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You have been asked to provide the psychologist with a recommendation for which research method should be used to gather data on the pathological liars and their spouses. .Axia College Material Appendix B Research Methods Matrix A psychologist is planning to conduct a study that would examine pathological liars and the quality of their romantic relationships. Using the table below list each research method and its advantages and disadvantages for use in this study.
Biases may alter results. Observation bias may also be a quandary. Cause and effect may remain unknown or may prove inconclusive. Here. Naturalistic Observation Provides a large amount of first-hand behavioral data that is more likely to be accurate. Natural behavior tends be more accurate. This method does not allow researchers to come to conclusions regarding cause-and-effect relationships. A relatively inexpensive way to collect a large amount of data in a timely manner. Observer bias. results may be incorrect or inconclusive. If the questions are unclear presented in a way that individuals do not correctly understand. . The psychologist may find correlations that may not actually exist.Research Method Case Studies Advantages Highly detailed and descriptive information is collected. Surveys Correlational Research Allows prediction of behaviors as related attributes can be identified. Survey participants may not answer the survey questions accurately and honestly. the observer may contribute bias regarding what actually occurs and what he/she was hoping would occur in the situation. subject will be behaving naturally. Disadvantages Expensive and time consuming for the researcher.
Having an observer present may change the liar’s behavior. Answer Key: Research Method Naturalistic Observation Advantages Behavior can be observed in the real-world setting in which it takes place. because the application of this research method to this study will allow the psychologist to reveal correlations between pathological liars and the quality of their romantic relationships.Experimental Research Often. It is problematical to control the objective of pathological liar. I chose the Correlation Research method to apply to research of relationship qualities. See the table below for complete responses. One reliable. this method would also allow observation of the consequences of the target behavior in romantic Disadvantages It may be difficult to observe a pathological liar in some of the more private situations commonly shared by couples in a romantic relationship. The researcher may chart or graph the results to clearly display these correlations. the control of most variables permits the researcher an opportunity to draw conclusions about causeand-effect-relationships. Your response should be 100-200 words. To conduct this research. Cause and effect is not an item in question in this study format. Over time. Good job with the analysis. feasible way of rating their romantic relationship quality would be to rate the presence of a spouse in their life during the course of the research project. Many variables cannot be controlled in the absolute. Lab settings may influence the subject’s behavior and decisionmaking. subjects who can be accurately identified as “known pathological liars” must be secured to participate. whereby the researcher may be able to uncover circumstances that prompt lying behavior. Make your recommendation to the psychologist and explain the rationale behind your choice. This method relies on the facilitator’s .
Case Study By using a variety of methods with a single individual (or a few). Researchers may gain demographic data (age. conclusions drawn from three case study participants who work in sales may not be representative of pathological liars who do not work in sales.relationships. religion) as well as attitudes and opinions that would describe one or more general trends of pathological liars. the questions must be phrased so they are clear and do not lead the participants to a particular answer. These test results may shed light on subconscious motives. as well as the results of psychological tests. and are generally cost effective. which may reveal communication and transactional patterns of pathological lying. It is difficult to draw general conclusions from just a few cases. race. considering the length and depth of researcher-participant involvement. socioeconomic status. “Do you lie unnecessarily?” is a poor question. leaving each case open to observer bias. The case study method allows interviews with the participant and others within the participant’s social environment. The case study method may suggest an area for further investigation. . and a large enough sample may provide a solid base of information on the tendencies of pathological liars. but is not likely to result in a general statement about the research issue. although the case study method provides detailed insight about its participants. It is difficult to accept the survey responses of pathological liars as truth. drives. and defense mechanisms. case studies explore many facets of a subject’s life. Conducting a case study allows an in-depth look at observed behavior. judgment to distinguish which behaviors or utterances constitute lying. The case study method also leaves room for observer bias. Survey Surveys generate a good deal of information. For example. findings may not be applicable to others. “When was the last time you misrepresented facts in order to protect your spouse’s feelings?” is a better question. For example. Surveys can reach many people. gender. In any survey research.
For example. When one goes up. Researching known pathological liars may prove useful information for law enforcement or other regulatory bodies that conduct investigations. . Experimental research may reveal effective strategies to restructure environments.Correlational Research Correlational research allows predictions of pathological lying behavior. the study may leave itself open to experimenter bias. and actually determines its cause. do not establish cause and effect. For example. Since it is inaccurate to say that bankruptcy causes people to lie pathologically. tasks. the other predictably goes up or down. if the behavior of lying about inconsequential matters increased in groups that were not granted rewards as promised. and giving all participants within a treatment group the same conditions. assuming that such reduction is a goal of the research. however. such as naming what counts as pathological lying. Such relationships. and incentives. Correlations only describe the relationship of one phenomenon to another. Experimental Research This method goes beyond just showing a relationship between personality traits and pathological lying behavior. this finding could inform relationship counseling techniques. this research method cannot accurately inform prevention measures or cures. An obvious disadvantage of experimental research is that the controlled laboratory environment is often very different from the real-world circumstances in which the behavior normally occurs. Make your recommendation to the psychologist and explain the rationale behind your choice. depending on the direction of the correlation. Each variable studied must be exactly defined. If the researcher fails to keep observers unaware of which group is receiving which treatment. social interactions or parenting that reduce pathological lying. Your response should be 100-200 words. a researcher might find a correlation between bankruptcy and pathological lying in romantic relationships.
Subjects from this subset could then be studied to reveal correlations of interest. There are actually two sets of study subjects in this design – pathological liars and those with whom they share a significant romantic relationship. those with higher frequencies of behavior having been reported. It may be necessary to utilize a legal or social services database to obtain referrals for subjects with a history of such behavior to screen for participants. Also. for instance. The survey should be configured to gather as much data as possible on the quality of these relationships. This would give the researcher the information base from which they may select their subset of subjects. case studies of selected couples may provide useful information regarding interpersonal relationship details that were not made available from the larger survey.A survey using clearly defined questions must be designed to set criteria that ensure participants are responding to a known set of parameters. .
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