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Propaganda Techniques

Imperialism (noun):
a policy or practice by which a country
increases its power by gaining control over
other areas of the world; used by the British
Empire to justify colonization

ROOT: IMPERIUM = empire, command


The sun never sets on the British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates,

mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom.
It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by
England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was
the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global
By 1922 the British Empire held sway over about 458 million people, one-fifth
of the world's population at the time and covered more than 13,000,000 sq
mi (33,670,000 km2), almost a quarter of the Earth's total land area.
As a result, its political, legal, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread. At
the peak of its power, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets"
was often used to describe the British Empire, because its expanse around
the globe meant that the sun was always shining on at least one of its

The Scramble for Africa

The "Scramble for Africa" was the invasion, occupation,
division, colonization and annexation of African territory by
European powers during the period of New Imperialism,
between 1881 and 1914. It is also called the Partition of
Africa and the Conquest of Africa. In 1870, only 10 percent
of Africa was under European control; by 1914 it had
increased to 90 percent of the continent, with only Ethiopia
(Abyssinia), the Dervish State and Liberia still being
The colonial period proper in Nigeria lasted from 1900 to
1960, after which Nigeria gained its independence. (When
was TFA published?)

What is propaganda?
Information used to advance a cause
What about agitprop?
Agitation + propaganda
Political propaganda designed to move people
towards a certain action or belief

Propaganda and its uncompromising image

of moral absolutism is used to justify
imperialism. Propaganda

There are inarguable rights and wrongs

WE live according to whats right
THEY dont follow the rules of right and wrong
THEY are inferior and thus should adapt to our views
WE are in the right and therefore have a DUTY to be in charge of
decisions, labor, food, money, moral education through religion, etc.

For each image, check the list and determine
which term best describes the image.
Write the letter of the image next to the term
on your handout
Sometimes, multiple terms could apply, but one
should be chosen as the primary answer

Red herring: tries to distract the reader with

details not relevant to the argument


False dilemma (black-and-white thinking)

presents only two possible choices



Testimonial: using
a famous person to
endorse a product
or idea (for
instance, the

Emotional appeal: an appeal to the reader's emotions

instead of to logic or reason.



Sweeping generalization
(stereotyping) makes an
oversimplified statement
about a group based on
limited information.

Bandwagon: persuades us to do, think or buy

something because "everyone" is doing it


Name-calling (ad hominem):

attacks person instead of issue


Appeals to numbers, facts, or statistics attempt

to persuade the reader by showing how many
people think something is true.



Appeals to prejudice
use loaded or emotive
terms to attach value or
moral goodness to
believing the

Straw man: a misrepresentation

of an opponent's position.
To "attack a straw man" is to
create the illusion of having
disproven a proposition by
substituting a similar proposition
and proving it wrong, without
ever having actually refuted the
original position.


Circular argument states a conclusion as

part of the proof of the argument.


Appeals to authority cite prominent figures to support

a position, idea, argument, or course of action.


Appeals to fear seek to build support by instilling anxieties and panic in

the general population