). and break the ice just in front of the bow. wind direction.2. Once both ships start moving ahead simultaneously.2. Even though this distance looks tricky. then she will reverse engines to ahead. as far as the beset vessel’s stern. she can opt to approach the beset vessel’s bow stern first. the ice-breaker.1. Sternboard mode As to save time and in thin ice. while the ice-breaker will decide which distance it will keep between both ships. adjusting its power output accordingly (see plate 44). reverse engines and make a sternboard run to the ship. Breaking out Depending on the ice thickness and pressure. ordering at the same time to follow her at full power (see plates 46. with rudder amidships.ICE-BREAKER ASSISTANCE 4. usually on leeside. then when going forward again. the type of the ice-breaker (propulsion lay-out. Variant to sternboard mode (see plate 48): In thick ice and the ice-breaker being close by in front. or depending on the wind direction. passing close alongside (parallel). particulars of the beset vessel and traffic density. 47). 4.

the ice-breaker decides to approach the beset vessel from her quarter. at the same time ordering the assisted vessel to give full ahead and to follow her (see plate 45). the ice-breaker will then in addition perform a sternboard manoeuvre. swinging her stern towards the beset vessel’s bow as close as possible and in front of it.2. If the vessel does not get unstuck after this run. then while passing.ICE-BREAKER ASSISTANCE Plate 44: following close ice-breaker in ice under pressure 4. Quarter pass Here. the thicker the ice the closer the pass. Plate 45: quarter pass Ice breaking up 61 Widening of channel by swinging hard in front of stem .2.

vssl will automatically swing towards icebreaker’s track Ice field cracking up when icebreaker passes at abt 50-100 m Ice-breaker turning sharply astern of vssl and passing ahead asap Beset vessel. rudder midships.ICE-BREAKER ASSISTANCE Plate 46: forward mode In ice-breaker’s track. icebreaker will pass at Sb Ice-breaker approaching at speed as to pass leeward of beset vessel Full ahead. engine on full ahead and rudder amidships when ice-breaker approaches Or passing twice at leeward after swinging 180° 62 .

remark ice breaking up between vessels 63 . swinging to port.ICE-BREAKER ASSISTANCE Plate 47: “Sisu” heading to own vessel’s bow. then passing leeward at speed. forward mode.

while pushing vessel a few meters astern (RUDDER MIDSHIPS !) 1 Ice-breaker approaching stern first (sternboard mode) 2 Ice-breaker clearing ice in front of stem by swinging Ice-breaker 64 . then ordering dead slow ahead.ICE-BREAKER ASSISTANCE Plate 48: breaking out . ice-breaker will slowly increase distance once combination gathers speed 3 Ice-breaker gently landing notch against stem. stem against notch.variant of sternboard mode Area cleared of ice by propeller wash of beset vessel 4 Combination starts moving forward with half later full power by assisted vessel.

Status of main engines. Speed and distance. especially when she is not familiar escorting the type of one’s own ship.) and if experiencing difficulties to maintain the required distance. clogging of cooling water intakes. it would be very useful to pass on following information (not limited to) prior to the escort operation: - - Normal clear water speed at the present draught. in casu the ice-breaker just ahead. Following ice-breaker (pre-break escort) When following an ice-breaker. Speed at full ahead in the prevailing ice condition. we advise to read closely the relevant chapters in the mariner’s handbook and will from here on only elaborate on some aspects of being escorted in ice. rudder angle limits). Maximum present draught. due to exhaust gas temperatures. 65 . where sharp turns or excessive rudder could result in big lists.g. by the quick closing of the channel opened up by the ice-breaker (plate 50).g. be it the power of its engines and/or staff/crew. For the ice-breaker. combined with a low G’m.3. Any speed limits in relation to the actual stability status (sharp bends. which. one has to acknowledge and pass on immediately any order given by the ice-breaker *. As to communications and signals. Particulars and manoeuvring characteristics of own vessel and of vessel being followed. etc. For all aspects of seamanship as in relation to ice-breaker escort and ice convoys. An ice-breaker in front will release the pressure on one’s sides before any damage occurs e. * during darkness an ice-breaker on duty will show a fixed blue all-round light at the top of her main mast. resulting in loss of deck cargo. Once under escort: any change in main engine performance (e.ICE-BREAKER ASSISTANCE 4. seamanship can reduce the risk of ice damage caused by high loads in harsh ice conditions. When following an ice-breaker.g. when carrying unsecured deck cargo of logs. Ice-condition along the followed track. An escorted vessel should be ready at all times to receive and rig the icebreaker’s towing gear. e. the good performance of a vessel. one must have knowledge of and concentrate on following: - Communications and signals.

To judge this distance is the responsibility of the escorted vessel. steering towards the inner side of a bend as not to risk being forced out of the track and getting beset while turning The ice-experienced mariner will draw a lot of information from the condition and thickness of the ice along the track and just in front of the ice-breaker so he can anticipate in time in order to reduce the risk of getting beset or worse. of a head-tail collision with the ice-breaker or other vessel ahead. she will close in on the escorted vessel (see plate 50). An experienced hand should be manning the helm and the bow of the (escorted) vessel should follow the track of the ice-breaker or followed ship. by the speed characteristics of other vessels in the convoy) and the ice-condition. one can slowly close up to a distance of about 2. At this moment one is very tempted to slow down engines. unless ordered otherwise. the speed of 66 . watch closely own speed and wait for an order from the ice-breaker or if in doubt. an ice-breaker will order one’s ship to follow her at a safe distance.5 to 3 cables. applying a minimum of rudder. Inform the ice-breaker when own speed suddenly drops or one cannot keep up with her. Once the ice-breaker and/or the following vessel runs into thicker ice or ice under pressure. but before doing so. one can keep a distance between 3 and 5 cables. (sometimes without prior warning!) Thus avoiding the quick closing by ice under pressure of the channel made by her. pressurized ice (tracks closing quickly!!) or consolidated channels it is almost a daily practice for ice-breakers to close in on the escorted ship as close as 5-10 meters while at the same time ordering the ship to keep full ahead. In light to moderate ice. according to the stopping distance in open water for own vessel. When the ice becomes more thick and one observes that the ice-breaker is slowing down. When the track made by the escorting ship is wide due to rather thin ice and/or its (wide) beam.5 cables. unless ordered otherwise by the ice-breaker.g. Although there is a risk of contact between both vessels. the distance between both ships should be monitored closely by visual and radar look-out. The ice-breaker will adjust her speed as per information given earlier by the vessel being escorted (or when in convoy.ICE-BREAKER ASSISTANCE Once following an ice-breaker or other vessel. Stay in the middle of her track as to avoid any contact with the channel’s edges or worse. e. In thick. to about 1 to 1. ask the ice-breaker whether it is advisable to slow down engines. It is very important to stay exactly in the middle of the followed track. with the sails of ridges being passed along the followed route. Usually she will warn the following vessel that she is encountering more pressure. One should keep engines always at full ahead.

For vessels with a CPP: bear in mind that an abrupt reduction in pitch will usually result in a complete loss of steering power. sudden demands or bursts of engine power/load (sudden black exhaust puffs). When the ice-breaker or the vessel in front warns (sometimes no pre-warning if she hits a thick ridge) that she is in risk of getting beset or gets beset. Telltale signs that the ice-breaker in front is getting into ice under pressure or is starting to break through some pretty thick ice is that her heading is becoming more erratic (sudden changes of heading along a followed general course). It is to be noted that this warning equipment does not exist on the Swedish ice-breakers. rudder midships and go full astern. When thus following at very close distance.ICE-BREAKER ASSISTANCE the escorted vessel is so low in those conditions (from 5 knots to as low as 1 to 1. it is advisable: - In light ice: to give hard rudder and bury the bow in the ice. The assisted vessel/vessels will then have to use every possible means to immediately make full astern. 67 . ice-breakers have a well fendered stern (the so called dove-tailed pudding fender or notch). rudder midships when engine reversing. pitching movements of her stern and/or chunks of ice flying up from her stem. one should keep rudder amidships at all times as not reduce the speed and/or overload the main engine(s) (see plates 49 & 50). Moreover.5 knots) that the resulting damage will be minimal or non-existent. In thick or heavy ice: give hard rudder to help slowing down and at the same time order full astern. then stop engines. wait till the hard rudder gives effect before reducing pitch/ordering astern Finnish ice-breakers are equipped with two rotating red warning lights located on top of each other which are lit whenever the ice-breaker has to stop unexpectedly or has to make an abrupt reduction in speed. Therefore.

usually once own vessel is stopped it will be beset. inform the ice-breaker asap. one should also watch closely the distance of the vessel ahead and directly behind and keep her informed about one’s own speed. especially when one feels of getting stuck. In any case. one can try to get her moving again by giving flank/emergency full ahead and hoping that at the same time one’s own propeller wash will deflect the incoming bow (“glancing blow”) or slow down in some way the closing-in vessel.4. When taking the way out of own vessel. and the distance to the vessel directly behind one’s own is too close. therefore the importance of keeping the proper distance and engine performance at peak level. In a convoy with 3 or more ships. If this doesn’t work. To get moving again we refer to chapter 2. do not hesitate to advise the following vessel to increase the distance if need be. going to full ahead when the stem rams the ice.. whether performing an emergency stop or not. Plate 49: following ice-breaker “Kontio” at 15 meter. In convoy When in convoy.5. it is a time consuming job to get a convoy on the move again. it will demand a great deal of seamanship as to stop one’s own vessel as close as possible to the ice-breaker or the vessel ahead in order to allow more stopping distance to the vessel astern (see plate 41). speed between 5-8 knots 68 .ICE-BREAKER ASSISTANCE 4. When in convoy in thick ice conditions. own speed can rise very rapidly when encountering lighter ice conditions (see plate 51). consolidated track. more vessels will be beset. Especially when own vessel is powerful (1A Super) or capable of higher service speed than the one being followed: continuously check own speed as when engines at full load. or first try to back about half a ship’s length by giving astern and then move ahead again with rudder midships and half ahead. which then usually will perform a sternboard mode manoeuvre when own ship is the first in convoy. In this case the escorting vessel can decide to execute a forward mode run along one side of the convoy’s line and do a quarter pass run along each of the weaker vessels. If own vessel is stopped and there is a risk of head/tail collision. Also.

ice-breaker escorting 3 vessels in close ice.5m. convoy speed abt 10 knots. 7. own vessel as last in convoy.ICE-BREAKER ASSISTANCE Plate 50: ice-breaker closing in Plate 51: in convoy.200 hp. class 1A.5m b= 16. in ballast) 69 . beamiest and most powerful of all 3 (l= 135.

A vessel has a temporary engine or rudder problem. * in Finland and Sweden. or whose hull. winches on forecastle should be kept ready for immediate use (preheating. free of icing etc. thus slowing down the convoy’s progress. forecastle deck should not be slippery. e. heaving-lines at the ready.5. an icebreaker can refuse to assist a vessel which equipment is not operational before the assistance starts. engine power.5 knots while normal vessel’s speed in those conditions would only be 11 knots . Under tow * An ice-breaker can decide to tow when : - During pre-break escort. Previous experience in assisting that particular vessel shows that she is not fully up to her ice-class performance. in moderate ice conditions when an in or out-bound icebreaker is in a hurry and will tow in/out a vessel at a speed of 14. towage is free of charge 70 . A vessel being assisted by an ice-breaker must be ready at all times to rig towing lines. Note that as per Finnish and Swedish instructions for merchant vessels. equipment or manning is such that there is cause to believe that navigation in ice will endanger the safety of the vessel (see Addendum A). Assisting a lower ice-classed vessel or even a high ice-classed vessel when harsh ice conditions prevail. mooring equipment as fairleads and bollards should be free of icing. In general when it is considered more efficient for all parties concerned. This means that at least: - crew should be kept at stand-by or be ready at very short notice.g. an escorted vessel regularly gets besets.). within ice-breaking assistance. warmed up.ICE-BREAKER ASSISTANCE 4.

* the bitts. split in two ends (fork) with steel wire messengers.ICE-BREAKER ASSISTANCE Notch towing (common practice in the Baltic): The ice-breaker will order the assisted vessel to prepare for towing. one should stop engines with rudder midships. should be designed to withstand the stresses of towing. (see plates 53 & 54) The ice-breaker will then winch in the slack of the lines. Once both tow lines are belayed. The towing winches are placed as far forward as possible as to minimise the vertical angle of the tow lines and so reducing the loads on the lines when the towed vessel is winched against the ice-breaker’s stern. while gently landing her fendered stern against the assisted vessel’s stem so that the bow will rest against the icebreaker’s towing notch. to which the towing wires are belayed. While the ice-breaker approaches in sternboard mode. one should order the crew to leave immediately the forecastle deck and inform the ice-breaker that both lines are secured and that all personnel has cleared the forecastle. to be belayed on 2 pairs Notch (rubber lined) The crew will accept the steel wire messengers from the towing lines and winch in the towing lines’ eyes through a side lead (not the centre lead!) on each bow and belay them on a pair of bollards on each side *. 71 . Ice-breaker’s aft deck Tow line.

one has to apply rudder in the opposite direction of the intended change of heading. This requires some nerves as the speed of the combination can be actually higher then the towed vessel’s maximum sea speed! Keeping in line When requested by the icebreaker to help it in changing the course. as to line up with the towed vessel she usually orders the towed ship to give slow ahead.ICE-BREAKER ASSISTANCE Then. full ahead. as speed of the combination builds up. and once lined up will ask to increase to half and later. meanwhile tightening up both tow lines. Once under tow the towed vessel should try to keep in line with the icebreaker by using rudder. so that the towed vessel will act as a rudder for the combination: Combination changing course Plate 52: small indents in bow section due to notch-towing by ice-breakers (after 2 winters) 72 .

Therefore. they should be pulled back more to aft or be lifted on the f’csle deck well in advance of the assistance 73 . Upon being ordered to cast off the tow lines one should do this without delay. with possible risk of damage to the bulbous bow and/or shell plating of the towed vessel. usually resulting in damage (indenting) of the towed vessel’s bows and/or damage to the notch. vessels with a bulbous bow should be trimmed in such a way that the distance between the top of the bulb and the ice-breaker’s hull is at least 2 meters *. especially when at sea and near the ice-edge when there is a blow (swell. she’ll have to let go and once free. heavy sea). when hitting a thick ridge) with the result of the combination jack-knifing and tow lines breaking. an “anchor pocket”) and could therefore come in contact with the towing notch of the ice-breaker.ICE-BREAKER ASSISTANCE There is also the risk of the ice-breaker changing suddenly its heading (e. resulting in her stern jumping up and down a few meters. In very harsh ice conditions. * if the ship’s anchors are located outside the recessed area of the hull (e. Anchor in pocket * 2m When the ice-breaker gets beset while towing she could start using her iceheeling system. If this doesn’t work out. can start pitching. resulting in her rolling. start to break the ice along and in front of the beset vessel or in extreme conditions could ask for the assistance of a second ice-breaker. while cutting through ridges or breaking thick ice.g.g. the ice-breaker.

the Finnish maritime administration) Anchors well recessed in their pockets notch 74 . tow lines in fork Plate 54: under tow.ICE-BREAKER ASSISTANCE Plate 53: “Urho” notch towing. remark dovetail shaped fendered notch (source: Finnish icebreakers.

STRICTLY FOLLOW ICE-BREAKER'S ORDERS .ICE-BREAKER ASSISTANCE RULE WHEN FOLLOWING AN ICE-BREAKER (and when IN CONVOY): .WATCH OUT FOR SUDDEN INCREASES OF SPEED (when own vessel more powerful then the one being followed) .THE MORE ICE PRESSURE THE CLOSER THE DISTANCE .KEEP ENGINES AT PEAK PERFORMANCE 75 .DO NOT ALLOW THE CHANNEL TO CLOSE .STAY IN THE MIDDLE OF THE CHANNEL .

while the ice is restricting and seriously affecting the manoeuvrability of his ship. 5. “churning” or “mixing” the ice.BERTHING & (UN)MOORING PART 5 BERTHING & (UN)MOORING Introduction A mariner. dock or port. When was the ice off the berth last broken by a port tug or other vessel. one can direct her to circle around the vessel. When the ice-breaking harbour tug is available. own and pilot’s experience. A lot of power and a lot of rudder. having experienced all previous during his usually eventful and tiresome passage through the ice will have to face one last challenge by getting his vessel safely moored alongside or.1. When going astern: rudder exactly amidships. ice situation and the availability of an ice-breaking tug. when at the beginning of his voyage. Depth limits near berth. Indeed. type and condition of fenders. a lot of precious and expensive time can be lost coming alongside while the ordered gangs of stevedores are impatiently stamping their feet. 76 . one should decide well in time how to approach the berth. as it can take as much as 3 hours between first line ashore and all fast. Position of sticks. Approaching the berth Following information should be obtained through the pilot: - Position of other vessels moored ahead or abaft from the assigned berth. one should always remember three basic rules: - Ice is a good fender. While manoeuvring off one’s berth in ice. one should manoeuvre with a lot of rudder and engine power in order to position the vessel in an ideal approach heading/angle towards the berth. When the ice situation is harsh and/or the breadth of the dock does not allow the ice to move much in the basin. especially were there are big floes or fast ice. Taking into account all above. buoys. Etc. Is the berth well fendered. Time when last vessel left or used same approaches to the berth. to cast off and get underway.

swing the bow or stern fast in as to crush any remaining ice. The shape of own forecastle and bow. Slide alongside berth with bow or stern touching or nearly touching the berth while keeping same angle. Start removing the remaining ice between berth and ship by creating a current. The size of ship occupying the berth directly behind one’s own berth. It goes without saying that the thrusters CPP hydraulic pumps should be started well in time as to heat up the hydraulic oil. The closer one can slide along at a good angle. In this case. the easier and the faster the remaining of the mooring will be. Single or twin propeller. When the stern or bow is in position. stop the thrust. When bow or stern is landed against or nearly (max 2 meters) touching the quay. can move to. with lots of power and rudder. especially when in ballast and/or the presence of a lot of brash ice or ice rubble. 77 . When the thrusters(s) are deeply submerged (deep draught) one could give up to 80 % of thrust and as low as maximum 30 to 40 % when in ballast. one should avoid to use full thrust for risk of overload. bollards. The presence of obstacles ashore. causing the thrusters tunnels to clog fast. The use of thrusters in ice: Although on well ice-classed ships the thrusters are designed for use in ice. Cranes. e. Etc.. thus creating some area to which the ice. thus pushing away most of the ice and preventing ice floes from forcing themselves between the vessel and berth. The availability of a bow.BERTHING & (UN)MOORING If the harbour tug is not around. How to come alongside with bow or stern first in will largely depend on: - The type of fenders alongside. Mooring in ice is basically pretty straightforward: - Bow or stern first in. The type of the propulsion lay out.g. reverse the thrust and give a short thrust to the opposite side as to unclog the thrusters tunnel’s gratings. Once most of the ice or bigger floes are removed. The height of the quay. e. especially the stern thruster(s). When using the thrusters.and/or stern-thruster. a lot of brash ice is forced down under the keel. while keeping a rather big angle with the berth. pass along a double aft or bow spring and belay it. When the ship’s propeller is running astern. keep it against it or at the same distance. etc.g. displaced by own vessel when coming alongside. one will have to break the ice oneself by moving ahead and astern. one should closely watch their load indicators and adjust the thrust as per load indication. This will show on the load indicators. using engine (and harbour tug if necessary). The free space forward of the stem and aft of stern.

one has to decide if one is safely alongside by considering following: - Can the gangway be rigged ? Can the shore cranes be used in that position (check with agent/stevedores)? Can the stern/quarter ramp be landed safely ? If not. Use about 10° to port and 20° to starboard helm. one will create a current which will remove the drifting ice between ship’s side and quay. tighten and belay the lines. the berth situated directly behind unoccupied. Doing so.BERTHING & (UN)MOORING 5. the lines men and/or stevedores will help to remove the bigger floes just near the quay by pushing them with long boat hooks (see plate 57). the harbour tug. Mooring bow in first In this mode. The waggling will suck away or dislodge any floes pressed or frozen fast against the berth. no obstructions ashore (e. shore cranes). one will gently land the bow against the well fendered berth. will help to dislodge and remove any remaining ice pressed between stem and berth (see plates 55. a double fore spring and a bow line should be given ashore.g. stop engines (and keep bow against berth with thruster). The first situation is the most ideal one. In other ports (e. Once the stem is in mooring position. Then. we will elaborate on 2 situations : Own berth low and well fendered.2. one has to open the vessel again and perform some additional “waggling”. see plate 35. In this case. In some ports. Own berth poorly fendered or berth directly behind occupied. 78 . free of charge. slack the head line. will slide along with vessel. loosing more time in the process. between dead slow half ahead. combined with a good angle off the berth. Then give slow ahead and use the rudder to swing the stern in and out from the berth (“waggling”). keeping an angle of about 30° with the quay. 57). When most of the ice is thus removed. thus pushing away the ice in front of one’s stem (see plate 55). one will start sliding (chafing) the bow forward by keeping engines ahead.g. about 20 meters abaft from where (once alongside) the stem will be moored. the berth will be cleared of most of the ice alongside. In case the remaining ice being pressed between ship’s side and berth is preventing the vessel of resting against the quay. the bigger the angle with the berth and/or rudder angle the more engine. use the bow thruster if need be. One can use the bow thruster by giving thrust towards the berth but keep the bow line tight as to keep the bow against. Skelleftea). reverse the bow thrust and with full helm. The thrust. swing the vessel fast towards and against the berth as to crush any remaining ice. 56. Doing so. make fast. If the vessel is alongside. It is important to keep the bow pressed against the berth at all times while keeping the vessel at a good angle off the berth.

bowthrust to port. slacking headline. well fendered berth Vssl in position. vssl keeping an angle of 30° to 40 ° with berth Bow touching Optional: tug sliding along on Ps. bowthruster to port When most ice removed. rudder hard over and slow ahead as to swing vssl fast alongside. engine on slow or half. headline tight Sliding along fenders. double spring and headline. crushing remaining ice in process 79 .BERTHING & (UN)MOORING Plate 55: mooring bow in first. ‘waggle’ to port & sb alternating with rudder 10° to port and 20° to sb. clearing berth from ice in process To create a current.

BERTHING & (UN)MOORING Plate 56: mooring bow first. 40° angle with berth. ready to pass on double spring 80 . well fendered berth.

remark lines man pushing floe with boat hook 81 . most ice removed.BERTHING & (UN)MOORING Plate 57: mooring bow first. ready to swing alongside. double spring.

82 . the berth directly behind being occupied or for any other reason. If need be. in Finland. preferably against a fender and if need be using own fenders (see plate 58). In this case. If the stevedores are standing-by with a grab fitted crane to load/discharge the vessel. Here.BERTHING & (UN)MOORING When one cannot slide along one’s berth. the use of a harbour tug for breaking up the ice on the port approaches till the berth or vice versa is free of charge. or not to loose precious time. due to own berth being poorly fendered. the fees for a tug when coming in. However. when one requests the same tug to assist by pushing or coming between the vessel and the berth. one should proceed as described earlier. one could ask them to help by removing the remaining ice with the grab. while waggling about. make fast and wash away the ice (see plates 59 & 60). the tug will wedge itself between vessel and berth. Usually. as the removed ice could be pressed against the vessel or shore ramp directly behind. one should ask the assistance of a harbour tug in order to remove the ice. In this case. one will usually find it more difficult to remove the ice with the propeller wash. one should keep the angle with the berth as big as possible. are borne by the cargo receivers. one should land the bows exactly where the stem will be once alongside the assigned berth. the ice could be deflected by the obstruction (other vessel or shore ramp) and forced back between own vessel and quay. Once the double spring and head line are belayed. In tight berths. Note that in Sweden and Finland. a fee will be due.

BERTHING & (UN)MOORING Plate 58: mooring bow first in. engine dead slow to slow ahead. slacking headline. bow to port (thrust to sb) 83 . berth directly behind occupied Berth astern occupied Own vessel moored with double spring and headline. rudder hard over and slow ahead as to swing vssl fast alongside. engine on slow or half. thrust towards quay When most ice removed. poor fendered quay. ‘waggle’ to port & sb alternating with rudder 10° to port and 20° to sb. crushing remaining ice in process To create a current.

BERTHING & (UN)MOORING Plate 59: use of harbour tug Tug removing ice swinging on spring line TUG Own vessel moored with double spring and headline. engine dead slow to slow ahead Berth astern occupied TUG 84 .

BERTHING & (UN)MOORING Plate 60: harbour tug assisting in removing ice. Remark growler between own vessel and tug 85 .

BERTHING & (UN)MOORING 5. the availability of thrusters and or twin propeller lay-out will come in very handy. one can swing the bow in and out in combination with main engines on astern and/or bow thrusters (see plate 61). Ro-Ro vessels will have no other option when they need to use their stern or quarter ramp. When approaching the quay with stern first. when moored along a river berth. one should keep engines at the ready at all times as to cast off on short notice. Indeed. 86 . In this case one cannot allow the mooring lines to be slack at any time as once the ice starts pressing itself between the berth and the ship. It goes without saying that the rudder(s) should be kept amidships at all times. 5. the ice could be pressed between the stern and berth or ramp. combined with a strong current is being pressed between.4. In order to swing the vessel and in addition to a double spring and line astern. try keep the stern way. a head line should be passed ashore. Mooring stern in first Basically. By slacking or tightening the head line.3. nothing will prevent the vessel from being kept alongside. one can give a good kick ahead as to break up the pressed ice and/or to force it further back. Therefore. when heavy ice. In this case and while approaching the berth with some speed astern. River berths If one is mooring alongside a river berth (presence of drift ice). not even extra lines. When giving a kick ahead. the same principles as for mooring bow in first will apply when mooring with stern first in. Here. it may turn out to be very difficult to keep her alongside. one should make sure to be moored exactly alongside.

belay bow line.BERTHING & (UN)MOORING Plate 61: mooring stern first in. slack headline. well fendered quay. double stern spring and sternline. shore ramp abaft Coming as close as possible alongside. pass along head line. swing bow to berth with thruster. thruster to port. engine slow astern Once most ice removed. swing out bow (if no thrusters. keeping an angle of abt 30° with berth Once in position. swing bow fast alongside with thruster and /or bow line as to crush remaining ice in process 87 . by heaving on sternline and engine astern) till good angle with berth.

e. By adjusting the ballast condition. Doing so. In addition. one should clear the stern of any ice by giving dead slow or slow ahead for a time with midships helm. one should take in the slack of the ropes once the remaining ice between the hull and quay starts melting. as to avoid that any ice could jam itself between the top of the rudder blade and the hull during one’s stay in port (especially on river berths). Some berths are equipped with an air-bubbling system. 5. Do not test the steering gear before the stern is cleared of ice: just prior of letting go and with fore spring(s) and stern line(s) tight. preferably with clutched in propeller(s). one could leave them running with about 30-40 % thrust away from the berth. it is advised to turn the propeller or start the main engine and clutch in the propeller from time to time. Then wash away the ice as much as possible by applying port and starboard helm. If after being moored alongside one of these and some ice was still remaining between ship and shore. hard rudder away from berth.5.6. the risk of big floes or pieces of ice freezing to them will be avoided. the main engine(s) should be warmed up in time. Unmooring/casting off Before leaving the berth. Alongside in port Once alongside and safely moored. If applicable. one should make sure that the rudder is put back to midships position.BERTHING & (UN)MOORING 5. once the thrusters are tested. the propeller and rudder cannot be kept submerged for some time. start in time the CPP pumps. If for any reason.g. It is recommended to keep the top of the rudder and propeller blades submerged at all times. Areas cleared by thruster(s) HARBOUR TUG Area cleared by propeller and rudder Tug breaking ice near berth and in intended vessel’s path out 88 .

as following recent out-bound traffic will make life much easier. It is recommended to watch for any vessels leaving the port just prior own departure and note their type. ahead of the berth when one intends to leave bow out first or abaft when leaving by going stern out first.BERTHING & (UN)MOORING Check in time with the agent. allowing enough ice to drift between ship’s stem (stern) and quay. Upon casting off. more ice will be collected between own ship and any vessel just moored ahead (astern) and will act as a fender when passing them. draught. open the bow (or stern if one intends to back out of berth) as far as possible. cast off slowly. destination and time of departure and route followed. about the actual position and latest instructions from the icebreaker(s). port authority or local pilots whether a harbour tug will break up the ice alongside. one can increase engine rpm and apply enough rudder as to point the bow (stern) towards the outward bound ice track (made by tug or other outbound vessel) and the clear the stern (bow) from the berth (see plate 62). thus allowing ice to collect itself by and by between ship’s side and berth and once the bow touches a hard side of a track. 89 . let the vessel find its way out by itself (see plate 63). When the bow (stern) is well clear of any obstruction (vessel. by keeping the stern (or bow) as close as possible to the berth (if possible by keeping it sliding along) so that bow (stern) will be kept as far off the berth as possible as the ice could press the bow (stern) back towards it. etc. shore ramp. If one finds it hard to get the bow off due to ice pressure and if no obstructions ahead. The same should be able to update you on the ice conditions just outside the harbour.) Ahead and enough ice has been forced between. Doing so. The ideal situation is that the harbour tug will be around just prior or when casting off as the broken ice could freeze solid again in as less than an hour when temperatures are less than -10° c. one could try to start sliding very slowly along the berth. Once all lines are taken in.

BERTHING & (UN)MOORING Plate 62: casting off. acting as fender Area broken up by harbour tug 90 . ice pre-broken by tug Ice forced between . no ice pressure.

no obstructions ahead Fast ice wedging itself between. pushing bow off Fast ice Fast ice Old.BERTHING & (UN)MOORING Plate 63: getting underway. frozen or consolidated track with hard sides 91 . ice pressure.

ADDENDI Plate 64: ice-breaker “Sampo” in frost smoke 92 .

93 .

ADDENDUM A – FINNISH ICEBREAKING SERVICE ADDENDUM A FINNISH ICEBREAKING SERVICE (instructions for merchant vessels) (courtesy of Finnish Maritime Administration) 94 .

ADDENDUM A – FINNISH ICEBREAKING SERVICE 95 .

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ADDENDUM A – FINNISH ICEBREAKING SERVICE 107 .

ADDENDUM A – FINNISH ICEBREAKING SERVICE 108 .

ADDENDUM A – FINNISH ICEBREAKING SERVICE 109 .

ADDENDUM B – ICE-BREAKERS PARTICULARS ADDENDUM B ICE-BREAKERS PARTICULARS (courtesy of Finnish Maritime Administration) 110 .

00 23.200 83.700 Voima Apu * Botnica 8.50 19.170 104.00 9.200 1987 OIRV 10.655 1993 1994 OHMS OHMW OIRT OJAD OJAE 99.5 9.00 16.00 7.2/8.0 9.000 116.O.0 9. Nordica 16.0 6.26 7.700 99.40 7.85 Kontio 14.820 86.30 18.50 7.30 19.ADDENDUM B – ICE-BREAKERS PARTICULARS Urho.5 15.200 1954/79 OHLW 8.0 5.00 26.00 24.00 23.660 1975 1976 7.200 1986 7.0 Note: all Finnish ice-breakers equipped for notch towing 1998 OHMP OJAK Propulsion Call sign Built Displacement Speed in knots Draft Beam + sisterships L.200 1970 14.70 23.A. Name Propeller power kw Finnish icebreakers: 2 props rear 2 props front 2 props rear 2 ducted aquamaster units 2 props rear 1 prop front 2 props rear 2 props front 2 props rear 1 prop front 2 azipod units (source: the Swedish Ice-breaking Service) * Latvian ice-breaker “Varma” (stationed at Riga)= sistership of Apu 111 .000 97.5 15.30 18. Sisu Otso Fennica.00 10.30 19.53 21.

Atle Ale Oden 17.000 107.500 46.08 19.0 9.O.5 16.A.00 7/8.100 104.00 13.ADDENDUM B – ICE-BREAKERS PARTICULARS Ymer.86 7. Frej.80 31.0 1973 3.00 18.960 1977 1975 1974 5. Name Propeller power kw Swedish state icebreakers: 2 props rear 2 props front 2 shafts 2 x cpp in nozzles (lips) .0 12.70 23.900 1989 Note: all Swedish ice-breakers equipped for notch towing (source: the Swedish Ice-breaking Service) 112 SDIA SBPT SBPR SBPQ SMLQ Propulsion Call sign Built Displacement Speed in knots Draft Beam + sisterships L.

0 19.000 1977 2 shafts 16.0 2.400 128.50/ 16.4 7. St-laurent 20.775 1982 2 shafts Mudyug Sir john franklin.234 1983 CGTF 2 cpp rear Note: Canadian ice-breakers mentioned above are not fitted for notch towing 113 Call sign Built Grt Speed in knots (cruising/max) Draft Beam + sisterships L.00/ 20.20 6.03 4.00 99. Name Propeller power kw Canadian icebreakers: .00 17.38 9. Admiral makarov 2.911 1979 CGDT Propulsion 2 fixed pitch Rear 1978 CGSB 1982 CGDX 6.16 14.O.60 7.15 19.50/ 16.00 88.30 13. Name Propeller power kw Russian icebreakers (usually operating in Baltic sea): 18 17.142 Louis s.5 8.80 19. Des groseillers Henry larsen 10.500 56.ADDENDUM B – ICE-BREAKERS PARTICULARS Propulsion Built Displacement Speed in knots Draft Beam + sisterships L.048 1976 2 shafts Kapitan izmaylov 6.00 Terry fox 17.A.174 98.07 11.29 16.91 16.441 1969 CGBN 3 fixed pitch Rear 4.30 15.900 111.240 1974 3 shafts Yermak.50 Kapitan sorokin 26.300 12.3 14.0 30. Pierre radisson.142 119.82 8.00/ 16.63 24.5 20.A.167 1987 CGHL 2 fixed pitch Rear 11.83 26.500 134.00 5.36 22.50 7.O.50 17.

ADDENDUM C – FINNISH-SWEDISH ICE CLASS EQUIVALENTS ADDENDUM C FINNISH-SWEDISH ICE CLASS EQUIVALENTS (from “the Swedish Ice-breaking Service and weather. courtesy of the Swedish Maritime Administration.and ice information 2003-2004”. ice-breaking unit) 114 .

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ADDENDUM C – FINNISH-SWEDISH ICE CLASS EQUIVALENTS 119 .

Nl)) 120 .ADDENDUM C – FINNISH-SWEDISH ICE CLASS EQUIVALENTS Plate 65: example of a Finnish ice class certificate (courtesy of Universal Marine (Groningen.

ADDENDUM D – FINNISH-SWEDISH ICE CLASS RULES 121 .

ADDENDUM D – FINNISH-SWEDISH ICE CLASS RULES ADDENDUM D FINNISH-SWEDISH ICE CLASS RULES (courtesy of the Swedish Maritime Administration. ice breaking service) 122 .

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ADDENDUM D – FINNISH-SWEDISH ICE CLASS RULES 131 .

ADDENDUM D – FINNISH-SWEDISH ICE CLASS RULES 132 .

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ADDENDUM D – FINNISH-SWEDISH ICE CLASS RULES 140 .

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ADDENDUM D – FINNISH-SWEDISH ICE CLASS RULES 142 .

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ADDENDUM D – FINNISH-SWEDISH ICE CLASS RULES 144 .

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ADDENDUM D – FINNISH-SWEDISH ICE CLASS RULES 148 .

ADDENDUM D – FINNISH-SWEDISH ICE CLASS RULES 149 .

ADDENDUM D – FINNISH-SWEDISH ICE CLASS RULES 150 .

classed 1A Super 151 .ADDENDUM D – FINNISH-SWEDISH ICE CLASS RULES Plate 66: m/s Transbaltica.

Finnish institute of marine research) 152 .ADDENDUM E – SEA ICE NOMENCLATURE Addendum e Sea ice nomenclature (source: sea ice nomenclature. Finnish institute of marine research) Plate 68: Shuga with brash ice and ice cakes (source: Riku Lumiaro. 2002) Plate 67: First ice formation: strips of grease ice and slush (source: Riku Lumiaro. Helsinki. Finnish institute of marine research) Plate 69: Plate 70: Boundary of Nilas (< 10 cm) and grey ice (thickness 10-15 cm) with rafting Broken and partly rafted grey ice (10-15 cm) with ship track (source: Riku Lumiaro. Finnish institute of marine research) (source: Riku Lumiaro. Finnish Institute of Maritime Research.

Finnish institute of marine research) Plate 73: Plate 74: Ridge in level grey-white ice (15-30 cm) Floes (source: Riku Lumiaro.ADDENDUM E – SEA ICE NOMENCLATURE Plate 71: Plate 72: Ridged ice with small floes of level grey-white ice (15-30 cm) Swedish icebreaker Ymer in ridged thin white ice (30-70 cm) (source: Riku Lumiaro. Finnish institute of marine research) 153 (source: author) . Finnish institute of marine research) (source: Riku Lumiaro.

snow covered (source: author) (source: author) 154 .ADDENDUM E – SEA ICE NOMENCLATURE Plate 75: Plate 76: Pancake ice Open ice (source: author) (source: author) Plate 77: Plate 78: Open ice. small floes of 30 cm thick Very close ice.

ADDENDUM E – SEA ICE NOMENCLATURE Terms in alphabetical order in English 155 .

2 (see plate 69) Nilas: a thin elastic crust of ice.3 (4. Has a matt surface and is up to 10 cm in thickness. 3. 2. and it may extend a few meters or several hundred kilometres from the coast. Development 2. The principal kinds of floating ice are lake ice. There are single grounded hummocks and lines (or chains) of grounded hummocks.1.2 Grounded hummock: hummocked grounded ice formation.1) Pancake ice: predominantly circular pieces of ice from 30 cm . 2. It sometimes forms at some depth. and up to about 10 cm in thickness. or as a viscous floating mass in water after a heavy snowfall. These types of ice are composed of ice crystals.4 (see plate 68) Shuga: an accumulation of spongy white ice lumps. Fast ice may be formed in situ from sea water or by freezing of drift ice to the shore.3.3 m in diameter. Floating ice: any form of ice found floating in water.4 Grounded ice: floating ice which is aground in shoal water. Vertical fluctuation may be observed during changes of sea-level. river ice and sea ice which form by the freezing of water at the surface. 156 . its appearance may rapidly cover wide areas of water.3 (see plate 67) Slush: snow which is saturated and mixed with water on land or ice surfaces. 2. which are only weakly frozen together.4. 3. commonly breaking in rectangular pieces.ADDENDUM E – SEA ICE NOMENCLATURE 1. with raised rims due to the pieces striking against one another. 2. The concept includes ice that is stranded or grounded.4. usually in water of low salinity.1 Sea ice: any form of ice found at sea which has originated from freezing of sea water. 1.2. where it is attached to the shore or between shoals. from where it floats to surface.1 New ice: a general term for recently formed ice.3 Ice rind: a brittle shiny crust of ice formed on a quiet surface by direct freezing or from grease ice. a few centimetres across. 3.1 Fast ice: sea ice which forms and remains fast along the coast. 2. Ice terms arranged by subject 1. Forms of fast ice 3. thrusting in pattern of interlocking “fingers” (finger rafting). and glacier ice (ice of land origin) formed on land or an ice shelf. 2.1.1 Stranded ice: ice which has been floating and has been deposited on shore by retreating high water. 3. Easily broken by wind or swell. at an interface between water bodies of different physical characteristics. Thickness to about 5 cm. easily bending on waves and swell and under pressure.

partial concentration may refer to the amount of a particular stage or of particular form of ice and represents only a part of the total.2. 4. 4. 157 . 2. 4.2.2. and the floes are generally not in contact with another.8 Ice-free: no ice present. 4. 4.1 Consolidated ice: floating ice in which the concentration is 10/10 and the floes are frozen together. Occurrence of floating ice 4. If ice of any kind is present this term should not be used.1.5 Very open ice: floating ice in which the concentration is 1/10 to 3/10 and water preponderates over ice. 4.3 Close ice: floating ice in which the concentration is 7/10 to 8/10.2. Total concentration includes all stages of development that are present. 4.2 (see plate 78) Very close ice: floating ice in which the concentration is 9/10 to less than 10/10.6 Open water: a large area of freely navigable water.1 Giant: over 10 km across. 4.2. Concentration: the ratio expressed in tenths describing the amount of the sea surface covered by ice as a fraction of the whole area being considered.3.2. in which sea ice is present in concentrations less than 1/10. 4.2. .3. composed of floes mostly in contact.3 forms of floating ice 4.2.1 Compact ice: floating ice in which the concentration is 10/10 and no water is visible.1 Pancake ice: cf. with many leads and polynyas.1 Ice cover: the ratio of an area of ice of any concentration to the total area of sea surface within some large geographic local. Floes are subdivided according to horizontal extent as follows: 4. or prescribed by a specific oceanographic entity such as Baffin bay or the Barents sea.4 (see plate 76) Open ice: floating ice in which the concentration is 4/10 to 6/10.2 Floe: any relatively flat piece of sea ice 20 m or more across.ADDENDUM E – SEA ICE NOMENCLATURE 4.3.2.2.3 4. this local may be global. 4.3.2 Vast: 2-10 km across. hemispheric.

4.4.3 Small ice field: an ice field 10-15 km across. frozen together and separated from any ice surroundings. 4. from 1 km to more than 100 km in width.3. 4. . 4.2 Medium ice field: an ice field 15-20 km across. 4.1 Floebit: a relatively small piece of sea ice. 158 . swell or current. usually composed of small fragments detached from the main mass of ice.2.1 Large ice field: an ice field over 20 km across.6 (see plate 68) Brash ice: accumulations of floating ice made up of fragments not more than 2 m across. 4.4.1. Ice boundary).1 Ice field: area of floating ice consisting of any size of floes which is greater than 10 km across.1.5 Small: 20-100 m across. 4.4 Medium: 100-500 m across.3 Ice cake: any relatively flat piece of sea ice less than 20 m across. 4. It may protrude up to 5 m above sea-level. 4. and run together under influence of wind. It typically protrudes up to 2 m above sea-level.3. 4.4 Floeberg: a massive piece of sea ice composed of a hummock.4. about 1 km or less in width. 4. 4. Ice boundary).5 Strip: long narrow area of floating ice.4.2.3 Big: 500-2000 m across.4.4. the wreckage of other forms of ice. longer than it is wide.2.ADDENDUM E – SEA ICE NOMENCLATURE 4. clear-cut ice edge compacted by wind or current. or group of hummocks.3.3.3. 4.3. 4.4.4 arrangement 4.4.3 Belt: a large feature of drift ice arrangement. It may be termed compacted or diffuse (cf. 4.8. usually on the windward side of an area of drift ice.3.1.1 Compacted ice edge: close.8 (see plate10) Ice edge: the demarcation at any given time between the open water and sea ice of any kind. normally not more than 10 m across composed of (a) hummock(s) or part of (a) ridge(s) frozen together and separated from any surroundings. whether fast or drifting (cf.

1 Jammed brash barrier: a strip or narrow belt of new.5 Fast-ice edge: the demarcation at any given time between fast ice and open water.4.4. When the floes rotate in the process it is termed screwing. 6. compact drift ice and consolidated ice.9 Ice boundary: the demarcation at any given time between fast ice and drift ice or between areas of drift ice of different concentrations. 4. Floating ice motion processes 5. It is heavily compacted mostly due to wind action and may extend 2 to 20 m below surface but does not normally have appreciable topography.ADDENDUM E – SEA ICE NOMENCLATURE 4. 4. Deformation processes 6. 159 .2 Compacting: pieces of floating ice are said to be compacting when they are subjected to a converging motion.3 (see plates 24-71-72-73) Ridging: the pressure process by which sea ice is forced into ridges.3 Shearing: an area of drift ice is subject to shear when the ice motion varies significantly in the direction normal to the motion.8.4.2 Hummocking: the pressure process by which sea ice is forced into hummocks. young or brash ice (usually 100-5000 m wide) formed at shore of either drift ice or fast ice or at shore. 6. subjecting the ice to rotational forces.9.1 Fracturing: pressure process whereby ice is permanently deformed.4. 4.8.1 Fast-ice boundary: the ice boundary at any given time between fast ice and drift ice. 5. usually on the leeward side of an area of drift ice.1. 5. 4. 4.2 Diffuse ice edge: poorly defined ice edge limiting an area of dispersed ice. 4.9.8.4. 5. Most commonly used to describe breaking across very close ice.4.4. 6.3 Ice limit: climatologic term referring to the extreme minimum or extreme maximum extent of the ice edge in any given month or period based on observations over a number of years. thus reducing ice concentration and/or relieving stress in the ice. A jammed brash barrier may disperse with changing winds but can also consolidate to form a strip of unusually thick ice in comparison with the surrounding drift ice. which increases ice concentration and/or produces stress which may result in ice deformation. and rupture occurs.1 Diverging: ice fields or floes in an area are subjected to diverging or dispersive motion.8.2 Concentration boundary: a line approximating the transition between two areas of drift ice with distinctly different concentration.

2 Deformed ice: a general term for ice which has been squeezed together and in places forced upwards (and downwards). Most common in new and young ice. 8.1 Crack: any fracture which has not parted.5 Consolidated ridge: a ridge in which the base has been frozen together.4 (see plate 70) Rafting: pressure process whereby one piece of ice overrides another.4. Fractures may contain brash ice and/or be covered with Nilas and/or young ice.1 Finger rafting: type of rafting whereby interlocking thrusts are formed. Openings in the ice 7.1 Finger rafted ice: type of rafted ice in which floes thrust “fingers” alternately over and under the other. 8. 8.1 (see plate 69) Rafted ice: type of deformed ice formed by one piece of ice overriding another.2.1.2. 7. forced downwards by pressure. 7. fast ice. 7.1 (see plate 16) Fracture: any break or rupture through very close ice. 7. 8. each floe thrusting “fingers” alternately over and under the other.2.3 (see plate 16) Lead: any fracture or passage-way through sea ice which is navigable by surface vessels.2.2. The submerged volume of broken ice under a ridge. compact ice. 160 . is termed an ice keel. Common in Nilas and grey ice. 6.6. May be fresh or weathered. 8.6 (see plate 71-72-73) Ridged ice: ice piled haphazardly one piece over another in form of ridges or walls. 8.1 Ridged ice zone: an area in which much ridged ice with similar characteristics has formed.2.2.1. consolidated ice. 8. 8. or a single floe resulting from deformation processes.2 (see plates 71-72-73) Ridge: a line or wall of broken ice forced up by pressure. Ice surface features 8. Length may vary a few meters to many kilometres.2.ADDENDUM E – SEA ICE NOMENCLATURE 6.2 Fracture zone: an area which has a great number of fractures.2.1 Level ice: sea ice which has not been affected by deformation.

3 Dried ice: sea ice from the surface of which melt-water has disappeared after the formation of cracks and thaw holes. or around a protruding rock.5 Flooded ice: sea ice which has been flooded by melt-water or river water and is heavily loaded by water and wet snow. Terms relating to surface shipping 12.2 Rubble field: an area of extremely deformed sea ice of unusual thickness formed during the winter by the motion of drift ice against.6.ADDENDUM E – SEA ICE NOMENCLATURE 8. 8. 9. mainly due to melting snow. islet or other obstruction.3 Hummock: a hillock of broken ice which has been forced upwards by pressure. 8. 161 . 8.2 Thaw holes: vertical holes in sea ice formed when surface puddles melt through to the underlying water. 9.5 (see front cover) Bare ice: ice without snow cover.2. which can appear over openings in the ice. Sky and air indications 11.4 Rotten ice: sea ice which has become honeycombed and which is in an advanced state of desintegration. or leeward of the ice edge. 8. and which may persist while ice is forming. 12.3 (see plate 64) Frost smoke: fog-like clouds due to contact of cold air with relatively warm water.6 Snow-covered ice: ice covered with snow.1 (see plate 21) Beset: situation of a vessel surrounded by ice and unable to move.1 Puddle: an accumulation on ice of melt-water. Stages of melting 9.2 Snowdrift: an accumulation of wind-blown snow deposited in the ice of obstructions or heaped by wind eddies. 9. May be fresh or weathered. 11. 9. 9. the surface whitens.2. During the period of drying.3.

is said to be ice-bound when navigation by ships is prevented on account of ice. that ice conditions prevailing in an area are such that navigation in it is not difficult.2 Ice-bound: a harbour.4 (see plate 44) Ice under pressure: ice in which deformation processes are actively occurring and hence a potential impediment or danger to ships. etc.5 Difficult area: a general qualitative expression to indicate.6 Easy area: a general qualitative expression to indicate. 12. inlet. 12. except possibly with the assistance of an icebreaker. in a relative manner. in a relative manner. that the severity of ice conditions prevailing in an area is such that navigation in it is difficult. 12.ADDENDUM E – SEA ICE NOMENCLATURE 12. 162 .

ADDENDUM E – SEA ICE NOMENCLATURE 163 .

ADDENDUM F – DANISH ICE BREAKER DUES

Addendum f

danish ice breaker dues

164

ADDENDUM F – DANISH ICE BREAKER DUES

165

REFERENCES

166

HELSINKI FINNISH-SWEDISH ICE CLASS RULES. GÖTEBORG INSTRUCTIONS FOR MERCHANT VESSELS-NOTICE TO MARINERS NR 33/2003. 145.GENEVA 1989 167 . NP 20.TP. SOMERSET. 1999 THE SWEDISH ICE-BREAKING SERVICE AND WEATHER. (RESEARCH REPORT NR 53)BY MILKO JUVA & KAJ RISKA). SEVENTH EDITION . SEPTEMBER 2000 PARNELL. ENGLAND. THE FINNISH MARITIME ADMINISTRATION (THE FINNISH ICEBREAKING SERVICE). GEORGE Q. BY HYDROGRAPHER OF THE NAVY . 1986 REPORT OF THE FOURTH MEETING OF THE ICE EXPERT AD HOC WORKING GROUP OF THE HELSINKI COMMISSION (ICE EWG 4/2003). BY HYDROGRAPHER OF THE NAVY . 2003 ON THE POWER REQUIREMENTS IN THE FINNISH-SWEDISH ICE CLASS RULES. 18 NOVEMBER 2003 THE MARINER‘S HANDBOOK . ENGLAND. RUSSIA. 2003 WMO SEA ICE NOMENCLATURE. THE SWEDISH MARITIME ADMINISTRATION. VOLUME III . WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANISATION. HELSINKI. TERMINOLOGY. THE NAUTICAL INSTITUTE. ICE SEAMANSHIP.REFERENCES REFERENCES PUBLICATIONS: BALTIC PILOT. ICEBREAKING SERVICE. THE FINIISH MARITIME ADMINISTRATION.AND ICE INFORMATION. 259. NINTH EDITION. ESPOO. HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY. (MONOGRAPHE). THE SWEDISH METEOROLOGICAL AND HYDROLOGICAL INSTITUTE. 2003 FINNISH ICEBREAKERS – A GUARANTEE OF UNHINDERED SHIPPING (BROCHURE). 5).HELSINKI COMMISSION. PETERSBURG. CODES AND ILLUSTRATED GLOSSARY.ST. GÖTEBORG. NP 100. ICE EXPERT WORKING GROUP. WMO NO. SOMERSET. LONDON. (SUPPLEMENT NO.

fi/en.de/en/marine%20data/observations/ice/index.fi/dps/docs/documents/maritime%20group/ice%20ewg%202.%202003/4 -3-cover.%202003.helcom.%202003/re port.jsp Http://www.army.fi/dps/docs/documents/maritime%20group/ice%20ewg%201.mil/techpub/crrel_reports/reports/nsr.helcom.fi/dps/docs/folders/maritime%20group/ ice%20ewg%202.pdf Http://www.fi Http://www.bsh.crrel.fi/dps/docs/documents/maritime%20group/ice%20ewg%202.helcom.de/de/meeresdaten/beobachtungen/eis Http://www.fi/tte/projects/icemap Http://www2.ca Http://www.helcom.icebreakers@fma.pdf Http://www.fi/sin.ice-glaces.pdf Http://www.nippon.bsh.html Http://www.htm Http://www.fi/dps/docs/documents/maritime%20group/ice%20ewg%202.helcom.html 168 .helcom.gc.%202003.ice.pdf Http://www.ec.usace.zaidan.html Http://www.info/seikabutsu/ 2000/00967/contents/059.fmi.pdf Http://www.vtt.fimr.fi/dps/docs/folders/maritime%20group/ice%20ewg%204.%202003/6 -2.%202003/8 -2.pdf Http://www.REFERENCES Internet websites: Http//:www.

51. 15 3-cm radar. 13 Canadian waters. 16.50. 51. 58.c. 54 Archipelago. 36 Danish ice breaker dues. 20 C 3 C. 9 Canada. 37. 30 Ballast water. 67. 68. 32. 36. 56. 3 Brooms. 35. 10 Colliding. 21. 3 Concentration. 73 Bow spring. 21. 83 Berthing. 160 Consolidated channel. 21. 21 B Backing. 20 A A. 45 Bow. 10 Cargo space heating systems. 26. 44 Class and administration rules. 70. 26. 17 Anti-slip. 158 Close quarters. 30 BALTIC PILOT. 73. 17 Channel. 36. 21 Collision. 2. 68. 26. VOLUME III. 43 Bollards. 17 Boarding of pilot. 158 Compacted ice edge. 5 Combination. 159 Compressed air system. 26. 17 Compressive ice. 42.I. 17 Bulbous bow. 17 169 .S. 79 Bow section. 67. 45. 30. Pumps. 61 D Damage. 14. 78. 69 Contact. 91 Cathodic protection. 17 Casting off. 161 Consolidated track. 67 Consolidated ice. 74 Commercial. 30 Current. 17. 3 Antifreeze additive. 56 Agent. 38. 5. 79. 17 Crack. 60.p. 158 Concentration boundary. 74 Anchoring. 66 Cooling water systems. 36 Autopilot. 59. 30.INDEX INDEX Brittleness. 79 Bow wave. 74 Bunker status. 67 Convoy. 158 Consolidated ridge. 26. 68 Collisions in ice. 56. 21. 159 Breaking out. 71 Bosun stores. 80. 31. 89 Anchor. 87. 59. 16. 165 De-aerators. 21. 17 Bouncing off. 30 Ballast. 66 Close ice. 17 Buoy(s). 41 ARPA. 50. 26. 16 Bunker tanks. 51. 16. 78. 27 Abrasive effects. 17 Approaching a bend. 53 Berth. 17. 17 Brash ice. 2 Dangerous situation. 89 Call-fax-service. 3. 35 Assisting vessel. 36 Compact ice. 42. 161 Cranes. 45. 74 Damage identification. i Charterer’s instructions. 21 Cooling water intakes. 67 Charterer. 77 1 10-cm radar. 20. 38. 71 Cooling water. 78 Bow thruster. 66. 26 Auxiliary generator.. 89. 77. 14 Cherry-picker. 51 Currents. 27 Assistance. 45 Bow line. 21 Bow-thruster room. 168 Belt. 6. 159 Bend. 162 Bilge keels. 15 Canadian 30-day ice forecast. 68. 21 Auxiliary power. 51 Bilges. 77 Beset. 20 Commercial loss. 90 Air-bubbling system. 74. 31. 2 Accommodation lighting. 29. 38. 31. 10. 30. 45 Coast radio stations. 16 Clogging.

20. 56 Deck equipment. 159 Floebit. 89 Floes. 17 Fresh water generator. 17 Emergency full ahead. 20. 26. 36. 61. 17 Deck machinery. 42 Hazard.45. 154 Floodlight. 5 Growler. 159 Floes. 20 Fog. 30 Deck lighting. 15 Exhaust gas temperatures. 83. 160 Fast-ice edge. 161 Finnish ice class certificate. 21 Frost smoke. 3. 54 Fairway. 5 Depth sounder. 34 “Google” as search engine. 17 Deck-lighting. 87 Head/tail collision. 16 Hummock. 50. 69 Engine room. 87 Drifting ice. 17 Heavy ice. 30 Gyro compass rose. 5 Hazards. 66 G Gangway. 10 Helmsman. 68 Head-tail collision. 24. 55 Hull and machinery. 158 Floeberg. 36 DO/MDO. 78 Ferries. 21 Fast-ice boundary. 79. 17 Engine performance. 157 Floe. 78. 42 Electronic radar maps. 66 Fore spring. 162 Frozen track. 160 Frazil. 26. 67 Heating systems. 21 Fleet manual. 21 Engine room space heating. 38. 37 Forward mode. 51. 157 Fast vessel. 69 Diverting. 161 Fracturing. 20 Gyro. 51. 86 Growlers. 3. 20 Emergency fire pump room. 33. 77. 30 F Facsimile. 80. 25 Fracture. 83 Fenders. 21 Downwind. 26 Edge. 160 Disembarking of pilots. 86. 17 Entry into the ice. 160 Fatigue of pilots. 63 Fracture. 79 Forward method. 3 Difficulties in manoeuvring. 16 Floating ice. 21 Fast ice. 10 Gps. 47. 82 H Harbour. 68 Helicopter. 36. 45. 90 Harsh ice conditions. 79 German ice map. 66 Drift ice. 78. 50 Fuel. 20 Dents. 3 First ice. 83. 41 Fender. 15. 85. 22 Draft-draught. 157 Hummock. 22 First signs of ice. 68. 74 Harsh winter. 79. 161 Fracture zone. 79.INDEX Floe. 162 Hummocking. 29 Grounded ice. 9 Fairleads. 17 Engineers. 79. 21. 42 Displacement. 35 Grounding. 68 Emergency generator. 55 Following. 160 170 . 9 Fire main. 29. 21 Freezing. 93 Frost smoke. 121 Finnish ice service. 67. 17 Engine room ventilation. 69 Forward mode. 16. 64. 21 Distance. 90 Harbour tug. 56 Fast ferry. 3. 26 E Echo trails. 9 Finnish institute of marine research. 71 Fairway. 41 Fairways. 26 Finger rafting. 2 Head line. 16 Freezing conditions. 7 Getting unstuck. 66. 2 Diffuse ice edge. 45. 61. 35. 157 Grounding. 41 Hatchcovers.

20. 68 Ice under pressure. 59 Ice map J Jammed brash barrier. 36. 45 Impact. Lights. 111 Ice-breakers particulars. 160 Ice breaking service. 48 Midship’s sections. 77 Ice-class. 59 Icebreaking services. 31. 35 Ice-breaker assistance. 90. 20 Finnish. 14 Hydraulic oil. 3 Lifeboat. 16. 66 Ice-breaker parking. 40 Hypothermia. 161 Life saving equipment. 15 Ice-situation. 59 Ice thickness.u. 35. 9 Ice-pressure. 14 Medium ice field. 71 Ice cover. finnish. 17. 27. 15. 157 Ice searchlights. 30. 80. 16 Indents. 26. 32. 92 Ice rind. 159 Ice glossary. 20 Ice pressure. 3 Mooring. 17 Hydrocopter. 66 Ice-heeling system. 17 Hydraulic power packs. 46. 20. 78. 87 Mooring ropes.c. 66 Maritime administrations. 10 Ism’s fleet manual. 1 M Machinery cooling system. 57 Ice class equivalents. 21. 55 Look-out. 114 Ice-breakers particulars. 41. 160 Ice management. 113 Icebreaking capabilities. 21. 82 List. 14 Internet. 158 Ice edge. 17 N N. 45. canadian. 28. 30. 163 Ice waypoint. 7. 160 K Kiel canal. 66 Ice-breaker assistance. 31. 159 Lashing pods. 30 Ice accumulation. 163 Ice-bound ports. 21. 21. russian. 66 Mariner’s handbook. 161 Leading lights. 21. 15 Ice situation. 17 Light ice. 30 Load limit. 77. 61 Level grey-white ice. 67. 36 Icing. 2 Ice limit. 16. 15. 41 Ice-breaker. 12 German. 84. 11 Ice photographs. 9 INTERNATIONAL CODE OF SIGNALS. 114 Ice-breakers particulars. 8 Swedish. 30 Look out. 49 Meeting. 25. 115 Ice condition. 159 Ice field. 56. 14 Ice-breaking tug. 17 Hydraulic unit stations. 41. 9 Ice bridge. 51 Leeward. 74 Icemap. swedish. 26 Look-out. 22. 3 I Ice knife.79. 27. 10 L Landmark. 71 Icing warning.INDEX Ifo/hfo. 17 Lifeboat motors. 21 Loadmaster. 47. 9 Ice-condition. 47 Ice services. 22 Inmarsat link. 15 Moisture condensing. 3 Ice belt. 35 Ice boundary. 66 Manoeuvring characteristics. 79. 21. 30. 4. 55 Ice-breakers particulars. 3. 30. 50 Level ice. 10 Ice-bound. 71 Ice-class restrictions reports. 56 171 . 31. 68 Main engine performance. 3 Main engine. 61 Ice under pressure. 35 In steering gear room. 112 Ice-breakers particulars. 20 Large ice field. 23. 21. 20 Ice impacts. 21. 21. 42. 68 Lines men. 154 Level ice. 29. 159 Meeting. 17. 17 Lead. 16. 21 Imminent collision. 91. 59 Ice-breaker escort. 20. 73 Initial speed.

26. 24 Shore leads. 21. 21 Poor visibility. 87 Rotating red warning lights. 27. 51. 5 Propeller blades. 153 Rafted ice. 27. 47. 21. 89 Ro-ro. 153 Sea smoke. 47. 14 Overpowered ships. 30 Rudder limit. 2. 16 Nautical publications. 9 Navtex ice report. 27 Radar scanner.INDEX Rafted grey ice. 15. 16 Shore lead. 162 Sea ice nomenclature. 45 Powerful vessel. 55. 21 Powerful ship. 28. 72. 17 See front cover). 6 Pancake ice. 87 Reduced visibility. 84 R Radar. 161 Ramming. 21. 17 Satellite phone. 157 Nilas. 67 Operational instructions. 36 Pilotage. 78 Old channel. 157 Pilot. 30. 21 Sea-chests. 40. 89 Propeller tip. 66 Rudder blade. 75 Notices to mariners. 17 Pressure. 6. 16. 62 Quay. 17 Shuga. 16 Rubble field. 21 Open ice. 74 Ridging. 67 Radar picture. 16 Seamanship. 157 Notch. 10 Satellite picture. 29. 153. 67 Propeller. 71 Pre-heating. 10. 68. 20 172 . 16 Shelter. 41. 30. 26 Rudder stock. 5 River berths. 26. 14 P Paint damage. 17. 66. 27 Sea ice nomenclature. 51 Open drift ice. 160 Risk assessment. 162 Rudder. 59. 51 Searchlights. 161 Ridged ice. 161 Rafting. 30 Pre-break escort. 14 Navigation lights. 155. 15. 42 Pilot station. 72. 61. 78. 68 Searchlight. 35. 55 Power black-out. 162 Shaft generator. 21. 154. 45. 5. 21 Open ice. 158 Open water. 154. 1. 162 Route. 68. 50. 157 Signals. 30 Navtex. 69 Quarter pass. 35 Ramp. 6. 26. 73. 35. 55 Sea-chest. 46 Owner. 66. 15 Sharp bend. 160 Shell plating. 27. 87. 67 Pressure building up. 45 Overtaking. 26. 45. 1 New ice. 27 Ridges. 90 Pilot boat. 56 Seawater cooling. 16. 28. 17 Restrictions of movements. 66 Q Quarter pass. 83 Pudding fender. 17. 154. 15 Overtaken. 41 Point of entry. 21 Shallow draught vessels. 55. 6 Propeller wash. 26. 55 Removing ice. 53 Shearing. 50 Shallow waters. 78 Propeller. 88 Shoreline. 45. 3. 79. 16 Rudder angle limit. 2 Shovels. 41. 54 Radar range. 15 Shore ramp. 29. 20 Sea clutter. 18 S-band. 52. 29. 161 Ridged ice field. 15 O Of thrusters. 16. 3. 83. 20. 68 S Salt. 2 Ridge. 153. 61 Rudder angle indicators. 56 Ship’s specific manual. 35 Pressurized ice. 23. 15. 29. 68 Rotten ice. 74 Notch towing. 5. 89 Rudder blade. 66. 77. 37. 83. 35. 61.

26. 15. 17 Stem. 55 Winches. 159 Snow. 16 True vectors. 23 Y YMERr. 42. 79. 72. 21 Steam-heating. 83. 16. 45 Unmooring. 71 Wind. 61 Sternboard mode. 59. 66 Speed loss. 73. 26 Very close ice. 87 Stability. 79 Thruster. 26 Transferring pilots. 27. 41. 2 Speedlog. 77. 72 Stevedore(s).INDEX Track’s edge. 157 Small floes. 16 Waypoints. 154 173 . 20 U Unassisted. 20. 17 Winter season. 159 Stuck. 45. 26 True-motion presentation. 87. 3. 68. 90. 51 Stern thruster. 42 Solid ice. 81. 78. 91 Turku radio. 17 Window heating. 15 Trails. 68 Stern. 26. 3. 27 Snow showers. 16 Wooden hammers. 21. 59 W Water ballast. 45 Straight track. 42 Snow-scooter. 3 Stopping. 157 Strip. 10. 10 Wb heating systems. 15 Vts. 21 Winter overalls. 16. 26 Windlasses. 89 Unstuck. 89 Steering gear pumps. 83. 168 Thermal strains. 47. 16 Wb tanks. 17 Steering gear. 66 Speed limits. 51 Track’s side. 155. 87 Sternboard method. 29 Spring. 52 Tow. 79 Stones. 59 Sound/light signals. 72 Towing gear. 71 Tow lines. 158 Very open ice. 21. 51. 14. 50. 26 Steering gear room. 86. 71 Towing. 15 Skirting the edge. 62 V Very close. 55 Snow-cat. 78 Stern way. 52 Stranded ice. 67 X X-band. 75 Towage. 89 Thickness of ice. 17. 50 Snow cover. 79 Thruster tunnel. 71 Track. 17 Windward. 20 Underpowered. 41. 30. 66 Towing line. 60. 59. 36 Sound signals. 34 Trim. 3 THE MARINER‘S HANDBOOK. 44 Transferring weights. 36 Suez light. 51. 29. 59 Speed. 31. 51 Wind direction. 3 Thrusters. 74. 77. 45 Underpowered ship. 47 Stopping distance. 27 Suez-canal searchlight. 30 Starting air compressors. 16 Vhf. 45 Traffic separation zones. 35 Trim. 20 Tornio. 21 Slush. 17 T Temperature. 41. 16 Widening channel. 21. 26 Tug. 78. 158 Vessel’s draught. 2. 65. 45. 16 Winter spars. 3 Thrust. 155 Small ice field. 79. 59 Voyage planning.