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~EVIEWE~

GEORG S". S"AL\JAN


ARCHITE:Q

FUAP

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ai'GEORGI: S. SALVAN
JSI)l: 9'11-11-1118-7
-~Printing 2001

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TEL. ~OS.:

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TELEF'AX:

This sourcebook entitled "THE NEW ARCHITECTURAL REVIEWER" has been


prepared by the author to provide the graduates in the department of Architecture,
Comprehensive review materials in the sixteen (16) learning subjects and divided
into three (3) AREAS as follows:

AREA A:
Part
Part
Part
Part

I.
II.
Ill.
IV.

HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE
THEORY OF ARCHITECTURE
ARCHITECTURAL AND CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT
THEORY AND PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING

AREA B:
Part I.
Part II.
Part Ill.

STRUCTURAL DESIGN
BUILDING MATERIALS AND METHODS 01= CONSTRUCTiON
UT IL IT IES
1. SANITARY AND PLUMBING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT
2. MECHANICAL SYSTEMS, HVAC HEATING. VENTILAl,NG
AIR-CONDITIONING
3. ELECTRICAL AND OTHER POWER SYSTEMS
4. ACOUSTICS AND ILLUMINATION
5. DISASTER PREVENTION AND FIRE PROTECTION
SECURITY SYSTEMS
6. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
7. HIGH- TECH SYSTEMS

AREA C:
Part I.

PRE-DESIGN - BUILDING

Part II.

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

Part Ill.

SITE PLANNING

PHOC;H;'>-fvHv1ir~G

The items included in th1s Reviewer are drawn Horll Boo~\ 9 , 1\rctlltcctural ar1c
Construction Data) by the same author. as compret1ens1vely d1scussed w1th full
illustrations comprising 1 ,300 pages. with the end view of equipping the graduate
students of B.S. Architecture before taking the Board Examlflat1ons (Boohs 1 to 8
are individual books on one subject matter).
The comprehensive treatment in each learning area and the adequate exercises
provided by the author will challenge the students as they read and answer each test
item in the three (3) areas of instruction. With the guidance of instructors and parents,
"The New Architectural Reviewer" will prove to be very beneficial to the graduate
students of B.S. Architecture
GEORGES $ALVAN
Architect Fuap
AUTHOR
iii

The LICENSURE EXAMINATION for Architects shall be given twice a year in the City
of Manila and other places where conditions may warrant on the second Mondays,
Tuesdays, and Wednesdays of JANUARY and JULY provided such days do not fall
on a h9liday. In which case the working day following will be the day of examination.
The examination iscontinually evolving. Currently, the Board of Examiners for
Architects, under the PRC or Professional Regulation Commission is developing and
testing a computer-adaptive exam.
The use of computers will speed up reporting of grades, and improve reliability. One
interesting feature of a computer-based exam is that it will allow ability and knowledge
to be demonstrated progressively as the test is taken. The answer to one question
can affect the difficulty of the next so that a more competent candidate will answer
fewer difficult questions and probably finish earlier.
Although there is no substitute for a good, formal education and broad-based
experience provided by. your two (2) year Diversified Experience in various technical
aspects of the practice of architecture with a practicing architect, this view guide will
help direct your study efforts to increase your chances of passing the Board of
Examination for Architects.

1.

EXAMINATION FORMAT

The Architecture Licensure Examination is designed to protect the health, safety and
welfare of the public by regulating the practice of Architecture. It does this by testing
to see if someone has the knowledge, skills and abilities to perform the services
required of an entry-level architect. To this end, the examination is divided into three
major areas with their corresponding weights as follows.
I

(a) History and theory of architecture; principles of plannmg;


architectural practice ............................................. .

(30%)

(b) Structural design; building materials and


methods of construction, Utilities ........................... .

(30%)

(c) Architectural design and site planning ........................................ .

(40%)

2. HOW TO TAKE THE TEST

A. Time Management
One of the biggest problems many candidates have in taking the board examinations
is simply completing it in time. This is especially true of the 10 hour/12 hour design
problem because the design problem is particularly unique, guidelines for time
management and tips on completing it are discussed in AREA C part II.
For the portions of the exam that co 1sist of multiple choice questions, you may want
to proceed in one of two ways.

With the fh'st approach, proceed from the first question to the last, trying to answer
each one regardless of its difficulty. Divide the time alloted by the number of questions
to give yoursetf an average time per question. Of course, some will take less than the
average, some, more. If you are not able to confidently answer a question in your
alloted time or a little more, make note of it and move on to the next one. If you have
time at the end, you can go back to the most difficult questions
With the second approach, go through the test three (3) times. During the first pass,
read each question and answer the ones you are sure of and that do not take any
lengthy calcuiations or study of the information packet. Since you will be jumping
around, always make sure you are marking the correct answer soace. If a question
does not fit into the first category of "easy to answer", makb a mark by it indicating
whether yo~.; can answer it with a little thinking or easy calculation or whether it seems
impossible and may be a best-guess type or response.
During the second pass, answer the next easiest questions. These should be the
ones that you can confidently respond t0 after some deductive reasoning or with a
calculation with which you are familiar. Once again, make sure you are marking the
correct numbered spaces on the answer sheet.
During the third pass, answer the questions that remain and that require extra effort
or those for which you have to make the best guess between two of the most likely
answers. In some cases, you may be making your best guess from among all four
options.
Using the three-pass method allows you to get a feel1ng for the difficulty of the test
during the first pass and helps you budget the remaining time for the unanswered
questions. One of the tricks to making this method work is not to go back to reread or
reanswer any completed question. In most cases, your first response (or guess) is
the best response. No matter which approach you use, answer every question, even
if it is a wild guess. You are not penalized for guessing.
B. Tips on taking the Examination

Even if you are completely familiar with the subject matter, taking the Licensure Board
Examination can be an arduous process, simply because of its length and the
concentration required to get through it. As with any act1vity requiring endurance, you
should be rested when you start the exam. You should have stopped studying a day
or two before the first test day in order to relax as much as possible. Get plenty of
sleep the night before and every night between test days.
Allow yourself plenty of time to get to the exam site so you do not have to worry about
getting lost. stuck in traffic jams, or other transportation problems. An early arrival at
the exam room also lets you select a seat with good lighting and as far away from
distractions as possible Once in the room, arrange your working materials and other
supplies so you are ready to begin as soon as you are allowed.
The proctor will review the test instructions as well as general rules about breaks,
smoking and other housekeeping matters. You can ask any questions about the rules
at this time
Once the test begins you should quickly review the material given to you in the test
Information packet. For the non-structural divisions of the test, depending on which
Major Area you are taking, this will include such things as contracts, specification
vi

sections, ~rtioAS of zoning ordinances, portions of building codes, contract drawings,


and similar items. You do not need to study this material. Simply make a mental or
written note about what is included. So you know it is available when a question
requires that you use it.
Next cneck the number of questions and set up a schedule for yourself as described
in the pre~$ section. If you plan on tackling the questions one by one in sequence,
you should have completed about half the questions when half of your alloted time is
up.
In your scheduling, leave some time at the end of the period to double-check some of
the answers,you are most unsure of and to see that you have not marked two
responses for any question.
C. Study Guidelines
vour methoet of studying for the board exams should be based both on the content
.1nd form of the exam and your school and work experience. Because the exam
covers such a broad range of subject matter, it cannot possibly include every detail of
practice. Rather, it tends to focus on what is considered entry-level knowledge and
that is important for the protection of the public health, safety and welfare.
Your recent work experience should also help you determine what areas to study the
most. if you have been involved with construction documents for several years, you
will probably require less work in that areathan in others with which you have not had
recent experience.
This REVIEWER was prepared to help you focus on those topics that will most likely
be included in the exam in one form or another. As you go through the manual, you
will probabiy find some subjects that are familiar or that come back to you quickly.
Others may seem like completely foreign subjects, and these are the ones to give
particular attention when using this reviewer. You may even want to study additional
sources on these subjects, take review classes, or get special help from someone
who knows the topic.
The following steps provide a useful structure for organizing your study for the Board
Examination.

step 1: Start early. You .cannot review for a test like this by starting two weeks
before the date. This is especially true if you are taking all port1ons of
the exam for the first time.
step 2. Go through the review manuals quickly to get a feeling for the scope of
the subject matter. Although this manual and the companion manual
on the structural portions of the exam have been prepared based on
the content covered, you may want to review the detailed list of tasks
and considerations given in the PRC study guides.
step 3: Based on this review and a realistic appraisal of your strong and weak
areas, set priorities for your study. Determine what topics you need to
spend more time with than others.
step 4. Divide the subjects you will review into manageable units and organize
them into a sequence of study. Generally, yo!.. should" start with those
subjects least familiar to you. Based on the date of the examination
vii

and when you are starting to study, assign a time limit to each of the
study units you identify. Again, your knowledge of a subject should
determine the time importance you give it. For example, you mavwant
to devote an entire week to earthquake design if you are unfamiliar
with that and only one day to timber design if you know that well. In
setting up a schedule, be realistic about other commitments in your life
as well as your ability to concentrate on studying for a given amount of
time.

step 5: Begin studying and stick with your schedule. This, of course, is the
most difficult part of the process and the one that requires the most
self-discipline. The job should be easier if you have started early and
set up a realistic schedule, allowing time tor recreation and other
personal commitments.
step 6: Stop studying a day or two before the exam to relax. If you do not know
the material by this time, no amount of cramming will help.
Here are some additional tips:
Know concepts first, then learn the details. For example, it is much better to understand
the basic ideas and theories of waterproofing than it is to attempt to memorize dozens
of waterproofing products and details. Once you fully understand the concept, the
details and application are much easier to learn and to apply during the exam.
Do not overstudy any one portion. You are generally better off to review the concepts
of all the divisions of the test than to become an overnight expert in one area. For
example, the test may ask general questions about plate girders, but it will not ask
that you perform a cor:nplete, detailed design of one.
Try to talk with people who took the test the year before. Although the exam questions
change yearly, it is a good idea to get a general feeling tor the types of questions
asked, the general emphasis, and areas that previous candidates found particularly
troublesome.

VIii

PAGE

AREA "A"
PART I. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE

Building and Structures A, B and C........................................

Architectural Characters D, C and F.......................................

Definitions ... G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, 0, P, Q, R, S ...................

Architects/Buildings Designed................................................

28

Famous Dictums/Philosophies/Sayings.................................

29

PART II. THEORY OF ARCHITECTURE

Principles ot Design ' A ......................................................... .

31

Categories of Concern B ............................................ .

31

Contrast C ..................................................................... .

32

Proportion D ................................................................... .

32

Rhythm E ................................................................................ .

34

Colors F ....................................................................... .

35

Function G .................................................................... .

36

Space H ......................................................................... .

37

Circulation I ............................................................................ ..

38

Massing J ......................... ,....................................................... .

39

Site Control K .... .. .. .. ... .... .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. ... .. . .. .. .. .. . .. ............. .

41

Enclosure and Systems L ...................................................... .

43

Economics M ......................................................................... .

45

Human Factors and Behavior N ........................................... ..

46

Architectural Lingo 0, P .................................................... ..

48

PART Ill. OFFICE AND CONSTRUCTION PRACTICE

Agencies Involved in Shelter A ...............................................

52

National Building Code B, C, D...............................................

53

Fire Code E................................................................................

57

Office Practice F, G .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .

60

Project Classification H ............................... ............................

66

Spectrum of Architect's Services I ............................... ... .. .. .. ..

69

ix

Contracts J ... .......................... .. .................. .. .. ... ......... .... .. ....... ...

86

Bidding K ........................... ................ ... .. ... .. .. ...... .. ....................

87

Time of Construction Completion L. .. .. ... .. .. ... .. .. ... .. ........ .. ......

90

Projects M. .. .. .. . .. .. ... .. ................. .. ... ...........................................

92

Contract Documents Questions N ... .. .. ... ....... .. ... .. ... .. .. ... .. ......

93

Bidding and Construction Documents 0 ... .. .. ... .. ... .. ... .. .. .......

97

Project Manual and Specifications P ......................................

101

Miscellaneous Questions Q.....................................................

106

PART. IV. THEORY AND PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING


1. PRE-DESIGN- ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS
A.

Influence on Urban Development.........................

110

B-1 Community Influence on Design ..........................

115

B-2 Land Analysis.........................................................

116

C.

Transportation and Utility Influences...................

118

D.

Climatic, Ecological, Legal and


Economic Influences .............................................

120

Miscellaneous Questions......................................

125

E.

2. SITE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN


1. Topography...............................................................

128

2.

Climate.......................................................................

130

3.

Drainage....................................................................

132

4.

Utilities ....................................................... ,...............

133

5. Circulation
Automobile, Pedestrian and Service ......................

134

6.

Parking......................................................................

137

7.

Landscaping.............................................................

141

8.

Property Descriptions,............................................

141

9. Other Design Considerations..................................

142

10. Site Analysis and Design Questions......................

143

AREA "B"
PART I. STRUCTURAL DESIGN
Standard Structural Systems ............................. :.................
A. wood

B. steel
X

c. concrete

154

II

Complex Structural Systems .... ......... ....... .. .. .. .... ......... .

158

Ill

Structural System Selection Criteria.............................

161

IV

Loads on Buildings ... .... ... ....... .. ... ....... ......... .... ... .. ... .. ..

163

Structural Fundamentals . .. .. ....... .......... .. ........ .. ..... .. .. ...

165

VI

Definitions, Miscellaneous Questions .. .. ...... .. ..... .. ... .. ...

168

VII

Selection of Structural System . .... .. ... .. .. ........ . . ... .. ... .. .

171

VIII

Loads on Buildings.......................................................

174

IX

Structural Fundamentals ... .. ..... ... .. .. ... .. ... .. ..... .. .. ... .. .....

177

Beams and Columns ... .... . .. .. ..... .. .. .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .... .

180

XI

Trusses ... .. .. ... .. ..... .. ... ....... ..... .. ... .. .. . .. ..... .. ..... ..... .. .. ... ...

182

XII

Soil and Foundation ......................... ..

185

XIII

Connections ...................................... .

188

XIV

Building Code Requirements


on Structural Design ......................... .

190

Wood Construction .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. ... .. .. . . .................... .

193

Steel Construction ............................. .

196

XVII

Concrete Construction ................. .

198

XVIII

Wall Construction ........................................................ .

200

XIX

Lateral Forces - Wind ................................................. .

203

XX

Lateral Forces - Earthquake ........................................ .

205

XXI

Long Span Structure One Way Systems ....... ..... ... .. .. ... .. . .. .. ....... ..... .. .. ... ... .... .

208

Long Span Structure


Two Way Systems ... .. ... ................ ...... ... .. .. .. ... ... .. ... .. ...

210

XV
XVI

XXII

PART II. BUILDING MATERIALS AND


METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION

1. BUILDING MATERIALS

A. Concrete ................................................................... ..

214

B. Wood, Boards .......................................................... ..

217

c.

Metals ...................... .. ... .. .. ... .. ... .. .. ..... ... .. .. ... ... .. .. .. ... ... .

221

D. Glass, Plastics, Sealants .. ..... .. .. .. ... . ..... .. .. ...... .. .... .. .. .

224

E. Insulation........................................... .........................

227

F. Doors,. Hardwares ... ....... .. ........ ..... .... ....... ... .. .. ........ ...

229

G. Windows, Hardwares ..................................... :...........

231

xi

H. Abilities, Qualities, Properties of Materials..............

233

I.

Materials and Suppliers or Manufacturers ... .. .. ... .. ...

235

J. Painting .......................................................................

236

K. Miscellaneous Questions ..........................................

239

L. Miscellaneous Questions . .. .. ... ..... .. ......... ... ..... ..... .. .. .

243

M. Miscellaneous Questions ..........................................

246

N. Miscellaneous Questions ..... ........ ............ .. .. .. ...... .. ...

250

2. METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION
A. Miscellaneous Questions ..........................................
P~RT

253

Ill. UTILITIES

1. SANITARY PLUMBING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT


A. Water Supply...............................................................

258

B. Water Supply...............................................................

261

C. Fire Protection, Storm Water ... ....... ... .. .. .. ... ..... ......... .

264

D. Sanitary, Drainage Systems.......................................

266

E. Sewage Disposal System, Refuse Handling ............

269

F. Miscellaneous Questions ........................ ..................

272

2. MECHANICAL SYSTEMS
A. Heat, Moisture, Human Comfort................................

276

B. Heating, Ventilating, Solar Energy ............ ................

280

C. Air -Conditioning ............................. .............. .............

284

D. Conveyors, Vertical Transportation,


Building Mechanical Equipments .......... :..................

288

E. Miscellaneous Questions ................... ...... .................

292

3. ELECTRICAL AND OTHER POWER SYSTEMS


A. Principles of Electricity..............................................

296

B. Electrical Systems:

Materials, Wiring......................

299

C. Service and Utilization .......... .......... ..... ......... .. ... .. .. ... .

302

D. Miscellaneous Questions ..........................................

305

4. ACOUSTICS and ILLUMINATION

A. Sound Sources, Human Response...........................

309

B. Acoustical Properties of Materials............................

312

C. Solid Structure and Air-Borne


Noise Reduction.........................................................

318

xii

D. Physics of Light and Sources...................................

321

E. Miscellaneous Questions ................. .. ... .. ... .. .. ........ ...

327

5. BUILDING PROTECTION, FIRE, SECURITY


A. Building Protection ... ..... ................... .. .. ..... ... ..... ..... .. .

331

B. Building Protection Materials........... ........................

334

C. Fire Detection and Alarms ................... ... ............ ... ....

339

D. Fire Alarm Systems, Definitions................................

343

E. Fire Alarm Systems, Definitions................................

346

F. Fire Prevention, Protection........................................

349

G. Security - Burglar Proofing........................... ... .

351

H. Miscellaneous Questions ............................. .

355

6. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
A. Signal Systems ................... ...... ...... ..

358

B. Telelingo ............................................

364

7. HIGH TECH SYSTEMS


A. Building Automation .........................
B. Robotics .............................................

369
.... .. .... .. .

372

C. Intelligent Buildings .......................... .... ..... ........ .... ...

376

AREA "C"
PART I. PRE-DESIGN BUILDING PROGRAMMING
1. Functional Requirements ..... .. ..... .. .... ..... .. .. ~.......

382

A. Determining Space and Volume Needs ........ .... ........

382

B. Determining Total Building Area .... ..

383

C. Determining Space Relationships ........ .

385

2. Design Considerations ......................... ..

386

A. Organizational concepts ......................................... ..

387

B. Circular Patterns ........................................................ .

388

C. Service Spaces ......................................................... .

391

D. Flexibility .................................................................... .

392

3. Psychological and Social Influences ............................ ..

392

A. Behavior Settings .................................................... ..

392

B. Territoriality ...................................................... :........ ..

393

C. Personalization .......................................................... .

393

xiii

0. Group Interaction .................................. .. ........ .. .. ..... ..

393

E. Status ... .. .. ... ... ....... .. .. ... .... ... .. ... .. .. ... ........................ .. ...

394

4. Budgeting and Scheduling...............................................

394

A. Cost Influences...........................................................

395

9. Methods of Budgeting................................................

396

C. Cost Information.........................................................

398

D. Scheduling ............................................................ ......

399

5. Codes and Regulations ... .. .. ... ..... .. .. ........................... .. ....

402

6. The Programming Process ... .. .. .................................. .....

403

A. Establishing Goals ...... .. ... .. ... .. .. ... .. ... .. .. ... ..... .. .. ... .. .. .. .

403

B. Collecting Facts..........................................................

403

C. Uncovering Concepts ........................... .. ............ .......

403

D. Determining Needs ... .. .. ... .. ... .. .. ... .. ... .. .. ........ .. ........ .. ..

404

E Stating the Problem....................................................

404

F. Four Major Considerations


During Programming...........................................

404

7. Sample Questions.............................................................

404

PART II. ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

1. HOW TO SOLVE 10-12 HOUR DESIGN PROBLEMS


A. Strategies for time Management ............. ...... ........ ....

408

B. Read Information Booklet..........................................

410

C. Develop Graphic Notes ............................ '. .. .. ..........

411

D. Check Areas................................................................

411

E. Develop Adjacency Areas ... .. .. ... ... ..... ........... ... .. ..... .. .

412

F. Study Structural Systems ........................... ...............

413

G. Study Mechanical and Plumbing Systems...............

413

H. Begin Detailed Design................................................

414

Check Complete Final Drawing ............. ....................

415

J. Graphic Presentation .................................................

419

I.

PART Ill. SITE PLANNING

A. Design Requirements Related to Topography ... .. .. ..

423

B, Planning for Circulation.............................................

425

C. Parking Requirements...............................................

426

xiv

D. Other Design Considerations .......... ""' ... ,.....................

E. Design Procedure and

Sc-hedu~......

ANSWER

.......................

427
428

KEYS

AREA "A"

History of Architecture .

434

Part II. Theory of Architecture .

437

Part ill. Office and Construction Practice

418

Part IV Theory and Principles of Planning

441

Part I.

AREA "B''

Part I

Structural Oes1gn

442

Part II

Building Materials and Methods cf Construci!On

456

Part 111

Utilities

459

Sanitary and Plumbino Systems

459

Mechanical Systems

460

3 , Electrical and Power Systems

461

Acoustics and llluminiation

462

5 D1saster Prevention/Fire/Secunty

46~

6. Communication Systems .

464

Pre-Design Building Programming ..

464

AREA "C''"

Part I

XV

AREA ''A''
PART I

HISTORY OF
ARCHITECTURE

AREA "A"

PART I

Every country has its own distinctive Architectural Character, and this is
immediately recognizable and shown by the different building or structure found in its
mainland. In the following questions, match the right examples indicated at the right
side and place the right letters in the indicated parenthesis.

MATCHING TYPE

A. EXAMPLE OF BUILDINGS/STRUCTURES

A. Ziggurat of UR, persepolis, hall

1. PRE-HISTORIC PERIOD ...... (

of the hundred columns.


ANCIENT NEAR EAST
B. Pantheon, Forums, Basilicas,
Thermae, Amphitheaters, Colosseum Coemeteria, Triumphal
arch, gateways Aqueducts.

2. EGYPTIAN ............................. (

ROMAN

3. ANCIENT NEAR EAST


(Mesopotamia) ...................... (

c.

Basilican church, Baptisteries.


PRE-HISTORIC

4. PRE-COLUMBIAN, ................ (
MAYA, AZTEC, MEXICO

D. Beehive huts, caves, tents

5. GREEK .................................. (

E. The great mosques, Damascus,


and Cordoba, Kiosk at Istanbul,
Taj Mahal mausoleum at Agra,
Tomb of Humayun, Delhi.

ROMAN .............................. (

F. Sphinx, pyramids, obelisks,


mastaba Tombs, Great Temple,
Abu-Simbel. Temple of Khons

stonehenge, England, igloos.


EARLY CHRISTIAN

ISLAMIC
v.

EGYPTIAN

7. EARLY CHRISTIAN .............. (

G.

8. BYZANTINE ........................ (

H. Temple pyramid of the sun, C~a-

St. Sophia, Constantinople St.


Mark, Venice.
BYZANTINE

del Teotilluacan, Temple of the


giant Jaguar, Great plaza of
Tenochtitlan Machu Picchu,
Peru.
PRE-COLUMBIAN

I. Acropolis, Parthenon-temple,
Agora, ODEION theatre, stoa,
Mausoleum Sarcophagus, open
hillside theatres.

9 ISLAMIC .......................... (

GREEK

B. EXAMPLE OF BUILDINGS/STRUCTURES

1. ROMANESQUE .................... (

2. GOTHIC ................................. (

3.

RENA~SANCE

..................... (

4. BRITAIN ................................ (

5. CONTINENTAL EUROPE .... (

6. AMERICAS ................. .

..

7. MODERN/
INTERNATIONAL ................ (

MATCHING TYPE

A. Palazzo ricardi at Florence. St.


Peter's PIAZZA and Cathedral
Vatican, Palais du louvre, Paris
Chateau de Maisons. St. Paul's
Cathedral, London, Guild
Houses at Brussels.
RENAISSANCE
B. The white house, Washington
D. C., U. S. Capitol, Trinity
Church, Boston Empire estate
building, English country
houses. Bungalows.
AMERICAS
C. Eiffel tmler, new louvre, Paris
Opera house, Paris & cologne.
CONTINENTAL EUROPE
D. Salginatobel bridge, Einstein
tower, Chapel of Notre Dame,
Johnson Wax building, Falling
water, Dulles International Airport, Guggenhiem Museum
Sydney Opera house. Geodesic Dome
MODERN INTERNATIONAL
E. Notre Dame Cathedral. Paris
Canterbury Cathedral, King's
College. Canterbury town halls.
skippers house at Ghent.
GOTHIC
F. Westmmster New Palace
(House of Parliament) London.
Crystal Palace, London, University Museum, Oxford. Red
house, Kent, Cathedral at Guildford.
BRITAIN

G. St. Zeno. Maggiore monastery,


Leaning Tower, Cathedral &
baptistery of Pisa, Monas!eries,
Castles fortifications, chateaus,
Manor houses.
ROMANESQUE

C. EXAMPLE OF BUILDINGS/STRUCTURES
1. INDIA, PAKISTAN .................. (

A. Pagoda, great wall, Imperial


Palace, Temple of the Sleeping
Buddha, courtyard houses.

2. SRI LANKA ............................ (

B. SHWE Dagon Pagoda, Bakong


temple, Angkor, Temple of
Angkor vat, Throne Room,
Royal Palace, Bangkok. WAT
phra Kaew Temple, Stupa of
Barabudur, Angkor WAT.

CHINA

3. AFGHANISTAN, NEPAL,
TIBET ..................................... (

BURMA, CAMBODIA,
THAILAND, INDONESIA

C. Nipa house, Bontoc house,


Datus house, Yakan house,
Vigan houses, Antillan houses,
Asian Development Bank, cultural Center, Folk Arts theater,
PICC, Heart Center, Lung Center.
PHILIPPINES

4. BURMA, CAMBODIA,
THAILAND, INDONESIA ...... (

D. Wa-ta-da-ge (circular relichouse) Polonnaruwa, Anuradhapura house.


SRI LANKA

5. CHINA .................................... (

E. Torii (Shinto gateways) ISE


shrine. pagodas, palaces, Bath
houses, tea houses, Imperial
Villa.
JAPAN

6. JAPAN .................................... (

F. Rock-cut temple, Great Stupa at


Sanchi, Great Temple, Tanjore
Vihara monastery.
INDIA, PAKISTAN

-;-

PHILIPPINES

....

G. Statue of Buddha, Pagoda


roofs, Potala Palace. Temple of
Muktinath.

AFGHANISTAN, NEPAL, TIBET

D. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTERS OF COUNTRY


1 PRE-HISTORIC PERIOD ...... (

A. Columnar and trabeated,


wooden roofs were untrussed,
ceilings sometimes omitted,
optical illusions were corrected,
in Greek temples. Three orders
of architecture; the Doric, ionic
and Corinthian were introduced.
GREEK

2. EGYPTIAN ............................. (

B. Novel development of the dome


to cover polygonal and square
plans for churches. Tombs and
baptisteries, by means of a pendentive. "Fresco" decoration is
used-marble al')d Mosaic were
used broadly.
BYZANTINE

3: ANCIENT NEAR EAST


(Mesopotamia) ....................... (

C. Widely spaced columns carrying semi-circular arches.


Basilican churches have 3 or 5
aisles, covered by a simple timber roof. Mosaic decoration was
added internally, separate buildings used for baptism or Baptisteries are a feature.
EARLY CHRISTIAN

4. PRE-COLUMBIAN.

AMERICA Maya-AztecMexico-Peru .......................... (

D. The arch and the vault was de-

veloped. Two orders of architecture was added. The Tuscan


and the composite concrete is
now used, a composition of
lime, sand, pozzolana and broken bricks, or small stones.
ROMAN

5. GREEK ............................. (

E. Abundance of clay provided


bricks. Roofs flat outside. Architecture was arcuated winged
deity and winged human
headed lion used as decor.
Houses of one room, entered by
a single door and without windows.
ANCIENT NEAR EAST

6. ROMAN .............................. (

F. Bulbous or onion dome, Minarets stalactite moulding.


crestings, painted arch are employed.

7. EARLY ~HRISTIAN ............... (

G. Temporary shelter from perishable materials, caves, rocks on


top of each other, hard packed
snow blocks, animals skins.

ISLAMIC

PRE-HISTORIC

8. BYZANTINE ........................... (

H. Temple pyramids are approached by a single steep flight


of steps. For all buildings of importance, stone was employed,
either finely dressed or carved
or laid as roughly dressed
rubble.
PRE-COLUMBIAN AMERICA

9. ISLAMIC ................................. (

I. Batlered or sloping outside wall,


columns and capitals from vegetable origins, papyrus buds, lotus flower walls are of mud-brick
and thick, up to 9 meters. Unbroken massive walls are adorn
with HIEROGLYPHICS.
EGYPTIAN

E. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTERS OF COUNTRY

A. Neo-classic and Greek revival

1. ROMANES9UE ..................... (

was followed. Baloon frame was


introduced. The skyscraper was
contributed related to metal
frame construction. The nonload bearing "curtain wall" and
the elevator.
AMERICAS

2. GOTHIC ................................. (

B. Repetition of standard bays,


both plan and elevation, an affinity with bay system, programmatically adopted with the introduction of iron construction.
CONTINENTAL EUROPE

3. RENAISSANCE ..................... (

C. Ribbed & panel, cross vaults;


plaster strips, arcades, rose
windows. Sober and dignified
style, formal massing depends
on the grouping of towers and
the projection of transepts and
choir.

4. BRITAIN ................................. (

D. Free-standing glass sheath suspend on a framework across the


face of the building or curtain
wall. Art Noveau and Bauhaus
was developed. Enormous
spans unobstructed were at
length achieved with concrete.
Steel is used in "space-frame.

ROMANESQUE

MODERN INTERNATIONAL

5. CONTINENTAL EUROPE ..... (

E. Picturesque values, reflected in


the predilection for highly textured, colorful materials, asymmetry and informaiity. The
palazzo style was a triumph of
national eclecticism. New functions and techniques produced
new forms. Taller buildings were
designed due to reinforced concrete and cast-iron frames. New
materials were used due to the
effect of canals. Railroad systems. central heating and elevator or lift.

6. AMERICAS ................... :........ (

F. Pointed arch, buttress, flying


buttress, gargoyles, decorated
vaulting, rose and lancet windows ploughshare twist, variety
of open roofs (trussed, tiebeam, collar)

BRITAIN

GOTHIC

7. MODERN/
INTERNATIONAL .................. (

G. Rusticated masonry, quoins,


Balusters, dome or raised
drums, pediments one within
the other, rococo, Baroque
style, salon, mansard roofs.
RENAISSANCE

F. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER OF COUNTRY


A. Stepped temple pyramid, terraced on a hill, using stone without mortar fitted perfectly and
numerous colossal towers. Religious buildings were overlaid
with ornamentation of Chinese
characters surfaces often finished with porcelain tile. Walls
are white stucco, multi-levelled
overlapping timber roofs.
Gables and bargeboard decorated with Hindu iconography.
Doors and window shutters are
of carved wood, lacquered in
black and gold.

1. INDIA, PAKISTAN .................. (

BURMA, CAMBODIA,
THAILAND, INDONESIA

2. SRI LANKA ............................ (

B. Use of indigenous materials for


houses like bamboo, palm
leaves, sturdy wooden posts,
carved wooden sidings, cogon
grass roof. Spanish style high
pitch roots, Capiz shell windows, barandillas, balconies,
coconut shell and wood dasign.
Much use of galvanized iron
sheet for roofing.
PHILIPPINES

3. AFGHANISTAN, NEPAL,

C. Root ridges are laden with

TIBET ..................................... (

elaborate ornamental cresting


and the up-tilted angles are
adorned with fantastic dragons
and grotesque ornament. Roofs
one on top of each other using
S-shape enamelled tiles. Roof
framing in rectangle and not triangle. Use of bright colors columns brackets are decorated
with birds, flowers and dragons.
CHINA

4. BURMA, CAMBODIA,

THAILAND, INDONESIA ....... (

D. Hindu worship is an individual


act. Buddhist religious buildings
or shrine<> took the form of
stupas, and are designed for
congregational use. Mouldings
have bulbous character. The
Torus moulding is used. Various
Bas reliefs 1depicting scenes of
daily life and story of Buddha.
The female form in its most voluptuous form is often used.

5. CHINA .................................... (

E. Light and delicate timber construction is refined by minute


carving and decoration. Dominant roofs characterized by their
exquisite curvature, supported
by a succession of brackets.
Upper part of the roof is terminated by a gable placed vertically above the end walls.
Rooms are regulated by a
"KEN" Tatami mats. Love of nature. Using stone.. lantern, bonsai.

INDIA, PAKISTAN

JAPAN

F. Rock temples, with square or

6. JAPAN .................................... (

octagonal pillars. A circular relic


house (wata-dage) built in stone
and brick is an outstanding
arch'l creation. An architecture
of wood. with high pitched roofs,
with wide eaves, slightly curved,
finished with small flat shingles
and terra cotta tifes. Windows
with, lacquered wood bars,
carved timber doorways, ornamental metalwork door furniture, painted walls.
SRI LANKA

7. PHILIPPINES ......................... (

G. Cupola roofs, spanning with


arched squinches, the square
chamber angles, lantern roof
and coffered dome, an elaborate systems of hexagon each
containing statue of Buddha, the
"sikhara" and "pagoda" temples
survive. A monumental pillar
generally supporting a metal
super structure adorned with
mystic symbols, groups of divinities and portraits statuary of
royalties. Windows have intricate lattice screens and roof
have red curved tiles, metal gutters and projecting cornice and
fancifully decorated with carving, embossing and tinkling
bells and hanging lamps. The
monastery is fortress like sited
on hil tops pillars and beams
are painted yellow or red and
painted silks hang from the roof.
AFGHANISTAN, NEPAL, TIBET

G. DEFINITIONS (put the corresponding letter)


1. SPHINX .................................. (

A. Consists of a complex of sarsen

stones and smaller blue stones


set in a circle and connected by
lintels.
STONEHENGE

2. MASTABA .......... :................... (

B. Pictorial representation ot reli-

gious ritual. historic events and


daily pursuits.
HIEROGLYPHICS

3. OBELISK ................................ (

c.

4. PYRAMID ............................... (

D. Mythical monsters each with the


body of a lion and a head of a
man, hawk, ram or a woman
possessed.

5. BATTER ................................. (

E. An ancient Egyptian rectangular, flat-topped funerary mound,


with battered (sloping) sides
covering a burial chamber below ground.

6. STONEHENGE ..................... (

F. A massive funerary structure of


stone or brick with a square
base and four sloping triangular sides meeting at the apex.

Inward inclination or slope of an


outer wall.
BATTER

SPHINX

MASTABA

PYRAMID

7. ZIGGURAT ............................. (

G.

8. HIEROGLYPHICS ................. (

H.

Huge monoliths, square on plan


and tapering to an electrumcapped pyra-midion at the summit, which was the sacred part.
The four sides are cut with hieroglyphics.
OBELISK

Artificial mountains made up of


tiered, rectangular stages which
rose in number from one to
seven.
ZIGGURAT

H. DEFINITIONS (put the corresponding letter)


1. DOLMEN ............................... (

A. The term applied to the triangular curved overhanging surface


by means of which a circular
dome is supported over a
square or polygonal compartment.

2. VOUSSOIRS ......................... (

B. A term originally applied to


painting on a wall while the plaster is wet and is not in oil colors.

3. EXEDRA ................................ (

C. An adjective used to describe


an artist who selects forms and
ideas from different periods or
countries and combines them to
produce a harmonious whole.

PENDENTIVE

FRESCO

ECLECTIC

10

'

4. CELLA .................................... (

D.

5 STUPA - (

E. A large fortified place; a fort of-

Term in a specialized sense to


describe one of the attitudes of
taste towards architecture and
landscape gqrdening in the late
18th and early 19th century.
PICTURESQUENESS

ten including a town; any place


of security.
FORTRESS

6. ECLECTIC ............................. (

F. Pre-Colombian edifice dedicated to the service or worship


of their god which is made of
stones entered by a single door
to a very steep single flight of
steps, above it rises a high
stone roof.
MAYAN TEMPLE PYRAMID

7. SOFFIT .................................. (

G.

The sanctuary of a classical


temple, containing the cult
statue of the god.

8. FORTRESS ........................... (

H.

An ancient structure usually regarded as a tomb, consisting of


two or more large, upright
stones set with a space between and capped by a horizontal stone.

CELLA

DOLMEN

9. PENDENTIVE ........................ (

I. In ancient (Greece or Rome) a


room or covered area or open
on one side used as a meeting
place.
EXEDRA

10. MAYAN TEMPLE


PYRAMID ............................... (

J. Any of the pieces, in the shape


of a truncated wedge, which
form an arch or vault.
VOUSSOIR

11. PICTURESQUENESS ........... (

K. Domical mounds which grouped


with their rails, gateways, professional paths and crowning
"umbrella" came to be known as
symbols of the universe.

12. FRESCO ................................ (

L. The exposed undersurface of


any overhead component of a
building such as an arch, balcony, beam, cornice, lintel or
vault.

STUPA

SOFFIT

11

MATCHING TYPE

I. DI!PINITIONS

1. STOA ..................................... (

A. A triangular piece of wall above


the entablature enclosed by rak
ing corr.ices.
PEDIMENT

2. ATLANTES ............................. (

B. The sharp edge formed by the


meeting of two surface usually
in DORIC columns.

3. ABACUS ................................ (

C. The vertical channeling on the

ARRIS

shaft of a column.
FLUTES

4. ENTASIS ................................ (

D. A small flat band between mouldings to separate them from


each other.
FILLETS

5. FLUTES ................................. (

E. The lowest square member of


the base of a column.

6. CARYATIDS ........................... (

F. The portion of a pedestal between its base and cornice. A

PLINTH

term also applied to the lower


portions of walls when decorated separately.
DADO

7. DADO ..................................... (

G. Or town square, was the centre


of social and business life,
around which were stoas, or colonnaded porticoes, temples,
markets, public buildings,
monuments, shrines.
AGORA

8. ARRIS .................................... (

H. A swelling or curving outwards


along the outline of a column
shaft, designed to counteract
the optical illusion which gives
a shaft bounded by straight lines
the appearance of curving inwards.

9. FILLETS ................................. (

I. A slab forming the crowning


member of a column.

1U. PEDIMENT .......................... (

J. Carved male figures serving as

ENTASIS

ABACUS

pillars also called Telamones.


ATLANTES

K. Sculptured female figures used

11. PLINTH ................................. (

as columns or. supports.


CARYATIDS

12

12. AGORA .................................. (

L. A long colonnaded building,


served many purposes, used
around public places and as
shelter at religious shrines.
STOA

J. DEFINITIONS

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. TRIUMPHAL ARCH ............... (

A. A mass of masonry built against


a wall to resist the pressure of
an arch or vault.
BUTTRESS

2. THERMAE ............................. (

B.

Line of intersection of cross


vaults.

3. COLOSSEUM ........................ (

c.

An arch covering in stone or


brick over any building.

4. AQUEDUCTS ........................ (

D. A turret or part of a building elevated above the main building.

5. FORUM .................................. (

E. Sunk panels, caissons or Iacunaria formed in ceilings,


vaults or domes.

6. PINNACLE ............................ (

F. Corresponds to the Agora in a


Greek city was a central open
space, used as a meeting place.
market or rendezvous for political demonstrations.

7. SARCOPHAGUS ................... (

G. Palatial public baths of Imperial


Rome, raised on a high platform.

GROINS

VAULT

PINNACLE

COFFER

FORUM

THERMAE

8. MAUSOLEUM ....................... (

H. Elliptical Amphitheaters are


characteristically Roman buildings found in every important
settlement, used to display of
mortal combats (Gladiatorial)

9. GROINS ................................. (

I. A term applied to monumental


tombs. They consisted of large
cylindrical blocks, often on a
quadrangular podium, topped
with a conical crown of earth or
stone.

COLOSSEUM

MAUSOLEUM

13

10. COFFER ............................ (

J. These are arches erected to


emperors and generals commemorating victorious campaigns, with one or three openings. Such arches were adorned
with appropriate bas-reliefs and
usually carried grit-bronze '3tatuary on an attic storey and having a dedicatory inscription in its
face.
TRIUMPHAL ARCH

11. BUTTRESS ............................ (

K. A roman structure where immense quantities of water were


required for the great thermae
and for public fountains, and for
domestic supply tor the large
population.

12. VAULT .................................... (

L. Taken from a tomb chamber, or

AQUEDUCTS

the ornamental treatment given


to a stone coffin hewn out of one
block of marble and with sculptures, figures and festoons of a
late period, surmounted by lids
like roofs terminating in scrolls.
SARCOPHAGUS

MATCHING TYPE

K. DEFINITIONS
1. NARTHEX ................. c............ (

A.

2. BAPTISTERIES ..................... (

B. The circular or rnultangu1ar ter-

A canopy supported by columns generally placed over an


altar or tomb also known as
ciborium.
BALDACHINO

mination of Cl church sanctuary.


APSE

3. FONT ..................................... (

C. Decorative surfaces fonned by


a small cubes of stones, glass,
and marble.
MOSAIC

4. DOME .................................... (

D. A range of arches supported on


piers or columns attached to or
detached from the wall.

5. BEMA .................................... (

E. Tile principal or central longitudinal area of a church, extending from the main entrance or
narthex to the chancel, usually
flanked by aisles of less height.

ARCADE

NAVE

14

6. ARCADE ................................ (

F. A long arcaded entrance porch


to a Christian basilican church.

7. AMBO .................................... (

G.

~-

H.

MOSAIC ................................. (

NARTHEX

A longitudinal division of an interior area. as in a church, separated from the main area by an
arcades or the like.
AISLE

A raised stage in a basilican


church reserved for the clergy.
BEMA

9. BALDACHINO ....................... (

I. A raised pulpit on either side of


a basilican church from which
the epistle of a gospel were
AMBO
read.

10. AISLE ..................................... (

J. A building or a part of a church


in which baptism is administered.
BAPTISTERIES

11. NAVE ..................................... (

K. A basin usually of stone which


holds the water for baptism.
FONT

12. APSE .................................... (

L. A vault having a circular plan,


and usually in the form of a portion of a sphere, so constructed
as to exert an equal thrust in all
directions.
DOME

L. DEFINITIONS
1. KIOSK .................................... (

A. A public open space in Byzantine architecture. surrounded by


buildings.
PIAZZA

2. MOSQUE ............................... (

B. The central stone of a semi-circular arch, sometimes sculptured.


KEYSTONE

3. CORBEL ................................ (

C. The triangular space enclosed


by the curve of an arch, a vertical line from its springing, a horizontal line through its apex.

4. MINARET ............................... (

D. A screen in a Greek orthodox


church on which icons or (sacred images), pictures, are
placed separating the chancel
from the space, open to the laity

SPANDREL

VERANDAH

15

5. CHAMFER ............................. (

E. Women's or private quarters of


a house or place in Islamic architecture.
HAREM

6. ATRIUM ................................. (

F. An inward-looking building
whose prime purpose is contemplation and prayer. A space
without object of adoration
(Muslim)
MOSQUE

7. SQUINCH .............................. (

G. A tall tower in, or continuous to,


a mosque arch, stairs leading
up to one or more balconies
from which the faithful are called
to prayer.
MINARET

8. HAREM .................................. (

H. A small pavilion, usually open,


built in gardens and parks
KIOSK

9. CENOTAPH ........................... (

I. An approach or an open
forecourt surrounded by arcades in a Basilican church.
ATRIUM

10. OGEE ..................................... (

J. A block of stone, often elaborately carved or moulded, projecting from a wall, supporting
the beams of a roof, floor or
vault.
CORBEL

11. KEYSTONE ........................... (

K. A diagonal cutting of an arris


formed by two surfaces at an
angle.

12. ICONOSTASIS ....................... (

L. Geometrical ornaments due to


absence of human and animal
statues.

13. VERANDAH ........................... (

M. A double curve, resembling the


letterS, formed by the union of
a curve and a convex line.

14. PIAZZA .................................. (

N. A small arch or bracket built


across each angle of a square
or polygonal structure to form an
octagon or other appropriate
base for a dome or a spire.

15. ARABESQUE ........................ (

0. A covered porch or balcony extending along the outside of a


building, planne.d for summer
leisure.

CHAMFER

ARABESQUE

OGEE

SQUINCH

VERANDAH

16

16. SPANDREL ............................ (

P. An empty tomb a monument


erected in memory of one not
interred in or under it.
CENOTAPH

M. DEFINITIONS
1. TURRET ................................ (

A. The high platform on which


temples were generally placed
(in general, any elevated platform)

2. MULLIONS ............................. (

B. An umbrella shaped cupola

3. CHATEAU .............................. (

c.

4. FLECHE ................................. (

D. Is a rectangular feature in the

PODIUM
CHATTRIS

Vaulting in Romanesque in
which a framework of ribs supported thin stone panels. The
new method consisted in designing the profile of the transverse, longitudinal and diagonal
ribs to which the form of the panels was adopted.
RIB AND PANEL

shape of a pillar, but projecting


only about one sixth of its
breadth from the waiL
PILASTER STRIP

5. NICHE .................................... (

E. The ornamental pattern work in


stone, filling the upper part of a
Gothic window.
TRACERY

6. BOSS ..................................... (

F. The part of a cruciform church,


projecting at right angles to the
main building.
TRANSEPT

7. PILASTER STRIP .................. (

G.

8. CHATTRIS ............................. (

H. A slender wooden spire rising


from a roof.

A (shell) or a recess in a wall,


hallowed like a shell for a statue
or ornament.
NICHE

FLECHE

9. TRACERY .............................. (

I. Small towers, often containing


stairs, and forming special features in mediab"'' ~t:iidi;Jgs.

10. PODIUM ................................. (

J. Vertical tr:1cery .members dividing windows into different numbers of light.

TURRET

MULLIONS

17

11. TRANSEPT ............................ (

K. A castle in a french-speaking
country, or a stately residence.
CHATEAU

12. RIB AND PANEL .................... (

L. (lump or knob) or projecting ornamert at the intersection of the


ribs of ceilings, whether vaulted
or flat.
BOSS

14. DEFINITIONS.
1. CIMBORIO ............................. (

A. A slight convex curvature built


into a truss or beam to compensate for any anticipated deflection so that it will have no sag
when under load.
CAMBER

2. LARDER' (

B. A vault in which the ribs compose a star-shaped pattern.


STELLAR VAULT

3. SPIRE .................................... (

c.

4. STEEPLE ............................... (

D. Covered passages round an

A bay window especially cantilevered or corbelled out from the


face of a wall by means of projecting stones.
ORIEL WINDOW

open space or garth, connecting the church to the chapter


house.
CLOISTERS

5. WARDROBE .. ..................... (

E. The dining hall of a monastery,


convent, pr college.
REFECTORY

6. CAMBER ................................ (

F. A building complex of a certain


english order or a self -contained
community used by monks.
MONASTERY

7. CLOISTERS .......................... (

G.

8. PANTRY ................................. (

H. A room where food is stored.

A serving room between kitchen


and dining room, or a room for
storage of food supplies.
PANTRY
LARDER

9. STELLAR VAULT ................... (

I. A room for storage of garments.

10. MONASTERY ........................ (

J. Special term for a lantern or

WARDROBE

raised structure above a roof


admitting light into the interior.
CIMBORIO

18

11. ORIEL WINDOW ................... (

K. The tapering termination of a


tower in Gothic churches.
SPIRE

12. REFECTORY: (

L. The term applied to a tower


crowned by a spire.
STEEPLE

0. DEFINITIONS.
1. SCROLL ................................. (

A. The chief magistrate's buildings,


in the former republic of Venice
and Genoa.
DOGE'S PALACE

2. PALAZZO ............................... (

B. A tower not connected with


"Bell" a term applied to the upper room in a tower in which the
bells are hung.

3. BALUSTER ... .. .. ... .. ... .

c.

BELFRY

... (

A space entirely or partly under


a building; in churches, generally beneath the chancel and
used for burial in earlier times.
CRYPT

4. ROCOCO .............................. (

D. The space about the altar of a


church. usually separated by a
screen for the clergy and other
officials, usually referred to as
the "choir"
CHANCEL

5. BAROQUE ........................... (

E. (British) The hall built or used


by a medieval association as of
merchants and tradesmen, organized to maintain standards
that constituted a governing
body.
DOGE'S HALL

6. BELFRY ................................. (

F. An Italian impressive public


building or private building.
PALAZZO

7. ENTABLATURE ..................... (

G.

8. DOGE'S HALL ....................... (

H. One of a number of short vertical members often circular in


section used to .s..;tJport a stair
handratl or a coping.

An eternal solid angle of a wall


or the like. One of the stones
forming it, corner stone (Renaissance)
QUOINS

BALUSTER

19

9. PAVILION ............................... (

10. CHANCEL .............................. (

I. Or rock, a term applied to a type


of Renaissance ornament in
which rock-like forms, fantastic
scrolls, and crimped shells are
worked up together in a profusion and confusioR of detail often without organic coherence
but presenting a lavish display
of decoration.
ROCOCO
J. An ornament consisting of a

spirally wound band, either as


a running ornament or as a terminal. like the volutes of the
ionic capital.
11. QUOINS ................................. (

SCROLL
K. In France, anything extrava-

gantly ornamented, so ornate as


to be in bad taste, a style of art
and architecture in Italy in the
17th to 18th century.
BAROQUE

12. CONSOLE ............................. (

13. CRYPT ................................... (

L. The central shaft of a circular


staircase. Also applied to the
post in which the handrail is
framed.
NEWEL
M. A sphencal roof, placed like an

inverted cup over a circular,


square, or multangular apartment.
CUPOLA

14. NEWEL .................................. (

N. (little houe, for pleasure and

recreation). A prominent structure, generally distinctive in


character.
PAVILION

15. DOGE'S PALACE .................. (

0. Or bracket, is a projecting member to support a weight generally formed with scrolls or volute
~hen carrying the upper member of a cornice.

16. CUPOLA ................................ (

P. The entire construction of a


classical temple or the like, between the columns and the
eaves usually composed of an
architrave, frieze, a cornice.

CONSOLE

ENTABLATURE

20

P. DEFINITIONS
1. VESTIBULE ........................... (

A. Also called brackets or ccnsoles


or ancones is a projecting member to support a weight generally formed with scrolls or volutes which carry the upper
member of a cornice.

2. LANTERN .............................. (

3. WREATH ................................ (

4. SALON ................................... (

5. MANSARD ............................. (

6. NYMPHAEUM ....................... (

7. FINIAL .................................... (

8. PEDESTAL ............................ (

9. DORMER ............................... (

10. HERMES ................................ (

21

MODILLIONS
B. A support for a column statue
or vase, it usually consists of a
base, die, and cornice or cap
mould.
PEDESTAL
C. A decorative niche often topped
with a canopy and housing a
statue.
TABERNACLE
D. A window in a sloping roof usually that of a sleeping apartment.
DORMER
E. Vertical members dividing windows into different number of
lights.
MULLION
F. The horizontal divisions or
crossbars of windows.
TRANSOM
G. A roof having a double. Slope
on all four sides; the lower slope
being much steeper and flatter
upper portion also known as
gambrel roof.
MANSARD
H. A room decorated witn plants,
sculpture and fountains (often
decorated with beautiful Maidens living in rivers, trees) and
intended for relaxation.
NYMPHAEUM
I. A twisted band, garland or chaplet, representing flowers, fruits,
leaves, often used in decoration.
WREATH
J. A construction such as a tower,
at the crossing of a church rising above the neighboring roofs
and glazed at the sides.
LANTERN

11. MULLION ............................... (

K. An ante-room to a larger apartment of a building.


VESTIBULE

12. PATIO ..................................... (

L. In Renaissance, a room used


primarily for exhibition of art
objects, or a drawing room.

13. MODILLIONS ......................... (

M. A bust on a square pedestal instead of a human body, used in


classic times to mark boundaries on highways, and used
decoratively in Renaissance
times.

14. TRANSOM ............................. (

N. (to walk) the cloister or covered


passage around the east end of
a church, behind the altar.

15. TABERNACLE ....................... (

0. An ornate iron grille, or screen,


a characteristic feature of Spanish church interiors.

16. AMBULATORY ...................... (

P. A Spanish arcaded or colonnaded courtyard.

SALON

HERMES

AMBULATORY

FINIAL

PATIO

Q. DEFINITIONS

1. FINIAL .................................... (

A. Phase of the early period of


Spanish architecture c-f thP. later
15th and early 16th century, an
intricate style named after its
likeness to silver work.
PLATERESQUE

2. DAIS ....................................... (

B. An expression of Spanish Baroque architecture and sculpture, a recurrent feature was the
richly garlanded spiral column.

3. BAY WINDOW ' (.

C. A movable candle lamp-stand


with central shaft, and often,
branches or a decorative representation thereof.

4. HELM ROOF ......................... (

D. Earth baked (unglazed) or burnt


in moulds. For use in construction and decoration, harder in
quality than brick.

CHURRIGUERESQUE

CANDELABRA

TERRA COTTA

22

5. GALLERY .............................. (

E. One of the winged heavenly


beings that support the throne
of God or act as guardian spirits. or Chubby, rosy-faced child
with wings.

6. STRAPWORK ........................ (

F. A coat of arms.

CHERUBS
HERALDIC

7. INTERCOLUMNIATION ......... (

G. The window of a protruded bay


or the windowed bay itself.

8. CHERUBS ............................. (

H. A raised platform reserved for


the seating ol speakers or dignitaries.

9. TERRA-COTIA ...................... (

I. A roofed but open-sided structure afford inn an extensive view,


usually located at the Rooftop
of a dwelling but sometimes an
independent buildmg or an eminence on a formal garden.

BAY WINDOW

DAIS

BELVEDERE

J. A communicatin11 passage or

10. HERALDIC

wide comdor for ',:ctures and


statues. An upper f y for seats
in a church.
GALLERY
.(

K. A type of relit~ I >r 'ldment or


cresting resernbl'i J studded
leather straps arranged in geometrical and sometimes interlaced patterns much used in the
early renaissance architecture
of England.

12. PULPIT .............................. (

L. Bulbous termination to the top


of a tower, found principally in
Central and Eastern Europe.

13. BELVEDERE .......................... (

M. The space between the two columns.

14. CHURRIGUERESQUE .......... (

N. (grating) an ornament in classic


or renaissance architecture consisting of an assembly of
straight lines intersecting at right
angles, and of various patterns.

11. PLATERESQUE ..

STRAPWORK

HELM ROOF

INTERCOLUMNIATION

FRETWORK

15. CANDELABRA ..................... (

0. Also called "key pattern" the


upper portion of a pinnacle.
FINIAL

23

16. FRETWORK .......................... (

P. An elevated enclosed stand in


a church in which the preacher
stands.
PULPIT

R. DEFINITIONS

1. WATA-DAGE .......................... (

A.

Type of timber framing in


America about 1820 wherein it
owes its strength to the walls,
roof acting as diaphragms; and
not on the post. It is an extension of the roof.

2. TUDOR-REVIVAL .................. (

B.

The arrangement and design of


windows in a building.

3. TORUS: (

c.

4. PAGODA ................................ (

D. An art free from any historical

BALLOON FRAME

FENESTRATION

A structural system consisting of


trusses in two directions rigidly
connected at their intersections.
A rectangular shape is formed
where the top and bottom
chords of the trusses are directly
above and below one another.
SPACE-FRAME

style characterized by forms of


nature for ornamentation in the
facade aptly called for floral design.
ART NOUVEAU

5. BUNGALOW .......................... (

E.

6. FAIENCE ................................ (

F. Related or conforming to tech-

A school founded by Gropius in


1919, developing a form of training intended to relate art and architecture to technology and the
practical needs of modern life.
BAUHAUS

nical architectural principles.


ARCHITECTONIC

7. STAMBAS or LATHS ............. (

G.

One storey with low overhanging roof and broad front porch.
Unpretentious style often rambling spreadout floor plan, more
expensive to build.

8. GREAT WALL ....................., .. (

H.

Picturesque composition built in


America since 1980. Half timbering and massive medieval

BUNGALOW

TUDOR REVIVAL

24

chimney. Identified by prominent gables and large, expansive windows with small panes.
Roof often slate or tiles. Also
called Elizabethan or Jacobean.
DOME

9. ART NOVEAU ........................ (

I. Rock-cut temples in India.


RATHS

10. BAUHAUS .............................. (

J. A large cnvex moulding used


principally in the bases of columns .

11. FENESTRATION ................... (

K. A glazed earthware originally


made in ltaiy.

1i

ARCHITECTONIC ................. (

L. Monumental pillars standing


free without any structural function, with circular or octagonal
shafts with inscriptions carved
in it. The capital was bellshaped and crowned with animal supported bearing the Bud
dhist wheel of the Law

13. RATHS .................................. (

M. Outstanding Architectural creation in Sri Lanka which is a circular relic house built in stone
and brick.

14. SPACE-FRAME .................... (

N. A Chinese ceremonial gateway


erected in memory of an eminent person.

15. SALOON-FRAME ................. (

0. Most typical Chinese building ,

TORUS

FAIENCE

STAMBAS or LATHS

WATA-DAGE

PAILOU

usually octagonal in pi<H"~, odd


number of stories usually 9 or
13 storeys and repeated roofs,
highly coloured and with upturned eaves, slopes to each
storey.
PAGODA

16. PAILOU .................................. (

P. Most famous of ancient Chinese


building undertakings. It snakes,
loops, and double back on itself.
Meandering across valleys,
plains, scaling mountains,
plunging into deep gorges and
leaping raging rivers for 3,700
miles.
GREAT WALL

25

S. DEFINITIONS
1_

BONSAI ................................. (

A.

A Japanese aominant roof characterized by their exquisite curvature, and are supported upon
a succession of simple or com-
pound brackets. The upper part
of the roof is terminated by a
gable placed vertically above
the end walls, while the lower
part of the main roof is carried
round the ends of the building
in a hipped form.
IRIMOYA GABLE

2. ANTILLAN HUUSF: ................ (

B.

lntercolumniation is regulated
by this standard of Japanese
measurement, which is divided
into 20 parts called minutes and
in each minute being again divided into 20 parts or seconds
of spac,e.
KEN

3. BELVEDERE .......................... (

c.

Shinto temples are characterized by this gateway formed by


upright posts supporting two or
more horizontal beams.
TORII

4. TEJI. HOUSE .......................... (

D. An arcade of roofed gallery built


into or projecting from the side
of a building particularly one
overlooking an open court.

5. KEN

E.

LOGGIA
.................

An open rooted gallery in an


upper storey, built for giving a
view of the scenery.
BELVEDERE

6. IFUGA0 1BONTOC HOUSE ... (

F. A dwarf tree, which is a perfect


reflection of Japanese culture.
BONSAI

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I\

G.

In Japan, a structure where the


appreciation of the arts and
flower arrangement, with drinking ceremony is done.

8. MARANAO HOUSE ............. (

H.

Cordillera one room house on


four wooden posts with an animal or insect barrier and a pyrarnidal root Cogon grass built
IFUGAO-BONTOC
HOUSE
without
nails.

7. NIPA HUT

. .. .

TEA HOUSE

26

9. IVATAN HOUSE ..................... (

I. Lowlands area house with


pitched roof, made of bamboo
poles, thatch roof with woven
split canes for walls and split
bamboo slats for flooring.

10. LOGGIA ................................. (

J. A house with prowlike majestic


rr)ot, the polychrome, extrava-

MARANAO HOUSE

gant wooden carvings derived


from the Malay Mythical bird the
"SARI MANOK" The silken Muslim canopies in the interiors. The
protruding ends of floor beams
is decorated with intricate carvings.
NIPA HUT

11. IRIMOYA GABLE ................... (

K. An elegant two storey, rectangular town house with a massive stone first floor and a light
and airy second floor, motherof-pearl o~ 'capiz' windows and
picturesque wide tile roof. Entrance is of heavy plank door
with wrought iron or brass nails,
sturdy balustrades of wood or
iron grilles below windows to let
in cool air.

12. TORII ..................................... (

L. Made of 0. 75 m. thick stone of


lime wall with thick thatched roof
made of several layers of cogon
and held together by seasoned
sticks or reeds and rattan to
withstand fiercest typhoons in
the north.

13. TROMPE L'OEIL. .................. (

M. These are Garden rooms. (a)


fanciful, pre-fabricated models
attached to houses, filled with
wrought iron or wicker furniture
exotic plants and birds. (b)
These are open spaces with
seating areas beneath wood
rafters or leaf-entwined plants.
(c) a roofed place, shaded from
the sun, to read or to entertain
and enjoy the view.

ANTILLAN HOUSE

IVATAN HOUSE

CONSERVATORIES, ARBORS
and GAZEBOS

27

14. COUNTRY HOUSE ............... (

N. 1930,s modernists style of art in:


spired by mechanical forms and
chiefly distinguished by geometrical shapes, bold colour
schemes and symmetrical designs, suitable for mass production. ART DECO

15. ART DECO ............................ (

0. Or "fool the eye" are paintings


adorning everything from cabinets to cupboards, fire screen
to dishwashers. This creates an
illusion of space. A make-believe doorway for example extends a hall. A glass cabinet or
a door is painted with cows and
chicken and make believe or
create an outdoor scene.
TROMPE L'OEIL

16. CONSERVATORIES,
ARBORS and GAZEBOS ...... (

P. A house composed of natural


materials. It is an eclectic and
organic look that grows and
changes with antiques and a
clutter of different collections,
made of rough plaster, old
beams, wood framed windows
and slate or brick floors.
COUNTRY HOUSE

T. ARCHITECTS/BUILDING DESIGNED
1. LEVER HOUSE, N.Y. ............ (

A. FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT


SOLOMON GUGGENHEIM
MUSEUM

2. CHRYSLER
BUILDING N. Y. .................... (

B. MANUEL MANOSA

3. GEODESIC DOME ................ (

C. WALTER GROPIUS

SAN MIGUEL CORP. BLDG.


BAUHAUS BLDG., GERMANY

4. SYDNEY
OPERA HOUSE .................... (
5. SOLOMON GUGGEN HElM MUSEUM ..................... (

D. EERO SAARINEN
TWA KENNEDY AIRPORT,
N.Y.

E. SKIDMORE) OWINGS &


MERRIL
LEVER HOUSE, N.Y.

6. PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS,
BRAZIL ................................ (
BANK OF CHINA (HONG
KONG)

28

7. BAUHAUS Bldg.
GERMANY ............................. (

G. PHILIP JOHNSON

8. EINSTEIN TOWER ................ (

H. BUCKMINSTER FULLER

AT&T BLDG.

9. CHAPEL OF
NOTRE DAME ....................... (

GEODESIC DOME

I. LUCIO COSTA & OSCAR


NIMEYER
PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS, BRAZIL

10. CULTURAL CENTER


OF THE PHILS ...................... (

J. EIRCH MENDELSOHN
EINSTEIN TOWER

11. TAHANANG FILIPINO or


COCONUT PALACE .............. (
12. ASIAN DEVELOPMENT
BANK OF PHILS ................... (
13. SAN MIGUEL CORP.
BUILDING ............................. (
14. BANK OF CHINA
(HONG KONG) ...................... (

K. WILLIAN VAN ALEN


CHRYSLER BUILDING, N.Y.

L. FRANCISCO "BOBBY"
MANOSA
TAHANANG FILIPINO or
COCONUT PALACE

M. LE CORBUSIER
CHAPEL OF NOTRE DAME

N. C.C. de CASTRO
ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK OF PHILS.

15. TWA KENNEDY


AIRPORT N.Y. USA .............. (
16. AT & T Bldg.
N.Y. USA ............................ (

0. LEANDRO LOCSIN
CULTURAL CENTER OF THE PHILS.

P. JOAN UTZON
SYDNEY OPERA HOUSE

U. FAMOUS DICTUMS/PHILOSOPHIES/SAYINGS
1. "FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION" ..... by LOUIS SULLIVAN
2 .. "FORM DOES NOT NECESSARILY FOLLOW FUNCTION"
.......................................................... by ANTONIO GAUD I
3. "ART AND ARCHITECTURE, THE NEW UNITY"
............................................................ by WALTER GROPIUS
4. "A HOUSE IN A~HOUSE" ................... by LOUIS KAHN
5. "CUBE WITHIN A CUBE" ................... by LE CORBUSIEA
6. "A BRIDGE IS LIKE A HOUSE ........... by ROBERT MAILLART
7. "LESS IS MORE" ................................ by LUDWIG MIES VAN DEAOHE
8. "FUNCTION INFLUENCE BUT DOES NOT DICTATE FORM"
............................................................ by ECRO SAARINEN
9. 'MODERN ARCHITECTURE NEED NOT BE WESTERN"
............................................................ by KENZO TANGE
10. "ARCHITECTURE MUST MEET 3 REQUIREMENTS STRENGTH,
BEAUTY, UNITY ................................. by MARCUS VITRUVIUS POCIO

29

AREA ''A''
PART II

THEORY OF
ARCHITECTURE

AREA "A"

PART II

MATCHING TYPE: Write the corresponding correct letter in the bracket provided for
at the left

A. The seven (7) basic principles of composition to space enclosing elements are
1 . CONTRAST ........................... (

2. PROPORTION ....................... (

3. SCALE ................................... (

4. BALANCE .............................. (

5. RHYTHM ................................ (

6. UNITY AND
HIERARCHY .......................... (

7. CHARACTER ........................ (

A.

Equilibrium, Equality, Adjustment of Tones, Values.


BALANCE
B. Harmony, unrelated parts are
brought into proper relationship.
UNITY AND HIERARCHY
c. Variety of shapes and textures.
CONTRAST
D. Relationships the eye makes
with, between the size, shape,
and tone of various objects or
parts of a composition.
PROPORTION
E. is expressiveness. The exterior
of a building expresses the internal function.
CHARACTER

F. Size, magl)itude, relationship of

G.

the human body with architectural motifs such as doors, windows, steps.
SCALE
Repetition, regular recurrence
of lines, shapes, forms, and colors.
RHYTHM

B. There are at least eight (8) categories of concern within the project that the
designer will use as a checklist to problem solving. Indicate the right choice.

1. FUNCTION ............................ (

A. Sanitation, electrical, structural,


lightning, HVAC, Acoustics, water.
SYSTEMS

31

2. SPACE ................................... (

B.

First costs, Maintenance costs.

3. GEOMETRY .......................... (

c.

Volume required by activities.

4. CONTEXT .............................. (

D.

5. ENCLOSURE ........................ (

E. Activity Grouping and Zoning.

6. SYSTEMS .............................. (

F. Site and climate.

ECONOMIC
SPACE

Perception and Behavior.


HUMAN FACTORS
FUNCTION
CONTEXT

7. ECONOMIC ........................... (

G. Structure, Enclosing planes,


openings

8. HUMAN FACTORS ................ (

H. Circulation, forms and images.

ENCLOSURE
GEOMETRY

C. MATCHING TYPE. Select and indicate the proper letters.


1. Contrast of
CHARACTER ......................... (

A. Using the same shape but of


different dimensions.
Contrast of SIZE

2. Contrast of FORM .................. (

B. Having light and dark colored


materials.

3. Contrast of SIZE .................... (

c.

4. Contrast-of TREATMENT ..... (

D. An ecclesiastical with Domestic


building

5. Contrast of TONE ................. (

E. Using different materials, glass,


marble, steel.

6. Contrast of LINE .................... (

F. A building of mixed shapes,

Contrast of TONE

Thin and thick, horizontal or vertical direction of beams, columns.


Contrast of LINE

Contrast of CHARACTER

Contrast of TREATMENT

angles.
Contrast of FORM

D. MATCHING TYPE
1. RELATIVE
PROPORTION ....................... (

A. All parts must fit together in such


a way that the composition will
be disturbed if one element is
removed.
ORGANIC

2. ABSOLUTE PROPORTION .. (

8. Has an informaleffect.
UNSYMMETRICAL BALANCE

32

3. ANTHROPORMOPHIC ......... (

c.

The measurement of man


implemented to accommodate
him to machines.

4. METHODOLOGY .................. (

D.

Has a picturesqueness of surroundings.

E.

A monumental effect, has a


central axis, can .be formal or
with a radial effect.

ERGONOMICS

GRAVITATIONAL

5. GENERIC SCALE .................. (

SYMMETRICAL BALANCE

F. Deals with the relationship be-

6. HUMAN SCALE ..................... (

tween an object and the whole


structure The window to the
wall.
ABSOLUTE PROPORTION

7. AXIS ....................................... (

G.

8. ORGANIC .............................. (

H. The size of a building element

A systematic method of problem


solving.
METHODOLOGY

relative to other forms in its context whose size is known. ex: a


door, a stair.
GENERIC SCALE

9. SYMMETRICAL
BALANCE ............................. (

I. A system based on the dimension and proportions of the human body in relation to forms,
furniture, heights.
ANTHROPOMORPHIC

10. UNSYMMETRICAL
BALANCE .............................. (

J. An elementary means of organizing forms and spaces in architecture. It is a line established


by two points.
AXIS

The size of a building element


relative to the dimensions and
proportion of the human body.

11. GRAVITATIONAL ................... (

K.

12. ERGONOMICS ...................... (

L. This deal between the parts of


an object and the whole object,
ex: window panes and the
whole jamb.

HUMAN SCALE

RELATIVE PROPORTION

33

E. MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. UNACCENTED
RHYTHM ................................ (

A.

In unity, shapes, sizes of elements are shown one after the


other.
ALTERNATION

2. ACCENTED
RHYTHM ................................ (

B.

3. REPETITION ......................... (

c.

4. ACCENT ............................... (

D.

5. ALTERNATION ...................... (

E.

Forms and spaces especially


placed to call attention to themselves as being the important elements in composition.
STRATEGIC LOCATION

Influence of traditional types


(spires, classical orders, Gothic)
ASSOCIATION

This occurs if equally spaced


windows are introduced on the
unbroken wall, then regular rep- .
etition is present.
UNACCENTED RHYTHM

To be unique, forms and spaces


are visually dominant, and different from that of the other elements in the composition.
UNIQUE IN SHAPE

6. UNIQUE BUILDING ............... (

F. Human quality or emotional appeal (dignified, dynamic, strong,


forbidding, light)

7. EXCEPTIONAL SIZE ............. {

G.

8. UNIQUE IN SHAPE ............... (

H.

PERSONALITY

Deals with motifs of more than


one member, or same size and
same energy.
REPETITION

If the openings or details are


arranged in such a manner that
some are more important than
the others.
ACCENTED RHYTHM

9. STRATEGIC
LOCATION ............................. (

I. To give an emphasis or interest


in unity.
ACCENT

10. FUNCTION ............................ (

J. This reflects the degree of importance, the functional and


symbolic roles they play in the
organized design.
UNIQUE BUILDING

11. ASSOCIATION ....................... (

K.

Use of building, like for a shop,


a bank or a church.
FUNCTION

34

j:

L. Significantly different in dimension than all other elements in


the composition. (The biggest,
or the smallest to be noticed)

12. PERSONALITY .................... (

EXCEPTIONAL SIZE

F. MATCHING TYPE ON COLORS


A. Triangular tips in between red
and yellow. yellow and blue,
blue and red or orange, green
and v1olet.

1. STYLE .................................. (

SECONDARY COLORS

2. ECLECTIC
BUILDINGS ..... ... ..... .. .

B. Triangular tips of red and yellow and blue in the color wheel
PRIMARY COLORS
c. Color opposite each other in the
color wheel.
COMPLIMENTARY COLORS
D. A character expressive of definite conceptions, like grandeur,
gaiety or solemnity like a beer
garden using indigenous ar.d
ubiqUitous materials.
STYLE

.. (

3. WARM COLORS .

4. COOL COLORS .

5. ANALOGOUS
COLORS ..... .

E. An adjective used to descr~be


an artist who selects forms and
ideas of different periods and
combmes them to produce a
harmonious whole.
ECLECTIC BUILDINGS

6. COMPLIMENTARY
COLORS....................

F. The reds and yellows lead to


advance toward the observer
usually used for wide rooms to
make it smaller (fire, sunlight).

WARM COLORS

7. PRIMARY
COLORS ............................... (

G. Color near each other in the


color wheel
ANALOGOUS COLORS

8. SECONDARY
COLORS .............................. {

H. The blues, greens, violets, tend


to recede from the observer. It
suggests distance and is usually used for small rooms to
make it seem wider. (sky, mountains. seas)
COOL COLORS

3b

G. MATCHING TYPE ON FUNCTION

1. FUNCTIONAL
DESIGN ................................. (

A. Newly married, mixed singles,


elderly, married with kids.
CHARACTERISTICS OF PEOPLE

2. NEED FOR
ADJACENCY ......................... (

B. In a parking garage for ex: tollin, park, toll-out.


SEQUENCE IN TIME

3. SIMILARITY IN
GENERAL RULE ................... (

C. (primary) proportion, labor, delivery, nursery, (secondary) waiting, clean and sterile utility,
doctor's and nurses lockers,
(tertiary) house keeping,
janitor's closet.
RELATEDNESS TO CORE ACTIVITIES

4. RELATEDNESS TO
DEPARTMENTS,
GOALS, SYSTEMS ............... (

D. Delivery, unloading, storage,


preparation, craft, sales.
EXTENT OF MAN OR MACHINE INVOLVEMENT

5. SEQUENCE IN TIME ' (

E. Incoming passengers, parking


and services, outgoing passengers loading and unloading,
taxi, runways.
RELATIVE PROXIMITY TO BUILDINGS

6. REQUIRED
ENVIRONMENTS .................. (

F. Single house, duplex, condominiums, apartments.


VOLUME OF PEOPLE INVOLVED

7. TYPES OF EFFECT
PRObUCED .......................... (

G. In sports, tennis, golf, swimming


pods. In malls, fast foods, clothing, food.
SIMILARITY IN GENERAL RULE

8, RELATIVE PROXIMITY
TO BUILDINGS ..................... (

H. Deals with the development of


a plan arrangement to serve in
a purely mechanical way the
functions of the building (sizes
of rooms, HVAC)
FUNCTIONAL DESIGN

9. RELATEDNESS TO
CORE ACTIVITIES ................ (

I. In hospitals ex: Delivery room


to recovery room to post
partum.
RELATEDNESS TO DEPARTMENTS,
GOALS, SYSTEMS

36

10. CHARACTERISTICS
OF PEOPLE .......................... (

J. Kitchen near to Dining room,


Master's Bedroom to toilet.
NEED FOR ADJACENCY

11. VOLUME OF PEOPLE


INVOLVED ............................. (

K. Radiation, chemicals, smoke,


fumes. heat, noise from gymnasiums, mechanical rooms, vibration from machinery wet-dry
toilets, labs.
TYPES OF EFFECT PRODUCED

12. EXTENT OF MAN


OR MACHINE
INVOLVEMENT ..................... (

L. Furniture types, need for view,


ceiling height, access to roof,
need for vents exhausts, security, acoustics.
REQUIRED ENVIRONMENTS

H. SPACE

MATCHING TYPE

1. USE OF SPACE .................... (

A. Beauty, using the principles of


design. architecture as distinguished from the mere building
or Engineering structure.
CONTRIBUTIONS OF AESTHETICS

2. COLLABORATION AND
USE OF MATERIALS ............ (

B. Consist of forms and spaces


whose positions in space and
relationship with one another
are regulated by a three dimensional pattern or field, such as
a skeletal structural system of
cofUmns and beams.
GRID FORMS

3. CONTRIBUTIONS OF
AESTHETICS ........................ (

C. uses proximity to relate its


spaces to one another. It often
consists of repetitive cellular
spaces that have similar functions and share a common visual trait, orientation.
CLUSTERED FORMS

4. CENTRALIZED FORMS ........ (

D. Compositions of linear forms


that extends outward from central space or form in a wheel
manner.
RADIAL FORMS

37

5. LINEAR FORMS .................... (

E. Consists of a number of secondary forms clustered about dominant central parent forms, Centrality, can embody sacred
places.

6. RADIAL FORMS .................... (

F. Services to occupants (utility,

CENTRALIZED FORMS

function) How high would be the


kitchen storage, reach, How big
the furnishings will be to learn
the size of the enclosed space.
USE OF SPACE

7. CLUSTERED FORMS ........... (

G. Consists of forms arranged segmentally in a row of repetitive


space (wall path)
LINEAR FORMS

8. GRID FORMS ........................ (

H. Strength or permanence and


security.
COLLABORATION & USE OF
MATERIALS

MATCHING TYPE

I. CIRCULATION
1. THE BUILDING
APPROACH ........................... (

A. This prolong the sequence of


the approach.
CIRCUITOUS

2. FRONTAL .............................. (

B.

Entrances maintain the continuity of a wall's surface.

3. OBLIQUE ............................... (

c.

Enclosed or open on one or two


sides, corridors, balconies must
accomrnodjlte the movement of
people as they promenade,
pause, rest or take a view.

4. CIRCUITOUS ......................... (

D.

FLUSH ENTRANCE

FORM OF CIRCULATION SPACE

The edges, nodes and termination of the path. Pass by axially,


terminate in a space, or pass
obliquely or along the edges.
PATH-SPACE RELATIONSHIP

5. THE BUILDING
ENTRANCE ........................... (

E.

6. FLUSH ENTRANCE .............. (

F. Paths of movement are linear in

Entrances also provide shelter


and receive a portion of exterior
space into the realm of the buildin g.
RECESSED ENTRANCE

nature. Pedestrians meeting


each other should have wider

38

volume of space, wheeled vehicles can have a tightly tailored


path.
7. PROJECTED
ENTRANCES ......................... (

CONFIGURATION OF THE PATH

G. Leads directly to the entrance.


FRONTAL

8. RECESSED
ENTRANCE ........................... (

H. This enhances the perspective.


OBLIQUE

9. FORM OF CIRCULATION
SPACE ................................... (

I. This may vary in duration, from


a few paces through a compressed space to a lengthy and
circuitous route.
THE BUILDING APPROACH

10. CONFIGURATION
OF THE PATH ........................ (

J. Passing through an implied


plane, or a change in level,
working the passage from one
place to another for visual and
spatial continuity between two
spaces.
THE BUILDING ENTRANCE

11. PATH-SPACERELATIONSHIP ..................... (

K. Entrances announces their


functions to the approach and
provide shelter overhead.
PROJECTED ENTRANCES

J. MASSING

MATCHING TYPE

) 0 Beters to site and climate

1. FORM .................................... {

) A. Refers to site and climate.

:1

t;OQU

CONTEXT

2. SURFACE .............................. (

B. Results from the hues of the


spectrum.

3. TEXTURE .............................. (

C. Uses a system that requires


expensive and energy consuming equipments to operate electric water heaters and air conditioners. (Technically designed
Solar Bldgs.)

4. TONE ..................................... (

D. As in the case of surfaces,

COLOR

ACTIVE SOLAR DESIGN

which are painted or decorated


by man.
APPLIED COLOR

39

. 5. C()L.OR ................................... (

E. Deals with shape, and when the


figure is 3-dimensional, it becomes mass or volume we
should proceed to design from
the General (massing) to the
Particular (detailing)
FORM

6 ANALOGICAL
DESIGN ................................. (

F. Areas of materials which enclose a building and are secondary importance to the masses
which they create.
SURFACE

7. CONTEXT .............................. (

G. These refers to the quality of


surface treatment, whether the
material is rough or smooth.
TEXTURE

8. INHERENT COLOR ............... (

H. So called because it employs no


sophisticated collector and no
expensive technology to harness the sun's energy.
PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN

9. APPLIED COLOR .................. (

I. A variety in the use of gradation


from black to gray to white and
from dark to light.
TONE

10. ACTIVE SOLAR


DESIGN ................................. (

J. Natural color of materials like


stone, marble or wood.
INHERENT COLOR

11. PASSIVE SOLAR


DESIGN ................................. (

K. The drawing of similarities (usually visual) ,into the solution of


one's design problems with
buildings, with forms from nature, from painting and so on (a
laboratory building from a microscope, chapel roof from a
CRAB)
ANALOGICAL DESIGN

40

MATCHING TYPE

K. SITE CONTROL
1. SOLAR SHADING
IN SUMMER .......................... (

A. Hot air is effectively vented out


with the use of strategically located clerestories, or windows
located on the side of the roof
for ventilation purposes. To absorb heat, paint the wall black.
Natural daylight is used in the
northside.
NATURAL HEATING AND DAYLIGHTING

2. WHITE ROOFS AND


DESERT COOLING ............... (

B. The overall shape of a building


affects the amount of energy it
will consume. In general, a configuration that resist unwanted
heat transmission for a given

enclosed volume. Aspherical or


round building has less surface
and thus less heat gain or loss.
BUILDING CONFIGURATION

3. PASSIVE SOLAR
PLANNING ............................. (

C. Placed between a building and


the outside elements, Earth
slows the heat transfer from one
to the other, reduces the temperature difference between exterior and interior, protects the
building from cold winds and the
direct rays of the sun.
UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES

4. NATURAL HEATING
AND DAYLIGHTING .............. (

D. Trees reduce window heat gain


not only by blocking direct sunlight penetration but also by lowering the ground surface temperature; using deciduous ivy
vine can also shade a building
facade in summer (hot) and
when it dies in the cold months,
it allows the sun to shine
through.
UTILIZATION OF NATURAL GROWTH

5. WINDOWLESS
BUILDiNG .............................. (

E. Thermal energy can be stored


in a ~ .00 m. hig;, waiar-filled
drums in front.to the south facing windows. Once the sun sets,
this heat radiate through the

41

house, trapped by the insulation Provision of water pool or


fountain is er.ective. Use a fireplace made of solid metal and
hollow inside
UTILIZATION OF WATER AND AIR

6. UTILIZATION OF
NATURAL GROWTH ............. (

F. Paved and planted, this option


involves the use of light-colored
ground surfaces to reflect sunlight onto a building, dark colored surfaces to absorb sunlight
and lower outside temperature.
GROUND SURFACE

7. THERMOSIPHONING ........... (

G. In reflecting heat away instead


of absorbing it, which increases
the temperature of room below,
white roofs are effective. Evaporative cooling uses one electric
motor. As water is evaporated
to vapor heat is drawn from the
air reducing its temperature.
WHITE ROOFS AND DESERT COOLING

8. BUILDING
CONFIGURATION ................. (

H. This employ shading by structural elements but affects the


facades'of buildings. Powered
louvers are used to diminish
heat gain.

9. GROUND SURFACE ............. (

I. This is achieved by orientation


by carefully considering the location of theI building. How it will
relate to the sun and breezes.
Use windbreaks consisting of
either a fence or a row of trees
which reduce air infiltration
through windows by diminishing
the wild pressure. Orient solid
walls to the west to offset sunset.

SOLAR SHADING IN SUMMER

10. UNDERGROUND
STRUCTURES ...................... (

PASSIVE SOLAR PLANNING

J. Large sections of buildings are


enclosed by opaque walls. During daylight hours they are
densely occupied and welllighted. The space gains of
people-load and lighting load
are usually sufficient to heat the
building by day the cold months.
WINDOWLESS BUILDING

42

11. UTILIZATION OF
WATER AND AIR ................... (

K. In some cases, it is possible to


move the fluids (liquid or air)
without mechanical aid; by natural convection. As the fluid is
heated, it tends to rise and
cooler fluid flows in to take its
place.
THERMOSIPHONING

MULTIPLE CHOICE

L. ENCLOSURE, AND SYSTEMS


1. DEGREE OF
ENCLOSURE ........................ (

A. Follow flow of gravity loads from


roof down columns, through
floors, to foundations and soils.
Follow flow of lateral loads.
Earthquake from ground to
foundations to columns, walls,
floors to roof. Wind from side
walls to roof and floor, through
columns, footings and earth.
STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONS

2. UGHT .................................... (

B. Is the internal focus and outward orientation. Fireplace have


an internal focus. Outward orientation will determine the nature of the view. A small window
opening tends to frame a view
and is seen as a painting. A high
window or skylight shows the
tree tops and the sky.
VIEW

3. VIEW ...................................... (

C. Follow electric supply from off


site to transformer, to breakers
or panels to each outlet or point
of connection. Follow telephone
lines off site to TMB to each
phone location.
ENERGY AND COMMUNICATIONS

4. PEOPLE
FUNCTIONS .......................... (

D. Follow wind patterns through


site to encourage or block natural ventilation through building
as required. Follow air patterns
from inlets to ou~iets. F-ollow
forced air ventilation pattern
through building to address heat
and odors.
AIR

43

5. STRUCTURAL
FUNCTIONS .......................... (

E. Follow paths of natural light (di


rect or indirect sun) to and into
the building. Encourage or block
as needed. Follow paths of circulation and at spaces to provide artificial illumination where
necessary. This include site and
building.
NATURAL LIGHT

6. WATER, MOISTURE
AND DRAINAGE ................... (

F. Follow the flow of occupants


from one space to another from
stairs to elevators service equipment's pathways, flow of occupant to enter and exit the building as required by CODE, Flow
of trash to leave the building.
Materials to enter building.
PEOPLE FUNCTIONS

7. HEAT ...................................... (

G. The illumination of its surfaces


and forms. Entering a room
through windows in the wall
plane or through skylights in the
roof plane overhead, the sun's
light falls on surfaces within the
room enlivens their colors, and
articulates their textures.

8. AIR ......................................... (

H. The form of its space is determined by the configuration of its


defining elements and the pattern of its openings (doors, windows) whether at the edges of
an enclosing plane, which visually weakens the corner boundaries of space, but promotes its
visual continuity with adjacent
spaces.

LIGHT

DEGREE OF ENCLOSURE

9. NATURAL LIGHT ................... (

I. Follow sun paths to and into the


building to plan for access ,or
blocking. Follow excessive external or internal heat throl,lgh
building skin and block if necessary. Follow source of internal heat loads (lights, people,
equipment) to their outfall (natural ventilation or A. C.)
HEAT

44

10. ENERGY AND


COMMUNICATIONS ............. (

J. Follow rainwater from highest


point on roof to drain, through
the piping system to outfall
(storm-sewer) of site from highest points off site, around building to outtalk>ff site. Follow rains
or moisture at exterior walls and
window down building sides,
follow contaminated water from
farthest point of use to end of
septic tank.
WATER, MOISTURE AND DRAINAGE

M. ECONOMICS

MATCHING TYPE

1. ECONOMIC COSTS .............. (

A. Watering of lawns and shrubs,


removing of trash, etc.
LANDSCAPING MAINTENANCE

2. NORMAL COST OF
CONSTRUCTION BY
CONTRACTORS ................... (

B. The renovation, re-painting of


interior and exterior surfaces,
replacing roofs, replacing
plumbing fixtures replacing furnitures.
PERIODIC REFURBISHMENT

3. OTHER COSTS
ADDED TO BUILDING
STRUCTURE ......................... (

C. Inspecting and repairing windows, roofs, walls, heaters,


plumbing and painting.
PERIODIC INSPECTION AND REPAIR

4. DAILY
HOUSEKEEPING .................. (

5. PERIODIC INSPECTION
AND REPAIR ......................... (

45

D. The cost of materials used, the


labor involved in every phase of
the construction process, the
cost of equipment purchased or
rented for the project, cost of
management and overhead,
percentage of profit.
NORMAL COST OF CONSTRUCTION BY
CONTRACTORS

E. Use non-toxic, non-flammable


materials, eliminate sharp
edges, create properly designed
stairs, rai'Jl)S, put .barriers in wall
to ceiHng glass windows, ground
all electrical controls, illuminate

dark walkways and stairs, use


non-skid materials on wet surfaces. Provide fire-exits, firesprinklers, fence on water heaters, boilers.
6. PERIODIC
REFURBISHMENT ................ (

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS IN
ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS

F. A cleaning of floors, walkways,


windows and walls also ceilings.
DAILY HOUSEKEEPING

7. LANDSCAPING
MAINTENANCE ..................... (

G. It is reasonable to believe that


creativity can be enhanced if
something is known of the relationship between structural and
constructive design options and
the cost of implementation. This
is actually the cost of the building structure and its maintenance costs.
ECONOMIC COSTS

8. SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
IN ARCHITECTURAL
SYSTEMS ..... :............. : (

H. Added costs of building are professionals fees, cost of landscaping. Permits and licenses,
and Interior Design.
OTHER COSTS ADDED TO BUILDING
STRUCTURE

N. HUMAN FACTORS AND BEHAVIOR

MATCHING TYPE

1. PERCEPTION ....................... (

A. A complex blend of sound common sense,' fine aesthetics and


mystical philosophy. It is a traditional Chinese technique
which aims to ensure that all
things are in harmony with their
surroundings. Having this sense
is said to enhance happiness
and prosperity.

2. VISUAL ACUITY .................... (

B. Human relationship. If you can


speak with people and make
them at ease, they will trust you
more, you will feel better and the
chances will be greater that the
job you do wil.l turn out well for
all concerned. Environment influences values. Design interi-

FENG SHUI

46

ors to make people feel at ease


even if they are waiting for their
tum.
VALUES

3. OPTICAL ILLUSIONS ............ (

C. The architecture of a folk is


evolved and modified by ideas
and imitation. Architecture is
building with which people have
identified themselves given its
significance like stairs never
stopping on the 3rc1 count or oro.
plata, mata, no exit door or window direct to a main door opening.

4. VALUES ................................. (

D. Is the keenness. sharpness or


acuteness of perception or vision. (imaginative foresight especially of the beautiful). The
most important feature of a
shape of an object is its general
outline or contour.

FOLK BELIEFS IN DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION

VISUAL ACUITY

5. F:OLK BELIEFS
IN OESlGN AND
CONSTRUCTION .................. (

E. This is a false interpretation by


the mind of a sense perception.
An example is when shown two
lines, you see one as shorter
and one larger, but upon measuring it. they are the same.
Another are two perfect parallel
lines, but when combined with
diagonal lines, it will appear either to be wider or thinner at the
middle.
OPTICAL ILLUSIONS

F. Is the process by which we organize and interpret the patterns of stimuli in our environment. The immediate intuitive
recognition as of an aesthetic
quality.

6. FENG SHU I ........................... (

PERCEPTION

47

0. ARCHITECTURAL LINGO

MATCHING TYPE

1. SMART HOUSES .................. (

A. Refers to the manner in which


the surfaces of form come together to define its shape and
volume. Their overall configuration is legible and easily perceived. It clearly reveals the
edges of its surfaces and corners at which they meet.
ARTICULATION

2. INTELLIGENT
BUILDINGS ........................... (

B. To put side by side or close together, to pose for a picture taking, to put in position putting of
dark to light areas.
JUXTAPOSITION

3. AMBIENCE ............................ (

c.

4. AMENITIES ........................... (

D. To modify equipment that 1s at-

A characteristic, man:-terism,
habit or the like, that is peculiar
to an individual synonym: peculiarity, quirk.

IDIOSYNCRACIES

ready in service using parts developed or made available after the time of original manufacture.
RETROFIT

5. ARTICULATION ..................... (

E.

6. AUSPICIOUS ......................... (

F. To renovate, polish up again,

Deals with objects which may


have the same shape, color and
direction but may vary in size
and tone, this change is gradually increasing or decreasing.

GRADATION '

brighten.
REFURBISH
7, AXONOMETRIC .................... (

G.

8. CONFIGURATION ................. (

H. Originating in and characteriz-

To reduce or increase in magnitude according to a fixed scale


up or down. (upscale subdivision) a higher priced location.

UPSCALE

ing a particular region or country: native.


INDIGENOUS

9. GRADATION .......................... (

I. Surrounding on all sides, an


environment or its distinct atmosphere.
AMBIENCE

48

10. IDIOSYNCRACIES ................ (

J.

(site) parking, public transit access, walk-in customer, exposure, landscape, illumination,
security and emergency access.
AMENITIES

11. INDIGENOUS ........................ (

K.

12. JUXTAPOSITION .................. (

L. Defined as continuing capabilities in buildings, drawing from


information services or systems.
It is a vital urgent tool to enable
occupants to live, work or even
play under the most satisfying,
creative and productive atmosphere. This involves automatically monitoring and taking care
of energy consumption and security and fire protection.

13. MILIEU ................................... (

M. Promising success, favorable,

Are future homes, an electronic


showcase, which electronically
wakes you up, warms your hot
tub and brews your coffee. It will
respond to your orders and no
one else's because security
sensors recognize your voice.
HVAC are regulated.
SMART HOUSES

INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS

favored by fortune, prosperous.


AUSPICIOUS
14. REFURBISH .......................... (

N. To form after an arrangement of


parts or a form, or figures determined by the arrangement of
parts.
CONFIGURATION

15. RETROFIT ............................. (

.
16; UPSCALE ..... :........................ (

0. Designating a method of projection in which a three-dimensional object as represented by


a drawing having all lines drawn
to exact sca-le resu1ting in the
optical distortion of diagonals
and curves .
AXONOMETRIC

P. An environment, social or cuf~


tural setting.
MILIEU

P. ARCHITECTURAL LINGO

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. TRANCHE .............................. (

A. To discharge, as from the body;


void.
EGEST

2. LIBOR RATE .......................... (

B. A means or place of entering;


an entry way.
INGRESS

3. MORATORIUM ...................... (

C. Amount of investment given to A


building, wherein the facilities is
never used or needed in the first
place or property that is troublesome or expensive to keep.

4. ~ACRO .................................. (

D. We plan people's relationship to

WHITE ELEPHANT

indoors and the site, the adjoining buildings, the neighbors, nature.
ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING

5. MICRO ................................... (

E. A means of going out or exit.


EGRESS

6. EGEST ................................... (

F. French (slice) Foreign Fund is


divided into different releases to
borrower.
TRANCHE

7. INGEST .................................. (

8. EGRESS ................................ (

9. INGRESS ............................... (

G. The process of analyzing systems equipments, materials,


and obtain the desired function
at the lowest overall cost, without sacrificing quality.
VALUE ENGINEERING
H. Group such as inhabitants of the
same floor 1 of a block or flats,
through various social gatherings.
MICRO
I. London International Borrowing
Rate, the present rate of interest.
LIBOR RATE

10. ENVIRONMENTAL
PLANNING .............................. (

J. Group

11. VALUE ENGINEERING ......... (

K. To put in.

12. WHITE ELEPHANT ............... (

L. A legal authority to delay payment of money due; or a temporary cessation of activity considered as dangerous (construction of tall buildings).

of City such as
Barangays. In times of conflict,
territorial instincts are inflated to
include whole group of nations.
MACRO

INGEST

50

MORATORIUM

AREA ''A''
PART Ill ARCHITECTURAL
PRACTICE

""oi _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . .

PART Ill

AREA "A"

DIRECTION: Read the items below, match it with the answers on the right side.
Place the correct letters in the indicated parenthesis thereon.

MATCHING TYPE

A. AGENCIES INVOLVED IN SHELTER


1. HUDCC Housing and Urban
Development Coordinating
Council ................................... (

A. The agency mandated to administer take-outs of buyers


originated by banks and developers, faced with administrative
problems in loan processing. It
also provides construction and
development finance for housing.
NHMFC

2. SSS Social Security


System ................................... (

3. GSIS Government Service


Insurance System .................. {

B. This is administered by NHMFC


from funds contributed by SSS,
HDMF and GSIS.
UHLP - UNITED HOME LENDING
PROGRAM

C. The agency ,tasked for the building of housing units and residential condominiums. Facilitates joint venture projects
among landowners, developers,
financial institutions and local
governments.
NHA

4. PAG-IBIG Fund ...................... {

D. The golfernment's principal


regulatoFy body in housing and
land development. It is to enforce, implement, coordinate the
land use policies and regulations on human settlements, including building rental laws.
HLURB

52

5. UHLP United Home


Lending Program ................... (

E. This agency takes care of insuring the subdivisions and is also


a lending entity.
HIGC - HOME INSURANCE GUARANTY
CORP.

6. HDMF Home Development


Mutual Fund ........................... (

F. The insurance system for the


Public sector or the government
employees ..
GSIS

7. NHMFC National Home


Mortgage Finance
Corporation ............................ (

G. The insurance system tor the


private sector, where coverage
is compulsory upon all employees not over sixty years of age.
SSS

8. NHA National Housing


Authority .....'............................ (

H. An office mandated to coordinate and supervise the


government's housing agencies. It is also tasked in monitoring the performance of the
housing sector, and involved in
policy formations.
HUDCC

9. HIGC Home Insurance


G!Jarantee Corporation .......... (

I. A provident savings fund housing open to most private agencies.


PAG-IBIG FUND

10. HLRB Housing and Land


Use Regulatory Board ........... (

J. This office administers the PAGIBIG Fund, it entitles Pag-ibig


members who are public and
private employees as well as
the self-employed to housing
loans.
HDMF - HOME DEV'T MUTUAL FUND

MATCHING TYPE

B. NATIONAL BUILDING CODE


1. BUILDING PERMIT ............... (

A. Any new construction which increases the height or area of an


existing building/structure.

2. CONSTRUCTION .................. (

B. A change in the use or occupancy of a building/structure or


any portions thereof which has
different requirements.

ADDITION

53

CONVERSION

-----"'

........

3. ERECTION ............................ (

C. The systematic dismantling or


destruction of a building/structure, in whole or in part.

4. ADDITION .............................. (

D. The National Building Code with


its implementing rules and regulations to ensure safety to occupants.

5. ALTERATION ......................... (

E. Remedial work done on any


damaged or deteriorated portions of a building/structure to
restore its original condition.

6. RENOVATION ........................ (

F. A secondary building/structure
located within the same premises, the use of which is incidental to that ot the main building/structure.

7. CONVERSION ....................... (

G. The transfer of a building of portions thereof from its original location or position to another, either within the same lot or to a
different one.

8. REPAIR .................................. (

H. Any physical change made on


a building to increase its value,
utility and to improve its aesthetics quality.

9.- MOVING ............................... , (

I. Installation in place of compo-

DEMOLITION

PD 1096

REPAIR

ANCILLARY BLDG./STRUCTURE

MOVING

RENOVATION

nents of a building/structure.
ERECTION

10. DEMOLITION ........................ (

J. Construction in a building involving changes in the materials used, partitioning, location


and size of windows, doors,
structural parts, existing utilities
but does not increase the overall area thereof.
ALTERATION

11. ANCILLARY BUILmNG/


STRUCTURE ......................... (

K. All on-site work done from site


preparation, excavation, foundation, assembly of all the components and installation of utilities of building ..
CONSTRUCTION

54

IIII!J

jl'

12. P. D. 1096 .............................. (

L. A written authorization granted


by the Building Official to an applicant allowing him to proceed
with the construction of a specific project after plans, specifications, pertinent documents
are found in conformity to P. D.
1096.
BUILDING PERMIT

MATCHING TYPE

C. DEFINITIONS "BUILDING CODE"


1. CERTIFICATE OF
OCCUPANCY ........................ (

A.

2. AS-BUILT PLANS .................. (

B. A lot having two frontages or

Courts, yards, setbacks, light


wells, uncovered driveways,
access roads and parking
spaces.

bounded by two parallel streets


and lots on each side.
3. OCCUPANT LOADS .............. (

c.

4. PUBLIC OPEN SPACE .......... (

D. A plan prepared after the con-

A court bounded on three sides


by building lines with one side
bounded by another open
space whether private or publie.

struction is done showing all


changes, modifications and alterations made as compared to
the original plans and needed
for the occupancy permit.
5. PRIVATE OPEN SPACE ........ (

E.

6. INTERIOR LOT ...................... (

F. A court bounded on two oppo-

A non-corner or a single frontage lot.

site sides bounded by other


open spaces.
7. INSIDE LOT ........................... (

G. A court bounded on all sides or


around or its periphery by building lines.

8. CORNER LOT ....................... (

H. The total number of persons


that may occupy a building or
portion, thereof at any one time.

55

9. THROUGH lOT ...................... (

1. A lot located in the interior of a


block made accessible from a
public street or alley by means
of a private access road.

10. INNER COURT ...................... (

J. Streets, alleys, easements of


seashore, rivers, esteros, railroad tracks, parks, plazas.

11. OPEN COURT ....................... (

K. No building shall be used or


occupied until the building official issues this permit, wherein
the certificate of completion, logbook and building inspection
sheet by contractor signed by
Architect, and as-built plans
signed by engineers in charge
are submitted.

12. THROUGH COURT ............... (

L. A lot facing two streets at an


angle meeting each other.

D. DEFINITIONS "BUILDING CODE"


1. R. A. 545 ................................ (

A. A window in a roof and level with


it or one set into a flat roof as a
dome, etc.

2. PROJECTING SIGN .............. (

B. The line formed by the intersection of the surface of the enclosing wall of the building ar.d the
surface of t~e ground.

3. DISPLAY WINDOW ............... (

C. An employee shall be paid this


of no less than ten (1 0%) percent of his regular wage for each
hour of work performed between ten o'cloCk in the evening
and six o'clock in the morning.

4. BUILDING LINE ................ :.... (

D. The outer covering of a


ingtstructure.

5. ARCADE ................................ (

e.

'

build~
<

56

An act to enhance the mobility .


of disabled persons by requir- .
ing certain buildings, irist~- .
tions, establishmenis and public utilities to install facilities and .
other devices.

6. STRUCTURE ......................... (

F. That portion of a building abutting the sidewalk open to public


view protected by grilles,
screens or transparent materials tor the display of goods.

7. CHAMFER ............................. (

G. The mark or floor plan directly


touching the ground, the perimeter of which is seen.

8. SKYLIGH'fS ........................... (

H. A sign fastened to, suspended


from or supported on a building
or structure. the display surface
of which is perpendicular from
the wall surface or is at an angle
therefrom.

9. BATAS PAMBANSA
BLG. 344 ................................ (

10. NIGHT SHIFT


DIFFERENTIAL ..................... (

I. Any portion of a building above


the first floor projecting over the
sidewalk beyond the first storey
wall used as protection for pedestrians.

J. An act to regulate the practice


of architecture in the Philippines.

11. FOOTPRINT .......................... (

K. That which is built or constructed, an edifice or building


of any kind or any piece of work
artificially built up or composed
of parts joined together in some
definite manner.

12. SKIN ....................................... (

L. Surface produced by beveling


square edge or corner equally
on both sides.

MATCHING TYPE

E. "FIRE CODE" DEFINITIONS


1. AUTOMATIC FIRE
SUPPRESSION SYSTEM ..... (

57

A. P. D. 1185 prohibits the obstruction of fire exits. fi-e h, "!~ants


overcrowding beyond authorized capacities, locking fire exits, use of jumpers.

2. COMBINATION
STAND-PIPE .......................... (

B.

The time duration that a material or construction can withstand the effects of standard fire
test. (1, 2 or 3 hrs.)

3. DRY STANDPIPE .................. (

c.

An integrated system of underground or overhead piping or


both connected to a source of
extinguishing agent or medium,
designed in which when actuated by its automatic device,
stops fire within the area protected.

D. The time in which flame will


spread over the surface of a
burning material.
5. FIRE RESISTANCE
RATING .................................. (

E.

6. FIRE WALL ............................ (

F. A gate with four arms set at right

Use sprinkler systems, hose


boxes, stand pipe systems, fire
alarm systems, fire walls, fire resistive enclosures, fire exits to
safe grounds. Stairways sealed
from smoke and heat, exit plan,
fire resistive doors, fire dampers in centralized aircon ducts,
roof vents for fire fighters.

angles, revolving on a central


post, allowing the passage of
only one person at a time.
7. FLAME SPREAD
RATING .................................. (

G.

An air compartment or chamber


to which one or more ducts are
connected and which form part
of an air distribution system.

8. FIRE (FLAME)
RETARDANT ......................... (

H.

Pipeline system filled with water and connected to a constant


water supply for the use of the
service and the occupants of the
building solely for fire suppression purposes.

58

9. FUMIGANT ............................ (

I. A fire alarm system activated by


the presence of a fire, where the
signal is transmitted to designated locations instead of

~6un&rra

aaurrur2t KtKrrrr. Ia

')rder to prevent panic.

10. MEANS OF EGRESS ............ (

J. A wall designed to prevent the


spread of .fire, having a fire resistance rating of not less than
four (4) hours with sufficient
structural stability to remain
standing even if construction or
either side collapse.

11. PANIC HARDWARE .............. (

K. A device constructed for burning refuse, trash.

12. PLENUM ................................ (

L. Any compound, or mixture


which when applied properly improves the fire resistant quality
of fabrics and other materials
like wood.

13. INCINERATOR ...................... (

M. A type of standpipe system in


which the pipes are normally not
filled with water. Water is introduced into the system through
fire service connections when
needed.

14. TURNSTILES ........................ (

N. A mechanical device consisting


of linkages and a horizontal bar
across a door, which cause the
door to open and facilitates exit
from a building, structure.

15. PROHIBITED ACTS SEC. 9


FIRE CODE P. D. 1185 .......... (

16. PROVISION ON'


FIRE SAFETY ........................ (

59

0. A continuous and unobstructed


route or exit from any point in a
building, structure, or facility to
a public way.

P. A gas, fume, or vapor used for


the destruction or control of insects, fungi, vemun, germs, rodents or other pests.

F. "OFFICE PRACTICE"

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. DIRECT SELECTION
OF AN ARCHITECT ............... (

2. COMPARATIVE SELECTION
OF AN ARCHITECT ............... (

3. DESIGN
COMPETITIONS ................... (

4. COMPENSATION BY
MEANS OF PERCENTAGE
OF CONSTRUCTION
COST ..................................... (

5. COMPENSATION BY
MEANS OF MULTIPLE
OF DIRECT PERSONNEL
EXPENSES ........................... (

60

A. A method frequently used


where there is a continuing relationship on q series of
projects. It establishes a fixed
sum over and above reimbursement for tl1e Architect's technical time and overhead.

B. The Architect renders full-time


supervision ensuring the quality of control of work, evaluating the work of the contractor,
keeps tiles and records and
manages the construction.

C. The Architect's regular services,


which include the preliminary
design, schemes, design development phase, the contract
documents phase (working
drawing) and supervision.

D. The settling of a dispute by an


impartial member of a party,
whose decision both parties to
a dispute agree to accept.

E. This is done for a complex building projects where the Architect


acts as an agent of the client in
procuring and coordinating all
the necessary services required
by the project, from pre-design
to post-construction services.

11. DESIGN SERVICES .............. (

12. SPECIALIZED ALLIED


SERVICES ............................. (

13. CONSTRUCTION
SERVICES ............................. (

14. POST CONSTRUCTION


SERVICES ............................. (

15. COMPREHENSIVE
SERVICES ............................. (

16. DESIGN BUILD


SERVICES ............................. (

62

K. This method is applicable only


to non-creative work such as accounting, secretarial, research,
supervision, preparation of reports and the like.

L. This is mostly required in a government contract. This method


is risky, since the Architect's
expenses might exceed the
agreed amount especially if
there are costly changes.

M. In this method, the client selects


his Architect on the basis of
Reputation, personal acquaintance, recommendation of a
friend, or of a former client, or
of another Architect.

N. This method is fair to both client and Architect as the fee is


pegged to the cost of the project
the client is willing to undertake.

0. This include Architectural programming, feasibility study, site


study, cost effectiveness study
and promotional services.

P. A client may request an Architect to do work which will require


his personal time such as visit
ing a possible site, attend&
board meetings, confer with others re: Financing or to joint-venture.

G. ARCHITECTS CODE OF ETHICS/RESPONSIBILITIES

I. IN RELATION TO THE PEOPLE


a. The Architect shall seek opportunities to be of constructive service in
civic and urban affairs and to the best of his ability advance the safety,
health and well-being of the people and the community as well as the
promotion, restoration or preservation of the general amenities and other
examples of historic and architectural heritage of the nation.
b. The Architect shall promote the interest of his professional organization
and do his full part of the work to enhance the objectives and services of
the organization. He should share in the interchange of technical information and experience with the other design profession and the building
industry.
c. The Architect as a good citizen shall abide and observe the laws and
regulations of the government and comply with the standards of ethical
conduct and practice of the profession in the Philippines. He shall at no
time act in a manner detrimental to the best interest of the profession.
d. The Architect shall not use paid advertisement nor self-laudatory, exaggerated or misleading publicity. However, the presentation of factual
materials, verbal or visual, of the aims, standards and progress of the
profession through literature or by industrious application of his work and
services which tend to dignify the professional or advance public knowledge of the Architect's function in society may be presented through any
public communication media.
e. The Architect shall not solicit not permit to solicit in his name, advertisements or other support towards the cost of any publication presenting his
work. He should refrain from taking part in paid advertisement endorsing
any materials of construction or building equipment.
f. The Architect shall not mislead the public through advertisements, signs
or printed matter citing his professional specializations unless such qualifications are well known facts or sanctioned by professional consensus
and years or experience.

2. IN RELATION TO HIS CLIENT


a. The Architect may introduce to a prospective Client the professional services he is able to perform provided it is limited to presentation of examples of his professional experience and does not entail the offering of
free preliminary sketches or other services without the benefit of an agreement with the Client for legitimate compensation.
b. The Architect shall acquaint or ascertain from the Client at the very inception of their business relationship, the exact nature and scope of his
services and the corresponding professional charges.
c. The Architect shall advise a Client against proceeding with any project
whose practicability may be questionable due to financial, legal or arresting or exigent conditions, even if such advice may mean the loss of a

prospective commission to the Architect.

63

d. The Archilect shaU explain the conditional character of estimates other


than estimates submitted in the form of actual proposals by contractors
and in no case shall he guarantee any estimates or cost of the work.
Neither shall he mislead his Client as to probable cost of the work in
order to secure a commission.
e. The Architect shall consider the needs and stipulation of his Client and
the effects of his work upon the life and well-being of the public and the
community as a whole, and to endeavor to meet the aesthetic and functional requirements of the project commensurate with the Client's appropriation.
f. The Architect shall charge his Client for services rendered, a professional fee commensurate with the work involved and with his professional standing and experience based upon the Basic Minimum Fee pre.scribed under the "Standards of Professional Practice" of the "Architect's
National Code".
g. The Architect shall not undertake, under a fixed contract sum agreement,
the construction of any project based on plans prepared by him. He may
in certain cases, undertake the construction of a project even when the
plans prepared by him provided it is undertaken in conformity with the
conditions set forth under sections covering "Construction Services" "Comprehensive Services" or "Design-Build Services" of the document on
"STANDAR_DS OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE."
h. The Architect shall be compensated for his services solely through his
professional fee charged directly to the Client. He shall not accept nor
ask for any other returns in whatever form from any interested source
other than the Client.
i. The Architect shall be free in his investments and business relations outside of his profession from any financial or personal interests which tend
to weaken and discredit his standing as an unprejudiced and honest
adviser, free to act in his Client's best interests. If the Architect has any
business interest which will relate to, or affect the interest of his Client,
he should inform his Client of such condition or situation.

j. The Architect shall include in his agreement with the Client a clause providing for arbitration as a method for settlement of disputes.
3. IN RELATION TO THE CONTRACTOR
a. The Architect shall give. the Contractor every reasonable aid to enable
him to fully understand the contents of the Contract Documents by furnishing clear, definite and consistent information in all pertinent contract
documents to avoid unnecessary mistakes that may involve extra costs
to the Contractor.
b. The Architect shall not knowingly call upon the Contractor to correct or
remedy oversights or errors in the Contract Documents to the Contractor's
financial disadvantage.
c. The Architect shall immediately upon his personal knowledge and inspection, reject or condemn materials, equipment or workmanship which

64

are not in conformity with the Contract Documents in order not to cause
unnecessary delay and additional expense to the Contractor.
d. The Architect shall not, at any time or circumstance, accept free engineering services, or receive any substantial aid, gifts, commissions, or
favors from any Contractor or sub-contractor which will tend to place him
under any kind of mnral obligation.
e. The Architect shall upon request by the Contractor promptly inspect each
phase of the work completed and if found according.to the terms of the
Contract Documents issue the corresponding Certificates of Payment
and the Final Certificate of Completion, respectively, to the Contractor.

4. IN RELATION TO MANUFACTURERS, DEALERS, AND AGENTS


a. The Architect shall not avail or make use of engineering or other technical services offered by manufacturers, or suppliers of building materials
or equipment which may be accompanied by an obligation detrimental to
the best interest of the Client or whici1 may adversely affect the Architect's
professional opinion.
b. The Architect shall not at any time receive commissions, discounts, fees,
gifts or favors from agents or firms handling building materials or equipment which may place him in a reciprocal frame mind. He may however,
accept market discounts which shall be credited to the Client.

5. IN RELATION TO HIS COLLEAGUES AND SUBORDINATES


a. The Architect shall not render professional services, without compensation except for small civic or charity projects. He shall neither offer nor
provide preliminary services on a conditional basis prior to definite agreement with the Client for the commission of the project.
b. The Architect shall not knowingly compete with other Architects on the
basis of difference of professional charges, nor use donation as a device
for obtaining competitive advantage except for worthy civic or religious
projects. Neither shall he submit solicited or unsolicited sketches or drawings in competition with other Architects unless such competitive arrangements are conducted substantially under the terms of the UAP Architectural Competition Code.
c. The Architect shall not under any circumstances nor throu]h any means
seek commissions already known to him as previously endowed to another Architect, whether such endowment has been definitely agreed upon
or still in the process of negotiation.
d. The Architect shall not, in any case, enter as a competitor in any Architectural Competition when he has direct relations with the formulation of
the Program thereof or when he has been engaged to act as Professional Adviser or Juror for such competition. Neither shall the Architect
accept and act as professional adviser or juror in any architectural competition when he has had any information or has reviewed or assisted in
the preparation of any competition design entered. Nor shall an Architect, retained as professional adviser in a competition, accept employment as an Architect for that competition project except as Consulting
Architect.

65

e. The Architect shall not undertake a commission for which he knows another Architect has been previously employed until he has notified such
other Architect of the fact in writing and has conclusively determined
{hat the original employment has been terminated and has been duly
compensated for.
f. The Architect shall not undertake a commission for additions, rehabilitation or remodeling of any erected structure undertaken previously by
another Architect without duly notifying him of the contemplated project
even when the Owner is no longer the same. When the greater mass.
area or design of the original structure is substantially maintained the
new Architect should limit his advertisement or claim only to the extent of
the work done to the structure. Architects are enjoined to preserve or
restore as much as possible especially the few and remaining historic
examples of our architectural heritage affecting this phase of practice.
~-

The Architect shall not knowingly injure falsely or maliciously, the professional reputation. prospects or practice of another Architect.

h. The Architect shall retrain from associating himself with or allowing the
use of his name by any enterprise of doubtful character or integrity.
i. The Architect shall affix his signature and seal to any plans or professional documents prepared by other persons or entities not done under
his direct personal supervision.

j. The Architect shall inspi_re the loyalty of his employees and subordinates
by providing them with suitable working conditions, requiring them to
render competent and efficient services and paying them adequate and
just compensation therefore. He shall tutor and mentor the young aspirants towards the ideals, functions, duties and responsibilities of the profession.
k. The Architect shall unselfishly give his share in the interchange of technical information and experience among his colleagues and young aspirants and do his part in fostering unity in the fellowship of the profession.
I. He shall unselfishly give his time and effort to the advancement of the
profession thru his active and personal commitment and involvement
with the accredited profession organization for Architects.

H. PROJECT CLASSIF.CATJON
Architectural work varies in complexities and in the creative skill required to
successfully meet the requirements of the client within the constraint of the
technical, functional, economic, aesthetic and other considerations. The following groups of building are attempts to classify design projects in accordance
with the degree of complexity of each project.
The architect's fee includes the normal structural, electrical, plumbing/sanitary,
and mechanical engineering services and is determined by getting the percentage indicated in the schedule of Fees and multiplying it with the Project Construction Cost.

66

SCHEDULE OF MINIMUM BASIC FEE


Group -1
Structures of simplest, utilization character which are without complication of
design or detail and require a minimum of finish, structural, mechanical and
electrical design.
Parking structures
Printing plants
Public Markets
Service garages
Simple loft-type structures
Warehouses
Other similar utilization types of
buildings

Armories
Bakeries
Farm structures
Freight facilities
Hangars
Industrial building
Manufacturing/Industrial plants
Packaging and processing plants

MINIMUM BASIC FEE

PROJECT CONSTRUCTION COST

PSO Million and less ............ ... ....... ..... .. .. ... ... ....... 6 Percent

Group- 2
Structures of moderate complexity of design requiring a moderate amount of
structural, mechanical and electrical design and research.
Art galleries
Banks, Exchange and
other financial institutions
Bowling Alleys
Churches and Religious
facilities
City Halls
College buildings
Convents, Monasteries and Seminaries
Correctional and Detention Institutions
Court Houses
Dormitories
Exhibition Halls and Display structures
Fire Stations
Laundries
Motels and Apartels
Multi-storey apartments

Nursing Homes
Park, playground and open-air
recreational facilities
Police Stations
Post Offices
Private Clubs
Private Publishing Plants
Race tracks
Restaurants
Retail Stores
Schools
Shopping centers
Speciality shops
Supermarkets
Welfare Buildings

And other structures of similar nature or use


PROJECT CONSTRUCTION COST

MINIMUM BASIC FEE

PSO Million and less ... .. .. ... .. ... .. .. ... .. ... .. .. ... ..... .. .. . 7 Percent

Group-3
Structures of exceptional character and complexity of design or.requiring comparatively large amounts of structural, mechanical and electrical design and
research.

67

Aquariums
Atomic facilities
Auditoriums
Airports
Breweries
Cold storage facilities
Communications buildings
Convention Halls
Gymnasiums
Hospitals and Medical buildings
Hotels

Laboratories
Marinas
Medical Office facilities & Clinics
Mental Institutions
Mortuaries
Observatories
Public Health Centers
Research facilities
Stadiums
Theaters and similar facilities
Veterinary Hospitals

And other structures of similar nature or use


PROJECT CONSTRUCTION COST

MINIMUM BASIC FEE

P5() Million and less ..... ....... ... .. ..... .. ... .. ... .. ..... .. .. . 8 percent
Group- 4
Residencies (Single Detached or Duplex), small apartment houses and town
houses.
Minimum Basic Fee ......... .. 10 percent of Project Construction Cost
Group- 5
Monumental buildings and other facilities requiring consummate design skill
and much precise detailing.
Exposition and Fair buildings
Mausoleums, Memorials Monuments

Specialized decorative buildings


And structures of similar nature or
use

Museums
Minimum Basic Fee .. .. .... .. .. ..... .. .. .. .......... 12 percent of Project Construction
Cost
Group - 6 Repetitive Construction of Buildings
When the design of the Architect is used again for the repetitive construction of
similar structures, without amen<.ling the drawing and the specifications, the
Architect's fee is computed as follows:
First Structure .. .. . ................................ .
Second Structure ................................ ..
Third Structure ..................................... .
Succeeding structure ............................. .

Minimum Basic Fee


80% of Basic Fee
60% of Basic Fee
40% of Basic Fee

Group - 7 Housing Projects


When the Architect is engaged to undertake a HOUSING PROJECT involving
the construction of several residential units on a single site with the use of one
basic plan and specifications. the MINIMUM FEE chargeable thereunder shall
confirm with the following:
68

First Unrt .... ..... ... ... .... ...... ......... ......... ......

10 Percent of the Construction


Cost of one unit as Basic Fee

From two to ten units.......... .. ...... ..... ..... .

Fee of :..ne unit plus 60% of aa~.ic


Fee for each additional unit

Eleven units and above .. .. .. .. .... .... . .. .. ....

Fee for 10 units plus 30% of Basic


Fee for each adjitional unit

Group-8
Projects involving extensive detail such as furniture design, build-in equipment,
special fittings, screens, counters, interior~ and other detailed parts or appurtenances of buildings or ~tructures and landscaping designs.
Minimum Basic Fee ...... ... .. .. ...... .. .

15 Percent of Project Construction Cost

Group-9
For alterations and additions of existing structures belonging to Group 1 tc o
enumerated above, compensdtion for services should be increased by 50 percent or a total of 150 percent of the Basic Fee.

Group- 10 Consultations and Arbitrations


Where the Architect is engaged to render opinion or give advise, clarifications
or explanation on technical matters pertaining to his profession, the Minimum
Fee chargeable thereunder shall not be less than Two Hundred Pesos (P200.00)*
per hour subject to increase depending on the extent and coverage of service
required. When rendering service as an expert witr..:ss, the Architect's Fee shall
not be less than Five Hundred Pesos (P500.00)* per appearance irrespective
of whether the scheduled hearing took place or not.
*All references to fixed amount shall refer to the value of the Peso as ot November 1979. Adjustment of the price shall be made at the time of the contract.

I. THE S?ECTRUM OF THE ARCHITECT'S SERVICES


The Spectrum of the Architect's services extends over the entire range of activities that proceed from the time the idea is conceived, perfected, transformed
into sets of space/des;gn requirements, translated into structure through design, built, used and become a permanent feature of the man-made environment.
The Architect's services con!3ist of the necessary conferences, deliberations,
discussions, evaluations, invest.gations, consultations, advise on matters affecting the scientific, aesthetic and orderly coordination of all the process of
safeguarding life, health and property which enter into the production of different levels and sophistications of man-made structures and environment.
The entire range of the Architect's services arP. divideC: into seven (7) major
services as follows:

69

1. PRE-DESIGN SERVICES..............................................
This include Architectural Programming, Feasibility,
study, site study, cost effectiveness study and others.

UAP rJoc. 201

2. DESIGN SERVICES . .............. .................................


The Architect's Regular Services

UAP Doc. 202

3. SPECIALIZED ALLIED SERVICES ............... .... ....


This include Planning, Interior, landscaping, Acoustics,
communications and Electronics Engineering.

UAP Doc. 203

4. CONSTRUCTION SERVICES ..... ................... ..... .. . .. .. ...


Full-time supervision, construction Management.

UAP Doc. 204

5. POST CONSTRUCTION SERVICES ................. ... .


Buildings and Grounds Administration

UAP Doc. 205

6. COMPREHENSIVE SERVICES .......................... .. . .. .. .


Project Management Service

UAP Doc. 206

7. DESIGN-BUILD SERVICES ............. :..................... ..... ..


Administering the Construct~on.

UAP Doc. 207

DOC. 201 PRE-DESIGN SERVICES


There are many instances where the Architect is called upon by the client to
perform services other than purely architectural or designing services. For the
Architect to effectively assist. and serve his client in Pre-design services, special training will be required leading to a broad background in real estate, finance, business, taxation, human 1'1ehavior, space programming, and others, to
supplement the architect's skil! as a researcher, space activities organizer, coordinator and manager of the various activities of professionals and tradesmen.
It would not be expected however, that the architect would actually perform
services in all such fields, but rather, he would act as the agent of his client in
producing some of the necessary services that he and his staff cannot provide.
It is his task to coordinate these Services so that acting fpr his client, he can
retain the degree of control and coordination of activities :necessary to assure
the client of a more unified result.
The several activities that fall under the pre-design services are as follows:
1. Economic Feasibility Studies. A study to determine the viability of a project
such as its cost of development versus its potential return to the Owner. A
detailed cost-benefit analysis can guide the client and the architect in selecting a more viable alternative plan.
2. PROJECT FINANCING
Architects assist in the determination of requirements of lending agencies,
income-expense relationship and relative demand for different building types
in actual financing negotiations.
3. ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAMMING
Investigating, identifying and documenting the needs of the. client for use in
the design of the project.
70

4. SITE SELECTION AND ANALYSIS


Assisting the client in locating sites for the proposed project and evaluating
their adequacy with regards to topography, subsurface conditions, utilities,
development costs, climate, population, legal considerations and other factors.

5. SITE UTILIZATION AND LAND-USE STUDIES


A detailed analysis of the site to develop its potential through the proper
utilization of land.

6. SPACE/MANAGEMENT STUDIES
Analysis of the space requirements of the proJect based on organizational
structure and functional set-up. One method is to use human behavior and
transaction analysis to pinpoint Linkages and interactions of spaces. The
services cover space use and space character analysis, work station and
space module and a space program to serve as basis for architectural design.
7. PROMOTIONAL SERVICES
In some cases, the project would require promotional activities in order to
generate financial support and acceptance from governing agencies or from
the general public. The Architect with his own staff, can accomplish many of
these activities including preparation of promotional designs, drawings, brochures and the like. As the agent of the Owner, the Architect can produce
and coordinate the additional activities necessary to complete the services.
METHOD OF COMPENSATION
The Architect's services for the Pre-Design Phase were creative designing is
not included are often compensated for on the basis of multiple of direct personnel expenses. This cost based method of compensation is directly related to
the Architect's and his consultant's effort where they are compensated for every
technical hour expended on the project with a multiplier to cover overhead and
a reasonable profit. This method is suitable for projects in wh!Ch the scope of
work is indefinite, particularly for large complex projects.
Progress Payment for Services shall be made based on the accomplishments
of the work of the Architect.
DOC. 202 ARCHITECT'S DESIGN SERVICES
A. REGULAR SERVICES
The architect, In regular practice normally acts as his client's or the Owner's
adviser. He translates the Owner's needs and requirements to spaces and
forms in the forms in the best manner of professionals services, he can
render.
The Architect's work starts at the very inception of the project when the
Owner outlines his requirements to him. It ranges through his study and
analysis of the various aspects of the project, goes through the preparation
of the necessary instruments of service and through the multitude of construction problems and does not terminate until the project is completed.

71

In effeC:, the Architect renders services whose sequence come in four phases
as follows:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Schemetic Design Phase


Design Development Phase
Contract Documents Phase and
Construction Phase

Phase 1 Schematic Design


a. Cons1.1lts with the Owner to ascertain the requirem"lnts of the project and
confirms such requirements with him.
b. Prepares schematic design studies leading to a recommended solution
including a general description of the project for approva: by the Owner.
c. Submits to the Owner a Statement of Prohable Project Construction Cost
based on current parameters.

Phase 2 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT


a. Prepares from approved Schematic Design Studies, the Desig'l Development Documents consisting of plans, elevation. and other d, awings,
and outline specifications, to fix and illustrate the size and character of
the entire project in its essential as to kinds of materials, typt::: of structure, mechanical, electrical and sanitary systems and such other work as
may be required.
b. Suhmits to the Owner a further Statement of Probable Project Construction Cost

Phase 3 CONTRACT DOCUMENTS


a. Prepares from approved Design Development Documents, thP. complete
Construction Drawings and Specifications setting forth in detail the work
required for the architectural, structural, electrical, plumbing/sanitary,
mechanical and other service-connected equipmenL
b. Prepares spe~ific_ations--descfibtAg-type--and quality of materials, finish,
marfrler-of construction and the general conditions under which the project
is to be constructed.
c. Furnishes the Owner not more than five (5) complete sets of all construction drawings, specifications and general conditions for purposes
for bidding.
d. Keeps the Owner informed of any adjustments to previous Statements
of Probable Project Construction Cost indicated by changes in scope,
requirements or market conditions.
e. Assist the Owner in filling the required documents to secure approval of
government authorities having jurisdiction over the design of the Project.

Phase 4

CONSTRUCTION

a. Prepares forms for contract letting, documents for construction, forms


for invitation and instruction to bidders, and forms for bidders' proposals.

72

b. Assist the Owner in obtaining proposals from Contractors, in preparing


abstract of bids and in awarding and preparing construction contracts.
c. When required in the contract, makes decisions on all claims of the Owner
and Contractor and on all other matters relating to the execution and
progress of work or the interpretation of the Contract Documents. Checks
and approves samples, schedules, shop drawings and other requirements
subject to and in accordance with the descriptive information and provisions of the Contract Documents, prepares change orders, gathers and
turns over to the Owner written guarantees required of the Contractor or
sub-contractors.
d. Makes periodic visits to the project site to familiarize himself with the
general progress and quality of the work and to determine whether the
work is proceeding in accordance with the Contract Documents. He shall
not be required to make exhaustive or continuous 8-hour on-site supervision to check on the quality of the work involved and he shall not be
held responsible for the Contractor's failure to carry 0111 the construction
work in accordance with the Contract Documents Dunng such prOJect
site visits and on the basis of his observations he shall report to th~>
Owner defects and deficiencies noted in the work of Contractors, and
shall condemn work found falling to conform to the Contract Documents.
~

Based on \lts qb~ervalions and the Contractors Applications for Pay


tne.n! rte shall ~etermm~ the amount owing and due to the Contractor
JU ::.tlall1ssue corresponding Certificates for Payment for such amounts
These Cer11f1cates will constitute a certification to the Owner that the
work t1as progressed to the state indicated and that to his best knowledge the quality of work performed by the Contractor is in accordance
with the Contract Documents He shall conduct the necessary inspection
to determine the date of substantial and final Certificate for Payrner:t to
the Contractor
Should more extensive or full-time (8-hour) construction superv1s1on be
required by the Owner, a separate full-time supervisor shall be hired and
agreed upon by the Owner and the Architect subject to the conditions
provided in the UAP Document on Full- Time Supervision. When the Architect is requested by the Owner to do the full time supervision his services and fees shall conform to the same UAP Docur.1ent

B. PAYMENT SCHEDULE

1. Payments on account of the Architect"s basic serv1ces shall be as follows:


a. Upon the signing of the Agreement a minimum payment equivalent to
five percent (5%) of the compensation for basic services.
b. Upon the completion of the Schematic Design Services but not more
than 15 days after submission of the Schematic Design to the Owner.
a sum equal to fifteen percent ( 15%) of the Basic Fee, computed upon
a reasonable estimated construction cost of the structure.
c. Upon the completion of the Design Development Services.but not more
than 15 days after submission of the Design Development to the owner,
73

a sum sufficient to increase the total payments on the fee to thirty-five


percent (35%) of the basic fee computed upon the same estimated
construction cost of the structure as in (b).
d. Upon the completion of the Contract Documents Services but not more
than 15 days after submission of the Contract Documents to the Owner,
a sum sufficient to increase the total payments on the fee to Eightyfive percent (85%) of the Basic Fee computed upon a reasonable estimated construction cost of the structure as in (b).
e. Within 15 days after the awards of Bids, the payment to the Architect
shall be adjusted so that it will amount to a sum equivalent to eightyfive percent (85%) of the Basic Fee, computed upon the winning Bid
price.
f. Upon the completion of the construction work, the balance of the
Architect's fee, computed on the Final Project Construction Cost of
the structure shall be paid.
2. The Owner shall make partial payments during each of the various stages
of the Architect's work, up9n request of the Architect, provided that such
payments are within the framework of the manner of payments outlined
above,
C. OWNER'S RESPONSIBILITIES
1. Provide full information .as to his requirements for the project.
2. Designate when necessary, representative authorized to act in his behalf. Examine documents submitted by the Architect and render decisions pertaining thereto promptly, to avoid unreasonable delay in the
progress of the Architect's work. Observe the procedure of issuing orders to contractors only through the Architect.
3. Furnish or direct the Architect to obtain at the Owner's expense, a certified survey of the site, giving as may be required, topographical surveys,
grades and lines of streets, alleys, easements, encroachments, zoning,
and deed restrictions, boundaries, with dimensions and complete data
pertaining to existing buildings, and other improvements and full information as to available utility service lines both public and private; and
test borings and pits necessary for determining subsoil conditions.
4. Pay for structural, acoustical, chemical, mechanical, soil mechanics or
other tests and reports as may be required for the project.
5. Pay for design and consultancy services on acoustic, communication,
electronic and other specialty systems which may be required for the
project.
6. Arrange and pay for such legal, auditing, and insurance counseling services as may be required for the project.
7. Pay for all reimbursible expenses incurred in the project as called for in
Section 6 "Other Conditions on Services" and all taxes (not including
income tax) that the government may impose on the Architect as a result
of the services rendered by the Architect on the proje.ct whether the service$ were performed as an individual practitioner, as a partnership or as
a corporation.

74

8. If the Owner observes or otherwise becomes aware of anything that may


impair the successful implementation of the project, he shall give prompt
written notice thereof to the Architect.

D. OTHER CONDITIONS ON SERVICES


1. Conditions for Minimum Basic Fee
The "Minimum Basic Fee" referred to in Section 3.0 applies to construction work done by a Contractor on the basis of a Lump Sum Contract.
Construction works that are let on cost-plus-fee basis, or on any basis
other than the Lump Sum Contract, where the Architect has to render
additional services shall be subject to additional compensation commensurate with the additional services required. Such additional compensation shall be in addition to the minimum Basic Fee.
2. Other Professional Services
The Architect's fee includes normal structural, electrical, plumbing/sanitary and mechanical engineering services. Other services that may be
needed in order to complete the project such as services of acoustic and
illumination engineers, mural painters, sculptors, interior decorators and
landscape architects are to be recommended by the Architect of the
Owner's approval and costs for these services are to be paid for separately by the Owner.
3. Miniature Models
The Architect may make and include miniature models of his design studies as part of his preliminary work if he so deems it to be necessary but
no extra charge for such miniature models shall be made by the Architect. However, if the Owner desires to have a miniature model of the final
and approved design for exhibition and display purposes, the Owner shall
pay for the cost of said miniature model.
4. Per Diem and Travelling Exp,enses
A per diem of not less than P50o.oo plus traveling and living expenses
shall be chargeable to the owner on any occasion where the Architect or
his duly authorized representative shall be required to perform services
at a locality beyond the radius of 100 kilometers from his established
office.
*All references to fixed amount shall refer to the value of the Peso as of
November 1979. Adjustment of the price shall be made at the time of the
contract.
5. Extra Sets.of Contract Documents
The Architect shall furnish the Owner five (5) sets of Drawings, Specifications and other contract documents. Cost of printing or reproduction of
extra sets of Contract Documents when required by the Owner or his
representative is to be charged to and paid for by the Owner.
6. Changes Order~d by Owner
If the Architect is caused additional professional services, extra drafting
or other office expenses due to changes ordered by the Owner after

75

approval of the Design Development Documents, he shall be paid for


such expenses and services involved. The amount of compensation and
the extension of time for the completion of the documents shall be upon
mutual agreement of both parties.
7. Work Suspended or Abandoned
If the work of the Architect is abandoned or suspended, in whole or in
part, the Architect is to be paid by the Owner for the services rendered
corresponding to the fees due at the stage of suspension or abandonment of the work.
The primary service of the Architect is the preparation of plans, specifications and other building construction documents whic_h are actually
sets of detailed instructions that shall serve as the basis for the Contractor to build the Project. Once the Architect has prepared all these documents, he has completed the Contract Documents Phase of his services
which is equivalent t') EIGHTY FIVE PERCENT (85%) of his work. The
remaining FIFTEEN PERCENT (15%) of his work is broken down as
follows:
TEN PERCENT (1 0%) for the Architect's liability under the Civil Codeand - FIVE PERCENT (5%) for the construction phase serv:ce which
includes preparation of contract documents forms and periodic visits
during the construction.
When the OWNER therefore fails to implement the plans and document
for construction as prepared by the Architect, the Architect is entitled to
receive as compensation the sum corresponding tc. EIGHTY FIVE (85%)
PERCENT of his fee.
8. Different Periods of Construction
If portions of the buildings are erected at different periods of time, thus
increasing the Architect's construction phase period and burden of services, the charges pertaining to services rendered during the construction phase shall be doubled. A suspension of constwction for a period
not exceeding six (6) months shall not be covered by this provi~ion.
9. Services of consultants

It .the Owner desires to engage special consultants, such consultants


shall be with the consent of the Architect and the cost of their services
shall be paid tor separately by the Owner and shall no! be deducted from
the fees due the Architect.
10. Separate Services
Should the Owner require the Architect to design or plar:1 movable or
fixed pieces of furniture, cabinets, covered walks, grottos, pools, landscaping and other items of similar nature, the Owner shall pay the Architect in addition to the Minimum Basic Fee, a compensation in the amount
of Fifteen percent (15%) otthe Construction Cost of the above work.
11. Full-Time Supervision
Upon recommendation of the Architect and with the approval of the uwner,
full-time construction inspectors as will be deemed necessary shall be

76

engaged and paid for by the Owner. The full-time construction inspectors shall be under the technical control and supervision of the Architect
and shall make periodic reports to the Owner and to the Architect as to
the progress and quality of the work done.
12. Estimates
Any Statements of Probable Construction Cost, or any Semi-Detailed or
Detailed Cost Estimates submitted by the Architect is accurate only up to
a certain degree. This is so because the Architect has no control over the
cost of labor and materials, or the many factors that go into competitive
bidding.
13. Government Taxes on Services
The Architect's Fees as stipulated in Section 3 "Minimum Basic Fee" is
net to the Architect. Any tax that the government may impose on the
Architect as a consequence of the services performed for the Project
(exclusive of income tax) shall be paid by the Owner.
14. Ownership of Documents
All designs, drawings, models specifications and copies thereof, prepared
and furnished by the Architect in connection with any project are instruments of professional service. As instruments of service they are the
property of the Architect whether work for which they were made may be
executed or not, and are not to be reproduced or used on the other work
except with a written agreement with the Architect.
This is in pursuance with the pertinent provisions of Republic Act 545
promulgated on June 17, 1950 and of Presidential Decree No. 49 on the
"Protection of Intellectual Property" issued on November 14, 1972.
15. Cost Records
During the progress of work the Owner shall furnish the Architect two (2)
copies of records of expenses being incurred on the construction, upon
completion of the project, the Owner shall furnish the Architect two (2)
copies of the summary of all cost of labor, services, materials, equipment, fixtures and all items used at and for the completion of the construction.
16. Design and Placement of Signs
All signboards of contractors, sub-contractors, jobbers and dealers that
shall be placed at the project site during the progress of construction
shall be approved by the Architect as to size, design and contents. After
the completion of the project, the Owner or his building lessee shall consult the Architect for the design and size of all signboards, letterings,
directories and display boards that will be placed on the exterior or public
areas attached to the building, in order to safeguard the Owner's interest
that nothing will be installed inside or outside of the building that would
man tne safety and aesthetics of the structure.
17. Project Construction Cost
Project Construction Cost as herein referred to, means the cost of the
completed structure to the owner including plumbing and electrical fix-

77

tures. mechanical equipment, elevators, escalatC;rs, air-conditioning system, automatic fire sprinkler system, alarm and rtock S~'stem, communications and electronic system, elements attacheJ to the building and all
items indicated in the drawings designed by or specified by the Architect
and his consultant. Other items if designed and planned by tr"le Architect,
such as movable or fixed pieces of furniture, cabinets, covered walks,
grottos, pools, landscaping and other items of similar nature are to be
paid for separately by the Owner to the Architect as stipulated in Section
6.1 0 (Separate Services).
The Project Construction Cost does not include any Architect's fee or
Engineer's fee or the salaries of the construction inspectors. When labor
or materials are furnished by the Owner below its market cost, the cost
of the work shall be computed upon such current market-cost.
DOC 203 SPECIALIZED ALLIED SERVICES
Architecture - the blending of aesthetics, functions, space and materials-results from the application of the skills of many people. Time and Technology
have moved to a level where other applied professions are needed to complete,
complement or supplement the necessary services for a building project. Today, the environmental design professions, of which architecture has a lead
part, are involved with a total commitment to improving the way we live.
The Architect's main responsibility to his client is to produce a structure that will
house the activity it was intended for that is well-planned, soundly constructed,
aesthetically satisfying design and within the financial limitation of the project
The Architect's responsibility to society is to make sure that not the structure
alone but also its physical environmental can enhance the Iivas of all the people.
He relates not only to purely design and build professions but to allied professions as well, to achieve totality in design.
The design of the structure proper falls under the Architect's Regular Services
(UAP Doc. 202)
Design services needed within and outside the building which require specializations fall under "specialized Allied Services" namely:
a. Interior Design.
b. Acoustic, Communication and Electronic Engineering.
c. Landscape Design

C:. Physical Planning


e. Comprehensive Planning
A. INTERIOR DESIGN SERVICES
Depending on the complexity of the project, the Architect may get assistance from Consultants whose expert advice may be needed in the detailing of Interior elements.
SCOPE OF SERVICES
1. The Architect, upon designing a structure, houses specific activities by

78

controlling the spaces where these activities are to take place. The various spaces are designed to make the space fit the specific mood and the
required activity.
Due to the discovery of new products and equipment. interior design has
become a field of specialization. As such it offers the following services.
a. Prescribes furniture and interior design finishes appropriate for different activities and spaces and prepares furniture and furnishing layout.
b. Prepares the design and schedule of furniture giving their dimensions,
specifications and locations.
c. Assists the client in. conducting bids or negotiations with furniture fabricators and other suppliers.
d. Checks and approves samples of materials and shop drawings of furniture, furnishings, fixtures and decor items.
e. Conducts final inspection and approval of furniture and other items.
PAYMENT
1. For projects including extensive detailing such as furniture design builtin equipment and special fittings, the Architect is paid 15% of the cost of
the work. The fee may however vary from 12% to 20% depending on the
complexity of the work to be undertaken.
2. The fee of the Architect as stipulated above includes the fee of the Consultant working with the Architect.
3. Should the Client hire separately the services of the Consultant, the fee
of said Consultant shall be on the account of the Client and paid directly
by the Client. In such a case, the fee for the Architect for coordinating the
work and relating the work of the Consultant to the design concept of the
Architect will be 5% of the cost of the work.
4. "Cost of the Work" means the total cost of the items which were either
designed specified or procured by the Architect and his Consultant for
the Client, that were used or installed in the interiors of the building.
5. The Architect shall be paid on the following schedule:
a. Upon submission of the preliminary design-- 30% of the tee.
b. Upon submission of the final design- 50% of the fee.
c. Upon completion of the project- 20% of the fee.
B. ACOUSTIC, COMMUNICATION AND ELECTRONIC
ENGINEERING SERVICES
Due to the continuing evolution of products and techniques in sound control,
communications and electronics. there is a wider flexibility in the design of
the interior environment.
The Architect is the prime professional commissioned by the Client to design
the structure and all its utilities and to coordinate the works of all allied design professionals involved in the project.

79

As acoustic, communication and electronic engineering are fields of specialization, the allied professionals who wiH perform these services will serve as
consultants to the Architect and the Client.
The Architect shall coordinate their works and make certain that their inputs
will comply to the requirements of the project and shall Je compatible with
the architectural design concept of the Architect.
SCOPE OF SERVICES
The Architect and the Consultant offer the following services:
a. Prepare the drawings and specifications foF acoustic designs, acoustic treatment, sound control, sound reinforcement, sound insulation and communication system.
b. Prepare specifications of electronic equipment.
c. Assist the client.in the bidding or negotiation of the work.
d. Check and approve samples of materials and equipment.
e. Conduct final inspection of work and equ1pment.
f. Assist the Client to evaluate the amount due the Contractor.
PAYMENTS

1. The fee for acoustic, communication and electronic engineering services


shall be from 10% to 15% of the cost of the work depending on the magnitude and complexity of the work required by the project.
2. The fee of the Architect as stipulated above includes the fee of the consultants working with the Architect.
3. Should the Client hire separately the services of the consultants, the fee of
said consul.tants shall be on the account of the Client paid directly by the
Client. In such a case, the fee of the Architect for coordinating the works of
Consultants and relating their works with the design concept of the Architect
will the 5% of the "Cost of the Work".
4. "Cost of the Work" means the total cost of all equipment, utilities and other
items which were either designed, specified or produced by the Architect
and his Consultants for the Owner, that were used or installed in the project.
5. The Architect shall be paid on the following Schedule:
a. Upon submission of the preliminary design - 30% of the fee
b. Upon submission of the final design - 50% of the fee
c. Upon completion of the project- 20% of the fee.
C. LANDSCAPE DESIGN SERVICES
Arising from his concept of the total environment, the Architect is not merely
concerned with the structure he created but the surrounding space as well.
He studies the structure in relation with the existing environment and then
consequently designs the surrounding areas of the structure so that the environment act as one

80

Normally, landscaping of small projects can be done by the Architect and his
staff.
If the project, however, is big in scale, the Architect may hire other professionals Consultants.
SCOPE OF SERVICES
In order to come up with a well-balanced design of the enwonment, the Architect offers the following services:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Prepares the general ground modelling plan and planting layout.


Prepares drawings and specifications of needed utility lines.
Prepares schedule of shrubs, trees and other plants.
Prepare details of landscaping elements.
Assists the Client to evaluate the amount due the Contrar.tor.

PAYMENTS
1. The fee for landscape design services shall be from 10% to 15% of the cost
of the work depending on the magnitude and complexity of the work required by the project.
2. The fee of the Architect as stipulated above includes the fee of the Consultants working with the Architect.
3. Should the Client hire separately the services of the consultant, the fee of
said Consultant shall be on the account of the Client and paid directly by the
Client. In such a case, the fee of the Architect for coordinating the works of
the Consultant and relating his work with the design concept of the Architect
will be 5% of the "Cost of the Work".
4. "Cost of the Work" means the total cost of all landscape work including the
cost of utilities, landscaping materials and development of the site.
5. The Architect shall be paid in the following schedule:
a. Upon submission of the preliminary design - 30% of the fee
b. Upon submission of the final design - 50% of the fee
c. Upon completion of the project - 20% of the fee
D. PHYSICAL PLANNING SERVICES
The Architect is not merely concerned with a structure. He is concerned with
its relation with the immediate surroundings as well. In planning for building
sites (industrial estates, shopping centers, etc.) he studies the possible structures that will be sited there and their relation to other structures, the surrounding environment, and their effect and impact on the neighboring areas.
If the Architect is commissioned to do physical plans for a specified site, he
has to study human behavior and activities, look into the city's economic
systems, its laws and regulations, tax structure, the city's infrastructure, utilities and on the whole, everything that will have a bearing on the project.
When the Architect is exposed to all these aspects in sufficient detail he is
engaged in the practice of a specialized service - that of Physical Planning.

81

DEFINITION OF PHYSICAL PLANNING


Physical Planning is the art and science of ordering the use of land siting of
btlilding and communication routes to secure the maximum practicable degree
of economy, social amenities, convenience and aesthetics.
It is approached through a mechanism which integrates in time and space the
following components:
a. Physical, pertaining to the world of material things, the tangible and aesthetics.
b. Social, concerned with the condition of people.
c. Economic and administrative - including the science of management
and resources.
These components are used in reference to a smaller sca~e the siting of buildings and its influence c,n the neighboring areas to be affected.

ROL.E OF THE ARCHITECT-PLANNER


1. All ideas, concepts, needs and data eventually have to be translated into
physical plans before they can be implemented. It is the Architect who provides a 3-dimensional perspective to 2-dimensional plan. By virtue of the
Architect's training and experience in coordinating the works of a multi-disciplinary team, the Architect becomes the logical prime professional responsible for the direction of th~ team efforts to deal with the planning work.
2. The physical planning services of the Architect is separate and distinct from
the Architect's regular services. The latter being concerned with the production of a structure of building with all its attendant sophistications and complexities while the former is concerned with the general quality of the setting
for people, activities, buildings and other natural and man-made phenomenon.
3. Depending on the complexity of the project the Architect may hire additional
Consultant whose expert advise may be needed to validate certain feature
of the physical plan. The fee of any additional Consultant needed in the
project must be paid for separately by the Client.

PHYSICAL PLANNING SERVICES


When the Architect is commissioned to do physical planning for building sites
such as Industrial Estates, Commercial Institutional and Government Centers,
Sports Complexes, Tourist Centers, Resorts, Amusement Parks, Educational
Campuses, Housing Subdivisions and the like, the services are as follows:
a. Confers with the Client on project requirements and secures and/or generates sufficient data base from which reliable projections and/or analyses
can be made for translation to physical design.
b. Examines laws ordinances, rules and regulations affecting the project.
c. Prepares concept development plans and report from relevant information
gathered by other disciplines.
d. Prepares scaled preliminary plans showing physical allocatiQn of areas, roads
and pedestrian arteries, basic utility layouts and building envelopes.

82

e. Prepares budgetary estimate of cost of physical deveiopment.


f. Undertake modifications, revisions and changes as may be required.
g. Prepares Final Plans, Report and Specifications neeoed tor approval by the
proper government agencies concerned.
PHYSICAL PLANNING
SCHEDULE OF FEES

Type 1
Physical Planning for building sites such as Industrial Estates, Commercial
Centers, Sports complexes, Resorts, Tourist Centers, Amusement Parks, Educational Campuses, Institutional and Government Centers and Site Planning of
any complex consisting of several structures within a contiguous site.
Basic rate for
the first 50
hectares or less
Over 50
hectares up to
100 hectares
of 50 hectares
Over 100
hectares up to
200 hectares
Over 200 hectares

P 5,000 per hectare

P 250,000 plus
P 4,500 per
per hectare in excess
P 475,000 plus
P 4,000 per
hectare in excess
P 875,000 plus
P 3,000 per
per hectare in excess
of 200 hectares

All References to fixed amoun~ are based on the 1979 purchasing value
of the Peso. Adjustment of the fee shall be made at the time of the
contract due to inflation and other factors.

Type2
Subdivision Planning for housjng on properties within Metro-Manila, cities regional centers and provincial capitals.
Basic rate for
- P 3,000 per
the first 100 hectares
hectare
or less
Over 100 hectare up
to 200 hectares

- P 300,000 plus
P 2,300 per
hectare in excess of
100 hectares

Over 200 hectares

- P 550,000 plus
P 2,000 per
hectare in excess of
200 hectares

83

Type3
Subdivision Planning for housing on properties located on other localities beside those under Type 2.
Basic Rate for the
first 100 hectares or
less

P 2,000 per
hectare

Over 100 hectares up


to 200 hectares

P 200,000 plus
P 1,500 per
hectare in excess
of 1 00 hectares

Over 200 hectares

P 350,000 plus
P 1,000 per
hectare in excess
of 200 hectares

The rate stipulated under Article 5 above is based on the assumption that the
land to be developed is moderately flat. If the land is rugged with steep terrain
the fee shall increase by thirty percent (30%).
OTHER CONDITIONS ON PHYSICAL PLANNING
1. The Architect may undertake the site planning of a project requiring a composite arrangement of several building envelop on a contiguous site of a
moderate size of three (3) hectares or less. Any commission on physical
planning of a larger magnitude or a complex nature, s110uld be done by the
Architect with several years of experience in planning or has had additional
academic training in planning. He should most importantly possess administrative, technical and managerial ability aside from an equitable social com
mitment.
2. Should other services be required by the project, such as environmental
studies, feasibility study, market analysis, movement systems, impact analysis
and others. said services should be performed by an Architect acting as the
prime professional of the team.
3. The cost for environmental studies surveys, site investigation and titling of
the parcels of land shall be on the account of the Owner.
4. The detailed design of the building and landscaping elements is not part of
physical planning services and shall be treated separately under the "Architects Regular Services" or "Specialized Allied Services."
5. For the preparation of detailed engineering drawings and specifications on
roads drainage, sewerage, power and communication system an additional
fee of four percent (4%) of the cost of the development is to be charged.
E. COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING SERVICES

EXPERTISE
Planning calls for the detailed study of physical, social, economic and administrative components and as such requires the expertise and knowledge of other
specialists.

84

Comprehensive Planning Services is the range of all services offered by the


environrnental-pJanner from data base gathering to environmental impact statements up to the formulation of the Master Development Plan.
In the formulation of the Master Development Plan, the following components
are to be consk.fered:
a. Physical COmponent
Concerned with land use and the changes which occur within the physical
environment (within the space where these activities take place).
b. Economic Component
Concerned with the nation's assets and 1ts management.
c. Socio-Cultural Component
Concerned with the people, their living conditions and the seeking of ways
to ameliorate it.
d. Transport Component
Concerned with the movement of people and goods from one place to
another.
e. Legal and Administrative Component
Concerned with the relationship of policies to the exsting laws
THE ARCHITECT AS ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNER
The Architect's ability to synthesize and organize into a whole, various information relating to the user's needs, user's perception and expectations, site and
climatic factors, construction technology, materials, cost and other information
has qualified him to take the lead role in any undertaking that cut across various
disciplines.
The Environmental Planner is concerned with tne management and use of land
as well as conservation and upgrading of the human environment. Since the
Architect, with experience in planning has the social commitment and technical
experience as coordinator of several disciplines, he is qualified as the Environmental Planner and leader of the multi-disciplinary team to offer Comprehensive Planning Services.
COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING SERVICES
When the Environmental Planner is commissioned to do town and regional planning or urban renewal projects, he performs the following:
a. Identifies existing land use, resources, social behavior and interaction.
b. Undertakes environmental analysis feasibility studies, demographic
analysts.
c. Examines existing laws, ordinances, political/Social constraints.
d. Prepares concept development plans, policies, implementing strategies to
arrive at the Master Development Plan.

85

COMPENSATION FEES
As a specialized service, the Architect shall be compensatec' fer by the following methods:
a. Professional Fee plus Expenses
The fee of the Architect- Planner for the Physical planning cor:1po ne nt is based
on the schedule prescribed under UAP Doc. 203-d "Physical Flanning Services" while the fee for consuhants, researches and other out of pocket expenses arereimbursable to the Architect.
b. Multiple of Direct Personnel Expense
Refer to UAP Doc. 208-b "Methods of Compensation" for details.

J. CO,NTRACTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. LUMP SUM
CONiRACTS ........................ (

2. UNIT PRICE
CONTRACT ........................... (

3. COST PLUS FIXED


FEE CONTRACT ................... (

4. COST PLUS PERCENTAGE


FEE OF COST OF
PROJECT .............................. (

86

MATCHING TYPE

A. The person/s managing the


construction in behalf of the
owner. In here, the contract may
have been awarded to a General Contractor and the contractor is directly managed by the
management group.

B. A pledge, a promise or assurance with confidence that the


amount to be used in a conc;truction will not exceed the
specified cost whatever savings
made will be shared by the contractor and' the owner.

C. A fixed quantity, amount, distance, measure, used as standard or basis in awarding work
credits. An example is cost per
cu. m., per sq. m., per lineal m.,
per piece, per bag, per hour, per
bd. ft., etc.

D. The contractor here manages or


directs the affair of the construction project like 9rdering materials and 11iring of personnel, but

the owner is responsible for


paying the bills, payroll, rent of
equipments.
5. ADMINISTRATION
CONTRACT ........................... (

E. With the price for goods or services set at the cost of materials, labor, etc. plus a specified
amount of profit.

6. MANAGEMENT

F. When the contractor is capable


and willing to finance the whole
project without any financial
help from the owner. The contractor takes care of the design,
the construction including
changes, revisions, and just
turnover the finished building to
be paid.

CONTRACT ........................... (

7. GUARANTEED MAXIMUM
PLUS PARTICIPATION
ON SAVINGS ......................... (

G. After knowing the cost from adding all receipts, payrolls, labor,
materials, etc., a specified percentage (%) is added.
H. A gross or total sum paid at one
time. Advantageous for a standardized type of construction
and where a variety of operations is required making it impracticable to break down the
work into units.

8. TURNKEY PROJECT ............ (

K. BIDDING (work under detailed Engineering).

MATCHING TYPE

1. DESIGN STANDARDS .......... (

A. Speciftcations shall be prepared


for specific items of work or
methods of construction, measurement and payment under
each contract, which are not
covered by standard construction and material specifications
adopted by the corporation concerned.

2. FIELD SURVEY ..................... (

B. This is a propQsal bond in the


amount of 2 -t% of the total bid

87

price in the form of cash, certified check. manager's check, or


bank guarantee confirmed by a
local oanK. payable to the owner
as guarantee that the successful biddJr shall within 30 calendar days from receipt of the
NOA or notice of award, enter
into contract with the owner and
furnish the performance bond.
3. CONTRACT PLANS .............. (

C. In the event that the contractor


refuses or fails to satisfactorily
complete the work within the
aforesaid period of time, the
owner is entitled and shall have
the right to deduct from any sum
to become due the contractor
the sum of ten percent of one
percent of the contract price for
every day of delay.

4. QUANTITIES ......................... (

D. This construction cost shall be


prepared by official duly designated by the Head of office concerned (This is the cost approved by the Head) and shall
be held confidential and signed,
sealed, and ready for presentation on the day of the opening
of the opening of bids/tenders,
and shall be announced publicly
before the various bids are read.

5. SPECIAL
PROVISIONS ........................ (

6. UNIT PRICE .......................... (

88

E. This is a written notice to the


contractor if there is a decrease
in work due to deletion of work
items in the project, or where
there is a reclassification of any
existing item like earth excavation to solid rock excavation, not
known at the time o; bidding, or
damage to structure due to
force majeure.
F. This is furnished by the contractor to the owner five days after
signing the contr~ct, in the form
of a surety bond given by a

reputable Insurance Agency


equivalent to 10% of the contract price, conditioned for the
Faithful compliance of the contract and the satisfaction of obligations for materials used and
labor employed on the work,
and effective within a period of
one year.

APPROVEDAGENCY
ESTIMATE (AAE) .................. (

8. BID/TENDER
DOCUMENTS ....'.................... (

9. PROGRAM OF WORK .......... (

10. PBAC PREOUALIFICATION


BID AND AWARD
COMMITTEE ......................... (

G. This include site development


plans, plans and profile sheet,
typical sections and details,
drainage details. structural
plans.

H. To determine the optimum


safety of structure and to minimize possible earthquakes
dJmage.
I. All of these construction items
shall be computed to a reasonable accuracy of plus or minus
fifteen (15%} percent to avoid
variation orders.

J. These shall be prepared for


each contract using costs,
based on reasonable approved
current prices, divided into local
and foreign exchange costs.

11. OBLIGATIONS ....................... (

K. This include: Instruction to bidders, General conditions,


Agenda, Itemized bill of Quantities, Daywork schedule, Form
of Bid/Tender Bond, performance Bond, Specifications.

12. CHANGE ORDER ................. (

L. Necessary surveys which may


include aerial, hydrographic,
topographic, subsu~ace,
monumenting, etc.

89

13. BIDDER'S BOND ................... (

M. Each Office/Agency/Corp. shall


have in each head office or its
implementing offices a Prequalification, bidding, evaluation of
bids and recommending award
of contracts. Each committee
shall be composed of chairman
and members.

14. PERFORMANCE
BOND .................................... (

N. When prices of materials,


wages, as per agreement or
contract goes up abnormally
(too high or great difference in
cost) or decreases. This is
based on fluctuation in the cost
of living, production, costs, etc.

15. LIQUIDATED
DAMAGES ............................. (

0. A binding leg .... l agreement or a


moral responsibility, something
which a person is bound to do
or not to do as a result of such
an agreement or responsibility.

16. ESCALATION
CLAUSE ................................. (

P. This is made before prosecuting any project, it shall be prepared and submitted for approval. In no case shall construction funds be emitted to
field office. or a project be
started before this is approved.
It includes e'Stimate of the work
items, quantities and costs and
PERT/CPM network of the
project activities.

L. TIME OF CONSTRUCTION COMPLETION


1. SCHEDULING ....................... (

90

MATCHING TYPE

A. A technique that separates


planing and scheduling. It also
clarifies the interrelationship between time and cost. This
method evaluates all the possible alternative plans for a
project and associates each
plan with a schedule. It is a technique for finding the ordered
sequence of all the activities.

2. PLANNING ............................. (

B.

Planning the size of buildings in


regard to the ratio of net area to
gross area.

3. PROGRAMMING ................... (

c.

An arrow Diagram defining the


activities in the project. An activity cannot start if other activities before it has not been completed.

4. EFFICIENCY RATIOS ........... (

D. The placing of the plan on a


calendar timetable and showing
the allocation of the equipment
and manpower that will put the
plan into effect.

5. BAR CHART METHOD ......... (

E.

6. CRITICAL PATH
METHOD ............................... (

F. The function of coordinating in

It is sometimes necessary to
use a "convector" type of activity that doesn't really represent
work, but merely helps to observe the rule of network . This
special activity is drawn as dotted line and indicates that no
work is involved in that activity.
This involves no duration and no
cost. It serves only as a dependency connector or sequence
indicator.

a logical order all the activities,


persons, machines and materials necessary to complete the
project.
7. NETWORK ............................. (

G.

A chart prepared by a contractor, brought to date monthly (or


weekly); the principal trades of
the project are tabulated vertically and the scheduled construction shown horizontally
from left to right;

8. DUMMY ................................. (

H.

A process leading to the statement of an architectural program and the requirements to


be met in offering a solution,
such as a complete listing of the
rooms required, their sizes, special facilities, etc. It ls the search

91

for sufficient information to


clarify, to understand, to state
the problem solving. This is
problem seeking.

MATCHING TYPE

M. PROJECTS
1. PROJECT FEASIBILITY
STUDY ................................... (

2. EXECUTIVE
SUMMARY ............................. (

A. Pertaining to a whole or to most


of its parts, not limited to one
class, field or product, dealing
with all or the overall universal
aspects of the subject under
consideration, a circumstance
indispensable to some result,
that on which something else is
contingent to put into the required state.

B. Something involving a risk,


which is owned or done in common agreement with one or
more persons, groups, or government.

3. CASH FLOW ......................... (

4. GENERAL
CONDITIONS ........................ (

5. SPECIFICATIONS ................ (

92

C. A body or society entitled to act


as a single person, an artificial
person created by charter,
made up of many persons and
registered with the SEC or Securities and 'Exchange Commission.

D. Only, unshared or exclusive, a


person who has legal rights of
possession of land an object, or
a process of manufacture or distribution.
E. This is a tabulation to show how
money is distributed or used in
a continuous movement
smoothly particularly the working capital.

6. JOINT-VENTURE .................. (

7. SOLE
PROPRIETORSHIP ............... {

8. CORPORATION .................... (

F. Concerned with or relating to,


the feasibility or project study in
a digested form, or a comprehensive brief abstract (concise,
direct and prompt) usually containing only 30 pages.

G. A list of materials supplied and


work done by a builder, engineer or required for a project to
be carried out (a detailed description of an architect's list of
materials) and the procedure of
execution.
H. A word defined as capable of
being done or carried out; practicable possible and within reason, a project which when carried out or built is capable of
being used or dealt with successfully. In this case, a reasonable return of investment or ROI
to the financiers or developers.

DIRECTION: Read the passages and answer the questions that follow. Shade the
circle ~() of the correct answer to each question.

N. CONTRACTOR DOCUMENTS
1. Which of the following may the owner not do?
A. Stop work if the contractor's performance is not satisfactory or in variance with the contract documents.
B. Carry on the work and deduct costs normally due to
the contractor for these corrections.
C. Stop the work if the Architect reports safety problems on the site.
D. Refuse, with good cause, to give the contractor proof
that the owner can meet the financial obligations of
the project .

93

A 8 C D

0000

2. If, during bidding, your client asked you to provide a


full-time staff member on the job site during construction you would be entitled to extra compensation
under what provision would this be?

0000

A. CONTRACT SUM
B. CONTINGENT ADDITIONAL SERVICES
C. PROJECT REPRESENTATION BEYOND
BASIC SERVICES
D. OPTIONAL ADDITIONAL CHARGES
3. The standard owner-architect agreement separates
the architect from the contractor with what?
A. DUTIES TO THE
CONTRACTOR

C. ARCHITECT'S
SERVICES

B. PRIVITY

D. THIRD PARTY
RELATIONSHIP

4. What is used to encourage the contractor to finish


the job or to satisfy mechanics lien claims by subcontractors?
A. RETAINAGE

C. SURETY BOND

B. FIXED LIMIT

D. LIQUIDATED
DAMAGES

5. What Fee method would you prefer if your Client was


doing their first architectural project and did not yet
have a program?
A. FIXED SUM

C. PERCENTAGE OF
CONSTRUCTION
COST

B. MULTIPLE OF
DIRECT
PERSONNEL
EXPENSE

D. UNITCOST
BASED ON
SQUARE
METER

6. A project is about 60 percent complete when the


owner begins receiving field reports from the architect stating that the contractor is failing to properly
supervise the job, resulting in incorrect work. After
several weeks of this the owner becomes worried

94

0 0 0 ()

0000

0000

0000

and asks the Architecf what to do. What should be


done if the work is being performed under the terms
and conditions of the BUILDING CONTRACT?
A. After receiving the architect"s field reports, the
owner should stop the work and arrange for a
meeting between the owner, architect and contractor to determine the cause of the problems
and what the contractor intends to do. If the contractor does not correct the work, the owner
should carry out the work with other contractors
and deduct the cost by change order from the
original contractor's construction cost.
B. The architect should recommend that the owner
give the contractor written notice of non-conformance with the contract documents and if, after
seven days the contractor has not begun corrective measures, terminate the contract.
C. The architect and owner should discuss the problem to see if the owner would be willing to accept
it in exchange for a reduction in +he contract sum.
If not, the owner should give seven days written
notice to terminate the contract and find another
contractor to finish the job.
D. The Architect should, with the owner's knowledge,
reject non-coniorming work and notify the contractor that it must be corrected promptly. The
Architect should then remind the owner that the
owner can have the work corrected after giving
the contractor two {2) seJen day written notices
to correct the work.
7. Which of the following describes agency?

A. The architect acts on behalf of the owner, making decisions and expediting the work and taking
on responsibilities the owner would normally
have.
B. The architect mediates hetween the owner and
the contractor and vendors fur the benefit of the
owner.
C. The architect is the principal of the relationship
who balances the needs of the contractor and
the owner.

95

0000

D. The architect works for the owner in certain designated area with the authority to act on the
owner's behalf.

8. You have a client who owns a large m<1nufact1:~i'"'q


plant and needs to expand to new facilities without
interruption in production. The owner has alreacy arranged for a flexible line of credit to tinancou:.>ll;:, uc
tion but wants to minimize project costs. It th' r~w
facility will be very similar to the previous one. onlv
sized for greater production capacity, which type cf
construction would you recommend?
A. DESIGN-BUILD

C. MULTIPLE PRIME
CONTRACT

B. FAST-TRACK

D. DESIGN-AWARDBUILD

9. Which of the following are part of the contract documents?


I. an addendum

II. a change oraer

fl

0000

000(.)

IV the contractor's bid

V. a written amendmen;

II I. special supplementary
conditions
A. I, Ill, and V

C. II, Ill, IV, and V

B. I, II, Ill, andV

D. all of the above

10. Which one of the following is not an accurate statement?

A. The architect is responsible for a defect in the


work if she or he sees it but fails to report it to the
contractor.
B. The owner has the sole right to make changes in
the work but must do it through the architect.
C. The architect does not have to verify soil test reports given by the ovner.
D. By the time construction documents are almost
completed, the architect still does not have to give
a reasonably accurate construction price.

96

0000

11. Which of the following would be used to formally incorporate a substitution into the work prior to the
award of the contract?
A. CHANGE ORDER

C. ALTERNATE LISTING

B. ADDENDUM

D. CONSTRUCTION
CHANGE DIRECTIVE

12. Which of the following are part of the bidding documents?


I. SPECIFICATIONS

II. INVITATION TO
BID

0000

0000

Ill. LIST OF SUBCONIV. OWNER-CONTRACTOR AGREEMEN.l


V. PERFORMANCE
BOND

A. I, II, tV, and V

C. II, Ill, IV, and V

B. II, Ill, and IV

D. all of the above

0. BIDDING AND CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS


1 . At the time scheduled for a bid opening, a contractor

comes rushing into the room three minutes late with his
bid. You have not begun to open the bids What should
you do?

00

(.)

c D
- 0

lj

A. Refuse to accept the bid, stating that the deadline


has passed.
B. Ask if there one are no objections from the other
bidders to accepting the bid since none have been
opened yet.
C. Accept the bid with prejudtce.
D. Accept the bid since none have been opened but
make a mental note to look on it with disfavor when
you are evaluating it.
2. Which of the following is generally not true about bidding?

A. Bidding procedures must be clearly and extensively


outlined in the instructions to bidders because there
are so many variations of the procedures.

97

C'

'-j

B. Bidding is nearly always necessary for public works


or government project.
C. Open bidding usually presents more problems than
other types.
D. Competitive bidding takes more time than negotiation but can result in a lower construction cost.
3. A performance bond is designed to:

A. ensure that the subcontractors complete their work.

c D
0 0 0 0
A

B. guarantee that the contractor will finish on time.


C. cover any possible liens that may be filed on the
building.
D. protect the owner by having a third party responsible for completing the work if the contractor does
not.
4. If the lowest bid come in 20 percent over your client's
construction. budget, what would be the best advise you
could give your client?

0000

A. that you revise the design at no cost to the client to


reduce the construction cost.
B. that the project be rebid using another list of contractors.
C. that you and the client work to revise the scope of
the project to reduce cost.
D. that all the deduct-alternates be accepted to reduce
the bid, and that the client authorize a slight increase
in construction cost to bring the two closer together.
5. What variable affects a bid the most?
A. the contractor's profit margin
B. the influences of the construction marketplace
C. labor and materials
D. subcontractor bids

98

0000

6. In what order should the following activities take place


during project closeout?

0000

1. preparation of the final certificate for payment


11. punch list
Ill. issuance of the certificate of substantial completion
IV. notification by the contractor that the proJect is
ready for final inspection
V. receipt of consent of surety

A. II, Ill, V, IV, then I

C. IV, II, V, I, then Ill

B. II, IV, Ill, V, then I

D IV, V. 11. Ill. then

7. Substantial completion indicates that


A. the owner can make use of the work for its intended
ptJrpose and the requirements of the contract docu-

[)

()C)Q(_)

ments have been fulfilled


B. the contractor has completed correcting punct1 list
items
C. the final certificate for payment is issued by the Architect and all documentation has been delivered to
the owner
D. all of the above
8. During a periodic visit to the site the architect notices
what appears to be an undersized variable air volume
box being installed. What should the Architect do?

A. Notify the mechanical engineer to look at the situation during the next site visit by the engineer. Note
. the observation on a field report.
B. Find the contractor and stop work on the installation
until the size of the unit can be verified by the mechanical engineer and compared against the contract documents.
C. Nottty the owner in writing that the work is not proceeding according to the contract documents. Arrange a meeting with the mechanical engineer to
resolve the situation.

99

0000

D. Notify the contractor that the equipment may be undersized and have the contractor check on it. Ask
the mechanical engineer to verify the size of the unit
against the specifications and report to the architect.
9. An architect would use which one of the following instruments of the building department required additional exit
signs beyond those shown on the approved plans when
the project was 90 percent complete?

A. order for minor

0000

C. change order
change

B addendum

D. construction change
directive

10. The contractor is solely responsible for:


I. field reports to the owner

0000

II. field tests

Ill. scaffolding
IV reviewing claims of subcontractor
V reviewing shop drawings

11

A. I. II. and 1!1

C. II, Ill, and IV

B II. and Ill

D. Ill. and V

Wh1ch of tt1e following is not true about submittals?

A.

H1e architect must review them prior to checking by


the contractor

f3

rh8 contractor is ultimately responsible for the accuracy of dimensions and quantities.

They are not considered part of the contract documents

D The contractor can reject them and request


resubmit! a I

100

c D
0 0 0 0
A

12. If a contractor makes a claim for additional money due


to extra work cause by unforseen circumstances, the
architect must respond within:

A. 5 days

C. 10 days

B. 7 days

D. not until supporting


data are submitted

0000

P. THE PROJECT MANUAL AND SPECIFICATIONS


1. The PROJECT MANUAL is a bound book containing all the contract and
non-contract documents for a construction project except the drawings The
project manual contains the technical SPECIFICATIONS, but it also includes
several other types of documents.

A. Organization of the Project Manual


The project manual is divided into four (4) major parts.
1. BIDDING REQUIREMENTS;

2. PARTS OF THE CONTRACT ITSELF, which will contain the agree


ment between owner and contractor, bond forms. and the l1ke
3. The GENERAL and SUPPLEMENTARY CONDITIONS of the
tract:

cfH1

4. The TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS


A more detailed list of contents of the project might include some o; Z1ll c_,!
the following:
Bidaing requirements
invitation to bid
prequalification forms
instruction to bidders
information available to bidders
bid forms
Supplements to bid forms
bid security forms
subcontractor list
substitution list
Contract forms
agreement (contract between owner/contractor)
performance bond
labor and materials payment bond
certificates of insurance

101

General and supplementary conditions


general conditions of the conti act
supplementary conditions
Technical Specifications

B. Coordination with the Drawings


The technical specifications and the drawings are "COMPLIMENTARY".
The "DRAWINGS" show the general coniiguration and layout of the
building; the size, shape, and dimensions of the construction, and general
notes to explain the graphic representation.
The "TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS" describe the quality of materials
and workmanship, along with general requirements for the execution of
the work, standards, aild other items that are more appropriately described
in written, rather than graphic form.
The drawings, technical specifications and other parts of the project
manual must be cooroinated to avoid conflicting requirements,
duplications, omissions, and errors. These are several areas of particular
concern,
1. The specifications should contain requirements for a!l the materials
and construction indicated on the drawings. A common checklist
used by both the specifications writer and the project manager or
job captain is one way to accomplish this.
2. The Terminology used in both documents should be the same. If \he
term "gypsum board" is used in the specifications, the term "drywall"
should not be shown on the drawings.

3. Dimensions and thicknesses should only be indicated on one document. If the thickness of flashing is included in the technical specifications, there is no need to note it on the drawings.
4. Notes on the drawings should not describe methods of installation
or materials qualities; these belong in the specifications.
When there is a "CONFLICT" between the drawings and specifications, the specifications are more binding and take precedence
over the drawings.

2. SPECIFICATIONS
These must be complete, accurate, unambiguous, and exact. Some standard

methods ot preparing specitications are in general use.


In addition, "MASTER SPECIFICATIONS" are available that can be used
as starting documents. This is prewritten text that includes the majority of
requirements foi a particular specification section. Master specifications
are edited by deleting unnecessary portions, adding particular requirements tor a specific job, and coordinating them with other specification

102

sections and other parts of the project manual. They are available in
written form and on computer disk.
A. Types of Specifications
There are two (2) broad categories of specifications.
1. Prescriptive - sometimes called closed

2. Performance- known as open


Prescriptive specifications tell exactly what product or material you want
the contractor to use by using brand names.
Performances specifications tell what results you want the final construction assembly to achieve, but they give the contractor some choice in how
they will be achieved.
The type you will select will depend on several factors Public projects almost require open specifications in order to encourage competitive bidding
In other cases, you may want to use a closed specification to ensure that
only one particular product is used. Whether the job 1s bid or a negotiated
contract may also affect your choice with bidding, you want to allow the
contractor as much choice as possible so he or she can find the lowest
price within the context of the specification requirements,
Types of Prescriptive Specifications
a. "PROPRIETARY SPECIFICATIONS" are the most restrictive in that they
call out a specific manufacturer's product. These give the architect complete control over what is installed. They are easier than other types to
write and are generally shorter. However, they do not allow for competitive bidding and by limiting products you may force the contractor to get
materials that may be difficult or expensive to procure in a certa1n geographical area or that require excessive delivery time.
b. A base bid with alternates is a type of specification that cc.!ls out a
proprietary product but allows the substitution of other products that the
contractor thinks are equal to the one stated. This is a "DANGEROUS"
method of specifying because the contractor may substitute a less expensive item that he or she thinks is an equal, but which usually is not.
There are two (2) variations of the base bid specification.

1. The first lists several approved manufacturers of a product. The contractor is free to bid on any one listed. This type satisfies the requirements for public work where at least three different manufacturers must
be listed, but it puts the burden on the architect to make sure that every
one of the approved products or manufacturers listed is equal.
2. The second variation is a bid with "APPROVED EQUAL" language this
specification states one product or an approved equal must be used.

103

This means that th~ntractor may submit a proposed substitution but


it is subject to review and approval by the architect before it can be
incorporated into the bid. Although this gives the contractor some freedom in looking for lower priced alternates, it also puts the burden for
finding them on the contractor. However, the responsibility for fairly and
accurately evaluating the proposed alternates is placed on the architect or owner.

Types of Perfonnance (open) specifications


a. A "DESCRIPTIVE" specification gives detailed written requirements for
the materials or product and the workmanship required for its fabrication and installation. It does not mention trade names. In its purest form,
a descriptive specification is difficult to write because you must include
all the pertinent requirements for the construction and installation of the
product.
A variation of the descriptive type is a:
b. "REFERENCE" standard specification. This describes a material, product, or process based on requirements (reference standards) set by an
accepted authority or test method. For example, a product type can be
required to meet the testing standards produced by such organizations
as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), or Underwriter's Laboratories
(UL). Reference can also be made to specific trade associations, such
as the Architectural wood Institute, the American Iron and Steel Institute, and the Gypsum Association.
For example, in specifying gypsum wallboard you can state that all gypsum
wallboard products must meet the requirements of ASTM C36. This particular document describes in great detail the requirements for gypsum wallboard so you do not have to repeat it and can inste;:~d refer to generally
recognized industry standard.
Reference standard specifications are fairly easy to write and are generally
short. Chances for errors are redL.lced and your liability minimized because
you are using industry standards ahd generally recognized methods of buildIngs
A pure performance specification i$ a statement setting criteria and results
required of the item being specifi~,d. which can be verified by measurement, test evaluation, or other types of assurance that the final result meets
the criteria. The means of achieving the re-111uired results are not specified,
leaving that up to the person trying to meet the specification.
A true performance specification is often used for construction components
when the specifier wants to encourage new ways of achieving a particular
end result. For example, a movable partition system could be specified by
stating its required fire rating, acoustical properties, finish, maximum thick104

ness, tolerances, size required and all the other required properties. It would
then be up to the contractor and manufacturer to design and develop a
system to meet the criteria.
Performance specifications are difficult to write because the specifier must
know all the criteria, state the methods for testing compliance, and be
prepared for the cost consequences.

B. Specification Writing Guidelines


The language must be precise
must be complete, accurate and unambiguous
know what the standards and test methods referred to include and
what parts of them are applicable to your project. They must also be
the most current editions.
Do not specify together the results and the methods proposed to
achieve those results, as the result may be a conflict. For instance, if
you specify that a brick must have certain absorption characteristics
according to an ASTM test method and then specify a particular brick
that does not meet the stated requirements, the specification will be
IMPOSSIBLE to comply with.
Do not include standards that cannot be measured. For example, saying that the work should be done in "a first class manner" is subject to
wide interpretation.
Avoid "EXCULPATORY CLAUSES". These are phrases that try to shift
responsibility to the contractor or someone else in a very broad, general way. An example is something like "contractor shall be totally responsible for all ... Unless the clause is generally accepted wording or
makes sense in the context of the specification", Current legal opinion
disapproves of such clauses, especially when they favor the person
who wrote1hem.
Avoid words or phrases that are ambiguous. The combination and/or,
for example, is [Jnclear and should be replaced with one word or the
other. The abbreviation "etc." is also vague and implies that a list can
go on forever and may include something you do not want it to include.
The word "any" implies the contractor has a choice. This is acceptable
if you want to allow a choice, but most often you do not.
Ke~p the specifications as short as possible. Specification writing can
be terse, even sometimes omitting unnecessary words like "all", '1he",
"an", and "a".
Describe only one major idea in each paragraph. This makes reading
easier and improves comprehension and it also makes changing the
specification easier.

105

Q. MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS
1. Which of the following would not be found in a project
manual?
A. bid log

C. sitework specifications

B. subsurface soil
conditions report

D. bid bond

2. A performance specification:

0000

A. allows innovation by the contractor

0000

B. required more work by the architect

C. is not appropriate for normal building products


D. all of the above

3. What is likely to occur if the drawings and specifications


are not thoroughly coordinated?
I. a decrease of the actual cost from the estimated
cost because the contractor bid on a less expensive material shown on the drawings while the
same material was called out as a more expensive type in the specifications
II.

a lawsuit

Ill. the need for a change order during construction


to account for modifications required to correct
discrepancies in the two documents
IV. a delay in construction

V. an increase in cost because the contractor bia


the least expensive choice between two conflicting requirements when the client wanted the more
expensive option

A. I, Ill, and IV

C. II, IV, and V

B. I and Ill

D. Ill, IV, and V

Question 4 refers to the following excerpt from a specification.


Part 2 - Products

2.01 Metal Support Material


General: To the extent not otherwise indicated, comply
with ASTM C754 for metal system supporting gypsum
wallboard.
106

0000

Ceiling suspension main runners:


channels, cold rolled.

112

inches steel

Hanger wire: ASTM A641, soft, Class 1 galvanized,


prestretched; sized in accordance with ASTM C754.
Hanger anchorage devices: size for 3 x calculated loads,
except size direct-pull concrete inserts for 5 x calculated
loads.
Studs: ASTM C645; 25 gage, 212 inches deep, except
as otherwise indicaterl
ASTM C645; 25 gage, 3% inches deep.
ASTM C645; 20 gage, 6 inches deep.
Runners: Match studs; type recommended by stud manufacturer for floor and ceiling support of studs, and for
vertical abutment or drywall work at other work.
Furring members: ASTM C65; 25 gage, hat-shaped
Fasteners: Type and size recommended by furring manufacturer for the substrate and application indicated.
4. Which item is described as a performance specification?

A. fasteners

C. hanger anchorage
devices

B. hanger wire

D. ceiling suspension
main runners

5. In specifying asphalt roofing shingles, which of the following types of specifications would you probably not
use?

A. descriptive

C. reference standard

B. base bid or equal

D. base bid with


alternate approved
manufacturers

6. Which of the following are generally true of specifications?

I. Both narrowscope and broadscope sections can


be used in the same project manual.

107

(J

0 \J ',J ()

0000

II. For the contractor, drawings are more binding than


the specifications if there is a conflict.
Ill. Specifications show quality; drawings show quantity.
IV. Proprietary specifications are the same as prescriptive specifications.
V. They should not be open to interpretation if they are
the base bid type.

A. I, Ill, IV, and V

C. II, Ill, and IV

B. I, Ill, and V

D. all of the above

7 Where would you find requirements for testing a plumbing system?

A. in a section of Division 1 of the specifications


B. in Part 1 of Section 15400, Plumbing
C. in Part 2 of Section 15400, Plumbing
D. in Part 3 of Section 15400, Plumbing

108

0000

. AREA ''A''
PARTIV

THEORYAND
PRINCIPLES OF
PLANNING

AREA "A"

PART IV

DIRECTION: Read the passages below and answer the questions that follow. Shade
the circle (e) of the correct answer to each question.

I. PRE-DESIGN - ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS


A. INFLUENCES ON URBAN DEVELOPMENT

With the proliferation of the automobile, cities have


expanded i'n a number of typical pattern. Such of tnese
patterns affects the planning of the smaller-scale
communities and neighbor hoods and ultimately can have
an affect on the design of individual building proJects
1. In this pattern a city is formed at the junction of two

f~

1;

roads and laid out in the prevalent pattern Growtt1


simply follows this pattern until some natural features
limiting population, or econorTJics stop it This pattern
is characteristics of smaller cities.
A CROSS LINE
PATTERN
8

GRID J->AT TERN

C LINE PATTERN

U ALTERNATE
PATTERN

rt1is pattern revolves around the urban core and


development follows. radiating spokes of main
highways or mass transit routes. Higher densrty tends
to form around the spokes with lower density
development in betwePn
WHfF:L PATTERN
8

H p [) j ,., i

~ 'j\ I

Tf- H N

110

iHC IJLAR PATl ERN

0000

3. This pattern has no central focus or apparent overall


organization scheme. Development takes place in
an amorphous network of highways and natural
features.
A. AREA PAITERN

C. SPREAD PAITERN

B. COMMON
COVERAGE
PAITERN

D. FILLED PAITERN

4. With this pattern, there is a central urban core with


other major cores surrounding it. The central core is
linked to the others with major highways, and often
the outer cores are connected with a road system
called a beltway. It is then possible to travel from
center to center or around the city without having to
go through the core. The outer cores often begin as
major shopping areas, peripheral business centers,
or transportation centers.

0000

0000

A. ARTERY PATTERN C. SATELLITE PATTERN


B. CONNECTION
PATTERN

D. CIRCUMFERENTIAL
PAITERN

5. The ultimate in urban development is the


Here, two or more major urban
centers near each other grow together as the space
between is developed.

A. PERSEPOLIS

C., METROPOLIS

B. MEGALOPOLIS

D. PHILOPOLIS

6. Although large-scale urban development can affect


the way people view the city and how individual
parcels of land are developed, it is within the smaller
community and neighborhood scale that architects
must plan sites and design buildings. One idea that
is useful in linking the urban scale with the community
scale is the concept of _ _ _ __
A. OREAMABILITY

C. IMAGEABILITY

B. PERMEABILITY

D. LINKABILITY

111

0000

0000

lmageability is the quality of a physical enviiOnment that


gives it a high probability of evoking a strong image in
the mind of a given observer. For example, the hills of
Baguio City are part of the image of that city that in the
minds of most people who visit it or live there. Five basic
elements of the urban image are the following: these
are created by components of the city.
7 A
is a way of circulation along which
people customarily, occasionally, or potentially move.
This may be a street, pedestrian walkway, railroad,
transit line, or river. Since circulation is such an
important part of any physical environment. These
are usually at the center of a person's image.

8.

9.

10.

A. ROAD

C. LINE

B. STRAIT

D. PATH

are linear elements other than tre


above, that form boundaries between two districts
or that break continuity. This mat be a shoreline, a
line of b!Jildings against a park, a wall or a similar
feature. This may either be solid or penetrable.
A. EDGES

B. FENCES

B. RIMS

C. WALLS

are two-dimensional area that people


are having some common. Identifying character and
that they can enter. This can be perceived from the
inside if you are in it or can be identified as an element
of the city if you are outside.

A. BARANGAYS

C. PARKS

B. DIVISIONS

D. DISTRICTS

are strategic centers of interest that


people can enter. They may be the intersection of
paths;J>Iaces where modes of transportation change,
plazas, public squares, or centers of districts.
A. CLUSTERS

C. NODES

B. CAMPS

D. CENTROIDS

112

0000

0000

0000

0000

11.

are similar to nodes in that they are


point references, but people cannot enter them they
are viewed from the exterior. A tower, monument,
building, or natural feature can be this.

A. SPECIAL
STRUCTURES

C. BENCHMARK

B. LANDMARK

D. FOCAL POINT

A B C D

0000

Many of the large-scale elements of imageability are


intervene with the smaller community neighborhood.
However, there are additional patterns of development
that are intimately related to an individual site.
12. One of this approaches is the
, which
is an outgrowth of the new town concP.pt. Here, the
attempt was made to plan a large piece of land that
limited the intension of the automobile. It is
surrounded ,by a continuous street, and vehicular
access was provided with cui-de-sacs.
A. SUPER BLOCKS

0000

C. MASS
DEVELOPMENT

B. SUPER HIGHWAYS D. CORNER AREAS


13. Another variation and extension of the Mone's
concept is the
concept. With this
approach, each large parcel of land can have a mix
of uses: residential, commercial, recreational and
open spaces designed with variable lot sizes and
densities. Industrial developments can also be
planned in this variation.
A. CONCEPTUALIZED C. PLANNED UNIT
DEVELOPMENT
(PUD)
B. ADVANCED
DESIGN

D. DREAM LAND

The physical environment affects human behavior. This


is true at any scale, from the plan of a city to the
arrangement of furniture in a room. The following
principles are:

113

0000

14.

. This refers to the number of people


per unit of area. For example, a city might be referred
to as having a group of 500 people per hectare. This
refers only to a ratio, not the total number of people
or how they are distributed. The 5,000 people could
be evenly distributed over the hectare or they could
all be housed in a few high:rise buildings in one part
of the land parcel.
A. CAPACITY

C. MASSING

B. VOLUME

D. DENSITY

15. Interaction is social contact. In addition to interaction,


people also need a place they can call their own,
whether it is their house, a seat at a conference table,
or one end of a park bench. This is the concept of

A. TERRITORIALITY

C. STAKING

B. OWNERSHIP

D. TITLING

0000

0000

Personal, when someone places family pictures, plants,


individual coffee mugs. Permanent living environment,
such as a house, or apartment, boundaries are provided
by walls, fences, property lines. Group if a street, a row
of trees, or a change in level
16. Closely related to the concept above is the concept
of
that surrounds each individual.
There are four basic distances that can be used to
study human behavior and serve as a guide for
designing environments the intimate distance,
physical contact from 0.15 to 0.45 m., a crowded
bus, personal distance from 0.45 m. to 0.75 m. The
social distance, fro;n 1.20m. to 3.60 m. for strangers,
business, and the public distance from 3.60 m.
upwards.
A. SHARED SPACES

C. OPEN SPACES

B. PERSONAL
SPACES

D. GENERAL SPACES

114

0000

8.1. COMMUNITY INFLUENCES ON DESIGN


1. Nearly all land development is dependent on or
affected by some surrounding base of population
within a geographical, region. The term used to
describe this is the
area. For excmple,
the developer of a grocery store bases the decision
to build on the number of people within a certain
distance from the proposed store location. The
population within this area is the primary market for
the services of the store. (A mall, a school etc.) Other
factors are the income brackets, ages, men and
women ratios, etc.
A. COMMON AREAS

C. PUBLIC AREAS

B. CATCHMENTS
AREAS

D. DISTRIBUTION
AREAS

2. AccessibiliW to
of all types is crittcal
to the selection and development of a building site.
This is true at all scales, from accessibility by major
freeways to the individual road system and
pedestrian paths around a small site.

A. MOBILIZATION

C. TRANSPORTATION

B. TRAVELING

D. EGRESS

3. Any development project is an intimate part of the


area ill! which it is located. Architects must be
sensitive to the existing fabric of a
that
may influence how a project is designed as well as
the impact the project may have all the surroundings.
This is defined as a relatively small area in which a
number of people live who share similar needs and
desires in housing, social activities and other aspects
of day-to-day living.

A. NEIGHBORHOOD

C. COMMUNE

B. BARANGAY
\

D. ORGANIZATION

115

0000

0000

0000

4.

include such places as schools, shops,


fire stations, churches, post offices, and recreational
centers. Their availability, locatior and relative
importance in a neighborhood can affect how a site
is developed.

A. GOVERNMENT
BUILDINGS

C. GENERAL USE

B. OPEN FOR
PUBLIC

D. PUBLIC FACILITIES

A B C D

0000

For example, if a church is the center of social activity in


a neighborhood, the designer should maintain easy
access to it, surrounding development should be
sUbordinate
or compatible with it, and the designer should
I
give consideration to maintaining views or enhancing its
prominence in the corr.munity.

8.2. LAND ANALYSIS


5. A study of a site's
is an important land
conditions affect how development can take place,
what modifications need to be made, and what costs
might be involved. This map describes the surface
features of land commonly used in land, planning
and architectural site development this map shows
the slope and contour of the land as well as other
natural and man-made features. Included in this
survey are data such as property boundaries, existing
buildings, utility poles, roads and other man-made
features, trees and natural features like rock
outcropping and heavy vegetation.
A. ENVIRONMENT

C. TOPOGRAPHY

B. CONTOUR

D. SLOPES

6. The
on a map are a graphic way to
show the elevations of the land in a plan view and
are used to make a slope analysis to determine the
suitability of the land for various uses. Each line
represents a continuous line of equal elevation above
some reference benchmark. The interval is the
vertical distance between adjacent lines.

A. CONTOUR LINES

C. FORMATION LINES

B. CONTROL LINES

D. CONNECTING LINES
116

0000

0000

7. The slope of the land at a certain point is represented


in percent. Each percent being (1'-0") 0.30 M. of
vertical rise for every 33M. (100 feet) of horizontal
distance. The slope is found by using the formula

0000

G= ~(10o) G=slope; d =vertical distance between

L
two points. Find the slope between points A and B if
the horizontal distance between them is 24M. and
contour interval is 1.50 M. (A and B is three contours
afar).
A. 15.20%

C. 14.00%

B. 20.25%

D. 18.75%

8. Every site has


that may be either
desirable or undesirable. A complete site analysis
will include a study of these features significant
features ~uch as rock outcropping cliffs, caves, and
bags should be identified to determine whether they
must be avoided or can be used as positive design
features in the site design.
A. EXISTING

FEATURES
B. NATURAL
FEATURES

0000

D. MAN-MADE
FEATURES

C. SIPHONAGE

DRAINAGE
B. NATURAL FLOW
PATH

C. GEOLOGICAL
FEATURES

9. Every site has some type of


pattern
that must be taken into account during design. Some
minor patterns can be diverted around roads, parking
lots and buildings with curbs, culverts and minor
changes in the contours of the land. Major path~ such
as gullies, dry gulches, or rivers may traverse the
site. These will have a significant influence on
potential site development since they must be
maintained. Buildings need to be built away from
them or bridge them so water flow is not restricted
and potential damage is avoided.
A. NATURAL

D. CONDUCTORS

117

0000

C. TRANSPORTATION AND UTILITY INFLUENCES


Another influence is that of transportation and utilny roads
provide a primary means of access to a site. Their
availability and capacity may be prime d~term;,,ants in
whether and how a parcel of land can be devt:!oped.
1.

2.

3.

streets have the lowest cap 1city and


provide direct access to building site. Thev may be
in the form of a continuous grid of curvilin~ar systems
or be cui-de-sacs or loops.

A. LOCAL STREETS

C. INTERIOR STREETS

B. ALLEYS

D. PUBLIC STREEYS

streets connect local streets and


arterial streets. They have a higher capacit, than
local streets but are usually not intended for through
traffic. Intersections of this kind of street rr.ay be
controlled by stop signs, while intersections with
arterial streets will be controlled with stop lights.

A. AGGREGATE

C. ORGANIZER

B. TWO-WAY

D. COLLECTOR

streets are intended as major


continuous circulation routes that carry large
arnounts of traffic on two or three lanes. They usually
connect expressways. Parking on the street is
typically not allowed and direct access from this kind
of street to building sites should be avoided.
A. WEB

C. CIRCUMFERENTIAL

B. ARTERIAL

D. BATTERY

are limited access roads designed to


move large volumes of traffic between, through and
around population centers. Intersections are made
by various types of ramp systems, and pedestrian
access is not allowed. This category of road have a
major influence on the land due to the space they
require and their noise and visual impact.
A. HIGHWAY

C. EXPRESSWAY

B. M EGASTR EET

D. DIVERSION

118

0000

0000

0000

0000

5. The availability and location of


lines
can influence site design of site analysis should
include a determination of the types of public access
available, whether bus, subway, rail line, or taxi stop,
and the location relative to the site. Building
entrances and major site features should be located
conveniently to these lines.

6.

A. TRAIN

C. JEEPNEY

B. PUBLIC TRANSIT

D. TAXI

to a site includes provisions tor truck


loading, moving vans, and daily delivery services.
Ideally, this should be sep<!rated from automobile and
pedestrian access to a site and a building space for
large truck turning and loading dock berths needs to
be provided. They should be 3.00 M to 3.60 M wide,
at least 12.0 M long and have a 4.20 M vertical
clearance. A minimum turning radius of 20m. should
be provided
A. WAITING
PLATFORM

C. SERVICE ACCESS

B. PARKING SPACE

D. PULL OFF-LANE

7. Site analysis must determine the availability, locat1on,


and capacity of existing
_.The development
potential of a site is dependent on the availability of
the necessary water. Sanitary sewers, storm sewers,
telephone service, gas service and electric service.
If these are to be extended from a considerable
distance. The cost of development is added greatly.
A. UTILITIES

C. SERVICES

B. FACILITIES

D. COMPANIES

8. Depending on the location of the site, ______ ---~


may include police protection, fire protection, trash
removal, and street cleaning. The development site
plan must provide access for these services, many
of which require large land areas.

A. CITY
ADMINISTRATION
B. MUNICIPAL AID

C. MUNICIPAL
FACILITIES
D. MUNICIPAL or
CITY SERVICES

119

0000

0000

0000

0000

D. CLIMATIC, ECOLOGICAL, LEGAL AND ECONOMIC


INFLUENCES
1. This aspect of climatic analysis is called a
_ _ _ _ _ . This refers to the overall climate of
the region and is reflected in the weather data
available from the National Weather Bureau. From
this information a region can be classified as cool.
temperate, hot-arid or hot-humid.
A. MAXIMUM
CONDITION

C. WIDE ANGLE
CLIMATE

B. WEATHER
FORECAST

D. MACROCLIMATE

2. The
refers to the site-specific
modification of the microclimate by such features as
lands lope, trees and other vegetation bodies of water,
and bujldings. This aspect of climate analysis of a
site can have a significant influence on its
development, undesirable climatic effects can be
minimized by careful planning and desirable effects
can be used to enhance the comfort of thP
inhabitants.
A. MINICLIMATIC

C. MICROCLIMATIC

B. LOCAL CLIMATE

D. NARROW CLIMATE
AREA

3. During site analysis,


and microclimate
effects must be studied during site analysis. Buildings
can then be located to take advantage 01 cool
breezes or to avoid cold winds especially in hills.
Near large bodies of water, warm air rises over the
warmer land during the day and causes a breeze
from the water. At night the pattern may be reversed.
These patterns can be modified by buildings and
trees.
A. AIR PATTERNS

C. WEATHER PATTERNS

B. WIND PATTERNS

D. CLOUD PATTERNS

120

0000

on

0000

buildings. The effect of a building on blocking sunlight


from adjacent buildings should be studied. Similarly,
the development should avoid any possible annoying
reflection or glare on neighboring buildings.

A. BIOLOGY

C. ECOLOGY

B.

D. GEOGRAPHY

ZOOLOGY

8. The most common form of legal constraint nn land


development is
. This is originally an
attempt to improve the problems of the rapidly
expanding cities: crowding, factories being built too
close to housing, and tall buildings blocking light and
air to control the use and location of buildings or
regulating land use into one means of implementing
planning policy. Its legal basis is largely founded on
the right of the state to protect health, safety and
welfare of the public. Included in this legal constraint
are uses of land as to residential, commercial or
industria~. Other requirements are floor area ratio,
set backs, parking spaces.

A. ZONING

C. TITLING

B. PARTITIONING

D. SEPARATING

9. An
is the right of one party to use a
portion of the land of another party in a particular
way. It is a legal instrument and is normally recorded
in the city registrar's office. Common types are for
utility companies, for access if one parcel of land is
not served by a public road and one parcel of land
separates it from the street. Another is support of
common party walls, joint use such as to share a
common driveway, scenic, that protect views and
development in scenic areas such as Tagaytay
volcano lake, Manila Bay. Also conservation, that limit
land use in large areas.

A. EMBANKMENT

C. EASEMENT

B. LEVEE

D. ESTADLISHMENT

122

0000

0000

10. A
is the legal right of one party or the
public to traverse land belonging to another. In its
most common form, this refers to the public land used
for streets and sidewalks. The boundary of this legal
right usually corresponds to the property line of
adjacent property owners.

11.

A. RIGHTOF
OWNERSHIP

C. RIGHT OF FIRST
USAGE

B. RIGHT-OF-WAY

D. PUBLIC RIGHT

to property can contain provisions that


limits the use of the property by the buyer. These
covenant are legal and enforceable if they are
reasonable and in the public interest. Subdivision
and condominium owners do this and may include
such limitations as setbacks, minimum square meters
of houses, the types of materials especially roofing,
that can and cannot be used on the exterior, and
similar provisions, to maintain a desired uniformity
of appearance. (The prospective buyer can decide
not to purchase if the covenants are not acceptable.)

A. DEED
RESTRICTIONS

0000

0000

C. UNLAWFUL
CONSTRUCTION

B. TITLE LIMITATIONS D. PROHIBITED ACTS


12. As part of the overall economic analysis of a site for
potential development (or adaptive reuse of air
existing building). the cost of the property is vital in
making a decision concerning site selection. This is
called the
. These are generally based
on location, potential profit-making use, and local
market conditions, which includes demand for the
land. Location includes such things as a potential
surrounding market area, population d.ensity in the
region, special features of the site such as being
waterfront property, and proximity to transportation
and utilities. This means that the property is of
"highest and best use to yield the highest return on
investment.

A. COSTOF

C. PRICE INCREASE

PROPERTY
B. PREVAILING
COSTS

D. LAND VALUES

123

0000

.,..1---- 90.0 M - - - - r j

I :----------_______ - - - - - -

- t - 9.00 M rear setback

I
I

g J._

l - r - 6.00 M side setback

3.00 M.

_]_ L- ~ ~------- -_----_-_-_~-12.00


A. 2STORIES

C. 4STORIES

B. 3STORIES

D. 5 STORIES

M front setback

3. Which of the following would probably not be


considered an element of a city's image?
A. AGROUPOF
HOUSES

C. A NEIGP.BOR
HANGOUT BAR

B. AFREEWAY

D. AN AREA WITH A
HIGH CONCENTRATION OF HOSPITALS

4. Social contract and interaction in a picnic pavilion


could be promoted most by which of the following
design decisions?

c D
0000
A

c D
0000
A

A. Making the dimensions of the pavilion small


enough so the anticipated number of users would
cross into each other's "personal distance"
B. designing benches-around the support columns
so people would have a place to sit and talk.
C. organizing the cooking and serving area distinct
from the dining area and entrance
D. providing an informal variety of spaces of different sizes, locations, and uses.

5. If the contour interval on the map shown is 0.60 m.


what is the slope between points A and B?

~~----~_.~~~~----~

126

c D
0000
A

1.50

3.00

A. 27 PERCENT

C. 67 PERCENT

B. 53 PERCENT

D. NOT ENOUGH
INFORMATION IS
GIVEN TO ANSWER

6. A speculative office building probably would not be


buih if the developer discovered that:

0000

A. all of the catchment area was not served by arterial streets.

B. the site consisted of mostly sandy soil with a 1 .80


m top layer of expansive clay
C. the vacancy rate of office space in the city was
three times the national average
D. the neighborhood community objected to the site
of parking lots
7. Which of the following cause the most foundation

problems?

0000

A. extensive underground rock formations just below the surface

B. a 1.50 m water table

C. expansive clay and organic soil


D. all of the above

8. In planning a new building, an architect would have


to look at regulations other than the zoning ordinance
to find a requirement for the following:
I. the width of loading berths
II. the required size of utility easements
ill. minimum lot size
IV. the size of the parking area
V. what roof coverings are permissible

A. I and IV

C. II, Ill, and V

B. I, II and IV

D. Ill, IV, and V

127

0000

A-A convex slope

C-C uniform slope

B-B valley

D-0 concave slope

COMMON CONTOUR CONDITIONS

129

E-E ridge

~'
--,----,~~'l

f-------I

---

-- ?:-!,

--~------

----

------

- - - - - - - - - - existing contour _j

1.

rproperty line

-----

- - -

-- - - --- -

94

---- _,

------------~~:
-----------

_/=tour

9?

98

NEW AND EXISTING


CONTOUR LINES

-+------fill to avoid the expense and problems with removing or hauling in soil.
Generally, it is better to orient the length of a building parallel to the direction
of the contours rather than perpendicular to them in order to minimize
excavation costs.
Both existing contour lines and new contour lines are shown on the same
plan: The existing lines are shown dashed and the new ones solid. At the
property lines, the contour lines must match up with the existing contours at
adjacent properties or retaining walls must be built.

2. CLIMATE

Solar orientation influences three (3) aspects of site planning:


Orientation of the building to control solar heat gain or heat loss
The location of outdoor spaces and activities
The location of building entries
Prior to design, the path of the sun should be located so you know its angle
at various times of the day during the seasons
During the coldest months, the sun rises and sets south of an east-west line
through the site, and depending upon the site location, during the summer
it rises and sets north of the same line.
The ORIENTATION of a building- that is, the direction its length faces has
a profound effect on energy gains and losses and 0n the comfort of the
users. For example for a 40-degree latitude, a Southern exposure in the

130

cold months receives about three times the solar energy as the east and
west sides, while in the summerthe east and west facades of a building
receive about twice the energy as the north and south combined.
For most northern hemisphere locations, the best orientation for a building
is to have its principal facade facing sot:h or slightly east or west of !'outh.
An orientation about 25 degrees east cf t.outh is considered ideal to balance
the desired heat gains in the cold months and to minimize the excessive
heat gains on the east and west facades during the summer .

'
-

I
/

~-

!ummer sun

/'-',
I

SUMMER MONTHS

=:t:," ' " '" '


'

wtnter sun

/Ydf/2Wd1:80~%',/,.0;::}/?7ffM//?/.-!/:W&#/i'Wff,.0Z)!;/.. ;w;

COLD MONTHS

SOUTH WALL SUN CONTORL

Overhangs can be used to control the sun in the summer but let it strike the
building and glass areas in the cold months for passive solar heating.
Deciduous trees can also be used to shield low buildings from the sun in
the summer while allowing sunlight through in the cold months.
On east and west facades, however, vertical sun baffles are more effective
than overhangs because the sun is at a lower angle during the morning and
afternoon hours in the summer. Louvers can also be used to shield a builai'ng
and its interior from the sun. Either exterior or interior louvers and shades
are effective, but exterior louvers are more efficient since they block the
sunlight before it enters the space.
In addition to building position, solar orientation can also influence outdoor
activities. In hot humid climates, it is better to locate such activities as patios
outdoor restaurants, and the like where they receive shade from the bltilding
or trees. In cold climates building entries are best placed on the south where
direct sun hit the pathway. (in winter, to melt ice and snow).
The orientation of a building, and locations of windows, plazas and other
elements can either take advantage of cooling breezes in hot, hu;nid climates
during summer or shield the building and occupants fr')m cold winds in the
cold months.
Shielding a building as much as possible from cold month's winds can reduce
the heat loss through the walls, while providing for natural ventilation can
help cool the building during the summer. Wind breaks can be formed with
vegetation, buildings, or other man-made site elements suc.h as screens
and fences.
131

3. DRAINAGE
Any development of site interrupts the existing drainage pattern and creates
additional water flow by replacing naturally porous ground with root area
and paving. The architect must provide for any existing drainage pattern
through the site and account tor additional storm water that does not seep
into the ground, which is called "RUNOFF". The site design must also create
positive drainage away from the building, parking areas, and walks to avoid
flooding, erosion, and standing water.
The two (2) basic types of drainage are "ABOVEGROUND" and
"UNDERGROUND".
ABOVEGROUND drainage involves sheet flow gutters built into roadways
and parking areas, ground swales as part of the landscaping, and channels.
UNDERGROUND drainage utilizes perforated drains and enclosed storm
-'sewers that carry the runoff from the site to a municipal storm sewer system
or to a natural drainage outlet, such as a river.
"SHEET FLOW" is simply the drainage of water across a sloping surface,
whether it is paved, grass, or landscaped. In most case, sheet flow is directed
to gutters or channels, which are them emptied into a natural water course
or storm sewer.
Gutters are often. used because they can be built along ~tith the roadway or
parking area and naturally follow the same slope as the paved surface.
They can easily be drained into sewers which also typically follow the path
of roads.
Areas for surface drainage require minimum slopes to provide for positive
drainage.
Recommended Grade Slopes for Various Uses
Stoges in Percent
min.
ground areas for drainage
grass areas for recreation
paved parking areas
roads
sanitary sewers (depends on size)
approach walks to buildings
Landscaped slopes

2.0
2.0
1.5
0.5
0.5-1.5
1.0
2.0

preferred

max.

4.0
2.5

3.0
5.0
8.0
4.0
50.0

Underground systems use piping with a minimum slope of 0.3 percent. The
storm drains collect water from roof downspouts, drains inlets, catch basins,
and drain tiles surrounding the building foundation. A drain inlet simply allows
storm water to run directly into the storm sewer.

132

A catch basin has a sump built into it so that debris will settle instead of
flowing down the sewer. Periodically, the sump must be cleaned out. Large
storm sewer systems require manholes for service access and are located
wherever the sewer changes direction, or a maximum of 166 meters apart.
Storm sewers are competely separate from sanitary sewers.
The capacity of a drainage system is based on the size of the area to be
drained, the runoff coefficient (that fraction of water not absorbed), and the
amount of water to be drained during the most severe storm being used in
the design. Frequently, the system is planned for 25-yeci.r storms; other
times a 10-year storm is used. These periods are simply the average
frequency at which storms of a particular magnitude are likely to occur.
If the site development creates a runoff in excess of the capacity of the existing
municipal storm sewer or natural drainage course. a holding pond may be
needed on the site. This collects the site runoff and releases it into the sewer
system at a controlled rate without letting the excess water flood other areas.

4. UTILITIES
Determine the location of existing utilities prior to beginning design. These
may include, but are not limited to, sanitary sewer lines, storm sewers, water
lines, gas, electricity, steam, telephone, and cable television. It possible,
the building should be located to minimize the length of utility lines between
the structure and the main line.
Sanitary sewers and storm sewers usually take precedence in planning
because they depend on gravity flow. The "INVERT" or lowest, elevations
of the existing public sewer line should be established, since the effluent
must flow from the lowest point where the sewer line leaves the building to
the main sewer. This portion of the horizontal piping of the sanitary sewer
system outside the building is known as the "BUILDING SEWER". The actual
connection of the building sewer to the main line must occur above the

invert of the main line at any given point in order not to interfere with the
free flow.
The minimum slope of the building sewer is 0.5 to 2.0 percent depending
on the size of the pipe; a greater slope is required for smaller pipes. In
some cases, the run of the building sewer will have to be longer than the
shortest distance between the building and the main line simply to intercept
the main line at a point low enough to allow for proper slope.

133

-:-----

~
"'

#'~

PJ<:f'"/;/

~-- -~
~-----

G.
//

__

'-

"""--

nouse sewer
invert 92.0'

;.0099per~:~~_j

~~

,///

/__ -- -30.00M

main line slope lY.!%

-- --- -o

'\
Invert

Actual rpquired house


sewer;needs to intercept
main sewer down line
where it has dropped
sufficiently to allow house
sewer to drain into it.

27.45 M

theoretical shortest
distance from building
to sewer I i ne

Shortest line dropping at

..!
8 "/ It . for 80' length ( 10")
At ..! "/ ft. for
8

approximately 130 feet,


(.0099/m). the house
sewer invert where it
intersects the main line is
about 27.20 m (90.7 ft.)

.0099/m for 24.04 length


(0.24 m) would intercept
main line at 27.40 m too low to drain into line.

Sewer Layout Based On Slope Required

5. CIRCULATION
There are three major types of "SITE CIRCULATION"
a. AUTOMOBILE
b. PEDESTRIAN
c. SERVICE

A. Automobile Circulation
Planning for automobile circulation includes locating the entry drives to
the site and providing on-site roads to reach the parking areas and the
building drop-off point. The entire automobile circulation system should
provide direct, easy access to the parking areas and building without
excessive drives, turnarounds, dead ends, or con11icts with service areas and pedestrian circulation.
The size of the site, its relationship to existing public roads, and the
expected traffic will help determine whether vou should use a one-way
loop system with two entry drives or a two-way system with one entry

134

drive. In either case, you should lay out the roads so a driver can go
directly to the parking area, drop-off point, or loading area. Forcing traffic through the parking area to get to the loading or the drop-off area
should be avoided.
Entry drives to the site should be as far away as possible.trom street
intersections and other intersecting roads. This is to avoid conflicts with
vehicles waiting to turn and to avoid confusion about where to turn. Roads
should be of sufficient width to make driving easy and to allow two vehicles to pass. Curves should be gradual, following the natural topography and there shou!d be no blind curves.

'

II

l n I
'

'

oneway

rwo-way

12'

3.60-4.00

7 20-8.00

Dnveway entries

min. SO M
from public
ntersectJon

cul-de-sac :urnarcunc

Unless the slope is very gentle, roads shouid not ce laid out perpendicularto ~he slope but across it slightly to minimize the grade. Limit roads to
a maximum slope of 15 percent for short distances, although 10 percent
or less is preferable. If a road does slope more than 10 percent there
should be transition slopes of one-half of the maximum slope between
the road and level areas. Ramps crossing sidewalks must have a level
area between the ramp and the sidewalk.
Roads should have a gradual slope, a minimum of

f ~nch per foot (.0198

per meter), for drainage from the center of 'he roadway. called the
"CROWN" to the sides. If the road has a gutter. it should be 15 em. high.
level area before
crossng Sidewalk

) \\

-::-+-- j_
t--'"""
~ \/~

< 10%
preferred
15% max.

L,\

down

96
(a) automobile ramps

crown

94

92

,
90

88

(bl representation of road wit~ gutters on contour map

Design Guidelines for Road Grades


135

B. Pedestrian Circulation
Like roadways, pedestrian circulation should provide convenient, direct
access from the various points on the site to the building entrances. If
connections with adjacent buildings, public sidewalks, public transportations, stops, and other off-site points are required, the circulation system must take these into account as well.
SIDEWALKS should provide for the most direct paths from one point to
another since people will generally take the shortest route possible.
Pedestrian circulation paths should not cross roads, parking lots, or other
areas of potential conflict. There should be collector walks next to parking areas so people can travel from their cars directly to a separate
walk.
When these walks are next to parking where cars can overhang the
walk, it should be a minimum of 6 feet (1.80 M) wide. Required amenities such as seating, trash containers, and lighting should be provided.
Walks should slope a minimum of ~ inch (.00635m or 6.352 mm) perpendicular to the direction of the paving for drainage.

slope 6.352 mm
per 0.31 M
19.056 mm tor
rainage across walk

<
>--.

~40M
main walk

minimum slopes
4% ( ..1" per foot)(38.11 mm perm)
4

6% preferred elsewhere
8% absolute maximum (1 :12)
Design Guidelines for Exterior Walks
136

Changes in elevation are accomplished with ramps and stairs. There


must be provisions for making the site accessible to the physically disabled. When a ramp and adjacent stairway serve the same areas, the
bottom and top of the ramp and stairway should be adjacent to each
other if possible. As with walks, stairways and ramps should be illuminated.

C. Service Circulation
Service and automobile circulation should be kept separate. Service
access is typically related to some space in the building program. Service trucks may use the same entry and drives as automobiles (unless
specifically stated), but the loading area should be separate.

/handrail required both sides

/_ ' "re ''~'~ '":;.~to

minimum width of
ramp: 36"
1

c:

12

36"

max. slope

5'

between landmgs

-----~----~~------~---(a) ramps

ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE PHYSICALLY DISABLED

6. PARKING
Plan parking so it is efficient, convenient to the building, and separate from
pedestrian circulation. The size of the site, topography, location of entry
drives to the property, and relationship to the service drive and building
drop-off area will determine the location of the parking area. The number of
cars to be parked is determined by requirements of the zoning ordinance or
by the building program.
The basic planning unit for parking is the size of a car. The standard size is
2.70 m wide and 5.70 m long for standard-size cars and 2.25 m wide and
4.50 m long for compact cars.
Layouts for two types of parking are shown below. Ninety degree parking is
the most efficient in terms of land use, but angled parking is easier to use,
forces a one-way circulation pattern, and requires less tot;;;: .vidttl, tor either
a single-or-double-loaded layout. Dead-end parking areas require a backup space and are only appropriate for parking a few cars. The most efficient
layouts are those that use double-loaded configurations or that utilize a
drive as the back-up space.

137

provide handrail
over 4 riws

30" to 34"

or where icy
conditions exist

for 6" rise

-lgj-

rise &" ma>c., 4" min.


minimum 3 risers
meximum 10 risers between landings

~J

4~' .
'
I i
1

DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR EXTERIOR STAIRS

1111111

24 '

-:

1-10' tO 12'
1
loading doc

-:---n
I

35'

tO

'

[TI

62'

two-way

i'.douole
minimu.,
loaded

IIIIQ

SO'!
I

lal

'
45' radius for
straight bodY :ruck

go

parking

35' to 50'

19.81
32.8'

13'

._.. one-y

toedllf.

I
I

-'- ---~

-,-

:o 14'
one-.Ney

12'

(bl 45 parking

DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR SERVICE DRIVES


PARKING LAYOUTS

138

52.6'
doUble

Unless otherwise required by the program, you must include at least one
parking space for the physically disabled. This space should be located
close to the building entrance and be identified with the international symbol
for accessibility.

__ j _______ 3_________________ _
36" min. accessible route

curb

tv

ramp

1:12

marking
(or sign I

a
s
---'----,--j

PARKING FOR THE PHYSICALLY DISABLED

Establish drainage in parking areas as part of the site design. The minimum
slope should be 1X percent with a maximum slope of 5 percent. but for
convenience in calculating, use 2 or 3 percent when figuring parking slopes.
Water should drain toward the edges of the parking area where it can run
off into the landscaping be collected and diverted to storm sewers or other
natural water courses.
One useful rule of thumb is that the change in elevation from one side of a
double-loaded parking area to the other ( 19.00 m) for a minimum 1X percent
slope is one foot (0.31). With an absolute maximum of a 5 percent slope,
the maximum change in elevation for (19.00m) is about (0.91) or 3 feet.
This is a useful way to quickly check you new contour lines when designing
a parking area.

139

92---------------------------91

-------------------

:~~~~~~~~}~=~~~-~~~~F
break in curb _ /
required for
drainage
(a) drainage perpendicular to length of lot

92

91

90

88

89

87

I
I
I
I
I
I
I

/I
I
__.I
I

----...

(T
!

crown in
center
(b) drainage parallel to length

91

92

90

/]

I
I

I'

slope

/(
)

I
I

I
I

'}

'

I
I

'I

sa

89

J/
I

(c) drainage across lot

DRAINAGE PATTERNS IN PARKING LOTS

140

7. LANDSCAPING
Landscaping is a vital part of site development. In addition to its purely
aesthetic qualities, landscaping can improve energy conservation, moderate
noise, frame desirable views, block undesirable views, create privacy, fashion
outdoor spaces, provide shade, retard erosion. and visually connect a
building to its site. It is also required in some communities.
Deciduous trees block sunlight in summer while allowing it to enter a building
in the cold months, when leaves fall. Trees can also moderate the wind and
thereby reduce heat loss from wall surfaces. If trees are employed as a
windbreak, evergreens should be used so they are still effective in the cold
months.
Grass, shrubs and ground cover lower the ALBEDO of the site. Albedo is
that portion of the radiant energy that is reflected as it falls on a surface.
Combined with the low conductivity of plant materials, a well-landscaped
site can reduce the daytime temperature around the building significantly
and in some cases raises the night time temperature slightly.
Plants are like any other design material in that they have form, size, color.
texture, and other qualities that can serve the purposes of the designer and
create the kind of image desired. Unlike other materials, however, plant
grow.
The mature size and height of the tree or shrub must be known so adequate
spacing between plants and buildings can be provided. Generally, planting
strips with trees in parking areas and between other paved areas should be
at least 2.10 m wide while landscaping strips for grass or ground covers
between paved areas should be at least 1.20 M wide.
Because most trees and shrubs take so long to grow, save existing healthy
landscaping whenever possible, especially large trees. The contours of the
land cannot be changed around existing trees. so careful planning is
necessar}-. Trees and other landscaping also need protection during
construction.
8. PROPERTY DESCRIPTIONS
A method of describing the boundaries of a site is called the METES and
BOUNDS description. The title of the land describes the boundaries and
the corresponding length of line, as well as the direction of line bearings
referred to by the number of degrees, minutes, and seconds the line is
located either east or west of a north-south line. This also gives the area of
the lot in square meters.
Another system starts with a set of east-west lines called the "PARALLELS"
that follow the lines of latitude of the earth and with a set of north-south
lines called "MERIDIANS".
Example, a parcel of land Lot 18 containing an area of 912.60 sq. meters
located in BAGUIO bounded on the NW by Lot 19, on the NE by Lot 25, on
the SE by Lot 17 and on the SW by a street beginning at a point 1 . from B.L.

141

S-25, 32' 03"E .1.700 from lrisan Line Quarry; N-65 08' 42"
35.00 m to
pt.21 thence S 54 35' 04" W 25.80 m tc pt.4; thence S 35-29' 01"E 27.00
m to pt. 4 thence N 54-48' 08"E 41.80 m to pt. of beginning 1.

~N

w--+---

---r-=7 w,] L~17

--+---=."

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

I
I
I

I
I

e:~.80M

'

'
LOT18
912.60 SQ.M.

EL39.50M.

' '
' '
'

ELEVATIONS - BM or Bench marks

9. OTHER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


In addition to the factors already discussed, many other design
considerations can influence the location and configuration of a building, as
well as other features of the site design. One of the most important is the
context of the surrounding development. The design of a building should be
sensitive to the "SCALE", "MASSING", and "FENESTRATION" patterns or
nearby buildings. The design should also consider any fl,mctional adjacency
requirements with other structures or outdoor activities.
142

"VIEws are also an important consideration. Pleasant, desirable views


can be used to advantage, either as seen from important spaces within the
building or from outdoor spaces. Undesirable views can be avoided by
planning the building so service spaces or less important spaces face them.
Off-site sources of noise can be similarly avoided by minimizing fenestration
near the noise source.

Quite frequently, buildings are located in order to fall on an important axis


with surrounding structures or to complete the enclosure of a major outdoor
space. The site-planning process should not overlook these kinds of symbolic
criteria.

SITE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN QUESTIONS

1. What is especially important in designing roads for


drainage?

A. CROWN

C. DRAIN INLETS

B. BASE LINE

D. INVERTS

C. TOWNSHIP

B. PRINCIPAL
MERIDIAN

D. METES AND BOUNDS

3. Waste water flows because of differences between what?

B. INVERTS

D. CATCH BASINS

'''

North

10

8
6
4

143

0000

4. Assuming the building site shown was surrounded on


four sides by city streets, which building and road layout
would be most appropriate for the site topography?

0000

A. SHEET FLOW

C. DRAIN OUTLETS

0000

2. What is a land measure 9 km. on a side known as?

A. BUILDING SEWER

0000

A.

C.

B.

D.

D
5. Which of the following statements is incorrect?

0000
A. A 1.1%
slope is suitable
for rough paving
2
.
B. Landscaped areas near buildings should have at leas;t
a 2% slope away from the structure.
C. A safe sidewalk would slope 2.1%
2

D. Roads in northern climates can safely have up to a


12% grade
6. Which of the following would result in the best site
circulation?

I. planning the service entry drive separate from the


automobile entry and drive
II. making parking areas oversize to accommodate pedestrian circulation
Ill. designing all two-way roads at least 7.20 M wide

144

0000

IV. limiting parking area traffic to a single entrance away


from pedestrian walks

v.

laying out walks parallel to parking areas

A. I, Ill, and IV

C. II, IV, and V

B. I, Ill, and V

D. I, Ill, IV, and V

7. Property can best be described with:


A. METES and BOUNDS C. LOCATION WITHIN
A SUBDIVISION
B. REFERENCE TO A
SECTION AND
TOWNSHIP

0000

D. ALL OF THE ABOVE

8. Potential overheating of a medical clinic in a temperature


climate could be minimized by:

0000

A. designing an overhang for the west and east side of


the building.
B. planning a building shape to minimize the surface
area of south-facing walls.
C. having a landscape architect specify deciduous trees
near the south elevation
D. all of the above
North

9.

The contour lines in the sketch shown above indicate:

A. a sidewalk sloping down from east to west with a berm


on the south side
B. a road with drainage in the middle and a sidewalk
and berm on the south
C. a swale adjacent to a walking path sloping from northeast to southwest
D. a curved street sloping up to west to east next to a
drainage ditch
145

0000

10. If land is limited, which of the following is the best way to


plan parking lots?

0000

A. two-way circulation with 90-degree parking on both


sides of a drive
B. 30-degree parking on both sides of a one-way loop
system
C. combining service circulation with parking at a 45degree angle

D. 90 degree parking on one side of a one-way circulation drive


11. l'his drainage involves sheet flow gutters built into
roadways and parking areas, ground SWALES as part
of the landscaping and channels

A. DRAIN INLETS

C. ABOVEGROUND

B. UNDERGROUND

D. BUILDING SEWER

12. Sanitary sewers and storm sewers usually take


precedence in planning because they depend on gravity
flow. The
or lowest, elevations of the
existing public sewer line should be established, since
the effluent must flow from the lowest point where the
sewer line leaves the building to the main sewer.

A. SITE CIRCULATION

C. CATCH BASIN

B. INVERT

D. CROWN

0000

0000

Ill. PROCESSING AND APPROVAL OF SUBDIVISION PLANS


A. DEFINITIONS
1. PO 957 - Presidential Decree No. 957 an act regulating the sale of
subdivision lots and condominiums, providing penalties for violating
thereof.

2. SUBDIVISION PROJECT - shall mean a tract or a parcel of land


registered under Act no. 496 which is partitioned primarily for residential
purposes into individual lot with or without improvements thereon, and
offered to the public for sale, in cash or in installment terms. It shall
include all residential, commercial, industrial and recreational areas, af:i
well as open spaces and other community and public areas in the project.

146

3. CONDOMINIUM PROJECT - shall mean the entire parcel of real


property divided or to be divided primarily for residential purposes into
condominium units, including all structures thereon.
4. DEVELOPER - shall mean the person who develops or improves the
subdivision project or condominium project for and in behalf of the owner
thereof.
5. DEALER- shall mean any person directly engaged as principal in the
business of buying, selling or exchanging real estate whether on a
full-time or part-time basis.
6. BROKER - shall mean any person who for commission or other
compensation, undertakes to sell or negotiate the sale of a real estate
belonging to another.
7. SALESMAN- shall refer to the person regularly employed by a broker
to perform, for and in his behalf, any or all the functions of a real estate
broker.
8. NATIONAl,. HOUSING AUTHORITY- shall have exclusive jurisdiction
to regulate the real estate trade and business 1n accordance with the
provisions of this decree.
9. REGISTRATION OF PROJECTS- the registered owner of a parcel of
land who wishes to convert the same into a subdivision project shall
submit his subdivision plan to the authority which shall act upon and
approve the same, upon a finding that the plan complies with the
subdivision standards and regulations enforceable at the time the plan
is submitted.
9. LICENSE TO SELL- such owner or dealer to whom has been issued a
registration certificate shall not, however, be authorized to sell any
subdivision lot or condominium unit in the registered project unless he
shall have first obtained in license to sell the project within two weeks
from the registration of such project.
10. PERFORMANCE BOND - no license to sell subdivision lots or
condominium units shall be issued by the authority under Section 5 of
this decree unless the owner or dealer shall have filed an adequate
performance bond approved by said Authority to guarantee the
construction and maintenance of the roads, gutters, drainage, sewerage,
water system, lighting systems and full development of the subdivision
project or the condominium project and the compliance by the owner
and dealer with the applicable laws and rules and negotiations.
The performance bond shall be executed in favor of the Republic of the
Philippines and shall authorize the authority to use the proceeds thereof
for the purposes of its undertaking in case of forfeiture as provided in
this decree.

147

11. REGISTRATION - all contracts to sell, deeds of sale and other similar
instruments relative to the sale or conveyance of the subdivision lots
and condominium units, whether or not the purchase price is paid in
full, shall be registered by the seller in the office of the REGISTER OF
DEEDS of the province or city where the property is situated.
12. ALTERATION OF PLANS- no owner or developer shall change or
alter the roads, open spaces, infrastructures, facilities for public use
and/or other form of subdivision development as contained in the
approved subdivision plan and/or represented in its advertisements,
without the permission of the authority and the written conformity or
consent of the duly organized homeowners association; or lot buyers.
13. HLRB (Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board)- has the power
to approve subdivision plans.
14. RIGHT OF WAY- the owner or developer of a subdivision without access
to any existing public road or street must secure a right of way to a
public road or street and such right of way must be developed and
maintained according to the requirement of the government authorities
concerned.
B. PLANNING AND DESIGN STANDARDS FOR A
RESIDENTIAL SUBDIVISION PROJECT
PARAMETERS
1. PROJECT LOCATION

PD957
OPEN MARKET HOUSING
WITHIN SUITABLE SITES FOR HOUSING
AND OUTSIDE POTENTIAL HAZARD
PRONE AND PROTECTION AREAS

2. LAND ALLOCATION
(Percentage of Gross Area,
One hectare and Above)
a. Saleable area

a. 70% (maximum)

b. Non-saleable area

b. 30% (minimum)
Mandatory allocation for parks and play
grounds per tabulation below:

b.1 Area allocated for


parks and playgrounds
(one hectare and above)

Density
(No. of Lots/
Dwelling Units
per Hectare)
20 & below
21-25
26-35
26-50

148

% of Gross Area
Allocated for Parks
and Playgrounds
3.5%

4.0%
5.0%
6.0%

7.0 o/o
9.0 %

51-65
Above 65

Note: In no case shall the area be less


than 100 sqm.
b.2 Area Allocated for
Community Facilities
b.3 Circulation System

VARIABLE
Observe hierarchy of roads

3. MINIMUM AREAS
a. Single Detached

100 square meters

b. Duplex/Single Attached/
Semi-Detached

75 sq.m./unit

c. Rowhouse

50 sqm.

4. MINIMUM LOT FRONTAGE


a. Single-Detached
a.1 corner lot

12m.

a.2 regular lot

10m.

a.3 irregular lot

6m.
PD957
OPEN MARKET HOUSING

PARAMETERS
b. Duplex/Single Attached/
Semi-Detached

7.5m.

c. Rowhouse

3.5m.

5. LENGTH OF BLOCK

a. maximum length is 400 m. (for subdivision projects with lot component only)
b. blocks exceeding 250 m. shall be provided with alley

NOTE: FOR ROWHOUSES, THERE SHALL BE A MAXIMUM OF 20 UNITS


BUT IN NO CASE BE MORE THAN 100 METERS IN LENGTH.
ROW

CARRIAGEWAY

a. Major

12.0 m.

8.0

b. Minor

10.0m.

6.0m.

c. Motorcourt (Cul-de-sac,

6.0m.

6. ROADS RIGHT-OF-WAY (ROW)*

branch, loop, "Tee")


d. Alley

4.0m.

e.

3.0m.

ROW of access to interior lot

149

*Right-<>f-Way (ROW) of major roads shall be increased as project size increases.


ROW shall not be lower than ROW of public road.
NOTE: 1. INTERIOR SUBDIVISION PROJECT MUST SECURE RIGHT-OFWAY TO THE NEAREST PUBLIC ROAD.

2. SUBDIVISION PROJECTS WITH DIRECT ACCESS TO A MAIN


PUBLIC ROAD MUST PROVIDE SUFFICIENT SETBACK TO
ACCOMMODATE
LOADING AND
UNLOADING
OF
PASSENGERS.
3. SUBDIVISION PROJECT s:;ALL PROVIDE PROVISION FOR
FUTURE EXPANSION (SEE TEXT)
7. MAXIMUM SIZES OF PROJECT
PER HIERARCHY OF ROADS
Project Size Range:
2.5 has. & below
Above 2.5 - 5 has.
Above 5 - 10 has.
Above 15 - 30 has.
Above 30 has.

major road, minor road,


COURT, alley
major road, minor road,
COURT, alley
major road, minor r::>ad,
COURT, alley
major road, minor road,
COURT, alley
major road, minor road,
COURT, alley

MOTOR
MOTOR
MOl OR
MOTOR
MOTOR

PO 957
OPEN MARKET HOUSING

PARAMETERS
8. ROAD SPECIFICATIONS:
a. Planting Strip/Sidewalks

Planting Strip

Sidewalk

a.1 Major Road (each side)

1.0 m.

1.0 m.

a.2 Minor Road (each side)

1.0 m.

1.0 1.1.

NOTE: REFER TO SUPPLEMENTARY RULES AND REGULATIONS TO


IMPLEMENT PD 953[HLRBA.O. NO. 02, SERIES OF 1994 (12APRIL)]
b. Road Payment
b.1 Major

concrete/asphalt

b.2
b.3
b.4
b.5

concrete/asphalt
concrete/asphalt
concrete/asphalt
concrete/asphalt

Minor
Motor Court
Sidewalks
Alley

150

9. WATER SUPPLY

Mandatory connbction to appropriate public water supply system, or community system if available; or Centralized water supply systdm.
NOTE: Each subdivision must have.at least
one operational deepwell which shall provide sufficient capacity equal to the Maxi-

mum Daily Demand


a. Minimum Water
Supply Requirement

150 liters per capita per day for household


connection

b. Fire Protection Demand

Provision for fire protection shall comply


with the requirements of the National Fire
Protection Code.

10. Drainage System

underground
The drainage system must conform with
the natural drainage pattern of the
subdivision site, and shall drain into
appropriate water bodies, public
drainage system or natural outfalls.

11. Sewage Disposal System


a. Septic Tank
b. Connection to Community

Sewer System

Individual septic tank conforming to


standard design of the Sanitation Code.
Whenever applicable, connections shall be

made to an approved public or community


sewer system subject to the requirements
and provisions of the Sanitation Code and
other applicable rules and regulations with
regards to materials and installation
practices.
PD 957
OPEN MARKET HOUSING

PARAMETERS
12. POWER SUPPLY

Mandatory individual household connection


to primary and alternate sources of power
if service is available in the locality.
Installation practices, materials and fixtures
used shall be in accordance with the provision of the electrical code and the local
utility company.

13. GARBAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM

Provide sanitary and efficient refuse collection and disposal system whether independently or in conjunction with the local
government garbage collection and disposal services.

151

14. SHELTER COMPONENT


a. Minimum Floor Area
a.1 Single/Detached

Shall conform with the National Building


Code a'ld Local Zoning Ordinance

a.2 Duplex!.
Semi-Detached/
Single Attached
a.3 Rowhouse
b. Minimum Level
of Completion
b.1 Single Detached

Complete house

t).2 Duplex/
Semi-Detached/
Single Attached

Complete house

b.3 Rowhouse

Complete house

15. SETBACKS/EASEMENTS
a. Front

3m.

b. Side

2m.

c. Rear

2m.

d. Abutments

May be allowed per requirements of


National Building Code

152

AREA ''B''
PART I STRUCTURAL
DESIGN

~~~-------

PART I

AREA "B"

DIRECTION: Read the items below and place the letter of the correct matched letter
in the parenthesis indicated herein.

I. STANDARD STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS


MATCHING TYPE

A. WOOD, STEEL, CONCRETE


1 . WOOD JOIST
SYSTEM ........................... (

A. Another manufactured product

is a wood member manufactured with individual layers of


thin veneer glued together. It
is used primarily for headers
over large opening, and singly
or built-up for beams.
2. PLANK AND BEAM
SYSTEM ........................... (

B. This is generally limited to


bearing walls, it has a high
compressive strength, but in
unitized nature makes it inherently weak in tension and
bending .. Three types of this
system is the single way, the
double way and the cavity construction.

3. MANUFACTURED
JOISTS ............................. (

154

C. When the span of the flat slab


is large, or the live loads are
heavier, flat plates require drop
panels (increased slab thickness around the columns) to
~rovide Qreater resistance
against punching shear failures. Column capitals (truncated pyramids or cones) are
sometimes also used to
handle punching shear as well
as large bending moments in

the slab in the vicinity of the


columns_
4. MANUFACTURED
FRAMING MEMBER - (

5. TRUSSED.
WOOD JOISTS ................ (

6. PLYWOOD
BOXED BEAM .................. (

7. STRESSED
SKIN PANEL. .................... (

155

D. This is the most common use


of solid wood beams, in which
members of 100 mm. (4") or
150 mm (6") nominal width
span between girders or bearing walls at spacings of 1.20,
1.80 and 2.40 M. wood decking, either solid or laminated is
used to span between the
beams with the underside of
the decking being the finished
ceiling_ The normal maximum
span for the beams is 3.00 to
6.00 M

E. The space between joists is


usually spanned with plywood
subflooring
on
which
underlayment is placed in
preparation for finish flooring
because joists are slender,
they must be laterally supported to avoid twisting. Maximum intervals of no more than
2.4 meters are recommended.

F. This functions in a manner


similar to a steel system in
which the slab is supported by
intermediate beams which are
carried by large girders. Typical spans are in the range of
4.5 M. to 9 M. This allows penetrations and openings to be
made in the slab.

G. Here, the slab is designed and


reinforced to span in both directions directly into the columns. Because loaJs increase
near the columns and there is
no provision to increase the
thickness of the concrete or

the reinforcing at the columns,


this system is limited to light
loads and short spans up to
7.5 M with slabs ranging from
150 to 300 mm.
8. STEEL BEAM
AND GIRDER
SYSTEM ........................... (

9. OPEN-WEB STEEL
JOIST SYSTEM ............... (

10. CONCRETE BEAM


AND GIRDER ................... (

H. Any structural system consisting of two or more materials


designed to act together to resist loads. This system of construction is employed to utilize
the best characteristics of the
individual materials. Reinforced concrete construction is
the most typical of this system
of construction, but others include steel deck and concrete,
concrete slab and steel beam
systems, and open-web steel
joists with wood chord.

I. This system is composed or


formed of pre-fabricated, reusable metal or fiberglass forms
which allow construction to
proceed faster than with custom wood forms. This pre-fab
slabs are often left unexposed
with lighting integrated into the
cotters. This system can provide support for heavier loads
at slightly longer spans up to
12M.

J. This is fabricated with plywood


panels glued and nailed to
solid wood members usually
50x100 framing.

11. CONCRETE ONE-WAY


SPAN JOIST ..................... (

156

K. Another manufactured product


is a truss made up of standard
size wood members connected with metal plates. Typical spans range from about 7.2
M. to 12M. and typical depths

are from 0.3 M. to 0.90 M. a


common spacing is 0.60 M.
12. CONCRETE
FLAT PLATE ..................... (

13. CONCRETE
FLAT SLAB ....................... (

14. CONCRETE
WAFFLE SLAB ................. (

157

L. This k1nd of steel joist span between beams or bearing wall.


Standard joists can span up to
18 M. with long span joists
spanning up to 28 M., and
deep long span joists capable
of spanning up to 43 M.
Depths range from 200 mm. to
750 mm. in 50 mm. increments. Mechanical and electrical service pipes and ducts
can easily be run between the
members.

M. In this system, large members


span between vertical supports and smaller beams are
framed into them. The girders
span the shorter distance
while the beams span the
longer distances. Typical
spans for this system are from
7.5 M. to 12M. with the beams
being spaced about 2.4 M. to
3.0 M. on center. The steel
framing is usually covered with
steel decking and concrete is
poured.

N. Sometimes this is called gluelaminated construction. These


structural members are made
up of individual pieces of lumber 18 mm. or 38 mm. thick
glued together in the factory.
It can be manufactured in tapered beams, curved beams
and other styles wood joists
can be manufactured like a
steel wide flange by gluing a
top and bottom chord separated by a plywood web.

15. MASONRY ....................... (

0. This is composed of concrete


members usually spaced 650
mm. or900 mm. apart running
in one direction, which frame
into larger bearns. Most spans
range from 6 to 9 M. with joist
depths ranging from 300 to
600 mm.

16.

COMPOS~TE

CONSTRUCTION ............ (

P. Another type of built-up wood


product but they are constructed of plywood glued and
nailed to solid 50 mm. nominal thickness lumber and are
used for floor or roof structure.

DIRECTION: Read the passages and answer the questions that follow. Shade the
circle
of the correct answer to each question.

ce)

II. COMPLEX STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS


1. These are structures comprising of straight members
forming a number of triangles with the connections
arranged so that the stresses in the members are either
in tension or compression. These can be used
horizontally, vertically, or diagonally to support various
types of toads when it would be impossible to fabricate a
single structural member to span a large distance.

A THIN SHELL

C. TRUSSES
STRUCTURES

B. ARCHES

D. STRESSED SKIN
STRUCTURES

2. This is a structural shape. found by suspending the


anticipated loads from a flexible cable and then turning
the shape upside down, loads in this shape of structure
is subjected to a combination of compression and some
bending stresses. This system maybe hinged or fix
supports.
C. FOLDED PLATES
A. SPACE FRAMES
B. HALF-ROUND ARCH, D. RIGID FRAMES
POINTED ARCH OR
PARABOLIC-SHAPED
ARCHES

158

0000

0000

3. This system is constructed so that the vertical and


horizontal members work as a single structural unit, in
contrast to a simple post-and-beam system. This makes
for a more efficient structure because aH three members
resist vertical and lateral loads together rather than singly.
The beam portion is partially restrained by the columns
and becomes more rigid to vertical bending forces, and
both the columns can resist lateral forces because they
are tied together by the beam.
A. RIGID FRAMES

C. INFLATABLE
STRUCTURE

B. SUSPENSION

D. ARCHES
STRUCTURES

4. A structural system consisting of trusses in two directions


rigidly connected at their intersection. It is possible to
have a rectangular system where the top and bottom
chords of the trusses are directly above and below one
another. Triangular shapes are popular. A stiff structure
may span up to 105 meters.

A.

TRUSSES

B. FOLDED PLATES

STRUCTURE
B. FOLDED PLATES

0000

A B C D

0000

C. STRESSED SKIN
D. SPACE FRAMES

5. A structure in which the loads are carried in two


directions, first in the transverse direction through each
plate supported by adjacent plates and secondly in the
longitudinal direction with each plate acting as a girder
spanning between v-ertical supports, since the plates act
as beams between supports. there are compressive
stresses above the neutral axis and tensile stresses
below. These are usually constructed of reinforced
concrete from 75 mm. to 150 mm. thick.

A. SUSPENSION

0000

C. INFLATABLE
STRUCTURE
D. RIGID FRAMES

6. A structure which has a curved surface that resists loads


through tension compression, and shear in the plane of
the structure only. Theoretically, there are no bending or
moment stresses in this structure. The material is
practically always reinforced concrete from about 75 mm.
to 150 rrim. The forms can be domes, parabolas, barrel
vaults that span from 12 M. to over 60 meters and the

159

0000

cornplexed shape of the saddle-shaped hyperbolic


paiaboloid that spans from 9 M. to 48 meters.
A. STRESSED SKIN

C. THIN SHELL
STRUCTURES

B. SPACE FRAMES

D. TRUSSE~

7. These structures comprise panels up of a sheathing


material attached on one or both sides of immediate web
members in such a way that the panel acts as series of
1-beams with the sheathing being the flange and the
intermediate members being the webs, since the panel
is constructed of two or more pieces, the connectiOn
between the outer and interior web members must
t.ransfer all the horizontal stress developed. The
structures are typically made of wood.
A. SPACE FRAMES

C. SUSPENSION
STRUCTURES

B. THIN SHELL
STRUCTURES

D. STRESSED SKIN
STRUCTURES

8. These are structures most commonly seen in suspensiOn


bridges but their use is increasing in buildings, most
notably in large stadiums with suspended roofs. These
structures are similar to arches in that the loads they
support must be resisted by both vertical reactions and
horizontal thrust reactions. The difference is that the
vertical reaction is outward since the sag tends to pull
the ends together. It can only resist loads with tension.
A. SUSPENSION

C. RIGID FRAMES
STRUCTURES

B. INFLATABLE

D. SPACE FRAMES
STRUCTURES

9. These are structures that can only resist loads in tension.


They are held in place with constant air pressure. Which
is greater than the outside air pressure. The simplest
structure is the single membrane anchored continuously
at ground level and filled with air. These structures are
inherently unstable in the wind and cannot support
concentrated loads. They are often stabilized with a
network of cables over the top of the membrane These
structures are used for temporary enclosures and for
large single space buildings such as Sports Arenas.

160

A B C D

0000

0000

A B C D

0000

A. FOLDED PLATES

C. ARCHES

B. INFLATABLE

D. TRUSSES
STRUCTURES

Ill. STRUCTURAL SYSTEM SELECTION CRITERIA


1. When analyzing possible system to use, the primary
consideration is the ability of the structural system to resist
the anticipated and unanticipated loads that will be placed
on it. Anticipated loads can be calculated directly from
known weights of materials and equipment and from
requirements of buildings codes such as people
(occupancy loads). Unanticipated load include such things
as changes in the use of the building, overloading caused
by extra people or equipment, ponding of water on a roof.
A. RESISTANCE
TO LOADS

C. RESISTANCE TO
BOND

B. RESISTANCE
TO STRESS

D. RESISTANCE TO
BEND

2. This criteria is one of the primary determinants of a


structural system. A parking garage need spans long
enough to allow the easy movement and storage of
automobiles. An office building works well with spans in
the 9 M. to 12 M. foot range. Sport Arenas need quite
large open areas. Some buildings have a fixed use over
their life spans and may work with fixed bearing walls
while others must remain flexible and require small
columns widely spaced.
A. BUILDING

C .. BUILDING CODE
SPECIFICATIONS

B. BUILDING
AND FUNCTIONS

D. BUILDING USER
MATERIALS

3. Although a building's structure is an important element,


it does not exist alone, Exterior Cladding must be
attached to it, ductwork and pipes run around and through
it, Electrical wires among it, and interior finishes must
cover it. Some materials and strl -;tural systems make it
easy for other c~rvices to bP. c~,.,bi .... P.d into one unit. For
instance a steel column-and-beam :.'ystem with openweb steel joists and concrete floors over metal decking
yields a fairly penetrable structure for pipes, ducts, and
161

0000

0000

0000

working while still allowing solid attachment of ceilings,


walls, and exterior cladding.
A. COMBINATION
SYSTEMS

C. MODULAR
SYSTEMS

B. INTEGRATION
WITH OTHER

D. INTEGRAL
sYSTEMS
BUILDING SYSTEMS

4. There are two primary elements of selecting a structural


system based on the criteria. The first is selecting
materials and,systems that are most appropiiate for the
anticipated loads, spans required, style desired,
integration needed, fire resistance called for. This
generally leads to major decisions such as using a
concrete flat slab construction instead of steel, or using
a steel arch system instead of glue-laminated beams.
The second part is refining the selected system so that
the most economical arrangement and use of materials
is selected regardless of the system used (altering the
spacing of beams, changing the direction of beams may
result in savings in the weight of steel).

A. MATERIALS AND

C. COST INFLUENCES
LABOR

B. MARKET VALUE

D. INFLATION

5. This criteria is-dictated by the building code. Structural


members require this criteria and is generally greater
than other components in the same occupancy type and
building type. Two considerations are noted. One is tHe
combustibility of the framing itself and other is the loss
of strength a member may experien.;e when subjected
to intense heat. (Steel bends and collapse while wood
may slightly burn but will maintain its strength.

A. FIRE RESISTANCE

C. MATERIAL WEIGHT

B. BURNING TIME

D. RESILIENCY

6. The realities of construction often are a decisive factor


in choosing a structural system. Some of these include
schedules, due to material costs, financing, climate and
weather. Related to the cost of labor are the skills of the
work force which may require technically skilled work
force. Finally equipment needed to assemble a structural
system maybe unavailable or prohibitively expensive.

162

0000

0000

0000

A. CONSTRUCTION
PROHIBITION

C. CONSTRUCTION
LIMITATIONS

B. CONSTRUCTION
SCHEDULE

0. CONSTRUCTION
CODE

7. Some stl\lctural systems are more appropriate as an


expression of a particular character than others. The.
"International Trend" which can only be achieved with a
steel post-and-beam system. The Architect and client
determine what character the building will be and then
require the structural solution adapt to the need.
A. FAD

C. FORM

B. CHARACTER

D. STYLE

8. Related to the style of a building are those on the


architecture of a geographical location and particular time
period. The architect must be sensitive to these
influences. For example, in a historic area like lntramuros,
where most buildings are constructed of Adobe Stones
and bricks, a masonry bearing wall structural system
certainly should be considered. In a newly developing
industrial park, more contemporary and daring structural
systems might be appropriate.
A. GEOLOGICAL

C. HISTORICAL

B. SOCIAL AND

D. CLIMATE
CULTURAL

0000

0000

DIRECTION: Choose what form of loads is referred to by the statements below and
shade the circle (e) of the correct answer to each question.

IV. LOADS ON BUILDINGS

The succeeding numbers refer to :


A. GRAVITY LOADS

C. MISCELLANEOUS LOADS

B. LATERAL LOADS

D. NONEOFTHEABOVE

1. When a load is applied suddenly or changes rapidly, It is


called a DYNAMIC I,.OAD. When a force is only applied
suddenly, it is often called an IMPACT LOAD examples
of dynamic loads are automobiles moving in a parking
garage, elevators traveling in a shaft, or a helicopter

163

0000

landing on the roof a building. A unique type of dynamic


load is a resonant load. This is a rhythmic application of
a force to a structure with the same fundamental period
as the structure itseH. The fundamental period is the time
it takes the structure to complete one full oscillation, such
as a complete swing from side to side in a tall bu1lding in
the wind or one up-and-down bounce of a floor.

2. Loads from WATER can occur in many situations. In


water tanks, swimming pools and against retaining walls
holding back groundwater. The load developed from
water and other fluids is equal to the unit weight of the
fluid in kilonewton per cubic meter multiplied by its depth.
~or water, the weight is about 9.8 kilonewton per cubic
meter and the water force exerted on structures is called
HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE.

3. DEAD LOADS are the vertical loads due to the weight


of the building and any permanent structural and nonstructural components of a building. These include such
things as beams, exterior and interior walls, floors and
fixed service. equipment. Most dead loads are easily
calculated from published lists of weights of building
materials found in brochures.

c D
0000
A

c D
0000
A

4. SOIL LOADS. Retaining walls are required to resist the


lateral pressure of the retained material in accordance
with accepted engineering practice. Building Codes
allows retaining drained earth to be designed for pressure
equal to that exerted by a fluid weighing 4. 7 krn/cm. meter
and having a depth equal to that of the retained earth.

c D
0000

5. WIND LOADING on buildings is a dynamic process. That

c D
0000

is, the pressures, directions and timing are constantly


changing. For purposes of calculation, however, wind is
considered a static force. There are several variables,
that affect wind loading. The first is the wind velocity itself.
The second variable is the height of the wind above the
ground which is usually 10 meters.
6. LIVE LOADS are those on the building by its particular
use and occupancy, and are generally considered
movable or temporary such as people, furniture, movable
equipment and snow. It does not include wind loading or
earthquake loading.

164

c D
0000
A

7. "fEMPERATURE-INDUCED LOADS. All materials


expand when they are heated and contract when they
are cooled. The amount of the change is dependent on
the material and is expressed as the coefficient of
expansion measured in mm per degree centigrade. Some
materials, like wood, have a low coefficient of expansion
while others, like plastic have a high value. If a material
is restrained so it cannot move and then subjected to a
temperature change, a load is introduced on the material
in addition to any other applied loads.
8. LIKE WIND, an EARTHQUAKE produces dynamic loads
on a building. During an earthquake, the ground moves
both vertically and laterally, but the lateral movement is
usually most significant and the vertical movements is
ignored. For some tall buildings or structures with
complex shapes or unusual conditions, a dynamic
structural analysis is required.

0000

0000

DIRECTION: Read the definitions below and answer the questions that follow. Shade
the circle (e) of the correct answer to each question.

STRUCTURALFUNDAMENTALS
1. In all solid bodies, There is a point at which the mass of
the body can be considered concentrated. This is the
center of gravity. The point on a plane surface that
corresponds to the center of gravity is called--~A. CENTER POINT

C. CENTRAL AXIS

B. CENTROID

D. CENTERING

2. There are times when it is desirable to combine two or


more concurrent forces into one forces such that the one
force produces the same effect on a body as the
concurrent forces. This single force is called the
---~ If the forces are colinear, the resultant is
sii'Jl)ly the sum of the forces, with forces acting upward
or to the right considered positive and forces acting
downward or to the left considered negative.
A. COLLECTIVE
FORCE

C. RESULTANT
FO~E

B. CENTRAU7r!)

D. AXIAL FORCE
FORCE

165

0000

0000

3.

is the branch of mechanics that deals with


bodies in a state of equilibrium. Equilibrium is said to
exist when the resultant of any number of forces acting
on a body is zero.
A. STATICS

C. LIMITATIONS

B. STABILITIES

D. MECHANICS

4. The
of a plane area with respect to an Axis
is the product of the area times the perpendicular distance
from the centroid of the area to the axis.
A. STATISTICAL

C. MOMENT OF WEIGHTS
MINUTE

B. STABILIZING

D. STATICAL MOMENT
MOMENT

5. Just as a resultant can be found for two or more forces,


so can a. single force be resolved into two _ __
This is often required when analyzing loads on a sloped
surface (a roof) and it is necessary to find the horizontal
and vertical reactions.

A. PIECES

C. COMPONENTS

B. PARTS

D. SEGMENTS

6. A
is any action applied to an object. In
architecture, external action are called loads and result
from such actions as the weight of people, wind, or the
weight of building materials.
A. FORCE

C. PRESSURE

B. ACTION

D. VELOCITY

7. The structural design of buildings is primarily concerned


with selecting the size, configuration and material of
component to resist, with a reasonable margin of safety,
external forces acting on them. A force has both direction
and magnitude and as such is called a _ _ _ __

A. TOTAL QUANTITY

C. APPLIED ENERGY

B. VECTOR QUANTITY

D. COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH

166

0000

0000

0000

0000

A B C D

0000

8.

is the internal resistance to an external force.


There are three basic types of this resistance. Tension.
compression and shear.
A. FATIGUE

C. CRACKING

B. LOSS OF WEIGHT

D. STRESS

0000

9. A type of shear in which a member is twisted is called a

0000

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

A. TORSION

C. TORQUE

B. CONVULSION

D. COLLISION

is stress in which the particles of the member


tend to pull apart under load. For example a rod
elongates.

A. MOVING AWAY

C. TENSION

B. BENDING

D. STRETCHING

is stress in which the particles of the member


are pushed together and the member tends to shorten
or widen.
A. TIGHTENING

C. FOLDING-UP

B. COMPRESSION

D. SQUEEZED ACTION

is when a material is subjected to a change


in temperature. It expands if heated or contracts if cooled.

A. MODULUS OF

C. WEATHER CONDITION
ELASTICITY

B. ALTERNATE HEAT

D. THERMAL STRESS
AND COLD

is the deformation if a material is caused by


external forces. It is the ratio of the total change in length
of a material to its original length.

A. WARPING

C. SIEVE

B. STRAIN

D. SETTLING

is a measure of the bending stiffness of a


structural member's cross-sectional shape.
A. MOMENT OF
STABILITY

C. MOMENT OF RIGIDITY

167

0000

0000

0000

0000

0000

B. MOMENTOF
ENERGY
15.

D. MOMENTOF
INERTIA

is a measure of the stiffness of the material


of a structural menber.

16.

A B C D

0000

A. COLLECTIVE
MEASUREMENT

C. MODULUS OF
ELASTICITY

B. COEFFICIENT OF
WEIGHT

D. TOTALITY OF
STRENGTH

is a special condition of a force applied to a


structure. This is the tendency of a force to cause rotation
about a point. As such, it is the product of the force times
tpe distance to the point about which it is acting. The
units are in newton-millimeter, kilonewton-meter or kipfeet.

A. MOMENT

C. SECOND

B. MINUT~

D. SCHEDULE

A B C D

0000

VI. DEFINITIONS
1. A
is a structural system without a complete
vertical load-carrying space frame in which the lateral
loads are resisted by shear walls or braced frames. This
walls or bracing systems provide support for all or most
gravity loads.
A. SHEAR WALL

C. BEARING WALL

B. SUPPORTING

0. FREE FORM WALL


WALL

2. A
is a vertical element that resists lateral
forces in the plane of the wall through shear and bending.
Such a wall acts as a beam cantilevered out of the ground
or foundations, and part of its strength derives from its
depths. Examples are interior wall of a multistorey
building, enclosing stairways, elevator shafts and
mechanical chases which are mostly solid and run the
entire height of the building.
A. TENSION WALL

C. STANDING WALL

B. SHEAR WALL

D. SCREEN WALL

168

A B C D

0000

0000

3.

is to bend, warp, bulge or collapse, or to


give way suddenly, as with heat or pressure.
A. STRAPPING

C. ROLLING

B. TWISTING

D. BUCKLING

4. the ability of a structure to absorb some of the energy is


known as
which occurs when the building_
deflects in the inelastic range without falling or collapsing,
an example of this material is steel which has the ability
to deform under a load above the elastic limit without
collapsing.
A. DUCTILITY

C. MALLEABILITY

lJ. ELA8TICITY

D. fDLDA[))J:JTY

5. Pertaining to, of the nature of, or caused by an


earthquake.
A. TREMBLOR

C. SEISMIC

B. SCALE

D. WAVE LENGTH

6. This is a kind of wall that are relatively small members,


closely spaced and tied together with exterior and interior
sheating. The sheathing is necessary to brace the small
members against buckling and to resist lateral loads.

A. WINDOW WALL

C. THIN WALL

B. EXTERNAL WALL

D. SifUD WALL

7. A wall that consists of a single unit of unreinforced


masonry that can act as either a bearing or non-loading
bearing wall.

A. SINGLE WYTHE

C. ONE WAY WALL

B. SINGLE LINE

D. SOLID WALL

8. This is a wall that consist of two wythes of masonry,


separated by an air space normally 50 mm wide. These
walls provide extra protection against water penetration
and additional insulation value because of the air.
A. NON-BEARING

C. CHB WALL
WALL

B. CAVITY WALL

D. RETAINING WALL
169

0000

A B C D

0000

0000

0000

B C

0000

0000

9. A slab that has its reinforcement running in one direction


perpendicular to the beams supporting the slab.
A. SINGLE LINE SLAB

C. STRAIGHT SLAB

B. ONE WAY SLAB

D. SOLE SUPPORT
SLAB

10. A slab that have rebars in both directions and are more
efficient because the applied loads are distributed in all
directions, usually column bays supporting them are
almost square.

11.

12.

A. DUAL SLAB

C. TWO-WAY SLAB
SUPPORT

S. DOUBLE SLAB

D. EACH WAY SLAB


SYSTEM

measures the consistency of the concrete,


usually at the jobsite. In this test, concrete is placed in a
300 mm high truncated cone, 20 mm at the base and
100 mm at the top. It is compacted by hand with a rod
and then the mold is removed from the concrete and
placed next to it. The distance the concrete goes down
from the original 300 mm is then measured. Too great
the settlements indicates excessive water, and a very
small settlement indicates the mixture will be too difficult
to place properly.

A. DRYNESS TEST

C. MIXED AGGREGATE
TEST

B. WETNESS TEST

D. SLUMP TEST

is a test that measures compressive


strength. As the concrete is being placed, samples are
put in cylinder molds, 150 mm in diameter and 300 mm
high, and are moist-cured for 28 days at which time they
are laboratory-tested according to standardized
procedures. (usually tested in 7 days)
A. CYLINDER TEST

C. ROUND STRENGTH
TEST

B. CUBE TEST

D. CIRCULAR MOTION
TEST

170

A B C D

0000

0000

0000

0000

13.

a test used when a portion of the structure is


in place and cured, but needs to be tested. (Usually used
when regular cylinder test do hot come up to the specified
design strength) A cylinder is drilled on the concrete and
then tested in the laboratory to determine its compressive
strength.

A. CENTER CYLINDER
TEST
B. MIDDLE CYLINDER

0000

C. CENTRALIZED
ROUNDED TEST
D. CORE CYLINDER TEST
TEST

14. A slight arch usually making the reinforcement higher in


the middle so that when the beam or slab is cured or
settles it goes to a horizontal position rather than sagging.

A. CHAMBER

C. OGEE

B. CAMBER

D. SLOPE

15. This foundation is used when soil bearing is low or where


loads are heavy in relation to soil pressures. With this
type of foundation, one large footing is designed as a
two-way slab and supports the columns above it.
Sometimes beams are placed above the foundation to
give added stiffness.

A. CRIB FOOTING

C. MAT or RAFT
FOUNDATION

B. DOUBLE FOOTING

D. WIDE FOUNDATION

16. A common footing which is placed under a continuous


foundation wall which in turn supports bearing wall

A. WALL FOOTING

C. COMBINED FOOTING

B. LINE FOOTING

D. LINEAR FOOTING

0000

0000

0000

MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS:
VII. SELECTION OF STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS
1. Rigid frames have which of the following characteristics?

I. Rigid frames should be hinged at the column


bases.

171

0000

II. Moment connections must be designed at the intersection of beam and column.
Ill. Loads are transferred vertically to the foundations.
IV. Rigid frames are more efficient than simple post-andbeam systems.
V. Sloping the horizontal members can reduce the
amount.of steel required.
A. I, II, and IV

C. II, Ill, IV, and V

B. II, IV, and V

D. all of the above

2. Which of the following would be most important in


s-electing a structural system for a proposed restaurant
and warming house at the mid-slope of a mountain
resort?

0000

A. cost, resistance to loads, and construction limitations


B. style, integration with building, systems, and fire resistance
C. building occupancy, co~struction limitations, and style
D. fire resistance, resistance to loads, and cost

3. Select the incorrect statement concerning exterior wall


facings and the building structures.

c D
0000
A

A. Heavy materials with low coefficient of expansion require expansion joints as much as materials such as
steel, aluminum, and wood.
B. Transfer of wind loads from curtain wall systems is
accomplished with clip angles connecting the facing
and the structural frame.

c.

Long-term deflections of both wood and concrete can


cause problems with cracking of exterior facings.

D. Simple, lightweight exterior materials such as thin


paneling or stucco can be attached directly to the exterior studs.

4. What type of structure resists loads through shear


tension, and compression in-the plane of the structure?

A. THIN SHELL

C. ARCH

B. RIGID FRAME

D. WAFFLE SLAB

172

c D
0000
A

5. Select the system that allows extra reinforcement at the


columns.
A. FLAT PLATE

C. FLAT SLAB

B. LIFT SLAB

D. FOLDED PLATE

6. A bearing wall with a high slenderness ratio would


probably require what kind of construction?

A. CATENARY

C. CREEP

B. CAVITY

D. CAMBER

7: What economical two-way system of steel or concrete


would be a appropriate for a span over 45 M?

A. FURNICULAR

C. SINGLE WYTHE

B. COMPOSITE
CONSTRUCTION

D. SPACE FRAME

8. Which of the following is not true about arches?

A. Horizontal thrust must be resisted by foundations or

A B C D

0000

0000

A B C D

0000

0000

tie rods.

B. The thrust on an arch can be decreased by doubling


its height.
C. Supporting an arch with two hinges will make it statically determinate
D. The furnicular shape of an arch can be easily determined without calculations.
9. Which of the following statements are correct?
I. The amount of camber in a prestressed concrete
beam can be varied to suit the requirements of loading.
II. Flat plate and flat slab construction should be- designed for square bays while waffle slabs should be
more rectangular.
Ill. A one-way concrete joint system is easy to form and
can span 8 to 12M.
IV. When a long prestressed member cannot be delivered to a site, post-tensioned construction may be
warranted.

173

0000

V. Topping is often omitted on single tee construcf10n if


floor-to-floor heights are limited.
A. I and IV

C. II and IV

B. I, Ill, and IV

D. IV and V

10. Select the incorrect statement about steel framing.


A. A beam-and-girder system is efficient for spans in
the range of 8 to 12M.

0000

B. Open-web steel joists are best supported on steel


beams.

C: The ductile properties of steel make it advantageous


/ for intermittent lateral loading.
D. Steel is used for high-risP, buildings because of its
ductility and strength.

VIII. LOADS ON BUILDINGS


1. Cars parked on a driveway at the top of a retaining wall
are considered what type of load?
A. SEISMIC LOAD

C. SURCHARGE

B. DEAD LOAD

D. IMPACT LOAD

0000

2. Cross-bracing can lessen the effects of what?


A. DRIFT

C. LIVE LOAD

B. LATERAL LOAD

D. TEMPERATURELOAD

3. What might be induced by an elevator?


A. IMPACT LOAD

C. CONCENTRATED
LOAD

B. STATIC ANALYSIS

D. DYNAMIC LOAD

4. An aerobics class could produce what type of load?


A. RESONANT LOAD

C. IMPACT LOAD

B. HYDROSTATIC
PRESSURE

D. LIVE LOAD

174

0000

0000

5. What is necessary to design for at a basement wall with


undrained soil under an automobile drive-through?

A. LATERAL LOAD

0000

C. DEADLOAD

B. COMBINATION LOAD D. CONCENTRATED


LOAD
6. A tuned dynamic damper would be used in which of the
following situations?

0000

A. a mid-rise concrete structure in an earthquake zone


B. near a mechanical room that contained several vibrating machines
C. in a high-rise building subject to earthquake resonance
D. at the top of a tall building
7. A small commercial office building has 2" x 10" (50 x 250
mm) wood joists spaced 16 inches (400 mm) on center
supporting a hardwood floor over 1/2-inch (12 mm)
gypsum wallboard. Ignoring the beam weight, what is
the design live and dead load per linear meter on a beam
supporting a central structural bay 4.27 M long before
allowance is made for live load reduction? (See diagram.)

(4.27 M)

(4.88 M)

-.-

-beam

(4.88 M) :
I

A. 14.0 KN pounds per linear meter


B. 16.41 KN pounds per linear meter
C. 18.75 KN pounds per linear meter
D. 19.1 KN/Iinear meter

175

0000

8. Which of the following is not correct concerning live load


calculations?

0000

A. Live loads can be reduced when a structural member supports more than 15 square meter the occupancy is not public assembly and if the live load is
less than 80 pst.

B. Live loads include snow, people, and furniture.

c.

Any live load reduction cannot exceed 40 percent for


structural members supporting load from one story.

D. Snow load reduction is calculated according to the


R~ = S/40 - 0.5 if the roof pitch is more than 20 degrees.

9. Select the correct statements about lateral loads.


I. Wind load varies with the height above the ground.

0000

II. Full wind load and snow load should be calculated


together to check the worst case situation.
Ill. Wmd load varies with the square of wind velocity.
IV. Total horizontal shear at ground level is used in the
dynamic analysis method of seismic design.
V. Drift should not exceed the height of the building divided by 500.

A. II, Ill, and V

C. I, Ill, and

B. I, Ill, IV, and V

D. Ill, IV, and V

10. What is the total earth pressure acting on the left side of
the retaining wall shown fn the following diagram?
Assume an equivalent fluid pressure of 30 pounds per
square foot per foot of height.

4.50M

1.50 M

A. 6.35 KN/M

C. 47.69 KN/M

B. 8.48 KN/M

D. 84.78 KN/M
176

0000

IX. STRUCTURAL FUNDAMENTALS


1. What are the horizontal and vertical components of the
force shown?

0 0 0 0

F = 120 KN

A. Fx= 60 KN; F = 103.48 KN


1

B. Fx= 69.28; F = 97.98 KN


1

C. Fx= 138.56 KN; F

= 240 KN

D. Fx= 103.92 KN; F = 60 KN


1

2. The elastic limit of a material is:


A. the point at which a material continues to deform without any increase in load.

0000

B. the maximum unit stress that determines the engineering working stress to design a member.
C. the point beyonc4 which unit stress increases faster
that unit strain.
D. the unit stress below which deformation is directly
proportional to stress
3. The stiffness due to a structural member's shape is
described by what term?
A. MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
B. MOMENT OF INERTIA
C. STATICAL MOMENT
D. CONCURRENTFORCE

177

0000

4. What are compression and bending examples of?

A. FORCE

C. STRESS

B. STRAIN

D. EQUILIBRIUM

5. A force can be considered acting anywhere along the


line of action of the force if its direction and magnitude
do not change because of what principle?
A. EQUILIBRIUM

C. COLINEAR FORCE

B. ULTIMATE STRENGTH

D. TRANSMISSIBILITY

6. What causes the tendency of a body to rotate?

A. MOMENT

C. NONCONCURRENT
FORCE

B. RESULTANT FORCE

D. COUPLE

7. A load of 13.34 KN is applied to the support struts


shown. What is the compressive force in each strut?
F = 13.34 KN

A. A= 4.45 KN; 8 = 7.46 KN


B. A= 4.21 KN; 8

= 8.81

KN

C. A= 4.51 KN; 8 = 8.70 KN


D. A= 5.0 KN; 8 = 12.87 KN

178

A 8

0000

0000

0000

0000

8. The bridge railing shown must support a maximum load


of 600 Newtons laterally. What is the compression force
in the diagonal member?

ooco

(1.05 M)

A. 2184 Newtons

C. 624 Newtons

B. 21 00 Newtons

D. 577 Newtons

9. What are the magnitudes of the reactions at the beam


supports shown? Assume that the weight of the uniform
load acts at its center as a concentrated load.

0000

8.89 KN
13.34 KN

2.92KNIM

2.40M
1.22 M

3.66M

A. R1 = 10.75 KN; R2 = 16.49 KN


B. R1 =1.04KN;R2 =24.75KN
C. R1 = 9.36 KN; R2 = 17.68 KN
D. R1 = 1.56 KN; R2 =21.68 KN
10. Thermal stress in a restrained member is dependent on:

0000

I. the change in temperature


II. the area of the member
Ill. the coefficient of linear expansion
179

IV. the unit strain


V. the modulus of elasticity
A. I, II, Ill, and IV

C. I, Ill, and V

B. I, Ill, IV, and V

D. all of the above

X. BEAMS AND COLUMNS


1. What is the most important factor in determining the loadcarrying of a column?
A. BENDING MOMENT

C. SLENDERNESS RATIO

B. END CONDITIONS

D. SECTION MODULUS

2. Identify the following formula: r = .,)1 1A


A. NEGATIVE MOMENT C. DEFLECTION

l::$

0000

0000

B. FLEXURE FORMULA D. RADIUS OF GYRATION


3. What stress is more important to check in wood beams
than in steel beams?

0 0 0 0

A. HORIZONTAL SHEAR C. EFFECTIVE LENGTH


B. VERTICAL SHEAR

D. POINT OF INFLECTION

4. What theoretically determines the stress on a column


just prior to failure?

A. MOMENT DIAGRAM

C. NEUTRAL AXIS

B. EULERrS EQUATION

D. DEFLECTION

5. The reaction for which of t.he following types of beams

cannot be found using the principles of equilibrium?


A. continuous beams

C. simply supported beams

B. cantilevered beams

D. overhanging beams

6. Select the correct statements about a simply supported


beam with a uniform load.
I. The maximum bending stresses occur at the extreme
fibers.

180

0000

0000

0000

II. Moment is maximum where vertical shear is zero.

Ill. The shear stress remains. constant for one-haH the


beam's length.
IV. The higher the value of the beam's modulus of elasticity, the more it will deflect.

V. Horizontal shear is at its greatest at the neutral surface.

A. I, II, ancllll

C. I, II, and V

B. II, Ill, and VI

D. I, II, Ill, and V

7. What is the maximum moment in the beam shown?


Ignore the weight of the beam.

A B C D

0000

2.3KNIM

t
14M

4M

A. 68.88 KN-Meter

C. 50.12 KN-Meter

B. 84.2 KN-Meter

D. 137.76 KN-Meter

8. The maximum bending stress a wood beam must resist


is 3000 ft-pounds. If the maximum allowable bending
stress is 1500 psi, what is the minimum section modulus
the beam, must have to resist bending?

A. 10011.13 mrnl

C. 33370.4 mm3

B. 20022.25 mm3

D. 4004451 mm3

9. Which of the following statements are true about

0000

0000

designing beams?

I. If the vertical shear on a simply supported beam is


different at each reaction, both values are critical to
know.
II. The point where the shear diagram crosses zero is
important.
Ill. If negative moment occurs, it is not critical to know
its value.

181

IV. Most beams are designed for maximum moment.


V. Moment at any point on a beam can be found by calrulating the area under the shear diagram up to the
same point.
A. II, IV, and V

C. Ill, IV, and V

B. I, II, IV, and V

D. II, Ill, and V

10. A nominal6" x 8" wood column supports a load of 2500


pounds. If the column is 8 feet 0 inches long and has a
moment of inertia of 104 in4 about the axis parallel to the
8 inch dimension, what is the slenderness ratio?
A. 5.0

C. 17.5

B. 16.0

D. 60.4

0000

XI. TRUSSES
1. Select the incorrect statement.
A. Trusses are usually required to have lower chord
bridging.

0000

B. Spacing of trusses depends entirely on the spanning


capabilities of purlins and the type of truss used.
C. Parallel chord trusses usually have greater stresses
toward the center of the span.
D. The method of joints is often used to find a the forces
in a truss

2. What is wrong with the wood truss detail shown?

A B C D

0000

182

A. There is eccentric loading.

B. There are not enough bolts.


C. The ends of the web members are not cut properly.
D. A gusset plate should be used instead of direct con-

nections.
3. Which truss usually requires a larger depth?

A. BOWSTRING TRUSS C. PITCHED TRUSS


B. FLAT TRUSS

D. SCISSORS TRUSS

4. What is used in place of the centroidal axis in detailing


some steel trusses?

A. CENTER LII"1E

C. GRAPHIC ANALYSIS

'3. CENTROIDAL AXIS

D. GAGE LINE

5. What design procedure is best for finding the force in


the first horizontal member next to a support?

A. METHOD OF SECTIONS
B. SUMMATION OF MOMENTS
C. METHOD OF JOINTS
D. SUMMATION OF HORIZONTAL COMPONENTS
6. What are loads on a truss genera:'y placed on?
A. PANEL POINT

C. CHORD MEMBERS

B. TRUSSED RAFTER

D; GUSSET PLATES

7. What is the force in diagonal member A in the truss


shown?
15KN

1SKN

15KN

15KN

15KN

1.-----.--

~11.80M
AJ...~.B

I~-~~~
'

"

~.

6 Pli'NELS 0 3M= 18M

183

A. 17.38 KN coi'J1)ression C. 14.56 KN coi'J1)ression


B. 17.38 KN tension

D. 14.56 KN tension

8. The most common depth-to-span ratio for a steel truss

0000

is:

A. 1:5to 1:15

C. dependent on its type

B. no more than 1:12

D. 1:10 to 1:20

A B C D

9. The following truss would best be analyzed with:


A method of joints

C. method of sections

B. graphic method

D. any of the above

0000

18KN

1o. What is the force in member AB as illustrated?

A. 21 :2 KN compression

C. 28.3 KN compression

B. 21.2 KN tension

D. 28.3 KN tension

10KN

10KN

10KN

5KN

184

2.5 M

0000

5KN

~+I.=2.5::..::M::.. .+I...,___......:5::....::M::....__---J.,I--~5-=M--11

XII. SOIL AND FOUNDATIONS


1. Soil tests made prior to construction have indicated that
excessive groundwater is present. If the project has a
basement, what suggestions would you make to your
client to alleviate the potential problem and in what order
to priority?

0000

1. Specify that drainage matting be placed against all


basement foundation walls.
11. Add extra drain pipes from the roof and drain away

from the building.

Ill. Detail and specify drain tile around the footings and
connect to atmosphere or a dry well.
IV. Use 25 mm to 50 mm gravel under the basement
slab.
V. Draw the site plan so the ground has a positive slope
away from the building on all sides.

A. V, IV, Ill, I. II

C. V,I,IV,III, II

B. Ill, IV, I, V, II

D. Ill, I, IV, II, V

2. Which of the following techniques would be most


appropriate to prepare the soil for a building site that
tests have shown to be primarily composed of silt and
organic silt?
A. compaction

C. densification

B. surcharging

D. fill

0000

3. The retaining wall shown holds back compacted soil with


a coefficient of earth pressure of 1 .0 and an equivalent
fluid weight of 4. 71 KN/m 3 . What is the total earth
pressure against the retaining wall per too t and at what
point is it considered to be acting for design purposes?
A. 0.6025 KN at the top of the footing

B. 2.1195 KN at the level of the lower grade


C. 2.1195 KN above the lower grade level
D. 1.0482 KN at the level of the lower grade

185

0000

1.80M

0.90M

4. The footing and foundation wall shown support a live


lo'ad of 7 Kilonewton per meter and a dead load of 3.5
KN/M. Assuming concrete weighs 23.56 KN/M 3 and the
soil weighs about 15.71 Kilo newton per cubic meter, J'low
wide should the footing be if the allowable soil bearing
pressure is 71.79 KPa?

0000

~
1.00 M
0.30M
..._...

. ..
~

b .

.~

v.

~: ~ ~ :. :.=-~ '.

" " . '<)

.,

A. 0.30 M

C. 0.505 M

B. 0.75 M

Q. 0.90 M

& .'

5. Soil tests are:

A. ordered by the architect and included in the sitework


portion of thP specifications.
B. ordered by the stn.:ctural engineer and made part of
the structural drawings.

186

0000

C. not part of the contract documents, but test locations


and boring logs are often shown for information only.
D. paid for by the client and included on the site plan as
part of the architectural drawings.
6. Bearing capacities are determined by:

0000

I. building codes
II. the amount of water present in the soil
Ill. unified soil classificatio(l system
IV. field tests
V. extent and amount of compaction
A. I, II, and IV

C. II, Ill, and IV

B. I, II, and V

D. all of the above

7. What is used to specify the required compaction of fill


material?

A. STRAP FOOTING

C. STANDARD
PENETRATION TEST

B. HYDROSTATIC
PRESSURE

D. PROCTOR TEST

8. Which soil type would be best for heavily loaded spread


footings?
A. GRAVELS

C. SILTS

B. SANDS

D. ORGANICS

9. Information on what item is necessary if retaining walls


are not to be used?
A. BORING LOG

C. TEST PIP REPORT

B. REPOSE

D. STANDARD
PENETRATION TEST

10. If a soil test confirmed the presence of bentonite, what


type of foundation would probably be best for a one-story
building?
A. BELLED PIER

C. GRADE BEAM

B. COMBINED FOOTING D. RAFT FOUNDATION


187

0 0 0 0

0000

0000

0 0

<:)

XIII. CONNECTIONS
1. Which of the following are the most important variables in
designing a bolted wood connection?

0000

I. the angle of the load to the grain


II. the thickness of the merTi>ers through which the bolt
is placed

Ill. the species of wood


IV. the type of washers used under the head and nut
V. the area of the net section at the bolt holes
A. I, Ill, and

B. I, II, Ill, and V

C. I, II, IV and V

D. I, Ill, IV, and V

2. What connector would be best for a wood truss covering


a temporary building with a rong span?
A. SHEAR PLATE

c.

B. SPLIT RING
CONNECTOR

D. LAG SCREW

0000

WELD PLATE

3. What is used to account for wood members that are


loaded at an angle to each other?
A. OVERSIZE HOLE

C. HIGH STRENGTH BOLT

B. HANKINSON
FORMULA

D. LAG SCREEN

4. What type of weld would most likely be used to connect


two overlapping steel plates in compression?
A. BEVEL

C, PLUG

B. VEE

D. FILLET

5. In designing a composite section, what device would


most Ukely be used?
A. COMMON BOLT

C. HEADED ANCHOR
STUD

B. DOWEL

D. HIGH STRENGTH BOLT

188

0000

0000

0000

6. Two 6 mm x 150 mmA36 steel bars are welded, as shown


in the figure, with E70 electrodes. What is the maximum
allowable tensile load that this joint can resist?

0000

7( til!!_ 7A.

185,000 KN

c.

B. 137,800 KN

125,200 KN

D. 133,920 KN

7. Which of the welding symbols would indicate that the


weld shown be made at the job site?

~~

c.-r\

.Bv\

D.~

8. A 50 x 150 mm PINETREE member is suspended from


a 100 x 200 mm member as shown in the illustration
with four 16 mm bolts. Assuming the edge, end, and
spacing distances are adequate, what is the allowable
load on this joint?

189

0000

0000

100 X 200 mm

0
0

p
A. 4.50 kilos

C. 1073 kilos

~ 1015 kilos

D. 1800 kilos

9. Which of the following types of bohs should be used in a


joint with long slotted holes where the load perpendicular
to the length of the hole is repeatedly reversed?

A. A325 friction-type
B. A490

bea~ing-type

0000

C. A307 bearing-type

D. none of the above

10. Which of the following should be avoided when designing


wood joints?

0000

I. bohed joints with load perpendicular to grain


II. screws attached to the end grain
Ill. nails with penetration more than 12 times the nail diameter
IV. nails attached in withdrawal from side grain

v.

steel plates bohed to wood members

A. I, II, and IV

C. IV and V

B. I, Ill, and IV

D. II and IV

XIV. BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS ON STRUCTURAL DESIGN


1. Select the correct statement about lateral loads.

A. For both winds and earthquake loads, forces must


be calculated as though loads can come from any
direction and act on the building.

190

0000

B. In zones of high earthquake probability, the forces


produced by seismic lo~s always take precedence
over wind loads.
C. Wmd stagnation pressure is assumed to act at a point
50 feet above ground.
D. Buildings can only be designed to resist seismic
forces according to specified procedures in the UBC
or with approved wind tunnel tests.
2. The maximum possible allowable stress tor steel
members is:

0 0 0 0

A. F,= 0.60Fr (on net effective area)


B. F,= 0.66Fr (on net effective area)
C. Fb= 0.66FY(tor laterally supported compact sections)
D. Fb= 0.75Fr(for laterally supported compact sections)
3. Select the incorrect statements about wood construction.
I. Foundation sills may be any type wood if located more
than 6 inches above the earth.

0 0 0 0

II. Fire stops are not required in vertical openings of twostory residential construction.
Ill. Untreated wood joists over crawl spaces must have
their bottom edges at least 0.45 M above ground,
while beams only need 0.30 M clearance.
IV. Concrete beam po~kets ml!lst be sized to allow for
25 mm air space at the sides and tops, and 50 mm at
the ends, unless the wood is treated or of a species
with a natural resistance to decay.
V. Each 150 square meter of crawl space area requires
a one square rnet6r net vent opening.
A. I, II, and Ill

C. II, IV, and V

B. I, II, and IV

D. Ill, IV, and V

4. What is important to protect the structural integrity of


reinforcing bars?
A. FIRE RETARDANT FACTOR
B. CLEARANCE FROM EMBEDDED CONCRETE

191

0000

C. REBAR BENDING REQUIREMENTS


D. CONCRETE COVER
5. What building code provision attempts to minimize the
Hkelihood of roof failure through ponding?

0000

A. DURATION OF LOAD FACTOR

e:

SLENDERNESS FACTOR

C. DEFLECTION CRITERIA
D. COMBINATION LOADING
6. What is one of the bases for defining allowable stresses

00~~

0000

A. CAMBER
C. ULTIMATE STRENGTH
B. MINIMUM TENSILE STRESS
D. WORKING STRESS
7. A 150 mm x 325 mm wood beam supporting solid wood
decking would have its allowable stress modified by
what?
A. SIZE FACTOR

C. SHORING REMOVAL

B. YIELD STRESS

D. TEN PERCENT

8. If the allowable stress on a wood beam is 10 MPa what


is the required section modulus if the beam must resist a
moment of 623 N~M caused by snow loading?

A. 487325 mm3

C. 52829 mm3

B. 49825 mm3

D. 54174 mm3

9. Which of the following loading conditions does not have


to be investigated?
A. dead plus floor live plus snow plus one-half seismic
B. dead plus floor live plus snow
C. dead plus floor live plus wind plus one-haH snow
D. dead plus floor live plus one-h::1lf wind plus snow
192

0000

0000

0000

10. Which of the following are true statements?

I. 249 Kilos per square meter of dead load must be


factored into normal dead loading when designing
speculative office buildings.

0000

II. Live loads can be reduced on structural components


supporting more than 15 square meter in all occupancies except educational.
Ill. Structural continuity affects load calculations.

IV. Pitched roofs over 5 in 12 allow for a reduction in


snow loads over 90 kilos per square meter.
V. Required live loads are clearly stated in the UBC.

A. II, Ill, and V

C. I, Ill, and V

B. II, Ill, and IV

D. I, Ill, IV, and V

XV. WOOD CONSTRUCTION


1 . Which of the following statements is correct?
A. Glue-laminated beams may shrink excessively once
on the job site.

0000

B. Selecting a premium appearance grade glue-lam allows an increase in allowable bending stress.

C. 3/4-inch laminations are used in glue-lam beams primarily when a tight curve must be formed.

D. A nominal8-inch wide glue-lam is actually 7 .x; inches


wide.
2. An outdoor deck in a mountain region is supported on
#2 western red cedar joists with an Fb of 7.23 MPa for
repetitive members and an Fv of 0.516 MPa. The joists
are cantilevered 0.60 M as shown in the figures. If the
snow load creates a uniform load on each joist of 2516.25
N per square meter, what size joist is required (neglecting
the weight of the joist and considering both bending and
horizontal shear)?

193

0000

2516.25 N/M

beam loading

----------3.-0-M---------IO.SOMI

3692

shear di&gram

-4003.38

2693.08 N.M.

-473.18 N-M

A. 2x6(50x150mm)

C. 2x10(50x250mm)

B. 2 X 8 (50 X 200 mm)

D. 2 X 12 (50 X 300 mm)

3. Which of the following is usually not checked when


designing floor joists for heavy loads?
A. vertical shear

C. moment effects

B. horizontal shear

D. deflection

4. What must be used in designing bearing plates for


girders?
A.

0000

0000

DEFLECTION CRACKING

B. COMPRESSION PERPENDICULAR TO GRAIN


C. VISUAL GRADING
D. COMPRESSION PARALLEL TO GRAIN
5. What would be used to design a column with its lower
end encased in concrete?
A. SLENDERNESS RATIO

C. LATERAL SUPPORT

B. VERTICAL SHEAR

D. BUCKLING LENGTH
FACTOR

194

0000

6. What is as important as wood species in selecting


allowable stresses?

A. MOISTURE CONTENT

0000

C. EXTREME FIBER IN
BENDING

B. APPEARANCE GRADE D. SIZE CATEGORIES

7. Which of the following affect the selection of a value for


allowable tension parallel to the grain, before modification
due to duration of loading?

0000

I. wood species
II. size of member

Ill. single or multiple member use


IV. grade of lumber
V. duration of loading
A. I, II, and IV

C. II, IV, and V

B. I, Ill, and IV

D. all of the above

8. What is the maximum axial load a 100 x 150 mm top


chord truss member can resist if it spans 0.90 M between
panel points, its Fe is 6.545 MPa and its modulus of
elasticity is 11024 MPa?

A. 78345.22 N

C. 87473.45 N

B. 79482.48 N

D. 88425.22 N

A B C D

0000

9. The maximum bending moment on a 6.0 M long beam is


11085.97 N-M. If the beam is Douglas fir-larch dense
no. 1, and lateral support is provided, what is the most
economical size that should be used? (Neglect effects
of deflection.)

A. 100 x 250 mm

C. 150 x 200 mm

B. 100 x 300 mm

D. 150

0000

x 300 mm

10. Select the incorrect statement below.


A. Design values can be increased 33 ~ percent for
wind loading on wood structures.
B. Structural lumber should be specified at an absolute
maximum moisture content of 19 percent.

195

0000

C. Horizontal shear is almost always more critical than


deflection or bending in short, heavily loaded beams.
D. Beams can be notched a maximum of one-sixth of
their depth at end supports.

XVI. STEEL CONSTRUCTION


1. What is most often used for columns in steP.I
construction?

A. CARBON STEEL

C. A36 STEEL

B. WIDE FLANGES

D. COMPACT SECTIONS

2. What is the most important consideration in column


design?
A. SLENDERNESS
RATIO

C. RADIUS OF GYRATION

B. BUCKLING

D. LATERAL SUPPORT

3. What property of steel makes it good for earthquaKeresistant structures?


A. HIGH MODULUS OF
ELASTICITY

C. UNIFORM LOAD
CONSTANTS

B. DUCTILITY

D. FLEXURE

4. A steel girder supports a concentrated load of 53.38 KN


at its center. If the girder is A36 steel, spans 4.87 M and
is laterally supported, what is the most economical
section that can support the load?

A. W 8 X 24
B.

w 8 X 28

0000

0000

0 0 0 0

0000

C. W12x16

D.

w 12 X 22

5. Open-web steel joists are to span 27 feet and are placed


21/2 feet on center. A maximum depth of20 inches is
allowed for the joist. The live load is 80 psf, the dead
load is 40 psf, and the maximum deflection is limited to
1/360 of the span. What is the best joist to use?
A. 18K4

C. 20K4

B. 18K5

D. 20K6
196

0000

6. A W12 x 79 beam of A36 steel spans 22 feet. What


maximum load per foot can the beam support and what
is the maximum allowable unsupported length?

0000

A. 3.53 kips per foot; 12.8 feet


B. 3.53 kips per foot; 10.1 feet

C. 6.48 kips per foot; 12.8 feet

D. 77.7kipsperfoot; 10.1 feet


7. A W 14 x 120 column of steel with Fr= 50 ksi has an
unbraced length of 14 feet. It is rigidly fixed at the base,
fixed in translation at the top but free to rotate at the top.
What is the allowable concentric load?

A. 690 kips

C. 935 kips

B. 887 kips

D. 949 kips

8. Which of the following is not true about open-web steel


joists?

0000

0000

A. Proper bridging is important for joists.


B. All components of open-web joist construction conform to standards of the Steel Joist Institute.

C. Open web joists can span up to 144 feet.

D. The K-series is for spanning the shortest distances


up to 60 !eet.
9. A uniformly loaded W 10 x 60 beam spans 16 feet. If it is
A36 steel, laterally supported, and carries a total load of
60,000 pounds, how much will it deflect?

A. 0.560 inches

C. 0.656 inches

B. 0.614 inches

D. 0.674 inches

10. Which of the following statements about shear in steel


beams are true?
I. Shear is evenly distributed throughout the web and
flanges of the beam.
II. Unit shearing stress is partly a function of the maximum vertical sh~ar.
Ill. Shear stresses can be significant for beams with concentrated loads at mid-span.
197

0000

0000

IV. Shear is not usually a problem in steel beam design.


V. It is necessary to know the actual depth of a beam
rather than the nominal depth when calculating the
unit shearing stress.

A. I, II, and V

C. II, Ill, and IV

B. I, II, IV, and V

D. II, IV, and V

XVII. CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION


1 . Which of the following admixtures would you recommend
to use in a construction project in a northern climate that
)Nas built during the summer months if the concrete will
be exposed to the weather?

A. accelerator

C. air-entraining agent

B. plasticizer

D. accelerator and air-en


training agent

0000

2. Which of the following would be the correct placement


for primary reinforcing steel for the beam shown below if
the spans supported a uniformly distributed load?

0000

A.

B.

....

D.

....

3. The concrete beam shown is proposed to have rebars


placed schematically as shown. The strength of the
concrete is 27.5 MPa, or 4000 psi. and the steel is grade
60. The percentage of steel to achieve a balanced design
has been calculated to be 0.0285. What are the minimum
and maximum steel areas allowed?
2

A. minimum= 1.06 in ; maximum= 9.19 in

C. minimum= 1.06 in ; maximum= 6.90 in

D. minimum= 1.19 in 2 ; maximum= 7.70 in 2

198

0000
-

,.

' ~

B. minimum= 1.19 in2 ; maximum= 9.19 in2


2

564mm

c-

..... .
'

.'

. I>

, ..

' 0

641.. '.
I 300mm 1

4. Which of the following are not true about the watercement ratio:

A B C D

0000

I. For typical concrete mixes, the minimum water-cement is about 0.50 to 0.65.
II. The water-cement ratio is critical to the concrete
strength.
Ill. Water is only needed for workability and to start
drying process.

ttw

IV. Excess water form small bubbles in the cement paste.


V. The water-cement ratio is sometimes referred to by
gallons of water per sack of cement.
A. II and Ill

C. I and Ill

B. Ill and IV

D. I and IV

5. A number 10 rebar has the following diameter:


A.

0000

I~ inches

Ys inches
Ys inches

B. 1

c.

D. The exact diameter depends on the producing mill.

6. Select the correct statements from the following list.


I. The development length of rebars depends primarily
on the s1rength of the steel and the perimeter length
of the bar.
II. Diagonal tension stress can be counteracted by using either stirrups or some of the tension steel bent
up at a 45 degree angle.

Ill. Reducing the percentage of steel to close to minimum can improve the stiffness of the beam.
IV. Compression steel is seldom used unless negative
moment is present.

v.

Long-term deflection can be two or more times initial


deflection.

A. I, II, and Ill

C. II, IV, and V

B. I, Ill, and V

D. II, Ill, and V

199

0000

7. What should be carefully controlled during placement of


A. FACTORED LOAD

C. MOISTURE

B. COMPACTION

D. TEMPERATURE

8. What safety provision accounts for some of the many


variables in concrete construction?
A. LOAD FACTORS

C. NEGATIVE MOMENT

B. TWO-WAY
SLAB ACTION

D. STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTOR

9. What usual property of concrete construction improve


its structural efficiency?
A. CONTINUITY

C. T-BEAM ACTION

B. HYDRATION

D. CURING

10. What should you see to judge the quality of concrete


being placed at a job site.?

XVIII.

0000

co~~

A. SLUMP TEST

C. COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH

B. CORE CYLINDER TEST

D. CYLINDER TEST

0000

0000

0000

WALL CONSTRUCTION
1 . What should be used to allow for the wetting of an exterior
wood panel system?

A. EXPANSION JOINT

C. SLIP JOINT

B. SLOTTED HOLES

D. THROUGH WALL
JOINT

2. What is a metal stud wall system with decorative concrete


block on the exterior known as?
A. CURTAIN WALL

C. SHEAR WALL

B. VENEERED WALL

D. CAVITY WALL

200

0000

0 0 0 0

3. The lintels of masonry walls with small openings do not


carry as much load as might be expected due to what?

A. ECCENTRICITY

0000

C. FLEXIBLE BUSHINGS

B. HIGH-LIFT GROUTING D. ARCH ACTION


4. In earthquake-resistant structures, metal wrtain wails
should be attached vertically at the column lines and
horizontally at the floor lines because:

0000

A. these points are the strongest possible places for


anchoring.
B. building movement during an earthquake is at a minimum at these locations.
C. forces are concentrated at these points and should
not be bridged across with panels.
D. it is more likely that the workmanship of connectiOns
will be better at these points.
5. Select the correct statements about concrete bearing
walls when empirical design methods are used.

0000

I. Reinforcing bars should be placed no more than 1 '6"


apart.
II. The unsupported height cannot exceed 20 times the
thickness.
Ill. Eccentricity is not critical when the wall is more than
10 inches thick and reinforced with #5 bars or larger.
IV. Openings are reinforced all around with #5 bars or
larger extending at least 2'0" beyond the corners.
V. Minimum reinforcing percentages change when bar
sizes exceed #6 size.
A. I and IV

C. II, Ill, and IV

B. I, II, and Ill

D. IV and V

6. If a client requested you to design a building true to the


principles of masonry construction, what type of lintel
over openings would you most likely design?
A. concealed steel
B. reinforced masonry units

201

0000

C. precast concrete sized to fit the masonry module


D. arches of the same material as the walls
7. The exterior finish of a small, two-story building is to be
stucco. Which of the following wall systems would be a
good choice it cost must be minimized and the labor force
is relatively unskilled?

0000

A. masonry cavity
B. steel studs
C. balloon frame wood studs
D. platform frame wood studs
8. Which of the following is not true about masonry
reinforcing?

0000

A The spacing of required reinforcement is grouted masonry walls cannot exceed 3 feet.
B. Joint reinfqrcement is normally placed 16 inches on
center.
C. Ties between wythes of a cavity wall are provided for
every 4 lj2 square feet of wall surface regardless of
their size or type.
D. In low-lift grouting, the size of the horizontal reinforcing must not be included in the determination of minimum cavity width.
9. A concrete block cavity wall must extend 14 feet from
the foundation to a row of joists which will be supported
by the wall. What wythe combination must be used for
the most economical wall?
A. two 4-inch blocks separated by a 2-inch space

B. one 4-inch block and one 6-inch block with a 1-inch


space
C. two 6-inch blocks separated by a 2-inch space
D. one 4-inch block and one 8-inch block separated with
a 1-inch space

202

0000

10. Which of the following affect the bearing capacity of a


masonry wall?

0000

I. workmanship

11. thickness
Ill. number of wythes

1y.

mortar type

V. unsupported height
VI. joint reinforcement
A. I, II, Ill, and V

C. II, IV, V, and VI

B. I, II, IV, and V

D. all of the above

XIX. LATERAL FORCES -WIND


1. The John Hancock Building in Chicago is an example of
what type of framing system?
A. PORTAL FRAME

C. X-BRACING

B. TRUSSED TUBE

D. FRAMED TUBE

2. What must be used for designing gabled rigid frames?


A. RESONANT LOAD

C. SHEAR WALL

B. MOMENT RESISTING
FRAME

D. NORMAL FORCE
METHOD

3. A line of columns used to resist wind forces is called


what?
A. KNEE BRACING

C. ANEMOMETER

B. BENT

D. DRIFT

A. Drift of adjacent floors must be limited to 0.0025 times

the floor height.


B. Overturning is resisted by the dead load moment,
which must be 1 1/2 times the overturning moment.
C. K-bracing provides for a more rigid high-rise structure than X-bracing.

203

0000

0000

0 0 0 0

4. Select the incorrect statement.

0000

D. Wind tunnel testing or special calculations are frequently required for buildings over 400 feet high.
5. Using Method 2, what is the design wind pressure on
the upper part of a wall of a 45-foot high hospital in
downtown Salt Lake City, Utah?

A. 18.2 psf

C. 20.9 psf

B. 19.4 psf

D. 31.4 psf

6. In designing a sheathing and roofing system for a roof


with a 5:12 slope, what pressure coefficient should be
used?
A. 0.4 outward

C. 1.1 outward

B. 0.7 outward

D. 1.6 inward

7. A wood ledger is being used to support and connect a


plywood diaphragm floor to a 38-foot long stud wall that
is acting as a shear wall. 8d nails, which can hold 82
pounds laterally, are to be used. If the total force on one
of the shear walls is calculated as 4600 pounds, what is
the minimum nail spacing required to attach the floor to
the ledger?

A. 4 inches

C. 8 inches

B. 6inches

D. 10 inches

8. Select the correct statements from the following list.

I. Shear walls are more efficient if they are relatively


deep compared with their height.

II. Trussed-tube construction is often used for both steel


and concrete construction.
Ill. Wood frame buildings must often be anchored to the
foundation to resist uplift as well as shear

IV. Welded connections offer an economical way to fabricate moment resisting frames while simplifying erection.

V. Dividing the total shear on a shear wall by its length


gives the value for diaphragm shear.

A. I, Ill, IV, and V

C. II, IV, and V

B. II, Ill, and V

D. all of the above


204

0000

0000

0000

0000

9. The effect of intermittent wind gusts is taken into account


in the UBCwith the:

A B C D

0000

q8 factor

A. C., factor

C.

B. Cq factor

D. I factor

10 .. Which of the following are not true about wind forces on


buildings?

0000

I. Wind stagnation pressure is greater in open areas


than in urban areas.
II. Corners of buildings require special consideration
during the design phase.
Ill. The negative pressure on the leeward side of a building is taken into consideration in both Method 1 and
Method 2 of the UBC design procedure.
IV. Wind velocity increases when the area it moves
through is decreased in area.
V. The direction of the prevailing winds at a particular
site is used to calculate wind stagnation pressure.

A. I, Ill, and V

C. I and Ill

B. I and V

D. Ill, IV, and V

XX. LATERAL FORCES - EARTHQUAKE


1. A building is constructed of an ordinary moment-resisting
space frame and is raised on columns above an open
plaza below. What is this an example of?

A. BUILDING FRAME

A B C D

0000

C. SOFT STORY

SYSTEM
B. BEARING WALL
SYSTEM

D. SH~AR WALL
DISCONTINUITY

2. What provides information most useful for seismic


design?
A. RICHTER SCALE

C. REENTRANT CORNER

B. ACCELEROGRAPH

D. MODIFIED MERCALLI
SCALE

205

0000

3. What describes a building whose lateral force-resisting


system consists stressed in flexure?

0000

A. MOMENT-RESISTING C. FRAMED TUBE


SPACE FRAME
B. BRACED FRAME

D. NATURAL PERIOD

4. A store in Seattle, Washington will have a steel, ordinary


moment-resisting space frame. It will be 36 Meters wide,
60 Meters long, 17 Meters, with two stories. Soil reports
show stiff soil with the soil depth exceeding 60 Meters.
The structure has a dead load of 28,913 KN, and its
period of vibration is 0.19 second in the longitudinal
direction. What is the total base shear in the longitudinal
/direction?

A. 1,989.15 KN

C. 3,975.54 KN

B. 2,652.20 KN

D. 6,563.75 KN

0000

A
5. A dynamic analysis method would be required if which
of the following conditions existed?

0000

A. a five-story, square hotel building with a skylighttopped atrium in the middle which comprises 55 percent of the building's area
B. a 40-story, rectangular office building in seismic zone
3 with an ordinary moment-resisting space frame
C. a three-story, L-shaped department store
D. all of the above
A
6. Select the incorrect statement from the following.

A. Ductility is important above the elastic limit.


B. Flexible buildings are good at resisting earthquake
and wind loads.
C. A penthouse swimming pool would not be a good
idea in seismic zone 2B.
D. All of other things being equal, reinforced concrete is
a poorer choice than steel for a structural system in
seismic zone 3.

206

0000

7. Which of the following are true?


I. The epicenter is the location of fault slippage.

c D

0000

II. Vertical ground movement is usually critical when calculating its effect on a building.
Ill. A building's fundamental period of vibration is dependent on its mass and stiffness.
IV. Building seismic zones 1 require some earthquakeresistant design considerations.
V. Useful information in seismic zones 3 and 4 can be
gathered from existing buildings.

A. I, II, and Ill

c.

B. II, Ill, and IV

D. Ill, IV, and V

II, IV, and V

8. What value of CP would be used on the first floor in


seismic zone 3 to check the stability of a 6-foot-high
bookcase?

A. 0.75

c.

B. 1.5

D. 4.0

c D
0000
A

2.0

9. The distribution of base shear in a multistory building


does not depend on which of the following?
A. the height of the
building

C. the distribution of mass

B. the rigidity of the


diaphragms

D. the height of the floors

10. Select the correct statements about shear walls.


I. The width-to-height ratio should be made as large as
possible.
II. The force normal to the shear wall is not critical compared to the shear force in the plane of the wall.
Ill. Shear walls are best located at the perimeter of the
building.
IV. Shear walls should not be offset.
V. Shear walls can be used in a bearing wall system.

A. I, Ill, and IV

C. I, Ill, IV, and V

B. I, II, and IV

D. all of the above

207

0000

0000

XXI. LONG SPAN STRUCTURES


-ONE WAY SYSTEMS
1. Partitions should not be rigidly attached to the underside
of a long span structural member because:

0000

A. This would decrease the flexibility of future room layouts.


B. Lateral loads transferred to the partitions would cause
them to tip slightly.
C. Temperature changes would crack the finish material.
D. Long-term deflection would buckle the partition structure.

2. What is common to both deep, long span steel joists


and prestressed double tees?
A. PONDING

C. CAMBER

B. TENDONS

D. PLATE GIRDER

0000

3. What is the ideal shape for an arch?

A. FURNICULAR

C. PARABOLIC

B. CIRCULAR

D. RIGID FRAME

4. Name the truss that does not have intermediate vertical


members.
A. PRATT

C. HOWE

B. WARREN

D. GOTHIC

5. Which of the following is not true about open-web steel


joists?

0000

0000

A. The LH-series and DLH-series are used where open


space is needed for floor and roof spans up to 144

teet.
B. A top chord, single pitched joist can be purchased
for either top or bottom chord bearing.

C. The architect need not specify the required camber.


D. A 24LH06 joist must always be braced with bridging;
regardless of its span.
208

6. A sports complex is being planned for a large university.


One portion will include a 50-meter pool with competition
diving boards and areas for sJ)ectators. The size of the
pool area has been tentatively set at 110 feet wide by
220 feet long by 50 feet high with the spectator area on
one side of the long dimension. Glazing is planned along
both short dimensions, and the primary exterior finish
material is brick.

0000

What structural roof system would probably be best for


this situation?

A. deep, long span joists


B. glued laminated rigid frames

C. prestressed, single-T concrete sections

D. pitched steel trusses

7. Slotted holes are used to:


I. provide for erection tolerances

A B
() "'

,j

r,
\

'~

r,

II. make shop fabrication easier

Ill. allow for temperature changes


IV. let the exterior envelope move to prevent stress buildup

v.

make precise alignment possible

A. I, IV, and V

C. I, Ill, and V

B. II, Ill, and IV

D. all of the above

8. Select the incorrect statement.

A. Camber is used to prevent pondong.

B. Thrust action must be considered when using long


span arches.
v. Glued laminated beams can span farther than sawn
'"'

timber because the allowable extreme fiber in bending stress is greater.


D. Special moment connection are required for
Vierendeel trusses.

209

0 0 0 0

9. Careful construction observation of long span structures


is critical for which of the following reasons?

0000

I. to look for overstressing caused by temporary construction loads placed on the structure
II. to check for proper construction sequence
Ill. to make sure that connections are made according
to the shop drawings
IV. to compare on-site materials and components against
the drawings and specification
V. to determine that secondary members are aitached
to primary members properlv.

A. I, II, and IV

C. II, Ilk IV, and V

B. II, Ill, and IV

D. all OT me above

10. What one-way system normally can span the farthest?

A. deep, long span joists C. wood arch


B. flat steetl truss

0000

D. prestressed single-T

XXII. LONG SPAN STRUCTURE


-TWO WAY SYSTEM

1. Select the incorrect statement about spaces frames.


A. Space frames are different from many long spa'n
structures because of their redundancy.

0000

B. Top and bottom grids of a space frame can run in


different directions, but they usually are oriented the
same way.
C. Regularly spaced supports with overhands are more
efficient than supports'located at the perimeter of a
space frame structure.
D. Space frames are economical structures because
their many connections can be prefabricated.
2. Match the related systems and spans.

0000

folded plates
II. hyperbolic parabolids

210

Ill. geodesic domes


IV. suspended cable structure
V. space frames
1. 30 to 160 feet
2. 50 to 100 feet
3. 80 to 220 feet
4. 50 to 400 feet
5. 50 to 450 feet
A. 1-1, 11-2, 111-5, IV-3, V-4

C. 1-2, 11-1, 111-4, IV-5, V-3

B. 1-2, 11-3, 111-4, IV-5, V-1

D. 1-3, 11-1, 111-4, IV-4, V-2

3. A thin shell dome gets its strength and efficiency from


which of the following?

0000

A meridiana! action and hoop tension


B. compression, shear, and tension in the place of the
dome
C. distribution of hoop compression in the upper part of
the dome and hoop tension in the lower part
D. arch action in three dimensions
4. What describes a structure with diagonal bracing and
individual arches?

A SCHWEDLER

C. CATENARY

B. THIN SHELL

D. HYPERBOLIC PARABOLOID

0000

5. Three of the structures listed above share an important


property. What is this property?

A HOOPS

C. NODE

B. MERIDIAN

D. REDUNDANCY

6. What describes most pretensioned membrane


structures?

A SYNCLASTIC

C. INDETERMINANT

B. ANTICLASTIC

D. LAWELLA

211

0000

7. Which of the structures listed above is the least stable


under wind loads?

A. Geodesic dome

C. Preu matic

B. Space frame

D. Barrel vault

8. A dome is a very stiff structure for whichof the following


reasons?

0000

A 8

C 0

0000

A. Strain is small due to all stresses being in compression or tension.

B. The boundary of a dome is prevented from moving


because of its circular shape.

C. Lateral loads are evenly distributed throughout the


dome.
D. Tension and compression are balanced.

9. Select the correct statements.


I. labor is often the primary reason many long span

A 8

C 0

0000

structures are not economical.


II. A high-rise dome in the winter experiences tension
above the meridian angle of 45 degrees and compression below this point.
II:

Both flat plates and barrel vaults need to have a length


greater than transverse span width to be efficient.

IV. The thrust on a cable-suspended structure is directly


proportional to its sag.

10

A structure like a suspension bridge makes the cable


assume the shape of a parabola.

A. 1. 111. and B

C II, Ill, and IV

B.

D. Ill and V

! II, IV,

and V

Membranes are good structures to use because:

0000

A. They are easy to erect.

B. There is always direct, positive drainage


C. They make very efficient use of material
D. Their form is one of the most dramatic types of lqng
span structures.

212

AREA ''B''
PART II

BUILDING
MATERIALS AND
METHODS OF
CONSTRUCTION

AREA "B"

PART II

DIRECTION: Read the passages and answer the questions that follow. Shade the
circle (e) of the correct answer to each question.

I. BUILDING MATERIALS
A. CONCRETE
1. To avoid making concrete surfaces slippery. what
material is used?
A. CONCRETE TILE
B.

ABRA~IVE:

0 0 0 0

C. ROUGH WOOD
ON EDGES
D. PLASTIC

MATERIAL IN
THE TOPPING
2. An admixture which is usec.J to speed up the initial
set of concrete (early removal of forms).
A. DECELARATORS

C. HARD AGENTS

B. HI-TECH LIQUID

D. ACCELERATORS

3. Plain concrete surfaces which are subjected to live


loads, the impact action of foot traffic, and other types
of wear begin to dust and crumble at the surface,
finally resulting in the destruction of the surface to
prevent this. Use _ _ __
A. STONE

C. DAMP-PROOFER

B. CHEMICAL
HARDENER

D SAHARA POWDER

4. The function of the admixture is to delay or extend


the setting time of the cement paste in concrete.
Usually used in very hot weather where hydration is
accelerated by the heat, and leads the concrete to
crack. This is also used for transit mix concrete that

214

0000

A B C D

0000

0000

has to be hauled in long distance to ensure that it


reaches its destination in a plastic and placeable
condition.

A. STOPPER

C. RETARDER

B. CONTROLLER

D. DELAYER

5. Common quality-control test of concrete, based on


7 and 28 day curing periods. Specimens are usually
cylindrical with a length equal to twice the diameter
or 0.15 M. diameter and 0.30 M. height.

A. COMPRESSIVE

A B C D

0000

C. STIFFNESS TEST

STRENGTH TEST
B. TENSILE
STRENGTH TEST

D. BONDING TEST

6. When freshly mixed concrete is checked to ensure


that the specified deflection is being attained
consistently. A standard cone is 30 em. high and 20
em. diameter at the bottom and 10 em. diameter on
top and open on both ends. The cone is filled in three
equal layers and tamped 25 times. When cone is
filled it is lifted and measure the deflection.

A. OVERFLOWING

0000

C. SLUMP TEST

TEST
B. WATER TEST

D. BREAKUP TEST

7. Concrete can be considered to be an artificial stone


made by binding together particles of some inert
material with a paste made of cement and water.
These inert material of sand, crushed stone, burnt
clay are called _ _

A. UNION OF
MATERIALS
B. SUMMARIES

ADDITIVES
B. ADD-ON
MATERIALS

0000

C. MIXTURE OF
MATERIALS
D. AGGREGATES

8. In addition to the basic ingredients of concrete, other


materials are often added to the mix or applied to
the surface efc freshly placed concrete to produce
some special result and is known as _ _ __

A. CONCRETE

C. CONCRETE
COM E-ONS
D. PLUS FACTOR
CONCRETE
215

0000

9. Made from materials which must contain the proper


proportions of lime, silica, alumina and iron
components. Four parts of limestone to one part clay
are the basic ingredients. These are mixed, burned
then pulverized.
A. POZZOLAN
CEMENT

C. PORTLAND CEMENT

B. HI-GRADE
CEMENT

D. CEMENTITIOUS
MATERIALS

0000

Stones used for building purposes are classified


according to form in which it is available commercially.
10.

includes rough fieldstone which may


merely have been broken into suitable sizes, or it
may include irregular pieces of stone that had been
roughly cut to size usually as escombro or filling
material, when used as a facing to a wall, it is laid at
random meaning when no attempt is made to
produce either horizontal or vertical course line.

A. CRUSHED ROCK

C. RIP-RAP STONE

B. SAND STONE

D. RUBBLE

11 . These are stones that consists of using slabs ot stone


cut to dimension and thickness to cover backup walls
and provide a finished exterior, like marble and
granite.
A. LIMESTONE

C. FLAGSTONE

B. PANELING

D. DIMENSION STONE

12. This kind of stone, when used as the facing is so


called when the work requires the use of cut stone
and includes broken irregular coursed, and regular
coursed _ __
A. RUBBLE

C. ASHLAR

B. RANDOM

D. TRIM

13. The basic ingredient of


is clay which
has some specific properties such as plasticity when
mixed with water, so that it can be molded or shaped;
it must have sufficient tensile strength to keep its

216

0000

0000

0000

A B C D

0000

shape after foaming; and ctay particles must fuse


together wheri subjected to sufficiently high
temperature. This material is molded solid.

A. CHB

C. SLATE

B. ADOBE

b.

BRICK

14. These are hollow units as opposed to brick which is


solid. They are made from the same materials as
brick, but all are formed by extrusion in the stiff-mud
process.

A. STRUCTURAL
CLAY TILE

C. FURRING TILE

B. BACK-UP TILE

D. VIGAN TILES

15. Meaning 'fired earth" is a clay product which has


been used for architectural decorative purposes.
since ancient Greece and Rome. Modern
____ _ is machine-extruded and molded or
proposed. The machine-made product is usually
referred to as CERAMIC VENEER, and is a unit with
flat face and flat or ribbed back.

A. CERAMIC TILE

C. BRICKS

B. TERRA COTTA

D DECORATIVE TILE

16. The method of laying bricks in a wall in order to form


some' distinctive design is referred to as the

A. DESIGNED BOND

C. FLEMISH BOND

B. HORIZONTAL and
VERTICAL BOND

D. DECORATIVE TILE

0000

A 8 C D

0000

0000

B. WOOD, BOARDS

1. "DEC IDUO US" tress are trees that have broad leaves
which are normally shed in the winter time. These
are classed as _ _ __

A. FOREST WOODS

C. SOLID WOODS

B. STURDY WOODS

D. HARDWOODS

217

0000

2. "CONIFERS" are trees that have needles. rather than


leaves and that bear their seeds in cones. These
are called _ _ __

A. SOFT WOODS

C. LIGHT WOODS

B. TENDER WOODS

D. BALSA WOODS

0000

As clay is burned. steel is tempered, so lumber must be


dried.
3. Lumber is strip-piled at a slope on a solid foundation.
This allows air to circulate around every piece while
the sloping allows water to run off quickly. This may
take months to dry.
A. SUN-DRIED
METHOD

C. WIND-DRIED
METHOD

B. AIR-DRYING

D. BLOW-DRIED
METHOD

4. Expensive !.umber such as those used for furniture


must be dried using this method, so that wood will
not move. It must be dried artificially to a moisture
content of not more than 5 to 10 percent done using
an oven in a large air fight structure and may take
weeks only to dry.
A. ELECTRIC RAY

C. KILN-DRYING

B. HUNG-DRYING

D. FIRE-DRYING
METHOD

5. A term used to describe wooden member built-up


of several layers of wood whose grain directions are
all substantially parallel, and held together with glue
as fastening, commonly used for beams. gardens,
posts, columns. arches. bowstring truss chords
usually softwoods are used.
A. STRESSED-SKIN

C. COMBINED
MATERIAL

B. BOX-TYPE

D. GLU-LAMINATED
TIMBER

218

0000

0000

0000

6. When lumber is subjected to pressure and injected


with chemicals or salts to insure it from rots. This is
termed as _ _ __

0000

A. TREATED LUMBER C. PAINTED LUMBER


B. INJECTED
LUMBER

D. PRESSURIZED
LUMBER

7. Plywood is made by bonding together thin layers of


wood in a way that the grain of each layer is at right
angles to the grain of each adjacent layer. Each layer
of plywood is called a _ _ __
A. FRAMING

C. VENEER

B. SHOW-IN

D. FACING

8. A group of sheets of building materials often faced


. with paper or vinyl, suitable for use as a finished
surface on walls. ceilings. etc. These are flat,
relatively thin in section and have been made to
standard sizes. usually 1.20 x 2.40M.

0000

0000

A. FINISHING BOARD C. CONSTRUCTION


BOARDS
B. BUILDING
BOARDS

D. ARCHITECTURAL
BOARDS

9. A building board made from processed wood chips.


Chips of controlled size are subjected to highpressure steam in pressure vessels. When the
pressure is released. the chips "explode" and the
cellulose and liquid are separated from the unwanted
elements and then mixed into a homogenous mass
and formed into a continuous board. These are
pressed into a uniform. hard grainless sheets in
heated process.
A. STONE BOARD

B. HARD BOARD

D. STRONG BOARD

0000

PLY-BOARD

10. A building board made by impregnated standard


board with a compound of oils and resins and baking
it to polymerize the material. This board is brittle and
stiff. has improved machining qualities and much
greater resistance to water penetration. making it
suitable for exterior use.
219

A B C D

0000

A. RIGID BOARD

C. WATERPROOF
BOARD

B. FLEXI-BOARD

D. TEMPERED
HARDBOARD

11. Made from three types of fiber; wood, sugar cane,


and asbestos, and binder formed into a board. They
are softened with live steam, sheared to break chips
down into fibers.

A. INSULATING
FIBERBOARD
B. TEMPERATE
BOARD

C. CHIPBOARD

B. SLICED BOARD

D. SIZED-BOARD

13. A hard board made from relatively small materials


The materials are graduated from coarse at the
center of the board to fine at the surface to help
produce a product with a smooth dense surface. Both
surfaces are sanded. Uses are floor underlay and
shelvings common as a base for wood veneers,
plastic laminates.

A ARTICLE BOARD

C. GROUNDED BOARD

B UNIT BOARD

D. ATOMIZED BOARD

From the outer bark of an oaktree. Granules is mixed


with synthetic resin, compressed and formed into
sheets from 25 mm. to 150 mm. thick and baked
under pressure into rigid boards. The standard board
length is only 0.91 m. (36 inches) and widths are 30,
45. 60 and 75 em. this board is exclusively for thermal
insulating material and yibration control.
PAPERBOARD

B CORKBOARD

0000

D. 'vVEATHERPROOF
BOARD

A. PIECE WORK
BOARD

A.

C. NOISE REDUCING
BOARD

12. Large class of building board made from wood and


particles and a binder often faced with veneer. Panels
are made into two types, plain and patterned. Plain
panels may be unsanded, sanded on one side or
both. Patterned panels have one grooved surface,
either evenly spaced or random.

14

C. SOFTBOARD
D. LIGHTWEIGHT
BOARD
220

0000

A B c D
0 0 0 0

0000

15. Roofing paper which are used in maktngabuilt~up


roof and are usuaHy "produced in 91 em. wide rolls,
in various weight from 1.3 kilos to 9.08 kilos per
square.
A. ROOFING ROLLS

C. ROOFING FELTS

B. ROOFING FOILS

D. ROOFING SHEETS

16. Two thicknesses of paper laminated together with a


film of asphalt. Two kinds of paper is used- one is a
kraft paper. The other, a mixture of ground wood
pulps, treated by the sulfate and the kraft methods

A B C D

0000

A B C D

0000

A. WATER PROOFED C. TEMPERATE PAPER


PAPER
B. ASPHALT PAPER

D. VAPOR-BARRIER
PAPER

C. METALS
1

Metal in which iron is the principal element. Steel


wrought iron and stainless steel

A MINEDMETALS

('

_,

<...! ',_

B C

,~,

-.,

HEAVY WEIGHT
METALS

B FERROUS METALS D. ANTI-RUST METALS


2 Metal 1n which it contains NO or very little iron
Aluminum, copper, orass, tin, lead, zinc.

A NON-MAGNETIC
METALS
B TEMPERED
METALS

0000

C. NON-FERROUS
METALS
D. MIXED METALS

3. High tensile strands used lor pre-stressing or post


tensioning concrete.
A. TENDONS

C. TEMPERATE BARS

B. WIRE MESH

D. ROLED BARS

221

0000

4. This metal is produced when pig iron is melted in


such a way as to remove nearly all of the carbon
and other impurities. It is easily worked and is tough
and ductile. It's main use are for roofing sheets, wire
and metal ornamentals.
A. HAMMERED
METALS

C TWISTED IRON

B. STRUCTURAL
STEEL

D. WROUGHT-IRON

5. Made from new steel or from discarded railway car


axles or nails. This comes in plain or deformed bars.
That is, bars which have lugs or deformations rolled
on the surface to provide anchorage in concrete.
A. CHANNEL BARS

C. ANGLE BARS

B. STRUCTURAL
STEEL

D. REINFORCING BARS

6. Another type of reinforcing material. It consists of


parallel, longitudinal wi(es welded to transverse wires
at regular intervals (cold drawing process).

0000

0000

A B C D

0000

A. EXPANDED METAL C. WELDED WIRE


FABRIC
B. CYCLONE WIDE

D. GALVANIZED IRON
WIRE

7. This metal is lustrous, silver-white non-magnetic,


lightweight metal which is very malleable; has good
thermal and electrical conductivity; a good reflector
of both heat and light often anodized for better
corrosion resistance, surface hardness and/or
architectural color requirement.
A. NICKEL SILVER

C. STAINLESS STEEL

B. ALUMINUM

D. MUNTZ METAL

8. A lustrous reddish metal, highly ductile and


malleable; has high tensile strength, is an excellent
electrical and thermal conductor is available in a wide
variety of shapes; widely used for downspouts,
electrical conductors, flashings, gutters.
A. COPPER

C. BRASS

B. ZINC

D. MONEL

222

0000

0000

9. Whenaluminumisanodizedtoabrownorblackcolor
this is called
A. DECORATIVE
SHADE

C. ANALOK

B. ALCAN-PLANAR

D. METALLIC-DYE

10. To impart strength or toughness to steel or cast iron


by heating it to some temperature below the
transformation point, maintaining it there for
sometime then cooling it under controlled conditions.
it is called _ _ __

0 0 0 0

0000

A. HAMMERED STEELC. MOLDED STEEL


B. TEMPERED STEEL D. PULLED STEEL
11. A process of coating a metal object by using powder
in place of traditional solution paints for the surface
treatment of steel and other metals. The process
involves applying electrically charged coating
materials to a grounded metal object and come in a
wide range of colors form.

0000

A. LIQUID PROCESS C. POWDER-COATING


B. CHEMICAL
PROCESS

D. PAINTING METHOD

12. The most familiar process in coating finishes for


__ . which is an electroAluminum is the
chemical process that deposits an integral coating
on the metal. It can include the familiar silvery coating
of aluminum or a number of colors in the black or
brown ranges called ANAL OK.
A. ANODIZING
FROCESS

C. MOULDING
PROCESS

B. COLD-ROLLED
PROCESS

D. CHEMICAL PROCESS

223

0000

D. GLASS, PLASTICS, SEALANTS


1. A hard brittle inorganic substance ordinarily
transparent or translucent; provided by melting a
mixture of silica, a flux and a stabilizer; while molten,
may be blown, drawn, rolled pressed or cast to a
variety of shapes.

A. GLASS

C. CELLULOID

B. PLASTIC

D. VINYL

2. A type of glass that is used to control glare and


reduce solar heat. It is the product of a glass-coating
process which is carried out in a large, rectangular
vacuum chamber. The glass is coated with microthin layers of metallic films which provide the
performance characteristtcs of the glass. This results
in savings in operating costs of air-conditioning and
diminishes interior glare and brightness.

A. IMAGE-GLASS

C. ARCHITECTURAL
GLASS

B. REFLECTIVE
GLASS

D. DIFFUSING GLASS

3. A glass that contains a pattern or texture impressed


usually on one surface by a patterned roller.

A. CATHEDRAL &
FIGURED GLASS

C. WIRED GLASS

B. ROUGH CAST
GLASS

D. VITREOUS COLORED
PLATE

4. Three to five times as strong as regular plate of the


same thickness and area in resisting compressive
forces and fracture due to strain or thermal shock
used for swinging doors, sliding patio doors, windows
in sports areas, skating rink. Thickness from 6.35
mrn., 12.70 mm., 15.88 mm., 19.06 mm. and 25.41
mm. (1/4, 3/8, 1/2, 5/8, 3/4 and 1 inch).

A. WATERPROOFED
GLASS

C. TEMPERED PLATE
GLASS

B. INSULATED
GLASS

D. HEAT-ABSORBING
GLASS

224

0000

0000

A B C D

0000

0000

5. Widely used in the automotive industry and


transportation, but now finding some uses in the
building industry, like glass that can withstand firearm
attack and explosions. This is made of two
thicknesses of plate or sheet glass bonded by a thin,
tough layer of polyvinyl butyral resin, a transparent
plastic.

0000

A. TEMPERED GLASS C. FLOAT GLASS


B. LAMINATED
SAFETY GLASS

D. PLATE GLASS

6. This consists of two sheets of plate or sheet glass,


separated by an air space and joined around the
edges to produce a hermetically sealed unit. This
restricts sound and condensation and reduce
external noise. but still permit the entry of natural light

A.

INSULATING
GLASS

B. FIGURED GLASS

A B C D

0000

C. TEMPERATE GLASS

D. WIRED GLASS

7. Comparable in many ways to uhit masonry but have


the added feature of transmitting light. They are made
into two separate halves, which are heat-sealed
together to form a hollow unit with reasonably high
thermal efficiency and sound insulation.

A. SOLID BLOCKS

C. RECTANGULAR
GLASS

B. GLASS BLOCKS

D. REINFORCED GLASS

8. A large group of synthetic materials which are made


from a number of common substances such as coal,
salt, natural gas, cotton, wood and water. From these
relatively simple chemical known as monomers,
which are capable or reacting with one another
chainlike molecules of high molecular weight called
polymers, which can be molded, extruded, cut or
worked into a great variety of objects.
A. PLASTICS

C. RUBBERS

B. VINYLS

D. MAGNESITES

225

0000

0000

9. These materials are so called because they consists


of three or more layers of material bonded together
with plastic adhesive under high pressure. The base
is made up of multiple layers of strong kraft paper,
impregnated with phenolic, amino or epoxy liquid
resin. This is covered with a printed patterns sheet
saturated with melamine resin. A picture top sheet is
also saturated with melamine resin, and in some
cases a sheet of aluminum foils is inserted between
the base and decorative center layer to dissipate heat
and prevent marring the surface with burns.
A. POLYSTERENE

C. PLASTIC LAMINATES

B. VINYLS

D. POLYURETHANE

10. A hard, impure, protein gelatin, obtained by boiling


skins, hoofs and other animal substances in water,
that when melted or diluted is a strong adhesive.
A. PLATE

C. GLUE

B. JOINT

D. TAPES

11. These compounds are products which are used to


close the surface of various materials against the
penetration of water or other liquids or in some cases
to prevent the escape of water through the surface.
To do this, they must have some adhesive qualities
and the ability to fill the surfaces pores and form a
continuous skin on the surface to which they are
applied sanding
for wood and silicone
_ _ _ _ for masonry.
A. PASTE

C. FUSES

B. SEALERS

D. CLOSERS

12. To fill or close seams or crevices of a tank or window


in order to make wate~light, airlight. If used for sealing
glass it is known as glazing.

A. LAMINATING

C. CAULKING

B. WATER STOPPING D. MOLDING

226

0000

0000

0000

A B C D

0000

E. INSULATION
1. To prevent hot air outside during hot summer season
to enter inside and prevent cold winds to enter the
house during cold months. All of these are done by
the judicious use of materials to prevent the transfer
of heat we call _ _ __
A. TEMPERATE
INSULATION

C. HEAT INSULATION

B. THERMAL
INSULATION

D. CLIMATIC
INSULATION

2. A kind of insulating mate~ial that is either a fibrous


type made from mineral wool or glass wool fiber and
granular type made from expanded minerals such
as perlite and vermiculite or granulated cork.

A. LOOSE FILL .
INSULATION

C. PIECED INSULATION

B. BREAKWAY
INSULATION

D. SEGMENTAL
INSULATION

3. Made from some fibrous materials such as mineral


wood. wood fiber, cotton fiber or animal hair.
manufactured in the form of a mat 40, 50 or 60 em.
in width, in 2.41 m. long controlled thicknesses of
2.54, 3.81, 50.82, 76.23, 10.16 em. some have a
paper back on one side. This is used where large
areas are to be insulated. If it comes only or restricted
to 2.41 m. long it is called a "BATT' for installation
between stud spacings.

A. SHEET
INSULATION

C. COATED
INSULATION

B. ROLLED-UP
INSULATION

D. BLANKET
INSULATION

4. Made from organic fiber-wood, cane, straw or cork.


The wood and cane raw material is first pulped, after
which it is treated with waterproofing chemicals. The
fibers are then formed into sheets of various
thicknesses and cut into standard lengths. These are
called strawboards and corkboards in to market.

A. RIGID INSULATION C. STRUCTURAL


BOARD
INSULATION BOARD
B. HARD INSULATION D. ARCHITECTURAL
BOARD
INSULATION BOARD
227

0000

0000

0000

0000

5. Made from such materials as aluminum or copper


foil or sheet metal with bright surfaces that does not
absorb heat.
A. IMAGING
INSULATION

C. ANTI-GLARE
IN.SULATION

B. DIFFUSER
INSULATION

0. REFLECTIVE
INSULATION

6. This is a polyurethane product made by combining


a poly isocyanate and a polyester resin. This type of
insulation can be applied either by pouring wherein
a carefully measured amount of the mixture is
deposited in an existing cavity or by spraying wherein
a number of thin coats of this material applied, one
over the other with sufficient time being left between
each application for this material to set up.

0000

0000

A. FOAMED IN PLACE-C. SITE POURED

B. CAST IN PLACE

D. SITE SPRAYED

7 This type of insulation is so called because the units


are relatively stiff and inelastic. In most cases,
inorganic materials are used in their manufacture.
This include'mineral wool with binder, framed plastic,
. cellular, glass, foamed concrete, cellular hard rubber,
shredded wood and cement. Suitable for use in roofdeck insulation. Foamed plastic insulation made from
expanded polystyrene and polyurethane formed into
slabs like styropor is in this type.

0000

A. SOLID INSULATION C. BLOCK OR RIGID


SLAB INSULATION

B. STIFFENED
INSULATION

D. HARDPRESSED
INSULATION

8 Materials used as polyurethane foam asbestos fibers


mixed with inorganic fibers, vermiculite aggregate
with a binder such as portland cement or gypsum
and perlite aggregate using gypsum as a binder.
Machines are used for blowing these insulations into
place. As a result, the shape or irregularity of the
surface being insulated is of little consequence. This
type of insulation also seals cracks and crevices to
prevent dust from shifting through.
A. SI?LASHED-ON

INSULATION
B. SPRAYED-ON
INSULATION

C. BLOWN-UP
INSULATION
D. SPATTERED
INSULATION
228

0000

DIRECTION: Matching type. Match the material shown at the le\t side to those that
are shown on the right side. Write the correct letter at the parenthesis
provided.
F. DOORS, HARDWARES
1 . FLUSH DOOR ....................... (

A. A door mounted on track which


slides in a horizontal direction
usually parallel to one wall.

2. PANEL DOOR ........................ (

B.

A protective plate surrounding


the keyhole of a door or a light
switch (also a flange on a
pipe)

3. FRENCH DOOR ................... (

c.

A door that swings in both directions When mounted on


pivot hardware or special
double acting hinges.

4. DUTCH DOOR ..................... (

D. The door can be opened


whether you are inside or outside the garage, or inside your
car. Just click the gadget in
your hand and the transmitter
code automatically opens the
garage door.

E.

5. SLIDING DOOR .....

6. SLIDING POCKET
DOOR ................................... (

7. DOUBLE ACTING
DOOR .................................... (

229

A smooth- surfaced door having laces which are plain and


conceal its rods and stiles or
other structure. When used inside. it is of hollow core, when
used for exterior, it is of solid
core.

F. A door having glass panels


from the top and to the bottom
nail.

G. A rigid overhead door which


opens as an entire unit by using a special spring attached
to the sides, with an overhead
horizontal track.

8. ACCORDION DOOR ............. (

H. These are devices that automatically return a door to its


closed position after it is
opened. They also control the
distance a door can be
opened. These can be sur1ace
mounted on the door and/or
the frame

9. REVOLVING DOOR .............. (

I. An electronic gadget that


projects an invisible light beam
across the approach of the
door. If a person approaches
the door, he interrupts the invisible beam. The opener is
activated and the door automatically slides open.

10. OVERHEAD SWING-UP


GARAGE DOOR .................... (

J. A door made up of small hori-

11. REMOTE CONTROL ............. (

K. A door which slides inside a


hollow of the wall.

12. ROLL-UP DOOR ................... (

L. A hinged door which is divided

13. HINGE .................................. (

M. A hinged door consisting of a


system of panels which are
hung from an overhead track
when the door is open, the
faces.of the panels close.

zontal interlocking metal slats


which are guided in a track.
The configuration coils an
overhead drum which is
housed at the head of the
opening, either manual or motor-driven

14. AUTOMATIC DOOR


CLOSETS ........ :..................... (

230

into two parts. The upper part


can be opened while the lower
portion is closed.

N. A door having tiles, nails and


sometimes muntins, which
form one or more frames
around recessed thinner panels.

15. ESCUTHCHEON .................. (

0. A movable joint used to attach


support and turn a door about
a pivot. consists of two plates
joined together by a pin which
support the door and connect
it to its frame, enabling it to
swing open or close.

16. ELECTRIC EYE ..................... (

P. An exterior door consisting of


four leaves (at 90 9 to each
other) which pivot about a
common vertical axis within a
cylindrically shaped vestibule,
thereby eliminating drafts from
outside.

G. WINDOWS, HARDWARES
1. MULLION ............................... (

A. A window sash opening on


hinges that are generally attached to the upright side of its
frame

2 STILE .................................... (

B. This window system eliminates requirements for glass


suspension from above. It is
unique, thoroughly tested floor
load system and requires no
special structural steel members tor hanging glass walls
(It has no aluminum frame to
obstruct the view.) It can be 9
M. high and 19 mm. thick.

3. AWNING .............................. (

C. A clasp for a door, lid, etc. one


passing over a staple and fastened by a pin or a padlock in
this case, the staple is the
movable lock, turned to close
or opened by a key.

4. CASEMENT ........................... (

231

D. An electronic lockset wherein


the room is automatically
closed when the door is pulled
and the deadbolt is in place.
The door can be opened not
by a key, but by a plastic key
card 1 3/4" x 1/2" (44.46 mm.
x 12.70 mm.) (1/32") thickness

which has a magnetic black


stripe underneath it. Used like
an ATM card, when inserted,
a green light flushes then pull
it at once and turn the knob to
open the door.
5. FRENCH WINDOW ............... (

E.

6. ORIELor
BAY WINDOW ....................... (

F. This is used in a cabinet to

A hardware or handle attached


to a drawer or a closet door to
draw or tug them open.

take hold of door when closed.


It is either a friction magnetic
or bullet type.
7. MULLIONLESS ALL GLASS
WINDOWWALL .................... (

G.

A hinge hanging lipped or


overlapping cabinet doors
available in overlay, twin and
inset. These hinges does not
necessitate to use catches. It
is best used when the edge of
the cabinet door touches a wall
and the hinge is to be placed
there.

8. NIGHT LATCH ....................... (

H.

A hinge used for closet doors


than is 1" x 1" (0.25 x 0.25) and
can be continuous up to
1.80 M.

9. FOOT BOLT ........................... (

I. A vertical member, as of stone


or wood. between the lights of
a window.

10 HAS PLOCK ........................... (

J.

11. PIANO HINGE ....................... (

K. An alcove of a room project-

A rootlike shelter of a canvas


or other material extending
over a doorway from the top
of a window in order to provide
protection, as from the sun.
Also a window when opened
from its lower part and extends
or opens with an angle at the
top part.

ing from an outside wall and


having its own windows. One

232

cantilevered or corbeled out


from a wall.
12. CONCEALED OR
HIDDEN HINGES .................. (

L. Any of various upright members framing panels or the like,


as in a system of paneling, a
paneled door, window sash,
chest of drawers.

13. ELECTRONIC DOOR


LOCK SYSTEM .................... (

M.

A window extending to the


floor, closed by french doors
and usually usable as an entrance or exit usually made of
small panels

14. CATCHES ............... .

N. A door lock operated from the


inside by a knob and from the
outside by a key

15. KNOBS ...... .

0. A movable rod or bar which


when slid into a socket fastens
a door In this case it is fastened to a door to bolt to the
floor and is closed using the
toot

P. A proJectmg part. usually


rounded. forming the handle of
a door. drawer or t.,e like.

16. PULLERS ............. .

H. ABILITIES> QUALITIES, CAPACITIES, PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS


1. RESILIENCE ........................ (

A. Rigid or firm. difficult or impossible to bend or flex like an I


beam

2. MALLEABILITY ...................... (

B. To force or press out, to form


(metal or plastic) with a desired
cross section by forcing it
through a die.

3. BRITTLENESS ...................... (

C. When cement and water are


mixed and ttF c:;m8nt particles tend to g<:ar;c;r ;n clumps.

4. PLASTICITY .......................... (

D. The caoacity of a material to


recover its original shape at-

233

ter deformation as in plastic vinyl tiles.

5. ELASTICITY .......................... (

E.

6. PERMEABILITY ..................... (

F. This will make a material break

To combine, unite or blend together by melting together two


materials such as welded iron
structures. Reinforced concrete, or plastic laminated plywoods.

suddenly like ceramic tile or an


asbestos vinyl tile.

7. DUCTILITY ............................ (

G.

Something that binds, fastens,


confines or holds together. Adhesion between two objects as
concrete and reinforcing bars.

8. ADHESIVENESS ................... (

H.

Capable of being extended or


shaped by hammering or by
pressure from rollers like cast
iron.

9. COHESIVENESS .................. (

I. Capable of being hammered


out thin, as certain metals like
tin. Capable of being drawn
out into wire or treads, as gold.
Able to undergo change of
form without breaking.

10. STIFFNESS ........................... (

J. Capability of molded or
shaped or being made to assume a desired form.

11. CONDUCTIVITY .................... (

K.

12. FLOCULATE .......................... (

L. To pass through the substance

Ability to resist or overcome


depression. The property of a
substance that enables it to
change its length, volume or
shape in direct response to a
force (a wire will stretch, a
beam will bend).

or mass, to penetrate through


the pores, interstices, to be diffused to, saturate. The property or state of being permeable.

234

II

l
I

13. BONDING .............................. (

M. To form an object by pouring


metal, plaster, etc. is a fluid
state into a mold and letting it
harden.

14. FUSION, FUSING.........

N. The ability of a material to fix


itself and cling or sticking together tightly to one another.
Same material.

. (

0. The ability of a material to fix


1tself and cling to an entirety
different material to stick to ad-

15. EXTRUSION ...

here. To glue.
P. The property or power oflransrnittmg heat, electricity or

16. CASTING

sound

I. MATERIALS A~D SUPPLIERS OR MANUFACTURERS


)

1. PLASTIC LAMINATE ............. (


Z. VINYL 11LES .. / ......... , .

A. Vasquez Commodities
B. Phelps Dodge, Phils
PHILFLEX

3. CORK SHt:ETS

C. Hi Eles Industrial Corp.

4. MARBLE SLABS

0. Republic Asahi Corp.

S. PAINTS .....................
6

TH~RMAL

E. Formica

& ACOUSTIC

F. Atlanta Industries, Inc.,


Moldex Products, Inc.

INSUlATION

1.

G. AVO Nlarketing

PLYWOOD

H. Jardine- Davies

8. STEEL BARS.

!. Campos Rueda

9. GLASS .........

10. PVC PIPES .............

J. Boysen, Dutch Boy

11. LONG SPAN ROOFING ........ (

K, Oelta Faucet Co , W.M.H.


Rennolds Co. 1nc.

12. TEGULA ROOFING TlLES .... (

L. "ERO" Corporation

235

13. FLOOR & WALL


CERAMIC TILES ................... (

M. Asia
Pacific
Gondek, Int.

Insulation

14. "ARMSTRONG"
ACOUSTICAL
CEILING ................................. (

N. Apo Quartz

15. ELECTRICAL WIRES ............ (

0. Teresa

16. BATHROOM FIXTURES ....... (

P. Philmetal Coating Corp.

17. PLUMBING & SANITARY


PRODUCTS, FAUCETS ........ (

Q. Sta Clara

18. SOLIGNUM WOOD


PRESERVATIVES ................. (

R. Saniwares

19. THOMPSON WOOD


PROTECTOR &
FIRESTOPPER
FIRE-RETARDANT ............... (

S. Mariwasa, First Lepanto

20. ESCALATORS,
ELEVATORS ......................... (

T. Pag-asa Steel Works, Inc.

J. PAINTING
1. PAINT ........................ (

A. Used for superior resistance to


abrasion, grease, alcohol, water, and fuels. They are often
used for wood floors especially
for gymnasiums and for
antigraffiti coatings

2. VARNISH ..

B. Materials used to apply color


to wood surfaces. They are intended to impart color without
concealing or obscuring the
grain and not to provide a protective covering.

3. QUICK-DRY ENAMELS ........ (

C. A high quality rust inhibitive


primer formulated to prepare
iron and steel surfaces for subsequent coats.

. ..

236

4. SHELLAC ............................... (

D. The purpose of this material is


to close the surface of the
wood and prevent the absorption of succeeding finish coats.
It may be applied to bare wood
that has been sanded smooth
or applied over the stain or
filler.

5. LACQUERS ........................... (

E. A mixtuie consisting of vehicles or binders with or without coloring pigments, adjusted and diluted with correct
amounts and types of additives and thinners which when
applied on a surface, forms an
adherent continuous film
which provides protection,
decoration, sanitation, identification and other functional
properties.

.(

F. To be used on all non-painted


concrete, synthetic finishes,
rubble, brick and wash-out finishes as a protection from absorption of water and prevent
moss, alkali, fungi to destroy
the surface used for bricks,
limestones, etc.

7. FILLERS ........................... (

G. A solution of resin in drying oil


or in a volatile solvent such as
alcohol in turpentine. It contains no pigments and constitutes a transparent liquid to
provide protective surface
coating at the same time they
allow the original surface to
show but add a lustrous and
glossy finish to it.

8. SEALERS .............................. (

H. A two-component water-based
acrylic recommended for use
on concrete floorings for garage. It offers outstanding durability, chemical and abrasion
resistance that can withstand
automotive tire.imprints. Used
also for traffic markings.

6. OIL-WOOD STAINS

237

I. This is the only liquid protec-

9. NEUTRALIZER ...................... (

tive coating containing a resin


of animal origin. The resin is
crushed and dissolved in denatured alcohol to produce orange color. By bleaching the
resin pure white liquid is produced. Used as a seal coat
over stains and fillers. or as a
finish in itself.
10. SILICONE WATER
REPELLANT .......................... (

J. This allows for a "seamless


wall paper alternative". It provides decorator with polychromatic patterns that can be
used to contrast or accent
plain paint finishes. May be applied as a single color spray
pattern or intermixed with
other colors, to provide polychromatic patterns. Only one
spray coat is needed.

11. ACRYLIC LATEX PAINT ..

K. A new product from synthetic


materials to take the place of
varnish for clear finishes
Combination of synthetic resins and plasticizers are dissolved in a mixture of volatile
solvent which evaporate the
protective covering.

12. URETHANE.

L. These are tmlshing materials

13. RED LEAD PRIMEFi

M. A water based, full bodied


paint with a well-balanced formula that lends elegance and
provides excellent protection
indoors. It works well on concrete and wood ceili11gs and
wa.lings, creating a beautiful
textured finis!l comes only in
white. To color, just paint over

which are used on wood surfaces. particularly those with


open grain, to fill pores and
prov1de a perfectly smooth.
uniform surface for varnish or
lacquer

'238

it with latex for concrete or


enamel for wood.
14. MULTI-COLOR PAINT ........... (

N. When pigment is added to a


varnish, this is the result.

15. TEXTURED FINISH


TOPCOAT ............................. (

0. For masonry, with excellent

16. CONCRETE FLOOR


EPOXY COATING ................. (

P. A liquid solution applied to new

hiding durability and dirt pickup resistance. It finishes a


painting job in less coats to be
applied to new masonry after
14 days to 28 days.

masonry or plastered wall


painting to neutralize the alkali
and acid Solution to ensure
adhesion.

K. MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS
1. Which of the following is not a copper alloy?
A. MONEL METAL

C. NICKEL SILVER

B. MUNTZ METAL

D. ALL ARE COPPER


ALLOYS

2. Which of these water-related soil problems would be the


most important to solve for a large building being planned
with a two-level basement used for meeting rooms?
A. uplift pressure on the lowest slab
B. moisture penetration caused by hydrostatic pressure
C. deterioration of foundation insulation
D. reduced load-carrying capacity of the soil

239

0000

3. In the sketch shown, where should the v::\P()r barrier be


located?

0000

c
0

.:luestions 4 and 5 refer to the following sketch:

4. What is the purpose of the block shown at 3?


A. to counteract the thrust of the stair

B. to provide a nailing base for the riser board


C. to give lateral stability to the vertical supports
D. to help locate and lay out the stair

240

0000

5. The parts identified as 1 and 2 respectively are:


I. tread
II. nosing

IV. ledger

v.

0000

stringer

Ill. carriage
A. Ill and I

c.

B. V and I

D. IV and V

Ill and II

6. Tempered glass is required in:

0000

A. entry doors

B. sidelights with sills below 18 inches


C. glazing within 1 foot of doors

D. all of the above


7. If a soil is analyzed as being primarily silty, what
characteristics could you expect?

0000

A. very fine material of organic matter


B. rigid particles with moderately high bearing. capacity

C. particles with some cohesion and plasticity in their


behavior
D. smaller particles with occasional plastic behavior

8. What type of glass would probably not be appropriate

0000

for a ten-story building?

A. tempered

C. heat-strengthened

B. annealed

D. laminated

9. A fire-rated gypsum board partition must always consist


of:
A. type X gypsum board
B. full height construction
C. attachment according to testing laboratory standards
D. all of the at;K>ve

241

0000

10. Which mortar type has the highest compressive strength?


A.M

c. 0

B. N

D. S

11. What type of brick would most likely be specified for an


eastern exposure in New Hampshire?

A. NW

C. MW

B. FBX

D. SW

12. In order to achieve the most uniform, straight-grain


appearance in wood paneling, you should specify:
A. plain slicing

C. quarter slicing

B. rotary slicing

D. half-round slicing

13. Asphalt-impregnated building paper is used under siding

to:

0000

0000

0000

0000

A. improve thermal resistance


B. increase the water resistance of the wall
C. act as a vapor barrier
D. all of the above
14. Which area in the masonry wall assembly shown would
be most susceptible to water penetration?

242

15. Concrete expansion joints should be located at a


maximum spacing of:
A. 1.50 M

C. 6.00 M

B. 3.00 M

D. 7.50 M

16. Which of the following are characteristics of stainless?

0000

0000

I. It cannot be welded.
II. It should not be in contact with copper.
Ill. It is an alloy of steel and chromium.
IV. It is only available with mechanical and coated fin
ishes.
V. It is just as strong as bronze.
A. 1, II, and Ill

C. II, IV, and V

B. II, Ill, and IV

D. Ill, IV, and V

L. MISCELANNEOUS QUESTIONS
1 . The horizontal member that holds individual pieces of
shoring in place is called a:

A. wale

C. raker

B. breast board

D. none of the above

2. When the architect is on the job observing concrete


placement, what is most likely to be of least concern?

0000

0000

A. the height of a bottom-dump bucket above the forms


as the concrete is being placed

B. the type of vibrator being used

c.

the location of the rebar in relation to the forms

D. the method of support of the forms


3. A nominal3" x 6" (25 mm
classified as:

x 150 mm) piece of lumber is

0000

A. timber

C. dimension

B. board

D. yard

243

4. Select the incorrect statementfrom among the following:

A.

The larger the pennyweight, the longer the nail.

0 0 0 0

B. Design values for bolts are dependent on the thick


ness of the wood in which they are located.
C. Split ring connectors are often used for heavily loaded
wood structures that must be disassembled.
D. In general, lag bolts have more holding power than
large screws.
5. What cement would be used in slip form construction?
A. Type I

C. Type Ill

B. Type II

D. Type IV

6. Which of the following most affects lumber strength?


A. split

C. check

B. wane

D. shake

7. What is used to measure the rate of transfer in a thickness


of material?
A. k

C. R

B. r

D. C

8. Which of the folowing would be at least appropriate fot


insulating a steel stud wall?

A polystyrene boards

C. fiberglass batts

B. rock wooi

D. perlite board

9. Three courses of a bull str~tcherusing a standard brick


and standard mortar joints equals what dimension?

A. 8 inches

C. 15 inches

B. 12 inches

D. 24 inches

244

0000

A B C D

0000

A B C D

0000

0000

0000

10. Which of the sketches depicts a half-surface hinge?

A B C D

0000

A.

B.

c.

D.

11. Select the incorrect ~tatement concerning fire-rated door


assemblies.

0000

A. Hi11ges must always be the ball-bearing type.


B .. Under some circumstances a closer is not needed.
C. Labeling is required for both the door and frame
D. The ma).Cimum width is 1.20 M.
12. Which of the following would be most appropriate for
damproofing an above-grade concrete wall with a
moderately rough surface?

A. cernentitious coating

C. synthetic rubber

B. bituminous coating

D. silicone coating

13. The depth of elevator lobbies serving four or more cars


should generally not be less than:
A. -6 feet(1.81 M)
B. 11/2 times the depth of the car
C. 10 feet (3.00 M)
D. 3 times the depth of the car

245

0000

A B C D

0000

14. Which of the following would probably not be reasons


for using a copper roof?

0000

I. worKability
II. resistance to denting
Ill. cost
IV. corrosion resistance
A. land ll

C. ll and lll

B. land Ill

D. Ill and IV

15. If cracking occurred along the joints of a brick wall in a


generally diagonal direction from a window corner up to
the top of the wall, which of the following would most
likely be the cause?

c D
0000
A

A. lack of the vertical control joints


B. horizontal reinforcement placed too far apart
C. poor grouting of the activity
D. inadequate mortar

16. What is used to keep water from penetrating an


expansion joint at the intersection of a roof and wall?
A. base flashing

C. sealant

B. counter flashing

D. coping

0000

M. MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS
1. The portion of paint that evaporates or dries is called
the:
A. binder

C. solvent

B. pigment

D. vehicle

246

0 0 0 0

2. 'In the partial plan of a concrete basement shown, what


would be the best way to improve the economy of the
concrete form work?

0000

..
0

.'
B ----

:'..,.. -----------

...

a~~-

---

I
I

A. ma.ke the column square


B. separate the pilaster at A2 from the wall
C. form the pilaster at A1 with a diagonal
D. make the wall along grid line 1 a uniform thickness
3. Structural steel typically contains what percentage of
carbon?

A. above 2.0 percent

C. from 0.20 to 0.50 percent

B. from 0.5~ to 0.80


percent

D. from 0.06 to 0.3 percent

4. What is used to minimize corner chipping of concrete?

A. CHAMBER STRIP

C. ISOLATION JOINT

B. BACKSET

D. RUSTICATION STRIPS

5. What part of a panel door is the lockset mounted in?


A. TERNE PLATE

C. STRETCHER

B. STILE

D. COORDINATOR

247

0000

0000

0000

6. What is the building code requirement for pairs of exit


doors with astragals?

A. BOOKMATCHING

C. STRONG BACK

C. SEQUENCE MATCH

D. COORDINATOR

7. What is the most important fire-resistant property of a


CMU partition?
A. EQUIVALENT
THICKNESS

C. EFFlORESCENCE

B. DENSIFICATION

D. HEAT OF HYDRATION

8. What is a requirement for an opening for a door in a


masonry partition?

A. CYLINDER TEST

C. SURCHARGING

B. ANNEALING

D. BOND BEAM

9. Galvanic action can be avoided by:

0000

0000

0000

0000

A. using neoprene spacers


B. increasing the thickness of the materials
C. reducing contact with dripping water
D. all of the above
10. A geared traction elevator would be most
for which of the following applications?

appropriat~

0000

A. a five -storv medical office building


B. a sixteen-story office building
C. a four-story department store
D. an eight-story apartment .building
11. In determining the width and gage of gypsum board
framing, what are some of the important considerations?
I. thickness of the gypsum board
II. spacing of studs
Ill. height of the wall

248

0000

IV. size of piping and other built-in items


V. number of layers to be supported
A. I, Ill, IV and V

C. II, Ill, IV and V

B. II, Ill, and IV

D. all of the above

12. What is the purpose of the gravel in the drawing shown?.

0000

A. to reduce hydrostatic pressure


B. to keep the soil from direct contact with the concrete
C. to provide a firm base for concrete bearing

b.

to hold the membrane in place and protect it

13. Joining two metals with heat and a filler metal with a
melting point above 800 2 F (409QC) is called wl1at?

A. annealing

C. brazing

B. soldering

D. welding

14. Which of the following is not true about veneer stone?


A. It can be fabricated 3/8 inches thick (9.53 mm)
B. Copper or steel clamps are used to anchor the stone
to the substrate.
C. Only special types of portland cement mortar or seal
ants should be used in the joints.
249

0000

0000

D. It can be supported on masonry, concrete, steel, or


wood framing.
15. Which of the following is the most important consideration
in detailing a wood strip floor?

A. flame spread rating

C. nailing method

B. expansion space at
the perimer

D. moisture protection

0000

from below

16. In the window elevation shown, what is represented at


point 1?

0000

1-...,.

t///

''
''

l//

''
'

A. mullion

C. stile

B. muntin

D. rail

'

''

'

'

N. MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS
1. Which of the following are of most importance in wood
frame construction?
I. sheathing type
II. differential shrinkage
Ill. location of defects
IV. firestops
V. headers
A. I, II, and Ill

C. II, Ill, and IV

B. I, II, and IV

D. Ill, IV, and V

250

0 0 0 0

2. Which type of lock would be most appropriate for an entry


door into an office suite?

A. cylindrical lock

C. mortise lock

B. unit lock

D. rim lock

3. Which of the following an~ true about built-up roofing?

I. It may be applied on slopes from 0 to 1 inch per foot.


(.075 M or 75mm per Meter)

A B C D

0000

0000

II. They are best applied only over nailable decks.


Ill. The top layer should be protected from ultraviolet
degradation.
IV. Proper installations is more important than the num
ber of plies.
V. Roof insulation can either be placed above or below
the roofing.

A. I, Ill and V only

C. II, Ill and IV only

B. I, II, IV, and V only

D. Ill, IV and V only

4. Ceramic mosaic tile in a public shower room is best


installed over:

0000

A. water-resistant gypsum board


B. a bed qf portland cement mortar
C. concrete block walls coated with a waterproofing
membrane
D. rigid cement composition board made for this pur
pose
5. What are two important considerations in designing a
fire-rated ceiling?
I. hold-down clips
II. the structural slab
Ill. thermal insulation
IV. composition of the floor/ceiling assembly
V. style of grid

251

0000

A. I and IV

C. II and IV

B. I and Ill

D. Ill and V

6. What is the primary purpose of the voids in a cored slab?


A. to allow electrical services to be concealed in the slab

0000

B. to make a more efficient load-carrying member


C. to make erection easier
D. to minimize weight
7. Which of the vertical joints shown would be appropriate
jor a concrete basement wall?

0000

II
II
II
II
II
//

/
/

,,
' ,,

I I
I I
I I

I I
I I
I I
11

I I

I I
I I

1__1

I I

B.

A.

c.

8. A reasonable elevator capacity tor a medium-size office


building is:

A. 905 kilos

C. 1,810 kilos

B. 1,357.5 kilos

D. 2,715 kilos

9. Select the incorrect statements about steel doors.


I. Fire ratings up to 11/2 hours are possible.
II. The frames are normally 12, 14, or 16 gage depend
ing on use.
Ill. Steel doors must be used with steel frames.
IV. Hinges or offset pivots can be used with steel doors.

252

D.

0000

0000

v.

The standard thickness is 13/8 inches.

A. I and V

C. II and IV

B. I, Ill, and V

D. II, Ill, and V

10. The allowable stress ratings for lumber in the building

0000

codes are based primarily on:

A size groups

C. types of defects

B. species

D. all of the above

11. Millwork for installation in the southwestern part of the


.United States should have a maximum moisture content
of:
A. less than 5 percent

C. 5 to 10 percent

B. 4 to 9 percent

D. 8 to 13 percent

12. On floors subject to deflection, both terrazzo and granite


installations should include:
A. a membrane

C. thin-set mortar

B. a latex additive
in the mortar

D. a sand cushion

0000

0000

II. METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION


1. When a concrete is poured at the jobsite whose beams,
slabs and columns are set in forms or scaffoldings and
later on removed after the concrete hardens or is cured.
This system is classified into two general types. The oneway slab system and the two-way slab system. This
method of construction is called the _ __
A. PRECAST
CONCRETE

C. SLIP FORM METHOD

B. CAST-IN PLACE

D. TILT-UP
CONSTRUCTION

2. This is a method of construction which is performed right


on the construction site. The system enables the wall or
floor panels to be precast in engineered steel forms under
strict procedures of quality and precision. Conduits for

253

0000

electrical wires and water pipes are non-exposed by


systematic embedment during casting. Crawler and
mobile cranes utilize special lifting devices. This enables
the quick and efficient erection and assembly of a housing
unit.
A. COMPOSITE
CONSTRUCTION

C. TILT-UP
CONSTRUCTION

B. FLOOR DECKING

D. SLIP FORM METHOD

3. This method has been utilized extensively in agricultural


and industrial complexes like silos, elevator cores, etc.
It utilizes very much less framework, no scaffolding at all
and some braces. The whole form system is distributed
over several hydraulic jacks.

A. FLOOR DECKING

C. CAST-IN PLACE

B. PRE-TENSIONED

D. SUP-FORM METHOD

4. Prefabricated normally reinforcea concrete which have


been poured and cured in a factory rather than in place
on the site, then delivered to the jobsite by trucks and
installed by welding together all the components.

A. PRE-CAST
CONCRETE

C. COMPOSITE
CONSTRUCTION

B. POST-TENSIONED
TECHNIQUE FOR
PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE

D. SPANTRESS

5. Made of high strength zinc-coated steel decking which


acts as both permanent formwork and positive tensile
reinforcing steel in one-way reinforced concrete slab
construction for second level to high floor decking. It
mechanically and chemically bond on concrete slab to
form a solid flooring panel and as a ceiling below.
A. SPANSTRESS

C. FLOOR DECKING

B. TILT-UP
CONSTRUCTION

D. PRE-CAST WAFFLE
SLABS SYSTEM

6. Any structural system consisting of two or more materials


designed to act together to resist loads. This system of
construction is employed to utilize the best characteristics
of the individual materials. Reinforced concrete is the
most typical of this system of construction, but others

254

c D
0000
A

c D
0000
A

c D
0000
A

B c

0000

include steel deck and concrete, concrete slab and steel


beam systems, and open-web steel joists with wood
chords.

A. PRE-STRESSED

C. LIFT-SLAB

B. COMPOSITE
CONSTRUCTION
SYSTEM

D. POST-TENSIONED

7. This is a system designed to fit your requirements instead


of trying to make you fit its requirements. Floor and roof
slabs are cast one on top of the other. After a short curing
time, they are raised to their final positions by hydraulic
jacks and secured to vertical supports.

A. LIFT-SLAB
BUILDING SYSTEM

C. PRE-CAST WAFFLE
SLAB SYSTEM

B. PRE-STRESSED
CONCRETE

D. POST-TENSIONED
TECHNIQUE

8. A method wherein the reinforcement, in the form of hightensile steel strands called tendons, is first stretched
through the form or casting bed between two end
abutments on anchorages. Concrete is then poured into
the form, encasing the strands. As the concrete sets, it
bonds to the tensioned steel; when it has reached a
specific strength, the ends of the tension strands are
released. These pre-stresses the concrete, putting it
under compression and creating built-in tensile strength
having been pre-stressed.

A. CAST-IN PLACE

C. LIFT-SLAB METHOD

B. SPANSTRESS

D. PRE-TENSIONED
TECHNIQUE FOR
PRE-STRESSED
CONCRETE

9. This system involves placing and curing a pre-cast


member which contains normal reinforcing and in
addition, a number of channels through which poststressing cables or rods called tendons may be passed,
one side is anchored securely at the end and one side is
held by a cone. After concrete has hardened to the
desired strength, the cone is fitted to a hydraulic jack
and is pulled to the allowable strength, then a small steel
plate is wedged in between the cone and concrete so as
the stretche9 tendons will not go back to its normal
position.

255

0000

0000

0000

A. PRE-CAST WAFFLE
SLAB SYSTEM

C. PRE-CAST CONCRETE
SYSTEM

B. POST-TENSIONED
TECHNIQUE FOR
PRESTRESSED
CONSTRUCTION

D. COMPOSITE
CONSTRUCTION
SYSTEM

10. A basic principle of design in which stresses are built


into a structural element, such as a beam, in order to
offset load carrying stresses. The stresses directly
oppose the stresses created when a load is applied to
the beam, and in effect, tend to "cancel out" the load
stresses. In this case, high tensile strength strand or
tendons is used.

A. POST-TENSION
TECHNIQUE

C. LIFT SLAB METHOD

B. PRE-CAST
CONCRETE

D. PRE-STRESSED
CONCRETE or (Integrated Bldg. System)

11. This modular pre-cast post-tensioned slab system is the


first application of two-way post-tensioning in a pre-cast
concrete floor system. It consists of singular square precast concrete modular elements laid out in checkerboard
pattern and integrated together into the structural flooring
system of a building by means of post-tensioning in two
perpendicular directions.
A. PRE-CAST WAFFLE
SLAB SYSTEM

C. SLIP FORM METHOD

B. PRE-STRESSED
CONCRETE

D. LIFT SLAB BUILDING


SYSTEM

12. This method speeds up construction, and saves on


expensive equipment since it takes cranes out of the
way. Pre-stressed concrete t-joist floor and roof system
is more compact and light-weight, easier to transport and
handle. This can be used with filler blocks or plywood
forms, eliminates scaffoldings to the minimum. Length
goes from 3.00 M. to 9.00 M. and can be carried easily
by two men.
A. PRE-TENSIONING
TECHNIQUE

C~ SPANSTRESS

B. TILT-UP
CONSTRUCTION

D. SLIP FORM

256

0000

0000

0000

AREA ''B''
PART Ill

UT I L IT I ES

1. SANITARY AND
PLUMBING
SYSTEMS AND
EQUIPMENT

AREA "B"

PART Ill

UTILITIES

DIRECTION: Read the passages below and answer the questions that follow. Shad&
the circle () below the letter of the correct answer to each question.

1. SANITARY AND PLUMBING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT


A. WATER SUPPLY
1. A method of purifying water wherein particles of
matters that are suspended in the water are allowed
to stay in a container so that they will settle in the
bottom, then drawing the water out, leaving these
matters in the container.
A. SEDIMENTATATION

C. SEPARATION

B. SETTLEMENT

D. COLLECTION

2. Water is treated by giving


to kill the
harmful bacteria present and to cure the turbid taste
or mudtaste, remove clay, salts, iron, etc. commonly
used treating liquids is chlorine.

A. AIR PRESSURE

C. LIQUID PURIFIER

B. CHEMICAL
TREATMENTS

D. MEDICINAL TABLETS

3. Water is purified by

. In various process,
so as to remove the particles of vegetable matter,
mud and other particles of matter present in the
water, most commonly used materials are sand and
gravel.

A. SILTATION

C. ABSORPTION

B. SIEVING

D. FILTRATION

258

0000

0000

A B C D

0000

4. Raw water is made to pass on pipes of tiny sieves


and exposed to air of fine mist to purify it. This is
called the
method.

A. SPRAYING

C. AERATION

B. DRYING

D. SPLASHING

5. A
is a water equipment used whenever
the water supply at its natural pressure cannot be
directly piped to a building, tank or reservoir.

6.

7.

A. GENERATOR

C. PRESSURE TANK

.B. PUMP

D. BOOSTER

. consist of a piston traveling up and


down within a cylinder which is connected with a pipe
extending down into the source. The piston and the
bottom of the cylinder are each provided with a valve
opening upward. Upon the piston's upstroke, valve
a closes and valve 'b' opens. Upon the piston's
downstroke valve 'a' opens and 'b' closes.
A. SUCTIONPUMP

C. UFTPUMP

B. AIR PUMP

D. JUMP PUMP

pump is used to deliver water at a point


higherJhan the position of the pump itself. When the
plunger descends, the valve 'a' is closed and the
water in the cylinder is forced out through the valve
'b' and up to the storage. When the plunger is raised.
valve 'b' is closed and 'a' open to admits water to the
cylinder.

A. FORCE PUMP

C. ELEVATED PUMP

B. STRUCTURAL
PUMP

D. PLUNGER PUMP

8. This is a kind of pump attached to the end of deep


well pipe enclosed in a casing where the pump is
capable of functioning while submerged.
A. UNDERGROUND
PUMP

C. SUBMARINE PUMP

B. REVERSIBLE
PUMP

D. SUBMERSIBLE PUMP

259

0000

0000

A B C D

0000

0000

0000

9. A reservoir, tank or vessel for storing or holding water


or other liquids.

10.

A. CESSPOOL

C. CISTERN

B. SWIMMING POOL

D. SEPTIC TANK

may be used either for the collection of


water without consideration of pressure, or for storing
water under air pressure or under a static head for
future distribution by pneumatic or gravity means
materials used are PVC, G. 1., reinforced concrete,
stainless steel or plain steel.
A. CISTERN

0000

0000

C. STORAGE TANK

B. UNPRESSURIZED D. WATER TANK


TANK
11. A
is a tank constructed of riveted or
welded steel plate; the larger tanks often being
divided into two compartments. They should be large
enough to contain at least one day's supply for the
entire building in case. the city main is temporaril~
shut off. The pipe from the pump to the tank should
be across connected to the city main so that the water
may be pumped directly from the main in case of
fire. These tanks are used so that the pneumatic tank
or other pumps sucks the water from this tank and
not from the public main, so that it will not deprive
the neighbors of water due to pressure.
1\.

SIPPING TANK

B. SUCTION TANK

0000

C. AIRTANK
D. PLUNGER TANK

12. A tank using air pressure from a suction tank to


distribute water for tall buildings which cannot be
reached by normal pressure.

0000

A. PNEUMATIC TANK C. FORCE PUMP


B. AIR-PRESSURE

D. POWER PUMP

13. Water is distributed from the normal water pressure


coming from the public water main, for low rise
buildings.
A. VERTICAL FEED

C. POSITIVE SYSTEM

B. ANTIGRAVITY
SYSTEM

D. UPFEED SYSTEM

260

0000

14. By gravity, water is distributed from overhead water


tanks and are supported either by structural frames
or on the roof decks. Fixtures are below the gravity
tank. These elevated tanks are installed when normal
water supply from main public service pipes is not
frequent and when normal pressure from city main
is npt enough to force the water to the highest
fixtures.

A. DOWNFEED
SYSTEM

0000

C. LOWDOWN SYSTEM

B. GRAVITY SYSTEM- D. NEGATIVE SYSTEM


15. The pipe from the public water main or source of
water supply to the building served is called

0000

A. ADDITIONAL PIPE C. SERVICE PIPE


B. SUPPLEMENTAL
PIPE

D. AIDING PIPE

16. The vertical supply pipe which extends upward from


one floor to the next is called a
and the
horizontal pipes that serves the faucets are called
branches.

A. FEEDER

C. SUPPLIER

B. RISER

D. FLIER

0000

B. WATER SUPPLY

1.

refers to the public water system laid


underground along the streets where house service
is connected.

A. WATER LEADER

C. WATER SOURCE

B. WATER MAIN

D. WATER SUPPLIER

2. One end is 0.30 M. and the other end is 0.90 M.


long. This prevent the pipe from snap,>ing when the
soil settles.

A. S-CURVE

C. EXTENSION

B. BALANCER.

D. GOOSENECK

261

0000

0000

3. A stop valve placed in a service pipe close to its


connection with a water main.
A. CORPORATtON
COCK

C. COMPANY LOCK

B. COCK VALVE

D. UNION COCK

4. A kind of G. I. fitting used as reducer from a bigger


diameter to a lesser diameter.
A. REDUCTION

C. BUSHING

B. COUPLING

D. BUILD-UP

5. A G. I. fitting which is used when a pipe has already


been installed but dismatling is difficuH.
A. EXPANDER

.C. COMBINATION

B. UNION.

D. DOUBLE

6. Excessive pressure produces a rumbling sound


. This occurs when a valve is
called the
suddenly turned off and causes the water to stop,
forcing the pipes to shake and to reduce this, an
additional 0.30 M. to 0.90 M.length of pipe is added
to the riser to give air pressure which absorb it.
A. WATER QUIVER

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0000

c D
0000
A

C. WATER HAMMER

B. WATER RAMBLER D. WATER BARRIER

7. A kind of G. I. fitting that has one end external treads;


while the other end has internal treads.
A. INTERCHANGEABLE TEE

C. TWO-WAY FITTING

B. CLOSE OPEN
ELBOW

D. STREET ELBOW
or TEE

8. To insure no leakage, a G. I. pipe when threaded


tape
has to use while lead liquid or
around the thread before tightening the fittings.
A. TEFLON

C. PVC

B. PLASTIC

D. SEALER

262

c D
0000
A

c D
0000
A

9. What does uPVC mean?


A. UNPROTECTED
POLYVINYL
CHLORIDE PIPE

C. UNPLASTICIZED
POLYVINYL
CHLORIDE PIPE

B. UNPREPARED
POLYETHYLENE
COATED PIPE

D. UNPRESSED
POLYURETHANE
CHLORINE PIPE

10. This consists of a wedge-shaped plug which is


sdewed down to seat between two brass rings
surrounding the inlet pipe so that a double seal is
obtained. The inlet and outlet are in a straight line.
This valve is used when a normal fully open or closed
position is desired. Either end may be used as inlet
A. FENCE VAi_VES

C. ENTRY VALVES

B. DOOR VALVES

D. GATE VALVES

11. These valves are used when it is desired that the


flow through a pipe be always in one direction and
there is a possibility of a flow taking place in the
opposite direction. One type has a pivoted flap which
is readily pushed open by the pressure ot water from
one side but is tightly closed by the force of a reverse
flow.

0000

0000

0000

A. ONE-WAY VALVES C. SWING-IN VALVES


B. CHECK VALVES

D. CORRECT VALVES
A

12. A material used as a covering, such as a pipe bigger


than the main pipe of a deep well so that the main
pipe can be pulled out for repair.

A. CASING

C. COATING

B. ENCLOSING

D. PROTECTIVE

A. STATIC HEAD

C. VERTICAL HEIGHT

B. OVERHEAD
HEIGHT

D. PRESSURE LENGTH

263

0000

A
13. This is the vertical distance from the higher source
of water or overhead tank to the outlet (faucets,
shower head) and is distributed by gravity.

0000

14. Subsurface conditions of ground wat-. and rook must


be known. Siles with high (about 1.80 M. to 2.40 M
below grade) ca.n cause problems with excavations,
foundations, utility placement and landscaping. This
is described as the level underground in which the
soil is situated with water.
A. WATER LEVEL

C. WATER LINE

B. WATER TABLE

D. WATER CONTAINER

15. An opening or space to accommodate a group of


pioes.

A. PIPE
CONNECTORS

0000

0000

C. PIPE CHASE

B. PIPE GROUPINGS D. PIPE HOLE


16. When the water supply of very tall building is
designed as a unit, the required capacities or tanks,
pumps and pipings become unduly large and
excessive pressures are developed in lower portions
of the dowrifeed risers, The buildings therefore is
divided into horizontal sections or
, and
to design the hot and cold water supply systems
separately for each.

A. AREA METHOD

C. GROUPING

B. STORY DIVIDER

D. ZONING

0000

C. FIRE PROTECTION, STORM WATER


1. Fire companies with their apparatus find difficulty
_ _ _ _ with separate water reserve or upfeed
pumping are extremely valuable in any buHdings but
become highly essential in tall buildings. This system,
intended for use by building personnel until the fire
engines arrive and thereafter by the trained staff of
the fire department.

A STANDPIPES
& HOSES

C. VERTICAL PIPES

B. FIRE USE PIPES

D. STEADY PIPES

264

0000

2. Automatic
systems consist of a horizontal
pattern of pipes placed near the ceilings of industrial
buildings, warehouses, stores, theaters and other
structures where the fire hazard requires their use.
These pipes are provided with outlets and heads so
constructed that temperatures of (55 to 70"C)
Celsius will cause them to open automatically and
will cause them to open automatically and emit a
series of time water sprays.

A. SPLASHERS

C. DROPLETS

B. RAIN WATER

D. SPRINKLERS

3. A system of sprinklers with its pipes constantly filling


both mains and distribution pipes.

A. WATER FILLED

0000

0000

C. WET PIPE SYSTEM

SYSTEM
B. LIQUID ENHANCED D. SOAKING SYSTEM
SYSTEM
4. Generally confined to unheated buildings, There is
no water in the distribution pipes except during a
fire. Remote valves may be actuated by sensitive
elements to admit water to sprinkler's heads.

A. UNLIQUIFIED

0000

C. EMPTY PIPE SYSTEM

SYSTEM
B. DRY PIPE SYSTEM D. CLEAN PIPE SYSTEM
5. An inlet placed outside a building close to ground
level, having two openings so that fire engines can
pump water to the dry stand pipes and sprinkler
system of the building.

0000

A. DOUBLE HEADER C. SIAMESE TWIN


B. DUAL ENTRANCE

D. TWO WYE SYSTEM

6. Sprinkler heads are of the quartzoid bulb type. The


bulb is transparent and contains a colored liquid. At
360F the bulb breaks and releases a water stream.
one is called "upright" when used above piping when
piping is exposed but when it is hidden inside ceilings
that shows only the bulb it is called a _ _ __

A. HIDDEN HEAD

C. EXPOSED BULB

B. PENDENT

D. BALANCER

265

0000

7. That portion of the plumbing system which conveys


rain water to a suitable terminal. This is usually
discharged into a street gutter conveyed by a public
_ _ _ _ system and carried to some drainage
terminal such as lakes or rivers.

A. RAIN WATER
PIPE

C. STORM SEEPAGE

B. STORM MAIN

D. STORM DRAIN

8. When the soil is not permeable, and it touches a


concrete or hollow block wall of a basement, rain
water will seep on it and may flood. The gravel is
placed all around this wall 0.30 M. wide and about
0.30 M. below the basement floor rain water from
the gravel towards the drainage terminal.

0000

0000

A. PERFORATED PIPE C. OPENED SIDE PIPE

B. HAMMERED PIPE

D. GUTTER PIPE

D. SANITARY DRAINAGE SYSTEMS


1. Water plus human waste, solid and liquid, urinethat
is flushed out of toilets and urinals.
A. GRAY WATER

C. BLACK WATER

B. CONTAMINATED
WATER

D. DIRTY WATER

2. A vertical soil pipe conveying fecal matter and liquid


waste.

A. SOIL STEADY
PIPE

C. SOIL CONDUCTOR
PIPE

B. SOIL LEADER

D. SOIL STACK PIPE

3. A pipe which conveys only liquid wastes free of fecal


matter.
A. CONVEYOR PIPE

C. TRASH PIPE

B. WASTE PIPES

D. LIQUID CONTAINING
PIPE

266

0 0 0 0

A B C D

0000

0 0 0 0

4. A pipe or opening used for ensuring the circulation


of air in a plumbing system and for reducing the
pressure exerted on trap seals.
A. VENT

C. FLUE

B. AIR

D. DUCT

5. A metallic sleeve, calked or otherwise, joined to an


opening in a pipe, into which a plug is screwed that
can be removed for the purpose of cleaning or
examining the interior of the pipe.

0000

c D
0000
A

A. CLEANOUT PLUG C. CLEANOUT FERRULE


B. TESTING FERRULE D. TESTING PLUG
6. A fitting or device so constructed as to prevent the
passage of air, gas and materially affecting the flow
of sewage or waste water through it.
A. TRAP

C. WATER PLUG

B. CLOSER

D. CLOGGER

7. The part of the lowest horizontal piping of. a plumbing


system which receives the discharge from soil, waste
and other drainage pipes inside of a building and
conveys it to the house sewer. It should have a slope
of at least 1/4" to a foot or 6 mm. for every 300 mm.

c D
0000
A

c D
0000
A

A. HOUSE STRAINER C .. HOUSE SIEVE


B. HOUSE DRAIN

D. HOUSE TRAP

8. A pit or receptacle at a low point to which the liquid


wastes are drained.

A. BASEMENT PIT

C. LOW POST PIT

B. SUMP PIT

D. UNDERGROUND PIT

9. A vertical opening through a building for elevators,


dumbwaiters, light, ventilation and others.
A. VERTICAL HOLE

C. CHUTE

B. VOID

D. SHAFT

267

c D
0000
A

c D
0000
A

10. A sheet metal placed when concrete is pOUred to


accommodate~ pluning pipes (through the hole

made).
A. SLEEVE

C. GUIDE

B. OPENING

D. HOLE

11. Plugging an o~ning around pipe joints with oakum


(hemp soaked With oil) lead or other materials like
epoxy adhesive on vinyl that are pounded place.

0000

0000

A. WATERPROOFING C. CAULKING
B. CLOGGING

D. STUFFING

1,2'. All horizontally piping shall run in practical alignment


and at a uniform grade of not less than two (2%)
percent, 20 mm. rise per meter length, and shall be
supported or anchored at intervals not exceeding
3.00 M. length (10 feet). All stacks shall be properly
supported at their bases and all pipes be rigidly
hundred (100 inches) length.

0000

A. SLOPES. OF
C. ALIGNMENT OF
HORIZONTAL PIPING PIPING
B. GRADES OF
D. DEFLECTION
HORIZONTAL PIPING OF PIPING
13. This kind of trap must be installed wherever oily, lard
contained wastes from hotels, restaurants, club
houses or similar public eating places are discharged
into the sewer or septic vault. Sand traps shall be
placed as near as possible to the fixture from which
it receives the discharge and shall have an air-tight
cover, easily removable to permit its cleaning.

A. DREASES TRAPS

C. OIL & LARD BINS

B. LEFTOVER
CONTAINERS

D. GREASE DRAIN

14. This is the vertical distance between the dip and the
crown weir (an embankment or levee) built to hold
water in its course or to divert it to a new course of a
p-trap. Also it is the water in the trap between the dip
and the crown weir to prevent unpleasant and
odorous gases to enter the room through the fixtures.

0000

0000

A. ANTI-ODOR TRAP C. WATER PLUG


B. TRAP SEAL

D. P-TRAP

268

,,

15. The resun of a minus pressure in the drainage


system. (Pressure is a force required to move gas
or liquid) When .a large amount of water of the trap
(seal) is absolutely discharged. When the seal is lost,
back flow of gases from the sewer line will pass into
the trap, finds its way to the fixture drain outlet and
spread into the room.

A. DRIPPING

C. SEEPAGE

B. BACKFLOW

D. SIPHONAGE

16. Upon the completion of the entire water distribution


system including connections to apprentices,
devices, tanks, or fixtures, it shall be tested and
inspected by means of _ _ __

0000

0000

A. GAS AND AIR TEST C. WATER AND AIR TEST


B. WATER AND GAS
TEST

D. PRESSURE TEST

E. SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM, REFUSE HANDLING


1. A receptacle or water tight vault used to collect
organic waste discharge from the house sewer and
designed and constructed so as to separate solids
from the liquid, digest the organic matter through a
period of detention, and allow the effluent to
discharge a storm drain.

A. SEPTIC TANK

C. SLUDGE POOL

B. CESSPOOL

D. SOLIDS CHAMBER

2. A receptacle in which liquids are retained for a


sufficient period of time to deposit setteleable
materials.

0000

A B C D

0000

A. COLLECTION TUB C. WATER CHAMBER


B. WATER TRAP

D. CATCH BASIN

3. A public sanitary waste disposal system consisting


of a treatment unit which conveys the raw waste to
the disposal system.

A. COMMUNITY MAIN C. PUBLIC SANITATION


B. PUBLIC SEWER
LINE

D. PRIVY

269

0000

4. A common way of disposing of solids is by _ __


This is a controled burning of combustible waste.
This can be an effective waste reduction method for
70 percent of all solid municipal wastes. If this is
operated property, it can reduce bulk by 90 to 95
percent. Ash left over is generally disposed off in a
landfill.A. FIREPLACE

C. INCINERATION

B. BURNER

D. HEATING

5. Another method of disposing municipal solid wastes


is by dumping of refuse at a pre-planned site,
compacted and covered with a layer of earth. This
method is called a

A. WASTE
COLLECTION

C. SANITARY LANDFILL

B. CLEAN-AIR
EARTH FILL

D. SANITARY GARBAGE
PILE

6. When garbage from different floors of a high-rise


building is disposed off from an opening and is
directly led to the basement garbage bin. This is
called the
A. TRASH PIPES

A B C D

0000

c D
0000
A

c D
0000
A

C. GARBAGE
CONDUCTOR

B. RUBBISH CHUTES D. WASTE GUIDES


7. This is a contraption inverted to dispose leftovers
straight from the kitchen sink. Simply tum on the
faucet, flick the power switch and place the leftovers
such as bones, fruit pits, rotten vegetables, spoiled
bones and washed down the drain pipes.

A. GARBAGE
COLLECTOR

-C. WASTE GRINDER

B. LEFT-OVER
CHOPPER

D. GARBAGE DISPOSER

270

c D
0000
A

8. After the ground preparation a


should
be laid out on the area enclosed for sanitary landfill.
The main purpose is to prevent the seepage of
leachate (dirty water, to cause liquid to percolate)
deep down to the ground water strata. This consist
of soil or composite material such as synthetic plastic
or asphaH sheets.
A. LINER

C. BLANKET

B. WATERPROOFER

D. COATING

9. A method of landfill wherein a tractor digs a trench


with a bulldozer blade, and trucks dump the refuse
to it. Then the tractor compacts the refuse thoroughly
and covers it with earth that was dug up earlier. This
method is primarily used on level ground.
A. LINING METHOD

B C

0000

0000

C. CANAL METHOD

B. TRENCH METHOD D. DUGOUT METHOD


10. This method of landfill is generally used on rolling
terrain where the existing slope of the land can be
used as a basin. In this method, trucks deposit refuse
over a selected area. Huge, heavy tractors with
special compacting wheels press down the refuse.
Then refuse is covered with earth hauled in from
elsewhere.
A. COLLECTION
METHOD

0000

C. SCATTER METHOD

B. SPREAD METHOD D. AREA METHOD


11. Collection of human wastes is done by elaborate
systems to carry most liquid sewage to _ _ __
where the sewage undergoes a series of treatment
steps to remove polluting materials, biological and
chemical contaminants that can harm human health
or ecological systems. The first stage is the trapping
or screening of coarse suspended matter into a grit
chamber. Then the use of aerobic microorganisrl)s to
break down the organic matter left in the sewage called
the biological oxidation. Then the 3rd phase, chemical
treatments used to remove undesirable constituents
that remain. What resuHs is a drinking quality water.

A. WASTE TREATMENTC. WASTE ANTIPLANTS


POLLUTANT PLANTS
B. SEPTIC VAULT

D. WASTE COLLECTION
DEPOT

271

0000

fixture that aPP&ars a water closet, since a


person sits down on it. But it is designed as a

12. A

combination lavatory which can plug the drain and


collect hot and cold water, with an inverted water
sprayer to clear the most delicate and well-guarded
parts of the body.

A. LAVATORY
CLOSET

C. BIDET

B. CESSPOOL

D. SANITARY CLOST

0000

F. MISCELLANEOUS QUESnONS

1. What determines the size of a leading field?


A. POTABLE WATER

C. WATER TABLE

B. PERCOLATION TEST

D. GREY WATER

2. What is an important concern in private water supply?

A. HARDNESS

C. FRICTION LOSS

0000

0000

B. BUILDING SEWER D. POTABLE WATER

3. What part of water suppty design is affected by


building height?

0000

A. FIXTURE UNITS

C. FIXTURE LOSS

B. CASING

D. STATIC HEAD

4. Select the incorrect statements:

I. Dry pipe sprinkler systems are more efficient than


wet pipe systems.

II. Siamese connections serve both sprinklers and


standpipes.

Ill. The hazard classification does not necessarily


affect sprinkler layout.

IV. Standpipes must be located within,stairways or


vestibules of srnokeproof enclosures.

V. Standpipes are required in buildings four or more


stories high or those exceeding 150 feet.

A. I, II, and IV

C. II, IV, and V

B. II, Ill, and V

D. Ill, IV, and V

272

0000

5. The pressure in a city water main is (0.39273 MPa).


Hthe pressure lOss through piping, fittings, and the
water meter has been calculated as 23 psi (0.15847
MPa) and the highest fixture requires 12 psi (0.08268
MPa) to operate, what is the maximum height the
fixture can be above the water main?

A. 9 feet (2.70 M)

C. 50 feet (15M)

V. 24 feet (7.20 M)

D. 78 feet (26 M)

6. You have been retained by a client to design a house


in a suburban location. The nearest water main is
one block away (about 1000 M.) and the city has no
plans to extend the line in the near future. City and
county regulations do permit the drilling of wells.
What should you recommend to your client regarding
water supply?

0000

c D
0000
A

A. Estimate the cost of extending the municipal line.


since the. water quality is known and it would
ensure a long-term supply. Consult with nearby
property owners who plan to build in the area to
see if they would be willing to share the cost of
extending the line.

B. Drill a test bore to determine the dept, potential


yield, and water quality of a well and compare
this information with the cost of extending the
municipal line.

C. Assist the owner in petitioning the city to extend


the water line to serve new development sooner
than they had planned to.
D. Consult with nearby property owners who use
wells and with well drillers to estimate the depth
and yield of wells in the area. Compare the estimated cost and feasibility of drilling with the feasibility of extending the municipal line at the
owner's cost.
7. Which statements about drainage are correct?

I. Drains should always slope at a minimum of 1/8


inch per foot. (.0099 per meter) or 9.9 mm
II. The vent stack extends through the roof.

1!1. Vents help prevent the drainage of water from


traps.

273

c D
0000
A

IV. The house drain cannot also be called the building sewer.
V. Clea.outs are always a necessary part of a drainage system.

A. I, II, and V

C. II, Ill, and

B. I, Ill, and IV

D. Ill, IV, and V

8. Water hammer most often occurs when:


A. the incorrect type of valve is used

0000

B. water suddenly stops when flow is turned oft


C. expansion joints are not installed in water lines
D. water flows backward against a check valve
9. One component of a plumbing system that every
building has is a:

A. stack vent

C. backflow preventer

B. vent stack

D.

c D
0000
A

house trap

10. Select the incorrect statement:

A. Several types of plastic can be used for cold water


piping, but only PVDC is used for hot water supply where allowed by local codes.
B. Steep pipe is more labor intensive and requires
more space than copper pipes in plumbing
chases.
C. Type M pipe is normally specified for most interior plumbing.
D. ABS is suitable for water supply.

274

oooc

AREA ''B''
PARTIII

UTILITIES

2. MECHANICAL
SYSTEMS

AREA "I"
---

UTILITIES

PART Ill
~

MECHANICAL SYSTEMS
A. HEAT, MOISTURE, HUMAN COMFORT
1. What does Ashrae mean? Energy conservation is
the theme of this.
A. AMERICAN
SOCIETY OF
HEATING,
REFRIGERATING
AND AIRCONDITIONING
ENGINEERS

C. ALASKAN SOCIETY
OF HOUSING,
RESTORATION AND
AREA CONVERSION
ENVIRONMENT

B. AMERICAN
SYSTEM OF
HEATING
RESISTANCE
AND AERIAL
COMFORT
ENGINEERS

D. AUSTRALIAN
SYSTEM OF
HEATING,
REFRIGERATION
AND AIR
CONDITIONING
ENVIRONMENT

2. Food taken into the body may be thought of as a


fuel that is subject to a low-grade burning process
sufficient to maintain a body temperature of (37C).
There is a wide variation in metabolic
(METABOLISM) rates dependent on physical activity.
For aA average size man; the Met unit corresponds
to 360 BTu:-.. A sleeping inan gives off 0.7 to 1.2
METABOLIC RATE or MET UNITS so 360 x 0.7 =
252 BTuh. A basketball player in action generates
and loses2136BTuhofthe Met units is 7.6 (7.6x360).
What then is BTuh? (Definition: The amount of heat
required to raise the temperature of one pound water
by one degree fahrenheit).
A. BUILDER'S
TEMPERATURE
UNITS per hour

C. BRITISH THERMAL
UNITS per hour

B. BEST
TEMPERATURE
UNITS per hour

D. BRICK TOWN
UNITS per hour
276

0 0 0 0

0000

3. H it is very very cold outSide during December in


Baguio, where would you put the heater?

0000

A. ABOVE THE WINDOW INSIDE


B. BELOW THE WINDOW INSIDE
C. NEAR THE WAU AWAY FROM THE WINDOW
D. BELOW THE WINDOW OUTSIDE
4. For energy conservation, walls and roofs, and
sometimes floors- if there is outdoor space belowmust be resistant to the rapid transrrission of heat.
Slow pasage of heat also resuls in warmer, more
comfortable inside surface temperatures. Insulation
is highly essential
. are needed to
prevent colder parts of roofs and walls where it
condenses or freezes.
A. DAMPPROOFING

C. TEMPERATURE
CONTROLLERS

B. DEW
COLLECTORS

D. VAPOR BARRIERS

0000

The human body loses heat in three ways


5. One way is through
. This is the
transfer of heat through the movement of a fluid,
either a gas or liquid. This occurs when the air
temperature surrounding a person is less than the
body's skin temperature, around 85 degrees
fahrenheit (30C). The body heats the surrounding
air, which rises and is replaced with cooler air.
A. CONDUCTION

C. CONDUCTIVITY

B. CONDUCTANCE

D. CONVECTION

6. The other way is by


. Heat loss
through this way occurs when moisture changes to
a vapor as a person perspires or breathes.
A. EVAPORATION

C. DEWPOINT

B. ENTHALPY

D. COEFACIENT OF
HEAT TRANSFER

277

0000

0000

7. Another way is by
. This is the transfer
of heat through electromagnetic waves from one
surface to a colder surface. The body can lose heat
to a cooler atmosphere or to a cooler surface.
A. LATENT HEAT

C. INFILTRATION

B. RAOIATION

D. MEAN RADIANT
TEMPERATURE

8. Heat gain is most affected by:


I. Motors

Ill. People

II. Sunlight

IV. Fluorescent Lighting

v.

0000

0000

Humidity

C. I, II, Ill and IV

A II and Ill
B. II, 111 and

D. ALL OF THE ABOVE

9. The
is a graphic representation of
the thermodynamic properties of moist air. It is used
for a wide variety of applications in heating and airconditioning design, including dew point
temperatures, determining relative humidity,
calculating ENTHALPY (in thermodynamics) and
determining humidity ratios. These values are
needed to compute the relationships of heat and air
flow in air conditioning design.

0000

A. PSYCHROMETRIC C. TEMPERATURE
CHART
CHART
B. BAR CHART

D. THERMODYNAMIC
CHART

10. Heat is lost through insulating glass by what process?

A VENTILATION

C. AIR CONDITIONING

B. RADIATION

D. CONVECTION

11. In calculating solar heat gair., what value must you


have in addition to the area of the glass?

A. SENSIBLE HEAT

C. EFFECTIVE
TEMPERATURE

B. DESIGN
COOLING LOAD
FACTOR

D. MEAN RADIANT
TEMPERATURE

278

0000

0000

12. A high value of what property is desirable in heat


loss calculations?

PROPORTION
OF GLASS

C. RESISTANCE

B. TIGHT
CONSTRUCTION

D. ABSORPTION

13. Weatherstripping is a good energy conservation


strategy because it affects what? This is the transfer
of air into and out of a building through open doors,
through

A INSULATION

C. INFILTRATION

B. BODYHEAT

D. EXHAUSTION

14. Select the incorrect statement.

A RELATIVE HUMIDITY is a measure of thermal


comfort

0000

0000

0000

B. PEOPLE FEEL more comfortable in the cold


months if the MAT is high.
C. THERE ARE DIFFERENCES in comfort level
between different cultural groups.
D. The range of comfortable dry bulb temperature
is dependent on air movement.
15. A roof covers an area 12 meters wide and 24 meters
long. With heavy insulation, the resistance has been
calculated as 38 and th.e design equivalent
temperature difference as 44. If the design
temperature is -5 and it is desired to maintain a 70
indoor temperature (F), what is the heat loss through
the roof?

A. 3661 BTuh

C. 5824 BTuh

B. 5455 BTuh

D. 6240 BTuh

16. What would be the best design strategy for passive


cooling during the summer in a hot-humid climate?
A. Design a series of pools and fountains to cooi by
evaporation
B. Include broad overhangs to shield glass and outdoor activities from the sun
C. Orient the building to catch summer breezes
D. Use light-colored sw1aces to reflect sunlight and
solar gain.

279

0000

0000

B. HEATING, VENTJLAlWG, SOLAR ENERGY


Heat flows through Homogenous solids. Beginning with
the combustion of fuel in boilers or furnaces, heat flows
by various methods to warm the OCaJpied spaces and
hence minimally outdoors by transmission through
exterior room surfaces or by the loss or expulsion of
warmed air through openings in the building. There are
three ways where\n heat is transferred.
1. One way is by
. The inside of a
concrete wall which has one side exposed to outside
extreme cold tempera1Ure feels coki to the touch.
Heat is being lead from the side Of higher tefl1)erature
to that of lower temperature. To prevent heat loss by
this way, we must use materials that are poor
conductors. (An example is when a cold steel rod is
heated at one end, soon your hand will feel the heat
at the other end).
A. FEEDER

C. FORWARDER

B. CONDUCTION

D. LEAD-ON

2. The second way is by


. From this
point, it is transferred to the outside air by this system.
To prevent heat loss, materials must be used which
will reflect rather than radiate heat. (An exalll>le is 3
lamp.which when heated is felt by a person near it).
A. REFLECTION

C. RADIATION

B. EMISSION

D. EJECTION

3. The third way. is by


. When air is
heated, it expands and begins to circulate. During
the circulation, it comes in contact with cooler
surfaces, some of its heat is given up to them. It is
therefore important to try to prevent air currents from
being set up in the waDs and ceilings of our building.
(in a cavity wall, a hollow wall, or a metal fireplcfce,
cold Ur enters from below, is heated, expands and
become lighter. Hot air goes up, and cooler air again
enters).
A. CONVEYANCE

C~ CONVERSION

B. TRANSPORTATION D. CONVECTION

280

0000

0000

0000

4. To prevent heat from the inside to escape to the cold


climate outside or to prevent the transfer of hot
outside temperature in summer to the living spac~
within the building, we should specify and use
_ _ _ _ _ .Materials such as blankets, batts.
slabs, loose fill.
A. THERMAL
INSULATION

C. HEATERS

B. BLOCKADE

D. TEMPERATURE
GAUGE

0000

Solar energy is being tapped in many strange and


wondrous ways. However there are two ways of heating
or cooling a building using the solar (sun's) heat.
5. The"
"is so called because it employs
no sophisticated collectors and no expensive
technology to.harness the sun's energy. This is used
for an "energy conscious" building. It is low-energy
consuming building which uses solar power for air
conditioning and other methods which use little or
no energy at all, and at usually low cost.
A. BUDGETED
SOLAR DESIGN

C. PASSIVE
SOLAR DESIGN

B. COST-CONTROL
SOLAR DESIGN

D. SUN CONTROL
DESIGN

6. The
systems require expensive and
energy consuming equipment to operate electric
water heaters and air conditioners. In short they are
technologically designed solar buildings. The
awesome energy of the sun's radiation is harnessed,
absorbed, transferred and stored for building heating
and cooling. Using this system, the temperatures
inside a house will stay at 68 to 70F (19C to 21 C)
during even the coldest days.
A. HEAT
GENERATING
DEVICE

C. MECHANICAL SOLAR
DESIGN

B. ACTIVE SOLAR
DESIGN

D. SUN CONTROL
DESIGN

281

A B C D

0000

0000

7. A
is an integration of a house, a
greenhouse, a solar heater, and a solar still. The
space between the solar collector and the heat
storage wall is large enough to be used for growing
food:
A. BIOSPHERE

C. ENVIRONMENTAL
ARENA

B. ECO-SPHERE

D. SOLAR HOUSE

8. In Thermodynamics, an
, is a quantity
expressed as the Internal Energy of a system plus
the product of the pressure and volume of the system,
having the property that during an isobaric process,
the change in the quantity is equal to the heat
transferred during the process.
A. ENTASIS

C. ELEMENT

B. ANALYTIC

D. ENTHALPY

9. The occupants of a building produce two (2) kinds


of heat: one is the LATt;:NT HEAT and the other is
_ _ _ _ _ in the form of moisture from breathing
and perspiration. This is assumed to be about 225
BTuh, simply multiply the number of occupant by 225
to calculate the heat.
A. DEW POINT

A B C D

0000

0000

0000

C. HOT POINT

B. EXCESSIVE HEAT D. SENSIBLE HEAT


10. In warm air heating, a
is needed. This
is constructed of sheet metal or glass fiber - either
round or rectangular.

A. CONDUCTOR

C. PIPE

B. DUCT

D. SLEEVE

11. These wil be necessary to balance the system and


adjust it to the desires of the occupants. These are
used where branch ducts leave the larger trunk ducts.
Each user can have its flow controlled by an
adjustable splitter
in the basement
at the foot of the riser. Labels should indicate the
rooms served.
A. VANES

C. DAMPERS

B. BLINDS

D. SLATS

282

0000

0000

12. SUpply
(sometimes called diffusers)
should be equipped with dampers and should have
their vanes arranged to disperse the air and to reduce
its velocity as soon as possible after entering the
room. A common method is to provide vanes that
divert the air half to the right and half to the left.
Provide wall slotted type return grilles.
A. REGISTERS

C. EXHAUSTS

B. GRILLES

D. CONTROLLERS

13. This kind of FIREPLACE give off as much radiant


heat as conventional types, but to this they add
circulating air warmed by convection. These
fireplaces have a double or triple-wall firebox with
an intervening air space several inches wide. Vents
at the bottom of the firebox draw cool air into this
space between the inner and outer walls, where it is
warmed. The heated air rises by convection to be
expelled through vents located above the firebox
opening or farther away - even to other rooms
through ducts.
A. HEATERS

C. CENTRAL HEATING

B. HEAT
CIRCULATING

D. HEAT GENERATING
DEVICE

A B C D

0000

0000

14. Smoke and combustion gases from the burning wood

A B C D

. Usually made of Terra


pass up the
Cotta pipe or 0.30 M. x 0.30 M. hollow block smoke
chase.

0000

A. SMOKE ESCAPE

C. AIR SUPPLY

B. HOLLOW SPACE

D. CHIMNEY FLUE

15. This is often used in factories, whether for hanging


on from the ceiling or attached to the wall or window.
It can also be with four wheels and back curtain, put
on the ground for easy moving. This is also called a
long distance ventilator tor vessel workshops, steel
mill, basement and tunnel ventilation, etc.

A. JUMBO FAN

C. PACKAGED AIR

B. AIR INDUCTOR

D. BLOWER

283

0000

, (OZVENT is one product name)


II an aU aluminum ventilator which uses no electricity,
it is deSigned to allow natural breeze to provkte all
the turning requirements for maximum ventilation.

1'8. A

0000

Once installed, there is no further running cost for


resk:tential and Industrial use, attached to the roof.

c.

A. CIRCULAR AIR
EXHAUST

C. TURBINE
VENTILATOR

B. MOVABLE
VENTILATOR

D. ROOF EXHAUST

AIR-CONDITIONING

-1. The process of treatrng air so as to control


'simultaneously its temperature, humk:tity, cleanliness,
and distribution to meet the requirements of the
conditioned space.

A. AIR FRESHING

C. AIR CLEANING

B. AIR
CONDITIONING

D. AIR CONTROLLING

2. This type of air conditioning system having 2 units,


the indoor unit and the outdoor unit. The heat inside
a room is absorbed through the indoor unit and is
released through the outdoor unit. This type can be
wall-mounted, ceiling-mounted, floor-mounted, or,
packaged.
A. DUAL-TYPE

C. SPLIT-TYPE

B. HALF-TYPE

D. COMBIN-ATION TYPE

3. This type of air conditioning system is a semi-fixed,


air conditioning system. It is so because it requires
a wall opening for it to be installed.
A. EXTERIOR TYPE

C. SINGLE-UNIT TYPE

B. WALL-MOUNTED
TYPE

D. WINDOW-MOUNTED
TYPE

284

0000

0000

0000

4. In larger buildings and those wlh varied and diverse


occupancy, it is usually preferred to _ _ __
the refrigeration plant. The condenser is cooled by
water circulated to an outdoor cooling tower and the
evaporator produces chilled water. The latter is then
pumped to whenever it is needed in the building or
to the A.H.U. (Air Handling Unit), each serving many

B C

0000

rooms.
A. CENTRALIZED
C. ONE STATION TYPE
AIR CONDITIONING
B. OVERALL AIR
CONDITIONING

D. GENERAL A. C.

Question 1, 2 and 3 are based on the following situation.


A Developer is planning to build a small shopping mall
for resale. You have been hired as the architect. The
mall will consist of 4,000 sq.m. of rentable area on one
level surrounding a small enclosed courtyard. Existing
utilities adjacent to the site include water, sanitary sewer,
storm sewer, natural gas and electricity.
5. Which mechanical system for the lease area would
you recommend?

0000

A. a multizone system with economizer cycle


B. an active solar energy system for heating and
evaporative cooling
C. a direct expansion system with passive solar
design of the building
D. individual rooftop heat pumps
6. What cooling system would work best for the
enclosed courtyard?

A. EVAPORATIVE
COOLING WITH
A CLOSED
WATER LOOP
B. ABSORPTION
COOLING WITH
SOLAR ASSIST

C. COMPRESSIVE
REFRIGERATION

D. PASSIVE COOLING

285

0000

7. Wtich of the following would be most important in


the selection of an HVAC system for this project?

I. Flexibility
Ill. Economics

0000

II. Cimatic Zone


IV. The Tenant's Preference
V. Building Scale

A. 1,11 and V

C. II, Ill and v

B. II, Ill and IV

D. ALL OF THE ABOVE

8. A seven-storey office building is to have a variable


air volume system. The building will have 10,500
square meter of net space and an estimated 12,600
sq.m. of gross area. About how much space should
be allowed for HVAC systems?
A. 250 sq.m.

C. 630 sq.m.

B. 380sq.m.

D. 760 sq.m.

0000

A
9. Select the iilcorrect f;tatement.

0000

A. A health center would probably use no.4 or no.5


fuel oil.
B. Heat pumps rely on solar energy more than electricity.
C. Natural gas has a higher heating value than propane
D. Electricity is not a good choice for powering boilers in remote areas
10. A main trunk duct is to be placed above a suspended
ceiling and below the structural framing. If ceiling
space for the duct is not a problem, which of the
following shapes of duCts would be the best to use
assuming equal capacities?

A RECTANGULAR,
with the long
dimension horizontal
B. SQUARE

C. RECTANGULAR,
with the long
dimension vertical
D. ROUND

286

0000

11. A standard gas furnace has aft the follOWing concept:


A. FLUE

C. COMBUSTION
CHAMBER

B. DAMPER

D. FILTERS

12. The heat gain for a building has been calculated at


108,000 BTuh. What size compressive refrigeration
machine should be specified?
A. 9 tons

C. 36tons

B. 12 tons

D. 54 tons

0000

0000

A B C D

13. An Economizer cycle:


A. only cools as much chilled water as required by
the demand load

0000

B. uses outdoor air to cool a building


C. automatically reduces the amount of time the
compressor runs
D. uses air and water to cool the condenser coils
14. The cooling system for a restaurant kitchen must
remove which of the following?

A. sensible heat only

C. sensible and latent heat

B. latent heat only

D. sensible heat and latent


heat at 30% of sensible
heat.

287

0000

D. CONVEYORS, VERTICAL TRANSPORTATioN, BUILDING MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT


1.

is a term that describes all the


methods used to move people and materials
vertically. This- includes passenger and freight
elevators, escalators, dumbwaiters, vertical
converyor, moving ramps, wheelchair lifts, and
platform lifts.

A. VERTICAL
TRANSPORTATION
B. VERTICAL
MOVEMENT
2.

0000

C. FLOOR TO FLOOR
CONVEYANCE
D. UP AND DOWN
MOVEMENT

are one of the two major types used


for the movement of people and freight; This elevator
is lifted by a plunger, or ram, set in the ground directly
under the car and operated with oil as the pressure
fluid. As a consequence, the cylinder for the ram must
be extended into the ground as high as the elevator
rises. This is used for two to six stories high only.
Travel time is 7.50 M to 48 M per minute and are
therefore not appropriate for moving large numbers
of people quickly.
A. COMPUTERIZED
ELEVATORS

C. HYDRAULIC
ELEVATORS

B. OIL-FILLED
ELEVATORS

D. MECHANIZED
ELEVATORS

3. This is the most common type used for passenger


service. They are capable of much rngher lifts and
greater speeds than hydraulic types and can be
precisely controlled for accelerating and decelerating.
The system employs a cab suspended by cables
(known as ropes) that are draped over a sheave and
attached to a counterWeight. A motor drives the
sheave, which transmits lifting power to the ropes
by the friction of the ropes in grooves of the sheave.
This type is also called the TRACTION ELEVATORS.
A. GENERATOR
OPERATED
ELEVATORS

C. COMPUTER-AIDED
ELEVATORS

B. AUTOMATED
ELEVATORS

D. ELECTRIC
ELEVATORS

288

0000

0000

4. There are two types of Electric Elevators. One is the


_ _ _ which uses a direct current (de) motor directly
connected to the sheave. The break is also mounted
on the same shaft. These are dependable and easy to
maintain and used on high-speed elevators.

A. IDLER-TYPE

0000

C. NOISELESS TYPE

MACHINES
B. GEARLESS
TRACTION
MACHINES

D. TRANSMISSION
TYPE MACHINES

5. The other type is the _ _ _ . Which is used for


slow speeds from 7.50 m to 150m per mrnute. A highspeed de or ac motor drives a worm gear reduction
assembly to provide a slow sheave speed with high
torque. With the many possible variations in gear
reduction ratios, sheave diameters, motor speeds, and
roping arrangements, This type provide a great deal
of flexibility for slow-speed, high-capacity elevators
A. TRACK TYPE

C GEARED TRACTION
ELEVATORS

B. AUTOMATIC
TRANSMISSION

D. ROLL E:R TYPE

6. __________ refers to the arrangement of cables


supporting the elevator. The simplest type is the single
wrap, in which the rope passes over the sheave only
once and is then connected to the counterweight. For
high-speed elevators, additional traction is usually
required so the rope is wound over the sheave size
This is known as a double-wrap arrangement

A. BINDING

C. ROLLING

B. ROPING

D. WRAPPING

7. For skyscraper buildings such as the world trade center


and multi-use buildings such as the John-Hancock
Tower - both are stacked. multiple buildings - The
elevator solution involves transporting large groups of
people from the street lobby to an upper lobby, called
a
. At this point, the passengers transfer
to another elevator to continue their upward journey.

A. BALCONY
SYSTEMS

C. BREATH TAKING
SYSTEMS

B. LANDSCAPE VIEW D. SKY PLAZA SYSTEMS

289

0000

0000

0000

8. By placing the traction lifting mechanism behind the


car, attaching the car at the back, and using a glassenclosed, car, a spectacular unit car. be constructed
that becomes an attraction in itseH. If the back screen
is treated properly the car gives the impression of
movement without any apparent motive force or
machinery.
A. OBSERVATION
CAR ELEVATORS

C. OPEN VIEW

B. VIEW DECK

D. EXPOSED ELEVATOR

9. Although elevators are normally conceived as


travelling vertically, this is not necessarily so.
_ _ _ _ _ Elevators have been constructed in
numerous locations. The design varies depending
on the angle of incline.

A. SLOPING

C. LEANING ELEVATOR

B. SLANTOF
INCLINED
ELEVATORS

D. UNEVEN

10. Although recognition of the special needs of the


handicapped has only of late been made official
through legislation, and only for public buildings. the
elevator industry has been providing for the
handicapped for years, on a private basis
~----_and private residential elevators are
widely used to overcome the stair barrier in private
homes. All units operate on household electric
current and require minimal maintenance.

11.

A. SINGLE FLOOR

C. ESCALATOR

B. HYDRAULIC LIFT

D. WHEEL, CHAIR LIFTS

are designed and intended to


transport only equipment and materials and those
passengers needed to handle these equipments.
These are commonly available in capacities from
1,136 kilos to 3,636 kilos, with some multiple ram
hydraulic elevators capable of lifting up to 45,455
kilos. Speeds range from 16M per minute to 66M
per minute with speeds up to 267M per minute
available for very tall buildings.
A. BULK ELEVATORS C. FREIGHT
ELEVATORS
B. MASS ELEVATORS D. SOLID ELEVATORS

290

0000

0000

0000

0000

12.

are very efficient devices for


transporting large numbers of people from one level
to another. They are also useful for directing the flow
of traffic where it is desired. This device (also called
the Electric Stairway) is power driven and are rated
by speed and width. The two available speeds are 9
meters per minute and 12 MpM. The two available
widths are O.BOM and 1.20M. These are housed in a
trussed assembly set at a 30-degree angle.
A. ESCALATORS

C. RAISERS

B. RAMP STAIRS

D. HORIZONTAL LIFTS

13. This often provide the most convenient and


economical means of transporting relatively small
articles between levels. In department stores, such
units transport merchandise from stack areas to
.selling or pick up counters; in hospitals, these are
often utilized for transporting food, drugs, linens, etc.
In multi-level restaurants and office, they are used
for delivery of food from the kitchen and for return of
soiled dishes. Cars are limited to 0.81 sq.m and a
maximum height of 1.20M. Controlled by call and
send.
A. SHAFT
ELEVATORS

C. SERVICE FLOOR TO
FLOOR

B. MANUAL LIFTERS

D. MANUAL
DUMBWAITERS

14. These units are also known as "EJECTION LIFTS"


because of the method of delivery used in institutions
that require rapid scheduled vertical movement of
relatively large items, like food carts, linens, dishes,
bulk liquids, containers, etc. This lifts maybe a
"CART", a "BASKET" or just containing the items
being transported. Payload capacity is available up
to 45 kilos, Round trip time about 21/2 minutes,
disadvantages are high cost and large shaft area
required.
A. MATERIAL
ELEVATORS

C. AUTOMATED
DUMBWAITERS

B. AUTOMATIC
TRANSFERER

D. VERTICAL WAITERS

291

0000

0000

0000

15. ESCALATORS have as their primary function the


movement of large numbers of people vertically.
However
serves a dual function, that
is, Horizontal and Vertical transportation. This is the
combined function. It differs from Escalators in
application, function, construction, and capacity.
A. MOVING WALKS
of
incline and
MOVING RAMPS
of 15 incline

C. MOVING FLOORS

B. MOVING
SIDEWALKS

D. CIRCULATING
FLOORS

so

16. When a parking space is limited. This Hightech


Parking invention is used. It is called ___________ .
This can be installed in two hours, anywhere you
want to double the available parking space - one
car would be parked on top of the other.

0000

A B C D

0000

A. EXCHANGEABLE C. DOUBLE DECK


PARKING
PARKING SYSTEM
B. SPACE SAVER LIFT D. ELECTROHYDRAULIC S!NCLE
POST LIFT
E. MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS
Questions 1 through 3 are based on the tollow1ng Situation:
A developer in a midsize Metro Manila City is planninr:J a
small shopping mall for resale. The Mall will consist of
4,000 square meter of rentable area on one level surrounding a small enclosed courtyard. Existing utilities
adjacent to the site include water, sanitary sewer, storm
sewer, natural gas, and electricity.
1. Which mechanical system for the lease area would

you recommend?

0000

A. a multizone system with economizer cycle


B. an active solar energy system for heating and
evaporative cooling

292

C. a direct expansion system with passive solar


design of the building
D. individual rooftop heat pumps

2. What cooling system would work best for the


enclosed courtyard?

c D
0000
A

A. evaporative cooling C. absorption cooling with


solar assist
with a closed water
loop

B. compressive refrigeration

D. passive cooling

3. Which of the following would be most important in


the selection of an HVAC system for this project.
I. flexibility
If. climatic zone

c D
0000
A

IV. the tenant's preference

v.

building scale

Ill. economics
A. I, II, and V

C. II, Ill, and V

B. II, Ill, and IV

D. all of the above

4. A seven-story office building is to have a variable air


volume system. The building will have 10,500 square
meter of net space and an estimated 12,600 square
meter, of gross area. About how much space should
be allowed for HVAC system?
A. 250 square meter

C. 630 square meter

B. 380 square meter

D. 760 square meter

5. Select the incorrect statement.


A. A health center would probably use no. 4 or no.
5fueloi.
B. Heat pumps rely on solar energy more than electricity.
C. Natural gas has a higher heating value than propane.
D. Electricity is not a good choice for powering boilers in remotP. areas.

293

0000

0000

6. A main trunk duct is to be placed above a suspended


ceiling and below the structural framing. If ceiling
space for the duct is not a problem, which of the
following shapes of ducts would be best to use
assuming equal capacities?

c D

0000

A. rectangular, with the C. rectangular, with the


long dimension horiz0ntal
B. square

long dimension vertica

D.

round

7. A standard gas furnace has all of the following


except:

A. flue

c.

combustion chamber

B. damger

D.

filters

8. The heat gain for a building has been calculated at


108,000 BTU h. What size compressive refrigeration
machine should be specified?

A. 9 tons

c.

36 tnns

B. 12 tons

D.

54 tons

9. An economizer cycle:

c D

0000

c D

0000

A. only cools as much chilled water as required by


the demand load

c D

0000

B. uses outdoor air to cool a building


C. automatically reduces the amount of time the
compressor runs

D.

uses air and water to cool the condenser coils

10. The cooling system for a restaurant kitchen must


remove which of the following?
A. sensible heat only

C. sensible and latent heat

B. latent heat only

D.

sensible heat and latent


heat at 30% of sensible
heat

294

c D

0000

AREA ''8''
PARTIII

UTILITIES

3. ELECTRICAL AND
OTHER POWER
SYSTEMS

AREA "8"

UTILITIES

PART Ill

A. PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY
Electricity constitutes a form of energy itself which occurs
naturally only in unusable forms such as lighting. The
primary problem in the utilization of electric energy is that,
unlike fuels or even heat, it cannot be stored and therefore
must be generated and utilized at the same instant.
1. The bulk of electric energy utilized is in the form of
_ _ _ _ _ generators produced by alternators.

2.

A. ALTERNATING
CURRENT

C. POWER SUPPLY

B. VOLTAGE

D. CIRCUITRY

generators are utilized for special


applications requiring large quantities of this. In the
building field, such a requirement is found in elevator
work. Smaller quantities for this generator, furnished
either by batteries or by rectifiers are utilized for
telephone and signal equipment, controls, etc.

A. DISTRIBUTION
CIRCUIT

C. DEMAND-CURRENT

B. ALTERNATING
(a-c)

D. DIRECT-CURRENT
(d-e)

3. The UNIT OF ELECTRIC CURRENT is the


_ _ _ _". When electricity flows in a conductor,
a certain number of electrons pass a given point in
the conductor in 1 second or 6.25 x 1018 electrons.
On a 120 volt service, the ordinary 100 watt lamp
filament carries about 0.833. The motor for a desk
calculator, about 1 00.

A. VOLTAGE

C. AMPERE (amp)

B. WATT

D. IMPEDANCE

296

0000

0000

A B C D

0000

4. The UNIT OF ELECTRIC POTENTIAL is the


_ _ _ _ _".The electron movement and its
concomittant energy, which constitutes electricity, is
caused by creating a higher positive electric charge
at one point on a conductor that exists at another
point on that same conductor. In a storage battery
there is a force attraction between the negative and
positive charges.This is EMF (electromotive force)
produced by a battery or generator which causes
current to flow when the terminals between which
this potential exists are connected by a conductor.
A. TIME HOURS

C. KINETIC ENERGY

B. VOLT or V

D. OHM

5. The UNIT OF ELECTRIC RESISTANCE is the


______ ... The flow of current in an electric
.circuit is impeded (resisted) by resistance; which is
the electrical term for friction. In a direct current( d-e)
this unit is called resistance and is abbreviated R; in
an alternating current circuit (a-c) it is called
impedance and is abbreviated Z.

A. OHM

C. POWER FACTOR

B. VOLT

D. REACTANCE

6. Materials display different resistance to the flow of


electric current. Metals generally have the least
resistance and are therefore called _ _ _ __
The best materials are the precious metals- silver,
gold, platinum - with copper and aluminum only
slightly inferior.
A. LEADERS

C. WIRINGS

B. CONDUCTORS

D. CONDENSER

7. Conversely, materials that resist the flow of current


are called
. Glass, mica, rubber, oil,
distilled water, porcelain, exhibit this property, and is
used around the conductor for safety. Common
examples are rubber and plastic wire coverings,
porcelain lamp sockets, and oil-immersed switches.

A. ALANKETS

C. INSULATORS

B. ISOLATORS

D. ABSORBERS

297

0000

0000

0000

0000

8. The current I that will flow in a d-e circuit is directly


proportional to the voltage V and inversely
proportional to the resistance R of the circuit.
Expressed as an equation, we hav9 the basic OHM's

0000

LAW that I = V . An Incandescent lamp having a hot

resistance of 66 ohms is. put into a socket that is


connected to a 115V supply. What current flows
through the lamp? (using a 200W bulb)

A. 1.65 amperes

C. 2.25 amperes

B. 1.28 amperes

D. 1.74 amperes

-9. Resistance therefore is expressed in the equation


R = V . A house electric water heater is rated 220V

0000

and 20 amperes. What is the unit's resistance when


drawing this amount of current? (using a 1320 watt
portable heater)
A. 9 ohms

C. 12.8 ohms

B. 11 ohms

D. 15 ohms

An electric CIRCUIT may be defined as a complete


conducting path that carries current from a source of
electricity to and through some electrical device (or load)
and back to the source. A current can never flow unless
there is a complete (closed) circuit.

10 One arrangement of a circuit is the

---~

circuits. In this way, the elements are connected one


after the other: Thus, the resistance and voltages
add. In any of this kind of circuit, the total resistance
R is the sum of the resistance around the circuit. A
practical application of this kind of circuit is found in
an incandescent lamp street lighting cicuits. The loss
of one lamp can disable the entire circuit.
Furthermore, the point of fault is difficult to pinpoint,
necessitating individual testing of lamps. (also
christmas lights)

A. SINGLE

C. SERIES

B. ALIGNED

D. GROUP

298

A B C

0000

11. When two or more branches or loads in a circuit are


connected between the same two points, they are
said to be connected in "
" circuits or
MULTIPLE. This connection is the standard
arrangement in all building wiring. Such that
groupings can be done like convenience outlets, one
group, the other group are ceiling lights.

A. DOUBLE

C. DUAL

B. COUPLED

D. PARALLEL

12. The unit of Electric Power is the WATT or W. The


power input to any electrical device having a.
resistance R and in which the current is I is given by

0000

0000

the equation W = FR or W = I(IR) and since I=-

then V = IR or W = I(V). This is the product of volts


times current in d.c. circuits. An incandescent lamp
has a resistance R = 66 ohms, with a 115V supply.
Find the power drawn in watts.

A. 200 watts

C. 165 watts

B. 250 watts

D. 225 watts

B. ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS: MATERIALS, WIRING


1.

of a typical building electrical system,


from the incoming service to the utilization items at
the end of the system. This is so called when
electrical symbols are used in lieu of the blocks.

0000

A. ELECTRICAL PLAN C. SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM


B. SERIAL ~YMBOL
DIAGRAM

D. ELECTRICAL
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

2. A
or block diagram is done using rectangles
to indicate the major components. It shows the spatial
relations between components. An example is to
show the vertical section on each floor the circuit
from meter to panels to machine room to circuit
breakers to upper floor circuits or from high-voltage
primary feeders to transformer vaults to secondary
service conductors to main switch boards to main
feeders to distribution panels to lighting and
appliance panels to receptacles and ceiling outlets.

A. MULTI-STORY
DIAGRAM

C. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

B. RISER DIAGRAM

D. CONNECTING
I)IAGRAM

299

0000

3.

are used to change alternating current


voltages, either up or down. In most cases, power is
supplied to a building at a high voltage because the
lines can be smaller and there is less voltage drop.
These are rated on their kilovolt-amperes capacity (kva)
and described by their type, phase, voltages, method
of cooling, insulation type, and noise level. For cooling,
they are either dry, oil filled, or silicone filled.

0000

A. DIFFERENTIATOR C. CHANGER
B. ALTERNATOR
4.

5.

D. TRANSFORMER

is required for electrical systems that


relate to the safety of occupants or community needs.
This includes such things as exit lighting, alarm
systems, elevators, telephone systems, and fire
pumps, as well as equipment that could have lifethreatening implications if power were lost, such as
some medical equipments. This is supplied by
GENERATORS or BATTERIES. Generators for large
electrical loads for long periods of time. Batteries are
used for smaller loads for shorter time periods.
A. EMERGENCY
POWER

C. STANDBY POWER

B. ALTERNATIVE
POWER

D. ELECTRICAL
STORAGE

on the other hand, provides electricity


for functions thatthe building owner requires to avoid
an interruption in business. This often includes
computer operations or industrial processes
A. STORED POWER

A B C D

0000

0000

C. EMERGENCY
POWER

B. STANDBY POWER D. FUTURE USE


6.

1s a type of wiring system that relies


upon the construction of the cable itself for protection
both of and from the 'hot' conductors, since raceways
are not required in the installation. These are
exposed insulated cables. It is an assembly of wires,
normally plastic insulated, bounded together with a
tape or braid and then wrapped with a spiral-wound
interlocking strip of steel tape. It is then enclosed
with a flexible steel armor.
A. MOVABLE WIRE

C. FIREPROOF WIRE

B. ARMORED WIRE

D. AC ("BX")

300

A B C D

0000

7. Known by its trade name as"


",this is
a non-metallic sheathed cable, similar to BX. However,
not having the physical protection of metallic armor,
use is restricted to small buildings up to three floors.
Easier to handle, this cable type comprises an
assembly of two or more plastic-insulated conductors
and a ground wire, all covered with a flame retardant,
moisture-resistant plastic jacket.
A. DUMEX

C. ROMEX

B. FLAT WIRE

D. ESSEX

8. A
is a factory-assembled channel
with conductors for one to four circuits permanently
installed in the track. Power is taken from the track
by special tap-off devices that contact the track's
electrified conductors and carry the power to the
attached lighting fixture. The tracks are generally
rated 20 amperes, and are restricted to 120V. The
electrified conductors are permanently installed in
the aluminum track, which is grounded for safety.
A. SLIDING LIGHT

C. TRACK CIRCUIT

B. HANGER

D. LIGHTING TRACK

9. This is an
. A CABLE TRAY is a continuos
open support for approved cables. When used as a
general wiring system, the cables must be selfprotected, jacketed types. The advantages of this
system are free-air rated cables, easy installation
and maintenance, and relatively low cost. The
disad'{antages are bulkiness and the required
accessil1ility.

10.

A. OPEN RACEWAY

C. OPEN TRACK

B. EXPOSED
TROUGH

D. BARE PIPE

. Included here are CONDUIT PIPES,


surface raceways and underfloor ducts which are
FIRST INSTALLED, then the wiring is inserted and
pulled in later. The nominal trade sizes are 1/ 2 ", 3/ 4", 1"",
11/ 2 ", 2", 21/ 2 ", 3", 3 1/ 2 ", 4", 5" and 6". (12.70 mm, 19.05
mm, 25.41 mm, 38.11 mm, 50.82 mm, 63.52 mm, 76.23
mm, 88.93 mm, 101.64 mm, 127.05 mm and 152.46
mm) the total number of conductors in the sizes of
conduct pipes are shown on a table. Materials are G. I
steel pipe and now uPVC is also used.
A. UNEXPOSED
RUNAWAY

C. CLOSED SLEEVE

B. CLOSED
RACEWAY

D. CLOSETED
CIRCUITRY
301

0000

0000

0000

0000

11. In order to provide access to the conduits for installing


the necessary wires and for making connections to
them, the continuos conduit runs are interrupted at
frequent intervals by sheet-metal or cast-metal
boxes. These boxes are usually of a rectangular,
octagon, or round form having punched holes to fit
the conduits which terminate in them. The threaded
ends of the conduit are held rigid in the holes by
means of a BUSHING on the inside and a LOCKNUT
on the outside of the box.

0000

A. JUNCTION BOXES C. PULL BOXES AND


CONNECTION
BOXES
B. UNION BOXES

D. SAFE BOXES

12. An
is an elevated (0.60 x 0.60M)
modular slab that gi~es the building's users
instantaneous access to a below floor plenum which
can accomodate HVAC, electrical communications
and EDP lines, as well as unforseen future
developments and capacity. The building's users and
visitors will walk confidently on a surface with the
solid feeling of a poured slab. Since the system uses
no grid of stringers, maximum accessibflity is assured
when you need to change office layout, repair utilities,
or upgrade capabilities, you can do it with a minimum
of expense and disruption. Simply lift the floor panels
and move the services.

A. ACCESS
FLOORING
B. HANDY
FLOORING

0000

C. REPLACABLE
FLOORING
D. COMPUTER FLOOR

C. SERVICE AND UTILIZATION


1. Electric Service is normally tapped onto the utility
lines at a mutually agreeable point at or beyond the
property line. The service tap may be a connection
on a pole with an
drop to the building.
Materials can be bare, weatherproof or
preassembled. Bare copper cable supported on
porcelain or glass insulators on crossarms is normally
used for high voltage (2.4 KV and higher) lines.
A. NPC SERVICE

C. UTILITY SYSTEM

B. OVERHEAD
SERVICE

D. OUTSIDE SERVICE

302

0000

2. Another electric service is by


or direct
burial techniques. The advantages of this is
attractiveness (lack of overhead visual clutter)
service reliability and long life. Disadvantages are
high cost.

A. BASEMENT
SERVICE
B. DEEP EARTH
SERVICE

0000

C. UNDERGROUND
SERVICE
D. CREMATION
SERVICE

3. As a Service Equipment,
between
the high voltage incoming utility lines and the
secondary service conductors is required whenever
the building voltage is different from the utility voltage.
It may be pole or pad-mounted outside the building,
or installed in a room or vault inside the building.
These are devices that changes alternating current,
(a-c) of one voltage to alternating current (a-c) of
another voltage. This devices cannot be used on
(d-e) direct current.
A. CHANGERS

C. ALTERNATORS

B. REFORMERS

D. TRANSFORMERS

4. A transformer rated 120/480V transforms the lower


volt 120V a-cto 480V a-c bigger load. This is called
the
transformer.

A. STEP-UP

C., INCREASE-UP

B. RAISE-UP

D. REAR-UP

5. When a service load is bigger a-c say 480V and you


need only 120V to lower a-c. Then use a
_ _ _ _ _ transformer.

6.

A. SLIDE-DOWN

C. RUNDOWN

B. STEP-DOWN

D. CHANGE-DOWN

must be provided at either the utility


or the facility voltage, and at either the service point
or inside the buildings which must be accessible to
the utility (electrical consumption) reader.

A. METERING

C. ADDING

B. READING

D. COMPUTING
303

0000

0000

0000

0000

7. Find the daily energy consumption of the appliances


listed below if they are used daily for the amount of
time shown.
Toaster (1340 W) or 1.34 kw 15 min. or

0000

4 hour

Percolator (500 W) or 0.50 kw 2 hours


Fryer (1560 W) or 1.56

2 hour

Iron ( 1400 W) or 1.40 15 min. or

4 hour

A. 2.65 Kwh

C. 3.650 Kwh

B. 3.15Kwh

D. 2.815 Kwh

'8. In considering an average power demand of a


household is 1.2 kw per day, calculate the monthly
electric bill of such a household, assuming the rate
of per kilowatt hour is P5.00.
A. 750 Kwh @
P3,750.00

C. 864 Kwh @
P4,320.00

B. 805 Kwh@
P4,025.00

D. 600 Kwh@
P3,000.00

9. The purpose of the electric


is to
disconnect all the electric power in the building except
emergency equipment. Thus, in the event of fire, no
electrical hazard will face fire fighters. It is therefore
obvious that this disconnecting apparatus must be
located at a readily accessible spot near the point
the service conductors enter the building.
A. MAIN SWITCH

C. OVERHEAD SWITCH

B. UTILITY SWITCH

D. SERVICE SWITCH

10. An Electrical
is a device intended for on/off
control of an electrical circuit and is rated by current
and voltage, duty, poles and throw, fusibility and
enclosure. The currentrating.is the amount of current
that this can carry continuously and interrupt safely.
These devices are intended for normal use in light and
power circuits are call GENERAL-USE SAFETY, and
are rated no for normal duty. Those intended for
frequent interrupting are rated HD for heavy duty and
those intended to be opened load only occasionally,
such as for service, are rated LD for light duty. These
devices are rated 250 V, 600 V or 5 KV as required.
A. OPENER

C. SWITCH

B. TOUCHDOWN

D. LIGHTER
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0000

A B

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11. When there is one ceiling light intended for the


stairway, and can be opened, or switched either from
the ground floor of 2nd floor and vice versa, that is
you can switch it closed either at the ground or
second floor, you have to use a single pole double
throw
switch.

12.

A. THREE-WAY

C. DOUBLE-ACTION

B. FOUR-WAY

D. ALTERNATE

is a device which is an essential part


of all standby power arrangement, is basically a
double throw switch- generally 3 pole, so arranged
that on failure of normal service is restored, it
automatically retransfers to it. The control devices
are voltage sensors that sense the condition of the
service and operate the switch accordingly. Auxilliary
devices can be built on to the basic switch, the
common of which are emergency generator starting
equipment.
A. AUTOMATIC
GENERATOR

C. AUTOMATIC
CHANGER

B. AUTOMATIC
TRANSFER

D. AUTOMATOR

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D. MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS
1. In order to protect insulation, wiring, switches, and
other apparatus from overload and SHORT CIRCUIT
currents, it is necessary to provide automatic means
for opening the circuit. One of the devices employed
to fulfill this function is the
. It consist
of a link or wire of flow melting temperature that when
enclosed in an insulating fiber tube is called a
CARTRIDGE, and when in a porcelain cup is known
as a PLUG. When this device is subjected to excess
current, the energy loss in the link generates heat
and melts it. Plugs are normally used in residences
all rated from 5 to 30 amp. cartridge are made in
sizes from 5 to 600 amp.
A. FUSE

C. UNION

B. WELD

D. MIXER

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2. Another CIRCUIT PR<:JfECTIVE DEVICE is the


_ _ _ _ _ .This is an electromechanical device
that performs the same protective function as a fuse
and, in addition, act as a switch. Thus it can be used
in lieu of a switch-and-fuse combination to both
protect and disconnect a circuit. Most of this
protective device are equipped with both thermal and
magnetic trips. The THERMAL TRIP, which acts as
on overload, is similar in action to a THERMOSTAT
(an instrument which responds to the changes in
temperature). Heat generated by excessive current
causes an element to move and trip the latching
mechanic of the breaker, Thus opening the breaker
contacts and thereby the circuit. The MAGNETIC
TRIP comprises a coil with a movable core. On short
circuits, magnetic forces actuate the core which trips
protective device latch.

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A. CIRCUIT STOPPER .C. CIRCUIT STALLER

B. CIRCUIT
BREAKERS

D. CIRCUIT BLACK-OUT

3. Transfer Load Centers or


, are an
assembly of primary switch-and-fuse or breaker,
step-down transformer, meters, controls, buswork,
and secondary switchgear. It is available for indoor
or outdoor use, to supply power from a primary
voltage line to any large facility (usually located at
the basement).
A. UNIT HOUSING

C. UNIT SUBSTATION

B. UNIT SPACER

D. UNIT LOCATION

4. A
serves basically the same function
as a switchboard, except on a smaller scale, that is,
it accepts relatively large of power and distributes it
in smaller blocks. Like the switchboard, it comprises
main fuses to which are connected circuit-protective
devices (breakers or fuses), which feed smaller
circuits. These level of the system is usually the final
distribution point, feeding out to the branch circuits
that contain the electrical utilization apparatus and
devices, such as lighting, motors and so on.
A. CIRCUITRY
BOARD

C. FUSIBLE LINK
BOARDS

B. BASE PLATES

D. PANEL BOARDS

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5. What precautions should be taken if aluminum


conductors are used in a building?
I leads should be clearned prior to making connections
II special conduct should be specified
Ill licensed electricians should be required to make
the installation

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A

IV all joints should be soldered


larger sizes should be used

A. I, II and Ill

C. II, Ill and V

B. I, Ill and V

D. Ill and V

6. Which would be the best location for a trar .sformer


for a large school building?

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A

B c

A. on the power pole serving the building


B. outside, on a transformer pad close to the main
switchgear
C. in a separate room at the exterior wall
D. in a prQtective shed where the power from the
utility company enters the property

7. High voltages are used in commercial buildings

0000

because:
A. conductors and conduit can be smaller
B. a wider variety of loads can be accomodated
C. commercial buildings require more power
D. transformers can step down the voltages to whatever is required

8. Which of the following would not be appropriate 1or


fire protection in an elementary school?
A. IONIZATION
DETECTOR

C. PHOTOELECTRIC
DETECTOR

B. TEMPERATURERISE DETECTOR

D. NONE OF THE ABOVE

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A

AREA ''B''
PARTIII

UTILITIES

4. ACOUSTICS AND
ILLUMINATION

AREA "B"

UTILITIES'

PART Ill

DIRECTION: Read the passages and answer the questions that follow. Shade the
circle () of the correct answer to each question.

A. SOUND SOURCES, HUMAN RESPONSE


1.

is a physical wave, or a mechanical


vibration, or simply a series of pressure variations,
in an elastic medium. For architects, this is defined
as an audible signal. This travels much faster in
liquids and solids than it does in air.
A. SOUND

C. MUSIC

B. TONE

D. NOISE

2. The number of times the cycle of compression,


pressure fluctuations and rarefaction of air (or to and
for variations) that the source makes in a given unit
of time or 1 second is described as the
_ _ _ _ _ of a sound or vibration, expressed
in HERTZ hz. For example, if there are 1000 cycles
in one,second, this is 1,000 hertz. The higher this is,
the higher the pitch in sound and vice-versa.
A. TRANSMISSION

C. REVERBERATION

B. DECIBEL

D. FREQUENCIES

3. The persistence of sound after the cause of sound


. A result of
has stopped is called the
repeated reflections.
A. ATTENUATION

C. REVERBERATION

B. COEFFICIENT
OF ABSORPTION

D. ECHO

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4. When a "free' sound wave strikes a uniform surface


that is large compared to the wavelength of the
sounq, the
of the wave is similar to
that of a mirror. The angle the sound makes with a
surface, equals the angle of incidence. This is the
return of sound waves from a surface.

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A. SOUND PRESSUREC. DISTANCE


B. REFLECTION

D. VELOCITY

5. Ideally, every listener in a lecture hall, theater, or


concert hall should hear the speaker or performer with
the same degree of loudness and clarity. Since this is
obviously impossible by direct-path sound, the
essential design task is to plan methods for reinforcing
desirable reflections and minimizing and controlling
undesirable ones. Normally; only the first reflection is
considered in
, since it is the strongest.
A. RAY ALIGNING

C .. RAY DIAGRAMMING

B. RAY
PROGRAMMING

[}. RAY TRAVERSING

A .. NOISE

C. SOUND

B. ECHOES

D. VOLUME

7. A
is perceived as a buzzing or clicking
sound, and it is comprised of repeated echoes
traversing back and forth betWeen two non-absorbing
\
parallel (flat or concave) surfaces. These often occur
between shallow domes and hard; flat floors. The
remedy for this sound is either to chan~e the shape
of the reflectors, their parallel relationship, 1or add
absorption. The solution c~osen will depend on
reverberation requirements, cost; or_ esthetics. (small
music practice rooms uses splayed walls)
A. GUTTER

C. SPLATTER

B. SHUTIER

D. FLUTTER
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A
at sufficient intensity reaches a listener approximately
70 msec ormore after he hears the direct sound. This
occurs whenever the reflected sound path is more
than 70ft (21M) longer than the direct path. Typical
Surfaces producing this sound in an auditorium are
the back wall and the ceiling above the proscenium

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8. Concave domes, barrel vaulted hallways, and circular


rooms will
reflected sound into certain areas
of rooms. This has several disadvantages. For example,
it will deprive some listeners of useful sound reflection
and cause hot spots at other audience positions.

A. FOCUS

C. DIFFUSE

B. AIM

D. TARGET

9. This is the converse of focusing and occurs primarily

when sound is reflected from convex surfaces. A


degree of
is also provided by flat
horizontal and inclined reflectors.
A. ABSORPTION

C. REDUCTION

B. DIFFUSION

D. SECLUSION

10. A
describes the reflection of sound
along a curv,ed surface from a source near the surface.
Although the sound can be heard at points along the
surface, it is inaudible away from the surface.
A. STEEP

C. CREEP

B. BLEEP

D. KEEP

11.

.. is a unit of power ratio, the number

of units being equal to a constant times the logarithm


to the base 10 of the same kind such as power
intensity or energy density. It is often used a unit to
express the intensity of a sound wave, equal to 20
times the common logarithm of the ratio of the
pressure produced by the sound wave to a reference
pressure, usually .0002 microbar or 1 microbar.

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0000

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I
The formula is IL = 1Ologlo

A. DECIBEL

C. HERTZ

B. SOUND INTENSITY D. BARRIER

12. The unit of sound absorption is called the _ _ __


Theoretically, one square foot (12"X12") or 0.96 sq. m
of a perfectly absorptive surface having an absorption
coefficient of 1.00

A. OCTAVE BAND

C. WAVELENGTH

B. PHON

D. SABIN

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0000

B. ACOUSTICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS


1. The rate which sound is taken in, without echo or
reflected in a room is a prime factor in reducing noise
and controlling reverberation. This is called
_ _ _ _ .All materials used in the construct1on of
buildings sucks some sounds, but proper acoustical
control often requires the use of materials that have
been especially designed to function primarily as
sound is taken in such materials are popularly known
as "ACOUSTICAL" materials to reduce noise in
offices, hospitals, theatres and restaurants.

A DIFFUSION

C. REDUCTION

B. ABSORPTION

D. FLOODING

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Choose Acoustical materials with proper acoustical


characteristics. Also, all other physical and decorative
properties of the materials must be given proper attention.
The Architect must raise about each material such
questions as the following:
a. Is it combustible or fire-resistant?
b. How much light will it reflect?
c. What about its structural length absorption of water,
and attraction to 'vermin (rats)?
d. How foolproof is it?
e. Can its ~pplication be entrusted to the average carpenter?
f. What is ifs appearance, and what are its decorative

possibilities?
g. How much does the material cost?
h. Will it be expensive to install and maintain?
2. Sound is ABSORBED by a mechanism which converts
the sound into the other forms of energy and ultimately
into heat. Most manufactured materials depends largely
on their
(full of holes permeable by air) for
their absorptivity which, when sufficient and of
appropriate thickness, as much as 95 percent of the
energy of an incident sound wave may be absorbed in
this manner. Many materials, such as mineral wool pads.
and blankets, have a multitude of small deeply

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penetrating intercommunicating pores. The sound


waves can readily propagate themselves into these
INTERSTICES (an intervening space, a small or narrow
space or interval between things or parts). where a
portion of the sound energy is converted into heat by
frictional and viscous resistance within the pores and
by vibration of the small fibers of the material.

A. POROSITY

C. DENSITY

B. VISCOSITY

D. THICKNESS

3. A
or POROUS material absorb the frictional
drag produced by moving the air in small spaces within
the material. The absorption provided by a specific
material depends on its thickness, density and porostty
and resistance to airflow. For example, materials must
be thick to absorb low frequency sound effectively.
Since the action depends on absorbing energy by
"PUMPING" air through the material, the air paths must
extend from 011e side to the other. A material of this
type is useless as an acoustic absorbent (Therefore,
painting will generally ruin a porous absorber).
A. GRANULAR

C. FIBERGLASS

B. VEGETATIVE

D. FIBROUS

4. One type of ACOUSTICAL material is the


_ _ _ _ _ .These include ACOUSTICAL TILE,
well adapted to rooms in which a relatively small
surface is available for acoustical treatment;
MECHANICALLY PERFORATED UNITS backed
with absorbent material; and certain WALL BOARDS,
TILE BOARDS and ABSORBENT SHEETS
A. COLLAPSIBLE
UNITS

C. PRE-FABRICATED
UNITS

B. MADE TO ORDER
UNITS

D. STANDARD DESIGN
UNITS

5. Another type is the


. materials, These
materials comprise plastic and porous materials
applied with a trowel; and fibrous materials,
combined with binder agents, which are applied with
an air gun or blower.

A. CORKBOARD

C. ACOUSTICAL FELT

B. ACOUSTrCAL
PLASTER AND
SPRAYED-ON

D. CHEMICAL
IMMERSED

313

A B C D

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A B C D

0000

A B C D

0000

6.

are made up chiefly of mineral or


wood. wool, glass fibers, kapok batts, and hair felt.
A. ACOUSTICAL
BOARDS

C. ACOUSTICAL
CUSHIONS

B. ACOUSTICAL
ROLLS

D. ACOUSTICAL
BLANKETS

7. Which of the following are not true?


I. Sensitivity to sound varies between sexes.
II. People are generally more sensitive to middle and
high frequencies than to low frequencies for
sounds of equal energy.

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Ill. Most healthy young people can hear sounds in


the range of 15 to 25,000 Hz.
IV. Practically all common sounds are rnade up of
energy in a wide range of frequencies.
V. Speech is composed of frequencies in the range
of 125 to 8000Hz.
A. I and V

C. I and Ill

B. Ill and V

D. II and 111

3. The construction assembly shown would be the best


for controlling which of the following kinds of acoustic
situations?
~"gypsum

board

double laver~ ..
gypsum board

1" sound
absorbing
panel

sound attenuation
insulation

room A

room B

I. impact noise

11. excessive reverberation in room B

Ill. transmission from A to room B


IV. transmission from room B to room A

V. mechanical vibration
A. II and IV

C. Ill and IV

B. II and Ill

D. I and II
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0000

9. In an office, a copy machine is found to produce 65


dB. If a computer printer is added to the room and it
produces a sound intensity of 69 dB, what will be
the resulting sound level?

A. 70 dB

C. 72 dB

B. 71 dB

D. 73 dB

10. What is the single number often used to evaluate


partitions?
A. SOUND
ABSORPTION
COEFFICIENT

C. SOUND INTENSITY

B. SOLJND
TRANSMISSION
CLASS

D. TRANSMISSION
LOSS

11. What method is used to specify the maximum


allowable intensity of background sounds?
A. NOISE CRITERIA

C. NOISE REDUCTION

B. NOISE INSULATION CLASS

D. INVERSE SQUARE
LAW

12. What is one variable affecting reverberation time?


A. SOUND INTENSITY C. NGISE REDUCTION
COEFFICIENT
B. ROOM VOLUME

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D. PHON

13. Which of the following is not true about noise


reduction between two rooms?
A. Noise reduction increases with an increase in the
transmission loss of the wall separating the two
rooms.
B. The stiffness of the wall has little effect on noise
reduction.
C. To improve noise reduction, you should place
absorptive materials on both sides of the wall.
D. An increase in wall area separating the two rooms
is detrimental.

315

0 0 0 0

14. A room 4.50 M wide by 6.00 M long by 2.55 M high


is finished with the following materials of listed
absorptions. There is a window on one wall1.05 M
high by 2.40 M long. What is the total absorption of
the room?
NRC

125

250

500

1000 2000 4000

floor wood

0.10

0.15

0.11

0.10

0.07 0.06 0.07

walls, gypsum board

0.05

0.10

0.08 0.05

0.03

0.03 0.03

ceiling acoustical tile

0.60 0.29

0.29 0.55

0.75

0.73 0.57

window, glass

0.15 0.35

0.25 0.18

0.12

0.07 0.04

A. 228 Sabins

C. 266 Sabins

B. 244 Sabins

D. 242 Sabins

15. If a material supplier told you that adding his product


to a wall assembly in a critical acoustical situation
would increase the noise reduction (STC rating)
between two spaces by more than 3 dB, what should
your reaction be?

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0000

A. Determine what the additional cost would be and


then decide whether or not to use the product.
B. Thank him for stopping by but explain that you
probably will not be using his product because
that amount of noise reduction does not make It
worth the effort of cost.

C. Specify the product as long as it does not affect


the design or construction cost by more than 5%.
D. Inquire whether some modification can be made
to the product to increase its rating to 6 dB and
say that then you might consider it.
16. During your design development presentation to the
building committee of .a middle school, one of the
teachers on the committee mentions that there might
be a noise problem between the classrooms shown
in the partial plan because the larger classroom will
be used for open discussions, movies, lab. work, and
other loud activities. Both classrooms are scheduled
to have gypsum board partitions, vinyl tile floors; and
suspended acoustical ceilings.

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0000

cl.uroom B

corridor

If cost is a consideration, what changes in the design


should you suggest, in order of priority from most
important to least important?

I. Substitute carpeting for tile in both rooms.


II. Move the operable windows near the separating
wall so they are not so close together, and change
the direction of the swing.
Ill. Reroute the ductwork and conduit penetrations
through the separating wall above the suspended
ceiling and write spec~ications to direct that any
remaining penetrations be tightly sealed.
IV. Replan the layout so there is a small audiovisual
storage room between the classrooms.
V. Add an extra layer of gypsum board to each side
of the separating partition and specify that the
cavity be filled with sound- attenuating insulation. *ATTENUATION is the reduction of sound.

vr.

Hire an acoustical consultant to determine the


special frequency problems associated with the
activities planned for the larger classroom, and
design custom sound - absorbing surfaces and
partitions accordingly.
A. Ill, 11, V, I, VI, IV

C. II, Ill, V, I, IV, VI

B. IV, II, Ill, V, VI, I

D. V, Ill, II, I, IV, VI

317

C. SOLID STRUCTURE AND AIR-BORNE NOISE REDUCTION

1. One way of reducing the noise is the selection of the


location or
. The existence and
persistence of quiet locations is dependent on zoning
ordinances and their enforcement. Architects in every
comm.mity should cooperate with the civic authorities
in the segregation of noxious activities including noisy
industries, power stations, airports, traffic arteries.
Inter urban automobile and truck traffic should be
routed around, not through, area that have been
zoned for schools, residences and hospitals,
expressway that must pass through zones requiring
quiet surroundings should be isolated by means of
embankments or parapets along the outer edges of
the highways. Trains should enter large metropolitan
centers by underground routes; parks and
landscaping should be planned to impede the
propagation of no~se into quiet zones; and
approaches to airports, which are increasing noise
nuisance in all large cities, should be from the
outskirts of the city, not over it.

2.

A. ORIENTING

C. SITING

B. LAYOUTING

D. GROUPING

is an effective way of NOISE CONTROL.


An embankment placed between the listener and the
train that passes by, is effective. An earth
embankment or a masonry garden wall often can be
used to reduce the noise that impinges on a building
and aid in the establishment of quite conditions within
the building without resorting to costly measures of
sound insulation. It may reduce the level by as much
as 5 dB. Use Hedges or trees with dense foliage,
dense vines, grassy turf to face the sources of NOISE
as sound barriers and reflectors.

A. PLANTING AND
FENCING
B. GRADING AND
LANDSCAPING

C. FILLING AND
EXCAVATION
D. WALLING

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3. The location of a building on its site, the arrangement


of rooms, corridors and vestibules, and the location
of doors and windows, all have a bearing on the
control of noise. This is called the _ _ _ __
For example, the noise level at the end of a room
adjacent to a busy street maybe at least 5 db higher
than it is at the opposite end. In such a situation it is
advantageous to place the speaker's platform at the
end of the room. The side of a building facing streets,
playgrounds, or other sources of noise should house
those activities that can tolerate the greatest amount
of noise, and the sides of the building that face the
quieter environment should be reserved for those
rooms that require the quietest conditions windows
should not open on noisy street or yards.

0000

A. BUILDING LAYOUT C. GROUPING

B. PLANNING

D. FUNCTIONAL
DIAGRAM

4. Compound-wall constructions or
is
one way of reducing air-borne noise. provide two
adjoining walls with an open space in between
without any materials like wood connectors, or
chunks of plaster thrown in between that touches
both walls. Another technique is to fill in the void with
porous sound absorbent material.
A. DOUBLE WALL

C. BEARING WALL

B. THICK WALL

D. CAVITY WALL

5. Another way to reduce Air-borne noise is to use


_ _ _ _ _ windows. 1/4" thick with at least 1/2"

(.0125} air space. One sheet is tilted at 1 inch in 12


inches to suppress high transmission of certain
resonant requencies. In radio stations sometimes
three sheets are required with at least 0.15 M
separation between the sheets of glass. In such
rooms, the periphery of the space between sheets
should be lined with sound absorptive material.

A. DOUBLE GLASS
PANE

C. LAMINATED GLASS

B. TEMPERED
GLASS

D. WIRE GLASS

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0000

6. Just as sound win pass through the acoustically


weakest part of a composite wall, so it will also find
paralel or
paths. That is, an acoustic
short circuit. Proper design of window locations to
avoid this path should be the following: In a corner
design where corr.er windows are closely spaced
such that noise from open window apt. A goes to
open window apt B, solution, put hinge of window
such that it buffers the sound when opened and put
planting in between. Put a wide separation of straight
wall windows. In a noisy walkway outside put
windows away from this path. Also put sound barrier
between the second floor and ceiling of the first floor.

A. ALIGNING

C. SINGLE

B. FLANKING

D. FILING

7. The isolation provided by a ,floor system against


mechanical impact can be greatly improved by the
use of a
floor which rests on the
structural floor but is separated from it by a resilient
support af quilt (on top of the sub-floor is a 1/2"
fiberboard or a resil.ient blanket then a 1"X2" wood
sleeper then finish floor. Below the floor would be a
false ceiling. Meaning a ceiling with a horizontai2"X6"
ceiling foist never touching the floor (do not use 2''X2"
or 2 "X3" hangers)
A. CARPETED

C. HOLLOWED

B. DOUBLE STACK

D. FLOATING

MECHANICAL NOISE sources, those coming from the


components of the air conditioning and AHU, or air
handling units such as fans, compressor, cooling towers,
condensers, ductwork, dampers, mixing boxes, induction
units, and diffusers can be controlled.
Pumps are another source, of mechanical noise, which
is frequently transmitted along pipes to remote points.
Elevators, escalators and freight elevators also introduce
mechanical noise into the building. The ,motors and
switchgear are located on or above the prime upper floors
of a building, and must be properly controlled to prevent
annoyance to building tenants located near the shaftways
or mechanical penthouses.

320

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8. Machines cause noise by vibration. This noise is


imparted directly to the surrounding air and by
vibrational contact to the surrounding structure.
Therefore there are three ways to reduce this noise:

0000

I. Reduce the vibration itself

II. Suspend the structure itself


Ill. Wrap the enclosure with acoustical materials
IV. Reduce the Air-borne noise by decoupling the
vibration from efficient radiating sources
V. Decouple the vibrating source from the structure
VI. Locate the mechanical machine 20 meters away.
A. I, II and IV

C. I, IV and V

B. II, Ill and IV

D. II, IV and VI

D. PHYSICS OF LIGHT AND SOURCES


1. The
of a meterial such as a iixture
or diffuser is a measure of its capability to transmit
incident light. (it goes through) It's factor or coefficient
is the ratio of the total emitted light to the total incident
light (source). An example is a clear glass which
displays this measure between 80% and 90%,
frosted glass between 70 and 85% and solid opal
glass between 15 and 40%.

A. LUMINOUS
TRANSMITTANCE

C. RESISTANCE

B. ILLUMINATION

D. SPREADING FACTOR

2. The
is the unit of luminous intensity.
It is analogous to pressure in a hydraulic system and
voltage in an electric system and represents the force
that generates the light that we use.

A. LAMP POWER

C. GLOWING POWER

B. BRIGHTNESS

D. CANDLE POWER

321

t.

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3.

is a term used to describe all the


factors in a lighting installation not dire~tly concerned
with quantity of illumination. Certainly it is obvious
that if a given room is alternatively lighted with a bare
bulb and with a luminous ceiling, both giving the same
average quantitative illumination, there is a vast,
difference in the two lighting systems. This is also a
term which describes the luminance ratios, diffusion
uniformity and chromaticity of the lighting. This is also
a description of the visual comfort and visual
adequacy of the system.
A. CHARACTER
OF LIGHTING

C. QUALITY
OF LIGHTING

B. USAGE OF
LIGHTING

D. TYPE OF LIGHTING

4. Ucomfortable brightness ratios, where background


luminance exceeds object luminance is called a

A. FLICKER

c.

B. GLARE

D. BUBBLE

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SPARKLE

5. When the discomfort glare is caused by light sources


in the field of vision it is known as
(looking at the light at 45Q angle).

A. STRAIGHT GLARE ~ DIRECT GLARE


B. EYE TO SOUROE
GLARE

D. ECHO GLARE

6. When the glare is caused by reflection of light source


in a viewed surface (say a table) it is known as
or "VEILING reflection". The object
mirrors the source of light in the room.
A. TANGENT GLARE

C. TRANSMITTED
GLARE

B. REFLECTED
GLARE

D. DIFFUSED GLARE

7. EFFICACY increases with wattage. Therefore it is


energy- economical to use a small number of higherwattage lamps than big or many number of lowerwattage lamps. It is usually more economical with

322

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0000
A

c D
0000
A

respect to fixtures since electric lighting ifl nonresidential buildings consumes 25 to 60% of the
electric energy utilized, any attempt to reduce this
must necessarily include integration of the cheapest
(in sofar as energy is concerned). Most abundant
and , in many ways, most desirable form of lighting
available, the _ _ _ __
A. SUNLIGHT

C. TASK LIGHT

B. NATURAL LIGHT

D. DAYLIGHT

0000

Daylighting is an amenity rather than a necessity. As such


its provision has been the province of architecture rather
than lighting design. Windows provide visual contact with
the outside and the resultant daylight provides a bright,
pleasant, airy ambience. When DAYLIGHT enters
through windows (side lighting) its horizontal directivity
provides good modeling shadows, minimal veiling
reflections, and excellent vertical surface illumination,
aside from continual variation of daylight, it provides a
constantly changing pattern of space illumination; one
that is NOT or is unattainable with artificial fight.
B. An

consists of a tungsten filament placed


within a sealed bulb containing an inert gas. When
electricity is passed through the lamp the filament glows,
producing light. These lamps are produced in a wide
variety of shapes, sizes and wattages tor different
applications. The ADVANTAGES of these lamps are
inexpensive, compact, easy to dim can be repeatedly
started without a decrease in lamp fife, and have a warm
color rendition. In addition, their fight output can be easilycontrolled with reflectors and lenses. Their
DISADVANTAGES include low efficacy and heat
production makes these lamps undesirable for farge,
energy- efficient installations. For example, a 150-watt
lamp produces less than 20 lumens per watt while a 40watt cool white fluorescent lamp has an efficacy of about
80 lumens per watt with much less heat output. TYPES
of this kind of lamp are the Arbitrary (standard), Globular,
Pear-shaped, Flame-shape: cone shape, Par, parabolic
aluminized reflector; R, Reflector, T, Tubular.
A. INCANDESCENT

C. TOUCH LAMP

LAMP
B. FLUORESCENT
LAMP

D. METAL HAliDE LAMP

323

OOC'O

9. Another type of incandescent lamp is the _ _ __


Light is produced by the incandescence of the
filament, but there is a small amount of a halogen,
such as iodine or bromine, in the bulb with the inert
gas. Through a recurring cycle, part of the tungsten
filament is burned ott as the lamp operates, but it
mixes with the halogen and is redeposited on the
filament. instead of on the wall of the bulb as in
standard incandescent lamps. This results in longer
bulb life, low lumen depreciation over the life of the
bulb, and more uniform light color. Because the
filament burns under higher pressure and
temperature, the bulb is made from quartz and is
much smaller than standard incandescent lamps.

0000

A. MERCURY VAPOR C. TUNGSTENHALOGEN


B. METAL HALIDE

10

D. HIGH PRESSURE
SODIUM

are lamps that contain a mixture of


an inert gas and low-pressure mercury vapor. When
the lamp is energized, a mercury arc is formed that
creates ultra violet light. This invisible light, in turn.
strikes the phosphor-coated bulb causing it to
fluoresce and produce visible light. The three types
of this type of lamp are the PREHEAT, RAPID START,
and INSTANT START, according to their circuitry.
A. SODIUM LAMP

C. VAPOR LAMP

B. ULTRAVIOLET

D. FLUORESCENT

There are several general types of LIGHTING


SYSTEMS. The terms used to describe them can refer
to individualliminaires or to the entire lighting installation.
They are broadly described as:
DIRECT
II SEMI-DIRECT
Ill DIRECT-INDIRECT
IV SEMI-DIRECT
V INDIRECT

324

A B C D

0000

11. This type provides approximately equal distribution


of light upward and downward, resulting in a bright
ceiling and upper wall background for the luminaire.
For this reason, brightness ratios in the upper-vision
zone are usually not a problem. Since the ceiling is
a major, though secondary source of room
illumination, diffuseness will be good, with resultant
satisfactory vertical-plane illumination.

0000

One example of this type is a GENERAL DIFFUSE


or an Opal Diffusing Globe fixture hanging from the
ceiling which give light in all directions. The other type
is an open top luminous side and bottom luminaire,
which have little horizontal component. Stems from
the ceiling should not be less than 0.30 M.

A. Ill

C. IV

B. II

D.

12. Ninety to one hundred percent of the light output of


the luminaires is directed to the ceiling and upper
walls of the room. This lighting system is called
____ because practically all of the light
reaches the horizontal working plane indirectly, That
is, via reflection from the ceiling and upper walls.
Therefore, the ceiling and upper walls in effect
become the light source and, if these surfaces have
a high-reflectance finish, the room illumination is quite
diffuse (shadowless). This luminaire is suspended
at least 0.45M. METAL REFLECTOR$ is under this
type. Also Architectural COVES near the ceiling
wherein the light is not seer~.

A. II

c.

B. V

D.

0000

Ill

13. Since essentially all the light is directed downward,


ceiling illumination is entirely due to light reflected
from the floor and room furnishings. This system
requires a light, high-reflectance, diffuse floor unless
a dark ceil.ing is desired from an architectural
viewpoint. This system is called the
lighting since it provide all light output on the task. A
recessed fluorescent luminaire is an example of this
type. Another type is a metal-enclosed fluorescent
light, (no light goes to the ceiling and sides).

A. IV

C. II

B.

D. V

325

0000

14. Sixty to ninety percent of the light is directed upward


to the ceiling and upperwalls. This is somewhat
efficient and allows higher levels of illumination
without undesirable brightness contrast between
fixture and surroundings along with lower ceiling
brightness. A typical fixture employs a translucent
diffusing element through which the downward
component shines.

A. II

C. IV

B. V

D. Ill

15. With this type of lighting system, 60% to 90% of the


luminaire output is directed downward and the
remaining upward component serves to illuminate
the ceiling. This consists of a circular plastic housing
flat on the surface and with solid backing attached
to the ceiling. This gives light horizontally and also a
rectangular shaped housing for a fluorescent lamp
that has luminous sides, but closed top.

A. Ill

C. V

B.

D, II

16. Another common LIGHTING SYSTEM is the


______ . This approach to lighting design
recognizes that it is inefficient to try to illuminate an
entire room to the level required for individual tasks
scattered around the room. Instead, a general
background level of illumination is provided and
separate light fixtures used to increase the light level
at individual work stations. This can be done with
desk lamps, directed spotlights, or more fixtures near
the tasks requiring more illumination. In addition to
being energy efficient and responding to individual
lighting needs, These systems usually create a more
pleasant work environment.
A. TASK AMBIENT

C. ROOM USAGE

B. EFFICIENT
LIGHTING

D. SPECIAL LIGHTING

326

0000

0000

0000

E. MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS
1. The unit of luminous intensity approximately equal
to the horizontal light output from an ordinary wax
candle is called the
. In the Sl system
of measurement, this unit is the CANDELA.
A. CANDLE POWER

C. REACTANCE

B. POWER FACTOR

D. MELTING POINT

2. The unit of luminous FLUX equal to the flux in a unit

solid angle of one steradian from a uniform point


source of one candlepower. On a unit sphere (1-foot
radius) an area of 1 square foot or 12"X12"
(0.31X0.31) or 0.961 sq.m. will subtend an angle of
one steradian. Since the area of a unit sphere is 4
times , a source of one candlepower produces
12.57 of this unit which is called the _ _ _ __

3.

A. IMPEDANCE

C. VOLTAGE

B. LUMEN

D. CIRCUIT

is the luminous flux per unit of


projected (apparent) area and unit solid angle leaving
a surface, either reflected or transmitted. The unit is
the FOOT LAMBERT (fl) where one footlambert
equals 1/ candelas per square foot. Luminance
takes into account the reflectance and transmittance
properties of materials and the direction in which they
are viewed. Thus, 100 footdmdles striking a surface
with 50 percent reflectance would result in a
luminance of 50 footlamberts. Luminance is
sometimes called "BRIGHTNESS" and surface
emitting, transmitting, or reflecting one lumen per
square foot in the direction being viewed has a
luminance of one footlambert.
A. LUMINANCE

C. GLARE

B. RESISTANCE

D. BRIGHTNESS

327

0000

0000

0000

4. What steps could an architect take to increase the


anticipated lighting level of a room of a selected
fluorescent luminaire could not be replaced with
another with a higher CU?

0000

A. CHANGE lamp types


B. SUGGEST to the owner .that the lamps be replaced often
C. USE finishes with a higher reflection value
D. ALL OF THE ABOVE
5. A spotlight shining perpendicular to a wall 15 feet
away (4.50M) has a candlepower output of 3,500
candelas. If the wall is painted to a reflectance of 75
percent, what is the luminance of the wall at the point
perpendicular to the direction of light?

A. 4.9 :=ootlamberts

C. 15.56 Footcandles

B. 11.7 Footlamberts

D. 55.7 Footcandles

6. Which of the followingwould an architect be most


concerned about when designing the lighting for an
office space with computer work stations and
star.dard desk?

0000

0000

color - rendering Index


II VisuaiComfort Probability
II Veiling Reflection
IV Reflected Glare
V Task/Surrounds Brightness Ratio

A. I, II, IV and V

C. Ill, IV and V

B. II, Ill and IV

D. all of the above

7 The brightness of daylight coming through a window


would be measured in:
A. Footcandles

C. Footlamberts

8. Candelas

D. Candlepower

328

0 0 0 0

8. What combination of lighting would an architect


probably recommend for a moderate - sized
women's clothing store?

0000

A. Color- improved mercury lamps with metal halide accent lighting


B. Limited neutral daylight, warm white deluxe fluorescent for general illumination, and tungsten
halogen for accent lighting
C. Incandescent general lighting with low-voltage
accent lighting on displays
D. Daylighting for general illumination and PATC
lamps for dressing areas and display lightings
9. Why should high-pressure instead of low-pressure
sodium lamps be used in a storage warehouse?

A. They are less Expensive


B. They have a longer lamp life
C. They canoperate at higher, more efficient volt
ages
D. They have better color-rendering properties

329

0000

AREA ''B''
PARTIII

UTILITIES

5. BUILDING
PROTECTION
FIRE PROTECTION
INTRUSION
PREVENTION
(SECURITY)

AREA "B"

PART Ill

UTILITIES

A. BUILDING PROTECTION
Choose one answer and encircle (e) with black under A,B, C, D.
1. A method of protecting the ferrous materials like
steel, iron from rusting or corroding.
A. RUST PROOFING

0000

C. WATERPROOFING

B. PAINTS AND PRO- D. DAMP PROOFING


TECTIVE COATINGS

?. Damage to buildings is caused by heat generated


by lighting which turns the moisture content into
steam, producing high pressure and explosive
splitting of walls, masts and trees, etc. This kind of
protection is therefore, necessary. It consists of
continuous metallic conductor effectively earthed.

FLOOR
PROTECTION

B. LIGHTNING
PROTECTION

0000

C. FIRE PROOFING

D. WATERPROOFING

3. Protection from the outside is provided by water


repellant materials which turn water aside and force
it to return to the earth. The dampness that
sometimes occurs inside the building can be caused
by penetration of moisture from the outside or by
condensation of water vapor generated on the inside.
A. WATER PROOFING C. FLOOR PROTECTION

B. CLEAR PROTECTIVE TREATMENT


FOR LIMESTONE

D. DAMP PROOFING

331

0000

4. A chemical liquid painted and applied to lumber to


preserve it for years. It protects wood against powder
post beetles (bukbok), powder post termites (unos),
Decay causing fungi, such as sap stain and dry rot.
A. FLOOR PROTECTION

0000

C. WOOD PRESERVATIVE

B. WATERPROOFING D. DAMP PROOFING

5. A method of protecting against the destructive effects


of water.

c D
0000
A

A. WATERPROOFING C. WOOD PRESERVATIVE


B. DAMP PROOFING

D. PAINTS AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS

6. For buildings that need total control of the incoming


and outgoing individuals for the protection qt the
building as a whole from robbers, stealers, etc. There
are so many equipments which can be installed.

A. RAT PROOFING

C. SECURITYINTRUSION PRbOF

B. LIGHTNING
PROTECTION

D. FIREPROOFING

7. This is a clear invisible silicone water repellant


specially formulated for application on masonry and
bricks, (standard) and for limestone and concre~e
that seeps much rain water (special formula). The
silicone liquid is applied by brush or by low pressure
spray and does not affect the color or the naturalness
of the material.
A. RUST PROOFING

C. PAINTS AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS

B. CLEAR PROTECTIVE TREATMENT


FOR MASONRY

D. WOOD PRESERVATIVE

332

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A

0000

8. A method of protecting rooms against the intrusion


of rats and other small destructive animals from
gnawing the wooden parts of the house, habitating
on ceilings and floors of houses and buildings.

A. WOOD PRESERVATIVE
B. RUST PROOFING

0000

C. SECURITYINTRUSSION
PROOFING
D. RAT PROOFING

9. It is important to poison the soil anay (white ants) in


order to stop the anay from infesting the main spots,
walls and flooring.

A. WOOD PRESERVA-

0000

C. RUST PROOFING

TIVE
B. TERMITE
PROOFING

D. RAT PROOFING

10. When floors are subjected to wear and tear, or from


chemical abrasions and heavy use, a special kind of
material should be used to protect the flooring.

0000

A. WOOD PRESERVA- C. WATERPROOFING


TIVE
B. DAMP PROOFING

D. FLOOR PROTECTION

11. This is applied to the surface for the reason of


decoration, to be used for sanitation, preservation,
impro,ved lighting effects, improved working
conditions, safety and economy.
A. PAINTS AND
PROTECTIVE
COATING

C. WOOD PRESERVATIVE

B. rLOOR PROTECTION

D. DAMP PROOFING

12. A clear liquid applied easily on wood, plywood,


lumber and other board that retains the natural
beauty, gives added strength and protects materials
against fire, weather, decay, insects and warping.
Since the liquid penetrates into the woodwhen there
is fire, it reacts by dispersing the flame, preventing
progressive burning.
A. LIGHTNING
PROTECTION

C. FIRE PROOFNG

B. WATER PROOFING D. RUST PROOFING

333

0000

0000

B. BUILDING PROTECTION MATERIALS


1. Waterproofing Medium in powder form is added and
mixed with the aggregates of concrete: In this case
one pack of usually 1 kilo of powder is added to one
bag of 40 kilos sement. Some of the known brands
are sahara and sakura (semi-waterproofing and
damproofing).
A. WATERPLUG

0000

C. VAPOR BARRIER

D. INTEGRAL TYPE
B. SILICONE
WATER REPELLANT
THOROCLEAR SPECIAL

2. Recommended for waterproofing use where direct


rain, or standing water a_re eminent. There are about
~ 4 uses. The materials used depending on the
manufacturer is either asphalt, impregnated asbestos
felt, sometimes thick polyethylene sheets is also
used.

c D
0000
A

A. MEMBRANE TYPI; C. WATER STOPPER


B. THOROCLEAR 777 D. ELASTOMETRIC
SILICONE WATER
FLUID COATING
REPELLANT
3. Thi$ type is applied by roller, brush, spray or
squeegee. This is based on heavy compound
formulated to waterproof and preserve the substrate,
like concrete, wood, bricks and steel. Th~
waterproofing is monolithic, seamless, flexible and
elastic over a whole wide temperature range,
withstands extreme thermal movement, settling and
cracking. It resists puncture and tearing abrasive
overlayments.

c D
0000
A

A. VAPOR BARRIERS C. ELASTOMETRIC


FLUID COATING
B. SILICONE WATER D. THOROSEAL
REPELLANT
THOROCLEAR SPECIAL
4. Rainwater usually seeps from the ground to the
concrete wall or from the floor of the basement. To
stop this, a perforated pipe is laid with a slope leading
to the street drainage or away from the house and
0.40 M below the basement floor level and a 0.30 M
334

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0000
A

,;1

thick loose gravel placed between the soil and the


concrete wall. Water goes down by gravity through
the loose stones.

A. WATER STOPPER C. WATER PLUG


B. FILTERING
METHOD

D. SILICONE WATER
REPELLANT
(SPECIAL)

5. When a Basement wall cannot be poured in one time,


there will be a vertical connection when a new
concrete will be continued to be poured. This may
be the cause of rainwater leak therefore a vinyl or
rubber material must be integrated in the ends of
the concrete wall to prevent rainwater to enter
!hrough the connection. This is called the

A. FILTERING
METHOD

0000

C. WATER STOPPER

B. SILICONE Hp
D. WATER PLUG
REPELLANT THOROCLEAR 777
6. This is in dry-powder form and mixes easily with
water to become a heavy-duty patching material and
is available in 1 pint cans and 1 quart cans also in 1
gallon cans (10 lbs) and 5 gal. drums (50 lbs.J
containers. This is used to seal cracks and lloles in
the basement walls. Whether water is pouring in
under pressure or seeping in as slow leak (during
rain) this material stops it. FAST! Running water is
stopped in 3 to 5 minutes. It is non-shrink and
expands as it sets and won't pull away from the edges
of the patch area. It even sets up underwater. This
packaged in dry-powder form, and mixes easily with
water applied by hand to become a heavy-duty
patching material.

0 Cl 0 0

A. VAPOR BARRIERS C. FIRE RETARDANT


B. WATER PLUG

D. FLOOR SEALER
(ANTI-SKID)

7. These are mat~rials which effectively retard or stop


the flow of water vapor and normally are produced
in sheets or thin layers. These should be installed
on the warm side of ihe insulation. They should be

335

0000

continuous surfaces of asphalt or wax coated papers,


aluminum or other metal foil sheets or polyethylene
film, and maybe attached to the insulation as a part
of the manufactured product of installed separately
in or on the warm side of the wall, floor or ceiling.
A. VAPOR BARRIERS
DAMP PROOFING

C.

B. FLOOR SEALER
(ANTI-SKID)

D. MEMBRANE TYPE

WATER STOPPER

8. A cement based, heavy-duty, easy-to-apply, water


proof sealant and coating. This is ideal for basement
walls, which is porous, permitting dampness to enter
and turn the space into a dunk, unattractive void.
This material ends all this by going deep to fill and
seal the pores and minor surface, imperfections,
becoming, as it hardens, a totally waterproof skin;
positively prohibiting moisture penetration. This
materiat is NOT a paint. Although it comes in
attractive colors. It is cementitious. That means it
chemicallycombines ~ith the concrete or masonry
surface it's applied to become an actual part of the
wall.

0000

A. SILICONE THORO- C. ELASTOMERIC


CLEAR SPECIAL

FLUID COATING

B. SILICONE THORO- D. THOROSEAL


CLEAR 777
9. A clear protective treatment for masonry, concrete,
BRICKS, synthetic adobe. This come in silicone liquid
and is used to be spread around the surfaces by
using paint brush. This liquid is clear and does not
change the natural color of the materials.

0000

A. SILICONE THORO- C. THOROSEAL


CLEAR SPECIAL
B. SILICONE THORO- D. FIRE RETARDANT
CLEAR 777 WATER
REPELLANT
1o. This is also called the SOIL POISONING, to protect
the house by being infested by infesting white Ants
(or termites). This stops the insect by infesting the
main posts walls, and flooring. 1 part solution to 50
parts water is mixed and spread to the soil by an

336

0000

ordinary garden can. Application is made after


excavation and after placing of footings, after grading
and levelling, after construction and after earth filling.
A. INTEGRAL TYPE

C. RAT PROOFING

B. ELASTOMERIC
FLUID COATING

D. ANAY PROOFING

11. A synthetic resin-based coating incorporating an


abrasive aggregate to provide an anti-slip finish.
Normally applied by trowel. It comes in different
colours like blue, green, grey, red and yellow. This is
an anti-slip coating over many types of base,
especially in locations where wet or oily conditions
prevail, Example: on steps and ladder treads, around
machinery, or inclined ramps, platforms, steel or
wooden decks, around swimming pools and
showers, in kitchens, garages, etc. It may also be
applied to steel, wood, aluminum, tiled surfaces but
should NOT be applied to asphaltic surface.
A. SILICONE WATER
REPELLANT

C. FLOOR SEALER
(ANTI-SKID)

B. FILTERING
METHOD

D. RUST PROOFING

12. A clear, invisible silicone, especially formulated for


application on aged LIMESTONE and horizontal
concrete. Furnished in liquid form. Application by
brush or low pressure spray.
A. THOROCLEAR
SPECIAL
SILICONE

C. THOROSEAL

B. THOROCLEAR
777 SILICONE

D. VAPOR BARRIER
DAMP PROOFING

13. When thoroughly applied protects lumber for years,


from termites, decay causing fungi such as sap stain
and dry rot. This is applied undiluted with a paint
brush (2 or 3 coatings) or a sprayer. A liter can treat
a minimum of 10 sq.M per coating. Some brands
are xyladecor by boysen, cuprinol of dutchboy and
solignum by Jardine Davis.

A. WATER STOPPER C. WOOD PRESERVATIVE


B. FIRE RETARDANT D. RUST PROOFING

337

0000

0000

0000

14. ON!::-way of discouraging rodents from gnawing the


wood is to put a galvanized sheet on the corners of
a room. Science had proven that Rats almost always
start to chew or gnaw only at the corners of a room
and not on the middle. The G.l. sheet is placed 0.30
M high from the floor and 0.30 M wide from the wall
before the finish walling or plywood and the T and G
floor is placed.

0000

A. FILTERING METHOD C. ANAY PROOFING


B. RAT PROOFING

D. WOOD PRESERVATIVE

15 This protects G.l. Sheets and Steel from rusting.


Brand names are weatherkote by shell and by Pacific
paints, Colorless Anti-Corrosion system, RED LEAD
primer (red oxide)

0000

A. MEMBRANE TYPE C. FILTERING METHOD


B. FIRE RETARDANT D. RUST PROOFING
16. To prevent the fire from spreading at once, lumber,
plywood, wood doors are painted with a liquid that
penetrates into the wood. When there is fire, it reacts
by dispersing the flame, preventing progressive
burning. One brand is fire stopper by EROCORP.
This liquid when applied, retains the natural beauty,
gives ~ded strength and more marketable value as
it protects materials against fire, weather, decay,
insects and warping. Painting can be applied over
this liquid.

A. FIRE RETARDANT C. RAT PROOFING


B. MEMBRANE TYPE D. TERMITE PROOFING

338

0000

C. FIRE DETECTION AND ALARMS


1. The most common residential alarm initiating device
is the Temperature detector, sometimes called a
_ _ _ _ _ . These detectors are of two types;
The Fixed Temperature Unit and the Rate-of-Rise
Unit. The former operates ~ set of contacts when a
present (non-adjustable) temperature is reached.
The latter operates when the rate of ambient
temperature changes exceeds a predetermined
amount, indicative of an incipient fire.
A. RHEOSTAT

C. CLIMATE
CONTROLLER

B. HEAT GAUGE

D. THERMOSTAT

2. The function of the


, is to energize
the audible devices (bells, buzzers, and gongs) upon
receipt of a signal from the detector, which will
continue to sound until the emergency condition is
cleared or until they are manually silenced at the
_panel. Other functions that the panel may be
designed to serve are shut-off of oil and gas lines,
shut-off of attic fan to prevent fire spread, and turnout of lights, both inside and outside. In order to
assure system operation even in the event of a power
interruption, most systems are provided with a
standby battery.

3.

A. OPERATOR

C. CENTRAL CONTROL
PANEL

B. GENERAL
COMPTROLLER

D. GENTRALIZED
SWITCH

comprises conventional bells, gongs,


buzzers, and horns. Most commonly used is the a-c
vibrating bell, since gongs are normally only used in
coded non-residential systems. A weather-proof
external bell, to alert neighbors and passersby, is
also desirable.
A. ALERTING

C. SIGNAL DEVICES

SYSTEM
B. AUDIBLE ALARM
DEVICES

D. SOUND ALARM

339

0000

0000

0000

4.

are rated by temperature and


coverage; for example 57C and 20 sq. M. and are
normally located on the ceiling in all rooms and
stairwalls, including the attic and the basement.
Because of high ambiant temperatures, the units
installed in the kitchen, attic and basement near the
heating unit are normally rated at 88c to 93C,
whereas the units in the other rooms are usually set
at 57(. These are normally placed adjacent to the
house heating unit in the bedroom area, in the
kitchen, and occasionally in the garage and in
unoccupied areas such as the attic.
A. SMOKE
DETECTORS

0000

C. MISTFOG
DETECTORS

B. HEAT DETECTORS D. FIRE DETECTORS


5. A system which is normally deenergized and carries
no current except when functioning is called an
_ _ _ _ _ . Such a system is the simplest and
most economical type but has the disadvantage of
not indicating a broke~ wire or other malfunction that
will render the system inoperative.

0000

A. EXPOSED CIRCUIT C. LOOSESYSTEM


CONNECTION
SYSTEM
B .. OPEN CIRCUIT
SYSTEM

D. UNCOVERED
CIRCUIT SYSTEM

6. In contrast to be automatic detectors that constitute


the most common alarm initiation devices, in
residential systems, There is a
which
is operated by hand. The detector monitors
automatically and is therefore best applied in
buifdings with sleeping residents and in unoccupied
spaces in other buildings. This kind of station serve
to spread the alarm, which has already been detected
by other means, either human or automatic. An
example is a small manual fire alarm station with
break glass rod and single set of contacts.
A. NON-CODED

MANUAL STATIONS

C. UNLISTED
MANUAL STATIONS

B. UNTITLED
D. UNCODED
MANUAL STATIONS
HANDHELD
MANUALS

340

0000

7. When the system design is such that immediately


aural identification of the operated station is
is used. The code sent
necessary, a
out by the station is received at the control panel,
processed and then transmitted audibly on the
system gongs. Not less than 3 rounds of code, and
normally 4 rounds are transmitted. The code usually
comprises 3 or 4 digits, for example 2-3-2 with a
pause between the ringing groups and a longer
pause between the rounds. The FIRST number may
identify the building floor, the SECOND digit the wing,
and the THIRD digit the individual station.
Establishment of codes is left to the user.
A. SIGNAL MANUAL
STATIONS

C. TITLED MANUAL
STATIONS

B. LISTED MANUAL
STATIONS

D. CODED MANUAL
STATIONS

8. Various circuit arrangements are possible by use ( !


_ _ _ switches that are placed in sprinkler pipelines
and operate when a sprinkler head goes off. In this
indicator, the unit bolts onto a sprinkler pipe with the
paddle inside the pipe. Any water motion deflects the
paddle, causing a signal to be transmitted from the
microswitch mounted in the box on top of the pipe.
A. DRIP METHOD
SWITCHES

C. WATER FLOW
SWITCHES

B. WETPIPE
SWITCHES

D. COUNTER FLOW
SWITCHES

0000

0000

There are FOUR (4) Types of FIRE DETECTORS.


9. These devices respond to elevated temperatures that
accompany actively burning fires. As such they act
much like the fusible link in a sprinkler head. Rise-ofTemperature devices detect the presence of heat and
can be set to trip an alarm when a particular
temperature is reached in the room. The major
disadvantage is that flame must usually be present
before tne alarm temperature is reached. By that time
it may be too late, since a fire can smolder and produce
deadly smoke long before it reaches the flame stage.
A. FORECAST
DETECTORS

C. TEMPERATURE
DETECTORS

B. CLIMATE
CONTROL
DETECTORS

D. HIGH FLOW
DETECTORS

341

0000

10. These detectors respond to smoke which obscures


a light beam in the device. These are useful in spaces
where occupants may be asleep, where potential
fires may produce a great deal of smoke poisoning
(asphyxiation) may occur.
A. AUTOMATIC
DETECTORS

0000

C. X-RAY DETECTORS

B. PHOTO ELECTRIC D. MAGNETIC


DETECTORS
DETECTORS
11 . These devices all purport to react to "products of
combustion" particulates. They do not detect smoke.
They are not appropriate where fires may produce a
lot of smoke but few particles because they can
detect particles from a smoldering fire before it bursts
into flames, these devices are considered Early
Warning Devices.
A. IONIZATION
DETECTORS

C. MICRO DETECTORS

B. ATOMATION
DETECTORS

D. MINIMALIZATION
DETECTORS

12. There are also


Detectors that
respond to infrared or ultraviolet radiation given off
by flames. However, like rise-of-temperature
detectors, they do not give an early warning of
smoldering fire.
A. FIRE DETECTORS C. WARMTH
DETECTORS
B. HEAT DETECTORS D. FLAME DETECTORS

342

0000

0000

D. FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS; DEFINITIONS


The answers to Questions 1 through 14 can be found on the following key
list. Select only one answer for each question.
AO ALARM INITIATING
DEVICE, AUTOMATIC

80 CODED SYSTEM

A1 ALARM INITIATING
DEVICE, MANUAL

B1 CONTROL UNIT
(FIRE ALARM PANEL)

A2 AUTOMATIC SYSTEM

B2 DOUBLE SUPERVISED SYSTEM

A3 AUXILIARY FIRE ALARM


SYSTEM

B3 DUAL-CODED SYSTEM

A4 BELL-SINGLE STROKE

84 LOCAL FIRE ALARM SYSTEM

AS A BREAK GlASS

85 LOCAL NONII'HERFERING
CODED STATION

A6 CODED ALARM SIGNAL

B6 MANUAL SYSTEM

1. One in which the alarm initiating device is operated


manually to transmit or sound an alarm signal

A. A6

C. B1

B. 86

D. A4

2. A system in which a unique coded alarm is sounded


for each separate box or fire zone to notify Owner"s
personnel of the fire location, while noncoded or
common coded alarm signals are sounded on
separate signals to notify other occupants to evaluate
the building
A. A2

c.

B. B1

D. B3

0000

0000

B2

3. An alarm signal that represents a 1, 2, 3, or 4-digit


number indicative of the location of the fire alarm
station operated;

A A1

C. A6

B. A3

D. B4
343

0000

4. Alarm devices, such as fire detectors, smoke


detectors, and water flow switches, are devices that
automatically transmit an alarm signal when a
condition indicative of a fire to which they respond

A B

0000

occur
A. AO

C. B1

B. A2

D. B2

S. A system in which an alarm initiating device operates


automatically to transmit or sound an alarm signal

A. AO

C. AS

B. A2

Q,

0000

BO

6. An Electricity operated system producing signals at


one or more places at the premises served, primarily
for the notification of the occupants

A. B4

C. A6

B. B5

D. A4

7. Compromises the controls, relays, switches, and


associated circuits necessary to

0000

0000

(1) furnish power to a fire alarm system


(2) receive signals from alarm initiating devices and
transmits them to indicating devices and accessory equipment
(3) Electrically supervise the system circuitry.

A. A3

C: B1

D. BS

AS

8. A devic~ whose gong is struck only once each time


operating energy is applied to the bell.

A. B6

c.

B. B1

D. A4

A B C D

0000

B4

9. A ftre alarm station that will transmit an alarm signal


when manually operated

A. BO

C. A1

B. B4

D. AS
344

0000

10. A fire atai1Tl station, that, once actuated, wtH transmit


not le.ss than 4 rounds of coded alarm signals and
cannot be interferred with by any subsequent
activation of that station until it has transmitted its
complete signals

A. AJ

c. A6

B. 85

[,). 80

11. A system that is maintained and supervised by a


responsible person or corporation and having alarm
initiating devices that, when operated, cause an
alarm to be transmitted over a municipal fire alarm
system to be fire station or to the fire alarm
headquaters for retransmission to the station.
A. 82

c.

B. AS

D. A3

B C D

0000

0000

B3

12. Refers to a false-alarm deterrent available in fire


alarm stations; a glass rod is placed across the pulllever and breaks easily when the lever is pulled

A. AS

C. A3

B. A2

D. B6

13. One in which not less than 3 rounds of coded alarm


signals are transmitted, after which the fire alarm
system' may be manuaHy or, automaticaHy silenced
A. A6

C. A2

e.

D. A3

BO

14. A system in which the source of power for the trouble


signal is supervised in addition to the circuitry.
A. B3

C. A5

B. BS

D. B2

345

0000

0000

0000

E. FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS, DEFINITIONS


The answers to the questions 1 through 12 can be found on the following
key LIST. Select only one answer for each question.
AO MASTER CODED SYSTEM

BO REMOTE-STATION FIRE
ALARM SYSTEM

A1 NONCODED SYSTEM

B1 SELECTIVE CODE!) SYSTEM

A2 POSITIVE NONINTERFERING B2 STATION, FIRE ALARM


AND SUCCESSION
CODED STATION
A8 PRESIGNAL SYSTEM

B3 SUPERVISED SYSTEM

A4 PROPRIETARY FIRE
ALARM SYSTEM

B4 TROUBLE SIGNAL

AS RECORDER
(PUNCHED TAPE)

BS ZONE CODED SYSTEM

1. A fire alarm station that once actuated, will transmit


not less than 4 rounds of coded alarm signals without
interference from any other station on the circuit. One
or more of these stations, if subsequently operated,
will transmit not less than 4 rounds of their coded
signals without interference with each other or with
the first station actuated.

A. A2

C. B3

B. A4

D. B5

2. A device for tape recording the actuation of a fire


alarm initiating device. The station or code is punched
on the tape may be used with a TIME STAMP.

A. AO

C. B1

B. AS

D. B2

3. A system in which each manual fire alarm station


and each group of automatic detectors has its own
individual code, which sounds on all alarm indicating
devices in the system when the manual station or
automatic detector is actuated

A. AO

C. B3

B. A3

D. B1

346

0000

0000

A B C D

0000

4. A system in which the btritding has been divided into


zones. Alarm initiating devices in each zone activate
a zone code that indicates only the location of the
affected zone.

A. B2

c. BS

B. A4

D. AS

S. One in which a common coded alarm signal is


transmitted for not less than 3 rounds, after which
the fire alarm system may be manually or
automatically silenced. The same code is sounded
regardless of the location of the alarm initiating
device. This system can be arranged to ring
continuously.

A. B2

c.

B. BO

D. AO

0000

0000

B4

6. A system with supervision by competent and


experienced observers and operators in a central
supervising station at the property to be protected.

A. A1

C. A4

B. A2

D. A3

7. A manually operated alarm initiating device may be


equipped to generate a continuous signal (non-coded
station) or a series of code~ pulses (coded station).

A. 82

C. A4

B. B3

D. AS

8. A signal indicating trouble of any nature, such as a


circuit break or ground, occuring in the device or
wiring associated with a fire alarm system.
A. A3

C. A1

B. B4

D. B1

347

0000

0000

0000

9. A system of electrically supervised devices


employing a dlrect-circ:ul connection between alarm
initiating devices or a control unit is protected
premises and signal-indicating equipment in a
station, such as fire or police headquarters.

A. A2

c.

B. 82

D. A4

0000

80

10. One in which the operation of an automatic detector


or the first operation of a manual fire alarm station
actuates only a selected grc)up of alarm indicating
devices for the pt.trpose of notifying key personnel.
A general alarm may be sounded on these, some
indicating devices and on an additional group of
devices from any manual station to warn all
occupants.
A.B4

C. AO

R. A3

D. BO

11. A system in which a break or ground in the wiring


which prevents the transmission of an alarm signal
will actuate a trouble signal.

A. B3

c.

B. A3

D. AO

0000

0000

B1

12. One on which a continuous audible alarm is


transmitted for a predetermined length of time, after
which it may be manually or automatically silenced,

A AS

C. B4

B. 85

D. A1

348

0000

f~ FIRE PREVENTIONIPROTECTION

V ONETWO HOUR Ft~EDOOR

\ STANOP\PES A HOSES

RATINGS FOR STAIRWAYS


VI WATER & STANDBY POWER

II SIAMESE TWINS

VII FIRE RETARDANT LIQUID

Ill SPRINKLERS

VIII SMOKE DETECTORS

IV COMPARTMENTATION

1. An Inlet placed outside a building close to the ground


level, having two or more openings so that fire
engines can pump water to the standpipes and
sprinkler system of the building.
A. II

C. VI

B. VIII

D. Ill

2. A very large industrial plant stores water in an


underground cistern or may use an adjacent artificial
lake in case of fire. When such reserves must be
delivered by pumping during a fire, and electrical
power outage could be a tragedy; when this system
must cut in, These should be separately housed in
fire-resistant enclosures.
A. I

C. VII

B. V

D. VI

3. This applies to floors located more than 12 meters


above grade served by multi-floor air conditioning
system. These are areas with one hour separations,
partitiOned into ~aces not to exceed 750 sq. M.
A.V

C. IV

B. I

D.

0000

0000

0000

VIII

4. Normally located at ceilings, on each elevator


landing. Activation shaH stop all fans, activate smoke
exhaust or stair pressurization fans, returh affected
elevators to terminal landing, and autoli'latiQally
sound alarm and notify fire department.
A. VI

c.

B.

D. II

VIII

Ill

349

B C 0

0000

5. This consist of a horiZontal pattem of pipes placed


near the ceilings of industrial buildings, warehouse,
stores, theatres and other structures where the fire
hazard requires their use. These pipes are provided
with outlets and heads so constructed that
temperatures of 135 to 160F (55 to 70C) will
cause them to open automatically and emit a series
of fine water sprays.

A. I

C. VII

B. V

D. Ill

6. To prevent the fire from spreading at once, lumber,


plywood, wood doors, etc. are painted with a liquid
that penetrated into the wood-When there is fire. it
reacts by dispersing the flame, preventing
progressive burning. This liquid, when applied,
retains the natural beauty, gives added strength, and
more marketable value as it protects materials
against fire, weather, decay, insects, and warping.
Painting can be applied. over this liquid

A. VII

C. VIII

B. V

D. II

7. STEEL doors and frames are used to prevent fire


from entering a room or stairway where people are
gathered during fire, recommended for fire exits,
closed stairway exit in commercial buildings and can
withstand fire for either one hour or two hours.

A. IV

C. VII

B. V

D. VIII

8. Fire companies with their apparatus find difficulty in


fighting fires from the street in tall structures. This
system is used by building personnel until the fire
engines arrive which attach the fire hoses to a
siamese twin device. Thereafter the trained staff of
the fire department can now break the glass of the
emergency cabinet with hoses. This is called the DRY
TYPE. The WET PIPE TYPE has water in the pipes
at all times.
A. VI

c.

B. VIII

D. Ill

350

0000

0000

0000

0000

G. SECURITY-BURGLAR PROOFING
SECURITY systems include methods for detecting intruders, for preventing
entry, for controlling access to secure areas, and for notification in the event
of unauthorized entry or other emergencies.
There are a wide variety of INTRUSION DETECTION DEVICES.
a. MOTION DETECTORS and HEAT DETECTORS sense the pressure
of someone in a room or within the field of view.
b. MICROWAVE and INFRARED BEAMS trip a circuit when the path of
their beam is interrupted.
c. PRESSURE SENSORS detect weight on a floor or other surface.

d. OTHER TYPES of systems ean be installed on glass in door openings,


and on fences and screens to set off an alarm when unauthorized entry
is made through the opening.
ACCESS to SECURE areas can be controlled with a n11mber of devices.
a. LOCKS can be connected to card readers.
b. A PLASTIC CARD containing a coded magnetic strip is used that allows
entry when a Valid Card is passed over the reader.
c. NUMBERED KEYBOARDS can serve the same purpose. In order to
unlock a door, the user must enter the correct numerical code into the
keyboard.
d. NEW DEVICES are now being developed that can read individual
BIOLOGICAL FEATURES such as the retina of the eye or the palm of a
hand, providing a counterfeit-proof method of identification.
In the Event of an unauthorized entry or other emergency, ALARM SYSTEMS
can include
a. Simple NOISE ALARMS
b. NOTIFICATION of the breach of security at a monitored central guard
station,
c. AUTOMATIC NOTIFICATION over phone LINES to a Central Security
Service.
An increasing number of private residences are utilizing INTRUSION
(BURGLAR) alarm systems, often in conjuction with fire alarm equipment.
Basically, an INTRUSION ALARM System is similar to a fire detection system
except that instead of thermal detection, devices such as metallic tape and
micro-and-magnetic switches are used to detect door and window motion,
glass breakage, and so on.

351

More sophisticated devtcea. Such as motton detectors are al$o used


occask>rialty.A manual switCh at the.end of a long cord is also often provitted

so t~t the resident may at wiR set off tl"!e aJarm in the event an intruder is
heard. The system may e"1)1oy the sal'ne audible signals as the fire system
or tts own components. Although done Infrequently, INTRUSION ALARM
SYSTEMS can be continuously supervised by connection with Central
Stations of companies whose business such supervision is, and who will
either respond directly to area alarm call or notify local police authorities of
any ilegal entry.

Condoplex

One new system that is useful to condominiums and other highrise


developments is the Condoplex. Developed in Canada and soon to be
tJistributed by APRO Asian Protection, the Condoplex is a complete
microprocessor-based apartment monitoring system capable of monitoring
up to 1,000 apartments unit~.
The relatively user-friendly system is especially an audio-video intercom
system which incorporates several security features. It consists of a threeway communication system- from the central computer at the guard house
to the apartment block and then to the individual unit. All communications
are continuously recordeq.
The system provides round the clock security and also comes with an option
of remote monitorirg by an external security company. So if the guard is
sleeping on the job, your home is still being monitored externally.
The systems address panel lists the names of the residents instead of
addresses thus allowing the security tb verify names of residents. In other
systems, visitors would have to key in eithe.r the address or make a search
through what miQht be a long alley of buttons before he could get to the
right tenant.
The apartment suite panel, which is located in the individual units, can warn
against burglary, fire, tampering and other emergencies. This is done with a
wireless link to ten security detectors placed around the apartment. Each
time there is a problem, the apartment can be called from the computer
through the intercom. The system also comes with an Audio option.

Top security
For larger establishments there is a whole range of choices. The old
dependable jagah might be difficult to find one day what with the turnover
rate for security guards remaining high. Furthermore it will become more
difficult and costly to provide for a manpower-based security.
Highly advanced tethnologic~l developments in cameras, lenses, video
recorders and the various peripherals such as pan and tilt control has
progressed to a level where the right perspective can be achieved.

352

The ClOsed Circuit Television (CCTV) t1as been established tor the past 25
years as one of the most effective tools in the fight against crime. It can
provide remote eyes and an accurate record of what is happening in sensitive
areas.
The rate of development associated with CCTV and the intelligence of the
peripher.al equipment can only be compared with todays development of
the computing world.
One of the most important developments in the industry has been the
introduction of video multiplexer. These systems can record multiple camera
pictures onto a single video recorder, and then replay those camera pictures
in split screen displays on a single monitor.
Another important development is the new 3-Dimensionallntelligent Space
(3D IS) System which is a three-dimensional video motion detection system.
Developed in Australia, this monitoring system uses the overlapping fields
of standard CCTV cameras to create invisible, three-dimensional detection
zone that protect valuable assets or secure designated areas.
Thus, no one can hide from the system.

Information for this article was provided by Cisco, Dedicated Micros (Asia)
anci APRO Asian Protection Pte. Ltd.

Silicon 'human' brain

ax

One ingenious system is the Proteq


security system. It uses the latest
Neuronic Reasoning Machine (NRM) to integrate security, home controls
and communication.
The system derives this ability from a silicon neuro chip, which gives the
system the reflexes of a human brain, and the ability to distinguish between
a real break-in and a false alarm.
Therefore, if pets were to run around the house, or if a vehicle happened to
pass by, the alarm would not trigger off-thanks to the system's ability to filter
a false alarm from a genuine one.
This neuro chip enables the system to analyze incoming signals, and
simultaneously make decisions and initiate a response within milliseconds.
The Proteq is also able to track and record the intruder's movements through
a graphic display or via the CCTV camera connected to the house TV monitor.
Being user-friendly, it can prompt and interact with the user by voice
messages. Specially recorded messages would inform the house occupant
of an intrusion, with description of details during the event.
A special feature of the system is that it can also relay the status of connected
equiment such as the refrigerator when they encounter a breakdown or
malfunction. Once the user is informed of the fault, it can initiate a temporary
solution by switching to a stand-by system.

353

The user can thus control the system via a handphone or a telephone even
If he is away from the premises. Likewise, the system can contact the user
via the pager, a handphone or a telephone during an emergency.
Small or medium-sized businesses who do not have staff running round the
clock to take care of contingencies would no doubt benefit froin such a
system as it that provides security surveilance and at the same time monitors
the status of the equipment and machinery of the plant.

HOW TO BURGLAR PROOF YOUR HOME

Security basics
"Security does not only mean just posting a guard at the gate,"
"It is an encompassing surveillance system which ensures that life, property
and business are safeguarded. But when one talks security, one has to talk
about needs and priorities. Usually in a lot of new buildings, the management
would leave the minimum amount of its budget to security -the lowest of .
its priorities."
Broadly, security involves an all around protection of a facility- a home,
office, shop, factory or warehouse. In most cases this is done through fencing,
then comes a surveillance of theentry points through close circuit monitoring
or the traditional jaga. When humans cannot monitor an area, an alarm
system is required. Finally, there is the good old lock and key to keep things
safe.
There are a whole range of security solutions that can refer to the various
budgets and needs. Besides manpower, there are electronic systems which
include audio and video surveillance, locking and alarm systems.
Nowadays through, the presence of diverse facilities dictates the need for a
more cohesive, integrated system that will link all facilities into one. To
achieve a more complete and effective control. We lobk at some of these
integrated systems.
1. Intruder breaks in through the door and sets the system in ALARM
2. Calls you on pager, handphone or any phone and tells you exactly what's
happening and where
3. Alerts the Security Company (for subscribers of the Central Monitoring
Service) and mobilize their guards to check on your premises.
4. Tracks the intruders every move through a graphic display or video monitoring on the television. If desired, you can capture the act on tape for
later playback.
5. Triggers the playback of pre-recorded message-s or switches on the lights
to spooll and chase away the intruder.
6. Activates the siren to frighten the intruder and alert the neighbors

354

H. MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS
The answers to questions 1 through 8 can be found on the following key
LIST. Select only one answer for each question.
V. LOCKS

I. MOTION AND
HEAT DETECTORS
II. MICROWAVE AND
INFRARED BEAMS

VI. PLASTIC CARDS

Ill. PRESSURE SENSORS

VII. NUMBERED KEYBOARDS

IV. OTHERS

VIII. NEW DEVICES

1. This detect weight on a floor or other surfaces.

A. Ill

C. V

B. IV

D. VI

2. This can be installed on glass in door openings. and


on fences and screens to set off an alarm when
unauthorized entry is made through the opening.

A. VIII

c.

B. VII

D. IV

3. A circuit when the path of their beam is interrupted.

A. IV

C. II

B. VI

D. VII

4. This sense the presence of someone in a room or

0000

0000

A B C D

0000

0 0 0 0

within the field of view.

A. V

C. IV

B. I

D. VII

5. These are now being developed that can read


individual BIOLOGICAL FEATURES such as the
retina of the eye or the palm of a hand providing a
counterfeit-proof method of identification.

A. IV

C. VIII

B. II

D. Ill
355

0000

6. This contain a coded magnetic strip that allowsentry


when a valid card is passed over the rel!der.
A. II

C. VIII

B. IV

D. VI

7. This can serve the same purpose in order to unlock


a door, the user must enter the correct numerical
code.
A. I

c.

B. VII

D. V

0000

0000

Ill

8. This can be connected to card readers.


A. V

C. II

B. l

D. VII

356

0000

AREA ''B''
PART Ill

UT I L IT I ES

6. COMMUNICATION
SYSTEMS

AREA "B"

UTILITIES

PART Ill

A. SIGNAL SYSTEMS
Under this title is subsumed all SIGNAL, COMMUNICATION, and CONTROL
EQUIPMENT, the function of which is to assist in effecting proper building
operation.
Included are surveillance equipment such as fire and interior alarm; audio
CJ,nd visual communication equipment such as telephone, intercom, and
1elevision, both public and closed circuit; time equipment such as clock
program.
Closed circuit TV (CCTV) for surveillance systems. The hundreds of signals
generated throughout a large facility are logged, channeled, and applied by
means of specially programmed computers.
Most recently, COMPUTER SYSTEMS, as well as local area networks
(LANS) that .connect computers within one building or in a complex of
buildings.
Telephone Systems are the most prevalent type of communication system.
In most buildings, main telephone lines enter the structure in a main cable
and connect to the terminal room where they are split into riser cabres.
These risers are generally located near the core and connect telephone
equipment rooms on each floor. From these equipment rooms the lines
branch out to serve individual spaces.
With the proliferation of separate telephone companies in recent years, each
tenant space in a large building usually needs its own eQuipment
room.
The
I
.
.
size of the room is dependent on the type of equipment used and the number
of telephone lines connected.
Other types of communication systems are typically prewired as the building
is constructed. Cabling terminates at electrical boxes in the wall or floor
with a jack into which individual equipment can be connected.
Most signal cabling is run in metal conduit like electrical cable unless the
local building code allows it to be exposed. Conduit protects the cable and
prevents it from burning in a fire and giving off dangerous gases.

358

1. The fire detection, smoke detection, and :ntrusion


alarm device all operate from a
; the
alarm bell is common.

0000

A. SINGLE CONTROL C. UNI-PANEL


PANEL
B. COMMON PANEL

D. ONE-WAY PANEL

2. The _ _ _ _ _ indicates the device operated


and its location.
A. INDICATOR

C. BULLETIN

B. LOCATOR

D. ANNUNCIATOR

3. The connection between the signal control panel and


OLCP
, activates all outside lights
when a signal device trips. Selected lights inside t~e
house can also be connected to go.

A. ON-LINE CALL
PANEL

C. ONE LEVEL CALL


PANEL

B. OUTSIDE
LIGHTING
CONTROL PANEL

D. OVERALL LOCAL
CONTROL PANEL

4. The CENTRAL TELEVISION ANTENNA system is a


desirable feature of the modern residence. Systems
with mqre than two outlets generally require a booster
amplifier and are known as
systems.

A. ELEVATED

C. AMPLIFIED

B. INCREASER

D. LOUDNESS
CONTROLL

The function of the system is to apply a television signal


at each wall outlet, so that a receiver may be operated
at any location and so that two or more receivers may
operate simultaneously.
The functioning of the system is simply to amplify the
signal received by the antenna and by means of special
cable to distribute these amplified signals in a concealed
cable to the various wall outlets.

359

0 0 0 0

0000

0000

5.

The publiO demand tor step-saving conveniences has


resulted in the wide acceptance of the home
-~---The basic system comprises one or
more masters and several remote stations, one of
which monitors the front door allowing it to be
answered from various points within the home.

0000

In general, MASTER STATIONS allow selective


calling, whereas REMOTE STATIONS operating
through the master are non-selective.
Systems are also available that impose the signals
onto the house power wiring. This has the advantage
of eliminating separate wiring and making remote
stations portable. They are connected simply by
plugging into a power outlet. Many manufacturers
have incorporated a TUNER (AM, FM, or both} into
this system so that music can be "PIPED" to each of
the stations within the home.
A. INTERCOM

C. INTERFACE

B. INTERSTATION

D. INTERCHANGE

In RESIDENTIAL WORK, the TELEPHONE COMPANY


normally follows the route of the electric service, entering
the building overhead or underground as desired. In both
cases a separate service entrance means must be
provided; if AERIAL, a sleeve through the wall; if
UNDERGROUND, a separate entrance conduit.
Wiring of telephone instruments when installed after
completion of the residence consists of a single surface
mounted 1/8 inch diameter, 4+conductorcable that, even
if skillfully installed, is unsightly at best and completely
objectionable at worst.
6.

consists of running the cables on the


wall framing and into empty device boxes. This
results in a completely concealed installation that is
desirable from the owner's viewpoint and, depending
upon the number of outlets, cheaper for the phone
company to install. Instruments can be WALL type
or DESK type, which is also being available for
jacking into outlets around the house.
A. CENTRAL WIRING C. PREWIRING
B. ANTE-ENERGIZER D. ENERGIZING

360

0000

7. The usual differentiation between intercom and


private telephone is interlace w~h phone company
equipment, which is found on private telephones and
NOT found on the intercoms. MASTERS and
REMOTE stations are (requently called
_ _ _ _ _ , respectively, and their functions are
the same. Instruments may look like telephones in
addition to a number of other functions.
A. OFFICER &
WORKER

C. MAINAND
SUBORDINATE

B. ADMINISTRATIVE
AND STAFF

D. LEADER AND
FOLLOWER

0000

A typical complete private TELEPHONE and INTERCOM


system will provide:
1. DIRECT-DIALING,
Two
way
telephone
communications between all master stations.
2. DIRECT Communications between all masters and
remotes.
3. Staff Station call origination to the centrally located
LED readout display panels from which it can be
routed by a master station to any other point.
In addition, options are available for conference call
capability, all-call mode, and even automatic time
signalling. Control Equipment is based on integrated
electronic Circuitry and is therefore extremely compact,
occupying no more space, than a file cabinet. Power
requirements are readily provided by local branch circuitry.
8.

PABX are like the modern intercom,


based on advanced solid-state technology. Thus, the
entire switching system for a system that will handle
up to 500 lines and trunks, 4 operator consoles, and
more than 140 simultaneous conversations plus full
intercom facilities, occupies a cabinet 0.60 M X 0. 70
M X 1.80 M light. The controls are completely
automated, and attendants do little more than route
incoming calls and provide information.
A. PERSONAL
ELECTRONICS
BRANCH EXHIBIT
SYSTEM

C. PERSONAL ENTRY
BRANCH EXCESS
SYSTEM

D.
B. PRIVATE
ELECTRICALLY
BASED EXCHANGE
SYSTEM

PRIVATE
ELECTRONIC
BRANCH EXCHANGE
SYSTEM

361

0000

TYPICAL of this type of equipment shows the operational


features of this system that include:

1. Direct Internal and External dialing.

0000
2. Consultation hold, that is, ability to hold an outside
call while making an inside call.

Conference call capability, including internal and


external units.

4. Call transfer and camp-on feature.

0000
A

0000
A

0000
5. Automatic call back.

0000
6. Call forwarding.

0000
7. Distinctive ringing for different functions.

0000
8. Paging, executive priority, dictation access,
personnel location, plus other options as desired.

9. This feature on a telephone is called a


- - - - - This permits user to program system
to forward call automatically to another phone or to
the attendant.

A. EXTENDER

C. SENDER

B. CALL
FORWARDING

D. CALL FOLLOWER

362

0000
A

0000

10. Automatic callback and


. A telephone
permits you wait on a busy phone and hang up.
System then rings both phones when they are free.

A. STAND-BY

C. DELVE-ON

B. SLEEP-ON

D. CAMP-ON

11 .

12.

allows a ringing phone to be answered


at any other phone.
A. CALL ANSWER

C. CALL PICK-UP

B. CALL SLIP

D. CALL-AROUND

in a telephone lets you transfer


incoming and outgoing calls to any other phone
without help from the attendant.
A. CALLTRANSFER

C. CALLCHANGER

B. CALL USER

D. CALL GIVER

13. _ _ _ _ _ Hold lets you put a caller on Hold

14.

A. STRONG

C. CONFERENCE

B. AGREEMENT

D. CONSULTATION

Displays the number of a party


connected to a busy line.
A. ADVERTISER

C. 'IDENTIFY

B. INSPECTOR

D. NAME PLATE

15. _ _ _ is used for setting up three way group calls.

16.

A. CONFERENCE

C. AGREEMENT

B. CONVENTION

D. MEETING

enables attendant to talk privately


with either of the two parties in a call.

A. DUAL

C. TWOSOME

B. SPLIT

D. ON-LINE

363

0000

0000

0000

ocoo
A

0000

0000

0000

B. TELELINGO
1. Sometimes a design must be reached quickly to
avoid costly, delay, reruns and so on, and so the
recipient must be informed at once. This is called
the
systems, which fall into two
general categories and several subcategories. They
are either VISUAL, and AUDIBLE, or both, and are
either COMMON or SELECTIVE.

0000

A pocket device is carried by each person likely to be


called. (plant engineers, executives, foreman). An
individual pocket device can be alerted by a BUZZ. In
some systems, the alerted person then listens to the
message directly. On othe'rs, it is necessary for this
person, after being buzzed, to go to a phone and call
in to the central paging desk to receive the message.
Others utilize small hand-held, two-way radio
transmitters.

2.

A. CALLING

C. ANNOUNCING

B. PAGING

D. CONVEYING

is a mobile-phone network in which


computers track each call and pass it on form one
low-power transmitter to another as a car travels from
one part of a city to another. The phone unit can be
either a car phone or a hand-held portable phone.

A. CALLER RADIO

C. CELLULAR RADIO

B. TRANSMITTER
RADIO

D. ONE-WAY RADIO

3. A machine that transmits exact copies of documents


through an ordinary Phone line at speeds up to 9.6
kbps (kilobytes per second) is called the
_ _ _ _ _ .Thus, the current G-3 machines can
transmit a page of text in anything from one minute
to 15 seconds, depending on the amount of
information involved. Forthcoming G-4 machines will
send it in 4 seconds, using digital phone lines.

A. XEROX

C. FIXED (IMAGER)

B. COPIER

D. FAX (FACSIMILE)

364

0000

0000

4. A
is launched so as to move at the
same speed as earth's rotation. Hence
("GEOSTATIONAR"). This bounces and boosts
communication signals from transmitters on one part
of the globe to receiving antennas on another part.

0000

A. COMMUNICATION C. SPACE CONTROL


SATELLITE
B. ROVING
SATELLITE

D. ROCKET
TRANSMITTER

5. This system the ISDN allows simultaneous digital


transmission of data, voice and video at speeds not
possible with traditional technologies but made
possible by fiber-optic lines. A single fiber-optic line
replaces separate networks in current use. A sample
application is a Fax that sends an A4 page in one
second, simultaneously with a phone conversation
or transmission of a computer database.
A. INTERNATIONAL
SEMI-DIGITAL
NETWORK

C. ISDN INTEGRATED
SERVICES DIGITAL
NETWORK

B. JNTEGRATED

D. INTERNATIONAL

SOLAR DIGITAL
NETWORK

RADIO
B. MICROWAVE
RADIO

0000

SOLAR DIALING
NETWORK

6. Long distance wireless communications medium


using very-short wavelength radio waves is called
the
. This consumes less power than
long-wave radio and can be focused into a narrower
beam so as to hit a dish antenna only a few meters
in diameter and located many miles away, as long
as it is in direct line of sight. Today, this wireless
communications can carry tens of thousands of
phone conversations simultaneously.

A. HIGH VOLTAGE

C. IMMENSEWAVE
RADIO
D. HOTWAVE RADIO

365

0000

"I. This is a Device for converting analog signals sent


through telephone lines into digitalized information
that can be accepted by a recipient computer. Linked
with the originating computer, this _ _ _ __
translates the computer's digital information into
analog which, when received by its counterpart at
the other end is again translated into digital for the
recipient computer.

8.

A. MODEM,
MODULATOR
DEMODULATOR

C. MODULAR

B. TUNER

D. LEVELER

are a very fine strand (as thin as


human hair) of highly reflective glass through which
binary-coded pulses of light can be sent. These
cables have greater transmission capacity than the
copper cables in current use, because they can carry
tiny staccato pulses of light generated by lasers that
turn on and off 90 million times a second. (A halfinch of this strand has 144m glass fibers and can
carry 1,350,000 conversations) with this pace, it will
allow the entire contents of a 2,700 page dictionary
to be sent over a single f!ber in six seconds. These
are immune to electrical interference.
A. INVISIBLE
GLASS WIRE

C. MICRO WIRES

B. FINE GRAINED
OPTICS

D. FIBER OPTICS

9. Also known as an office switchboard, a:


_ _ _ _ _ can now be used to switch and
transmit computer data as well as ordinary phone
calls. It also supports new features like abbreviated
dialing, call forwarding, automatic callback, etc.
A. PRIVATE
INTERCHANGE

C. PABX-Private
Automatic Branch
Exchange

B. LINKAGE
FIELD UNITS

D. ON-LINE ACCESS

366

0000

0000

0000

10. VALUE-ADDED NETWORK: the provider of VAN


Services adds value by purchasing lines from a
telephone company and adding transmission and
switching functions, such as
. Here,
a User enters his password and is able to send a
message to one or several destinations. Recipient

0000

can read the message on the computer screen or


print it out. If the office being sent is closed, it makes
no difference since the message is stored and
forwarded.

A. ELECTRICAL

C. ELECTRICAL MAIL

MESSENGER
B. ELECTRONIC
MESSENGER

D. ELECTRONIC MAIL

11. A company's internal communication is improved by


_ _ _ _ _ . This allows people to get together,
often on very short notice, in a televised discuss1a.n
by hooking up to the network from various locations,
cities or countries.

A. VIDEO

0000

C. VIDEO MEETING

CONFERENCING
B. GROUP-TV

12.

D. SIT-DOWN VIDEO

differs from telephone only in so tar


as the circuit is used for telegraphic operation instead
of voice conversation. Its fastest speed is only 80
words per minute. Another system is the TELETEXT
which operates at around 300 characters per second
or 30 times faster.

A. TELECOPIER

C. XEROX

B. TELEX

D. TELEGRAPH

361

0000

AREA ''B''
PARTIII

UTILITIES

7. HIGH-TECH
SYSTEMS

AREA ''8"

UTILITIES

PART Ill

A. BUILDINGS
FUTUREHOME
by Elizabeth Pennisi
For Portia Isaacson a computer scientist, futurehome is a fantasy come true. The
white, two storey, stucco, subarban Dallas home, will be an electronic showcase, but
with spiral staircase, hot tub, art gallery and style. A quick call to-or from-a computer
ensures that her hot tub will be warm when she arrives or informs her when her
teenaged children have gotten home from school. If a business meeting keeps her
from getting home in time for her husband's birthday, a computer controlled scenano.
complete with loving messages, romantic lighting, favorite music and appropriate
videos, will let him know he hasn't been forgotten.
Answering the door is obsolete. A camera shows who it is by sending a close-up view
of newcomers to wherever Isaacson is in the house. Then she can open the door
remotely. Can't find the keys or the husband? Via video cameras she can scan
shelftops and table surfaces. Motion censors track each person's room-to-room
movements.
It will take 13 computers, 14 telephones, 26 tv monitors, 8 miles ( 13 km) of wiring,
several video casette recorders for this future home. Isaacson has robots for pets, a
sculpture of stereo and video components that seem to float in space, futuristic plant
stands that are really computer terminals, and a media "command center", that includes
tour (4) 25-inch (60 em.) tv's a 40-inch (1 00 em.) tv projection screen, 2 VCFS, and
compact and laser disc players.
At futurehome, a master computer is in charge. It receives data from the rest of the
house and sends out commands, dimming lights, changing thermostat setting, and
switching tv channels and volumes. Using a text-to-speech converter, the computer
can answer and make telephone calls. When someone - a housekeeper or tardy
teenager, for instance punches in their individualized codes to get into the front door.
the computer can be cued to let Isaacson know, either where she is in the home or at
work.
It can tell the condition of the house, not only can lights or favorite music be turned on

as a person enters a room, a synthesized voice can welcome guests, remind a son to
keep his feet off furniture or wake a husband in time for dinner.
Heating and airconditioning are regulated electronically, and tile computer tracks
temperatures in each room so that the new occupants can assess airflow throughout
1he house. Once computerized, the entire house can be run from any one of 10
personal computers by pointing with a light pen to a particular room pictured on the

369

screen, and designating a task to be completed: Lights on or off, specific music to be


played, tv show to be recorded.
Or "script can be written that coordinate activities for emergencies, normal household
maintenance, even family tends to take care of intruders, a security script: If a security
sensor detects a break-in, the computer could be programmed to flash all the lights,
blast the stereos, wake up and tell the residents where the stranger is lurking, perhaps
even inform the burglars that they are being filmed.
The Interior looks like the tv series Star Trek. Instead of a wall-sized painting, an
electronic sculpture welcome visitors. The black components of an audio and video
systems are set into a glossy, black metal wall on shelves not visible to viewers.
Recessed lighting along the wall edges adds to the effect.
'SMART HOUSES' OF THE FUTURE
by: RAJ GOPAL VERMA
NEW DELHI- Early morning, a melodious voice wakes you up: "Good morning. it's
six a.m. big day ahead."
If you do not respond, the voice becomes more insistent nagging you till you are
awake. Meanwhile, the curtains of your bedroom windows would part automatically;
the shower in the bathroom starts as soon as you are ready and the coffee begins to
brew.
This may sound like a fantasy. But well, it is a moderate estimate of the "house of the
future" which will respond to your orders and no one elses, because security sensors
recognize your voice. Already there are several hundred such "smart houses" all
over the world, designed around central computers that control utility and security
systems, appliances and even music and fountains.
While you are out, your house continues to perform programmed tasks: starting the
dishwasher and watering the garden, opening the gate to certain people and activating
recordings of household noises to deter burglars. The commands can be changed on
telephone. If you are ahead of schedule, call home to adjust temperature and humidity
levels, turn on the sauna and feed the cat. Video consoles provide security because
an in-built computer can distinguish you from other persons.
The "smart houses" in Japan and the US have security and decorative lights
automatically switching on in sequence after dark. If motion detectors in any room
sense on human presence after 30, minutes, the lights switch off. Temperature and
humidity are adjusted for night-time comfort. Should late night snackers head towards
the kitchens, lights will come on, one at a time, to show the way.
Of late, a Japanese firm has launched a number of home appliances operable by
means of telephone instructions. Washer-driers, rice cookers, electric irons, cleaning
robots, refrigerators ... all fully automated and test manufactured, are being
commercialized shortly.
The fully-automated rice cooker sucks up a programmed amount of rice from a storage
chest and bran is whisked away during cooking by an electronic brush. Cooking
instructions may be set in advance by telephone so that the boiled rice is ready when
the owner arrives home. The electric iron has no cord, but heats through induction.
370

After being placed on an ironing boards, built-in electro-magnetic coils heat the iron,
which can be used for many hours.
The cleaning robot moves around the room, avoiding obstacles using an ultrasonic
wave sensor. Whenever it encounters dust accumulation the robot's sucking force
automatically increases. The refrigerator has a liquid crystal door, which turns
transparent at the flick of a switch. enabling one to see what is inside.
If you are. driving back from the city and are caught in a traffic snarl, you dial home on
your earphone to report the delay. The house computer then delays the normal
sequence of operations, but activates the video recorder to catch the tete-serial you
might want to see had you been at home. It also adjusts cooking and heating settings
to coincide with your delayed arrival.
Tomorrow's cars will be unlocked and started with plastic cards while drivers would
have to check their routes on computer. Standard equipment will include dashboard
navigation systems a kin to that on aircraft cockpits, speaker-telephones, ergonomic
seats and voice alerts to rouse drowsy drivers. Sensors detecting oncoming objects
will trigger the brakes, ac.celerator or the steering wheel to avert danger. On
electronically gridded super highways, drivers can put their vehicles on automatic
drive and snooze while zooming towards their destinations.
The technology to manufacture these gadgets already exists today. But the danger of
incompatible systems also exists. It is no good having a remote control video recorder
or a burglar alarm if your neighbor's dishwasher is activated simultaneously.
In 1986, the European Commission had awarded a handsome sum of money to
seven companies to design communication standards for electric devices in homes
which could work on mains wiring, infrared, radio waves and various types of and
ultimately optical fibres. Products so designed will be registered by a special logo.
In future homes, robots will provide much-needed relief to housekeepers. Today,
furniture is unnecessary heavy, because thick pieces of wood, metal and plastic are
needed to withstand the stresses imposed by people and objects. Technologists are
now developing new materials that are far ~tronger than anything we are used to and
yet, extremely lightweight.
A future housekeeper will be able to literally lift a sofa with a finger. And it may not
even need to be lifted, if it has a motorand is voice commandable. The robots that
clean the floors and rugs may be able to order the sofa to move out the way while it
does the cleaning (PNA/PTI).
SMART HOUSE
This allows occupants to dictate how the home will be run in their absence. Before
leaving for work, a homeowner can instruct the master computer to video tape a
television program at 3:00p.m .. begin warming dinner at 4:30, and turn on the heating
or air conditioning at 5:00. These directions may also be delivered by phone. A smart
hOuse offers cost savings as well as convenience. Linked to the local power company,
a home's central computer can run energy-gobbling appliances when electricity rates
are lowest. The computer can also choreograph the operation of all appliances that
JSe hot water, such as the washing maching and dishwasher, to make the most
economical use of the water heater.
Although the comfort and economy of a smart house offset its cost over the long run,
homes remain far more expensive than conventional abodes.

sue~

371

A DATA NETWORK
In a smart house, a "central computer" oversees !he functioning of myriad information
appliances- VCR, for fax machine; telephone, security sensors, smoke detector,
PC, audiovisual system, intercom, cable TV. The central computer can be programmed
from a master terminal or from a telephone.
A HOUSEHOLD NETWORK
A second network links household appliances (master terminal) -washer, dryer, store,
dishwasher, microwave, oven, freezer, shower, not tub. This household network can
be modified to accommodate telephone hook-ups to outside computers, allowing the
occupuant to bank, shop, travel agency, and make travel arrangements from home.
REFURfJfSH- to renovate, polish up again, brighten.
RETROFIT- to modify equipment that is already in service using parts developed or
made available after the time of origin.al manufacture. To retrofit is to replace (example
is to replace an old window with a new thermal window).

B. ROBOTICS
c '>habnam Gupta
ne term "robot" is derived from the Czeck word "Robota", meaning "forced labour",
A mechanical copy of a living being is called an "Automation" an example is a model
of a child that dips his pen in an ink pot, shakes off the excess ink and then writes in
the best handwriting. In Disneyland, President Abe Lincoln stands up from his chair,
walks a few steps towards the audience. stops and begins to declaim with his hands
moving.
A "ROBOT" is an automically operated machine. It is a computer 'Brain' which can
be taught or programmed to perform human tasks autom1cally. The development of
true robots was made possible only by the invention of the silicon chip in the computers,
which provides robots with brains.
Robots, generally speaking, are mechanical arms controlled by computers to
accomplish those handling activities of men which are repetitive or hazardous by
nature. Robot workers never get tired or bored. or make a careless mistake.
Robots are specially useful in industry, to produce a wide range of goods with precision.
In the automobile industry, robots are being used to lift, weld and spray paint.
The movements of the "Mechanical arms" are recorded in the computers r:~erc~ y
so that they can be repeated precisely. There are some robots whirr: eJe! ha1 a
sensor device to help them correct their own movemer1ts. if they .w::: :.. t ~~c: g
according to the programmed instructions.
They are usually driven by electric motors, but may also be pneumatic 1air e: "IE::r) or
hydraulic (water driven), and can lift weights of about one kilogram or rTJore. All thq! is
needed to run a small robot at home is a micro computer.

372

Areas where robots are highly useful are dangerous areas. A bomb-detecting robot
can help protect humans from danger. They can be usdd in environments which are
harsh or dangerous such as radiation zones, space coal mines, under-sea areas and
now on active volcano craters. Recently, a robot was invented that can climb stairs,
more so, a ladder.
Robots that work under water are unmanned submarine vehicles, linked by cable or
sonar links to human operators. They perform tasks such as inspection of pipelines
or locati~n of ship wrecks. They are also used for undersea drilling and mining
practises.
Another application is a robot as a bartender. There is a lightweight microphone through
which the waiter communicates with the robot-controlled bar, and places orders. The
order can be placed directly from the customer's table. The drinks are then poured
and mixed automically, and are then served by the waiters. Meanwhile, the computer
does stocktaking and cash control, thereby leaving very little chance of inaccuracy
Robots can help disabled people feed themselves. or use a typewriter and can act as
guides to the blind. In dentistry schools, a robot is used to teach students. It gives a
ioud electronic "ouch" if they drill too far into its tooth.
Movies and fiction have made robots popular as brainy iror,-men with intelligence
enough to even overtake men. Based on this, the engineers are working on the design
of a micro-robot and a whole range of "ROBOTIC" games for children. Another
rnteresting development in the field of robotics is sport. Here the combat is between
man and robot. This is already done with the game of chess.

373

"ROBOTICS" is the use of computer-controlled robots to perform manipulative tasks


especially an assembly lives. (Robot+ ics) (coined by Isaac Asimor)
How do all these robots work?
If you wanted to ieach a robot how to open a window, there are four ways:
1. Show it by holding its 'harid' and moving it through all the steps - reaching
out, taking hold of the handles, turning the handles, and finally opening the
window. The robot records every movement and then, at a signal, plays
back the movements like a tape-recorder. This is especially useful for
teaching skills like paint spraying and welding.
2. Another way to teach a robot is by using a remote control device called a
teaching pendant. This is a box attached to the robot's computer. It has
switches that operate the motors in each of its joints. The robot is taught to
move its arm to each position the job requires and then a "record" button is
pressed so that it will remember the position.
3. A more comp 1icated way of teaching a robot is by writing a computer
programme, in a special language, to tell it how to move each of its parts. A
language called Logo is often used to teach people about robots. It is
especially designed to control simple mobile robots such as the turtle. It
contains instructions such as FORWARD 10 RIGHT 90 (which means "go
forward 10 units and then turn 90 degrees to the right").
4. Robots can learn by working a problem out for themselves. In the 1960's a
rpbot called shakey was built at Stanford University. It could find its way
around a room, avoiding obstacles which it could "see" with a TV camera. It
could even find an electric socket and recharge itself.
The industrial robots are generally made of three (3) basic units: ( 1) Power supply,
the (2) Manipulator arm with joints and gripper, and (3) the computerized control
system.
1. POWER SUPPLY: It is the power supply that produce$ a set of forces which
move the parts of the robot at its different jomts. Three (3) types of power
supply are commonly used: electric, hydraulic and pneumatic.
a. ELECTRIC Systems use AC (Alternate Current) or DC (Direct Current)
motors, with each joint of the robot being controiiP.d bv an individual
motor.
b. Hydraulic Systems use force provided by liquids, such as oil, which is
forced along the tubes. under high pressure.
c. Pneumatic Systems are powered by compressed air. It is difficult to
accurately control air complicated procedures.
2. The "ARM": The visible part of the robot is the manipulator arm, with its
gripper or "end effector" and joints. The joints are like those of human beings
and are capable of five (5) basic types of Movements.
a. Rectangle Coordinate- This moves along 3 basic axes, x, y, and z, or
left-right, backward-forward and up-down.

374

b. Cylindrical Coordinate- This type can rotate around the vertical axis.
c. Spherical Coordinate- This type achieves its vertical motion by pivoting
at the shoulder joint.
d. Revolute Coordinate- This type has joint at the 'shoulder', 'elbow, and
'wrist' and it resembles the human arm closely.
e. SCARA Systems- SCARA stands for Selective Compliance Assembly
Robot Arm. In this, all the joints are in the horizontal plane.
The "END EFFECTOR" - takes the place of the hand in the robot "arm".
End Effectors are for specific operations. Some commonly used ones are
grippers, suction pads, shovels and hooks. Robots in a factory can change
their "end effectors" to suit the particular job they are doing.

3. The CONTROL SYSTEM- this third component not only directs the motion
but is also responsible for the sensory processing of the robot mechanisms.
The computer is used as the controller system that contains sets of
instructions which direct the motor in the robot to brinq about a certain specific
motion or function.
For the control system to function properly, the robot sensory system gathers
specific information needed for adequate control of the robot. In the more
advanced systems, the sensory system of the robot maintains an internal
model of the environment to enable prediction and decision making. But it
is not enough for robots to simply perceive and understand the world around
them; it is just as important for them to be able to understand how their
actions influence or change the particular task at hand. This means that a
robot has to have "FEEDBACK".
SENSORS are used by the robot to detect position. velocity, acceleration
and DATA (which may be in different forms: tactile, optical, acoustic, thermal
and multi-function).
a. Tactile Sensors, or Touch Sensors are commonly mounted in the robot
gripper to detect contract with objects. These can be pressure pads,
which allow it to feel whether it is actually grasping an object. They can
also be in the form of a photo-electric cell built into the robot's "end
effector".
This acts as an "eye" and by the presence or absence of light shining
on it, can tell the mact1ine whether it is holding something.
Strain gauges are used to detect the pressure the robot's grippers are
exerting, and to assess how hard or soft the pressure has to be by
measuring the degree of resistance.
b. Optical Sensors capture an image, such as a part to be handled or a
certain distance to be measured. A robot's vision is through video
cameras. The. images is processed by computer analogies, which is
then used to evaluate, grasp positions, and determine flows based on
comparison with the stored images in the computer. One of the most
375

commonly used is a photoelectric diode which produces off-on signals


such as "gripper closed" or "part missing". An example of this is the
{APOMS) Automated Propeller Optical Measurement System developed
for the U.S. Navy.
c. Acoustic Sensors or "hearing" sensors, are insensitive.to variations in
optical reflections, and they can penetrate clouds or dust or moisture,
water or oil and solid materials. Thus, these sensors are successfully
used in space and underwater. Acoustic transducers are designed to
be very efficient in coupling sounds. Usually, the sound transmitter and
sound receiver are separate.
d. Thermal Sensors- are used to measure an object's temperature though
their application is not very common, engineers are still looking into
their development. This sensor finds its application in temperature
dependent functions, like maintenance and repair of tau lty components
in an electrical circuit.
e. Multi-function Sensors are sensors that carry out more than one function.
This means that incoming information is processed from different sensory
modalities. One example of this is the research by P. Dario and
colleagues at the University of Pisa in which a multilayer "skin" is being
developed for "end effectors" which has sensibility for touch as well as
temperature.

C. INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS
A term defined as "a building which provides a productive and cost-effective
environment through optimization of its four basic elements -- STRUCTURES.
SYSTEMS SERVICES and MANAGEMENT and the interrelationships between them
...... optimal building intelligence is the matching of solutions to occupant need."

In the framework of such a definition, the intelligence of a building, resides essentially


in its designers' and operators' abilities. An intelligent building is, therefore, not
necessarily packed with electronic systems, nor even one with an extensive BAS
(Building Automation System) unless it is necessitated by the building program and
can demonstrate its cost-effectiveness. Rather, it is a building designed with
forethought and perhaps some inspiration, both of wh1ch are necessary to satisfy
immediate and predictable need, and yet also to anticipate the occupants' future
requirements, since modern building usage is rarely static.
(a) Building Structure - These are essentially architectural and marketing
considerations, since there is a vast difference betVIteen speculative construction for immediate return, construction for rental, and owner-use buildings. Since every additional em. of slab-to-slab height and every square
meter of utility closet space increases construction costs or reduces occupant space, the speculative builder will be interested only if. an immediate
return is likely:

376

The rental builder will consider it in the light of his or her immediate rental
prospects: and the informed owner-user builder will analyze the rate of return for initial investment and decide accordingly.
These comments apply all the more when referring to additional costs for
unseen items such as spare ducts and conduits and ''fuels" such as fixtures, finishes and furnishings.
(b) Building Systems- This is the area of high-tech equipment such as BAS
(Building Automation System), plus all the individual subsidiary systems.
One difficultly lies in the highly proprietary nature of all of this equipment,
making integration between systems and future alterations difficult if not
problematic.
Second, the resistance of some major manufacturers to open protocol
(ex: inter-equipment communication compatibility) places another difficult
problem into the-design process. Experience has shown clearly, however.
that in the very fast-moving building systems market, today's high-tech can
become tomorrow's albatross, and therefore planning for future
requirements means intelligent preparation as much as immediate
1Jrovision.
(c) Building Services and Management- with the exception of communication facilities, these items are not within our scope. and with respect to communications, which are the lifeline of all modern commercial ard industrial
facilities, the foregoing remarks are equally applicable
lnsummary, then, the INTELLIGENT BUILDING IS essentially the building
that is designed with foresight. Hindsight will determine the degree of intelligence.

BUILDING AUTOMATION SYSTEM (BAS)


The trend in modern construction, except for small or simple structures, is clearly to
use integrated system design plus centralized monitoring and control of building
systems. The subsystems almost always include in a building automation system
(BAS) are HVAC, energy management, and lighting control. Inclusion of security, life
safety (fire alarm, fire control and suppression, plus emergency aspects of ve.iical
transportation), material handling, and some aspects of communications depends on
the specific needs of the building.
This trend toward building automation which previously had been economically
justifiable only in large owner-user facilities, is today not only economically feasible
but very nearly an economic necessity because of high labor costs and the relati_vely
low cost of computer and microprocessor controls.

377

MULTIBUILDfNG FACILITIES
The advantages in the use of a single building wide BAS are redoubled when applied
to a multibuilding facility as compared to precomputer technology. A graphic
representation of such a multibuilding system is hereby shown below.

378

The intelligent building BAS controls its building systems and interconnects via
telephone cables (and microwave link) to other buildings 1n the network and to the
central office. It matters little whether the various buildmgs in the network are
geographically concentrated in campus fashion as would br~ the case in an industrial
park, a university campus, or a multibuilding industrial facility or spread out: the control,
monitoring, and alarm functions remain the same.
The same principle of building interconnection can be applied to a particular systems
rather than the BAS. Thus in the figure below, il shows a single processor- wori<-slation
(PC-type computer) controlling the security aspect of a number of facilities via
controllers, modems, and telephone cable connections 1n a single-user local area
network (LAN) system. This workstation can then be incorporated into a multisystem,
multiuser computer network.

01al Telephone Network

Stngle-user Lan System

Modem
Controller

Remote Sre

Modem

Contr::)tler

'----------~ Controller
Readers
Local Contollers

Processor/Workstat1on

Entry/Ex! Entry/Ex! Readers


Readers

Readers

Computer control of a single system (security) at multiple locations via telephone


link, in a single-user local area network (LAN), (Courtesy of CSI Control Systems
International.)

379

AREA ''C''
-----PARTI

PRE-DESIGN
BUILDING
PROGRAMMING

PART I

AREA "C"

I. PRE-DESIGN - BUILDING PROGRAMMING


Architecturai Programming is a process that seeks to analyze and define an
architectural problem along with the requirements that must be met in its physical
solution. It is a process of analysis, where design is a process of synthesis once the
problem is clearly defined. The process can apply to an Individual space or room, a
building, or an entire complex of structures.
Thorough programming includes a wide range of information. In addition to stating
the goals and objectives of the client, a program report contains a site analysis,
aesthetic considerations, space needs. adjacency requirements, organizing concepts,
outdoor space needs, codes. budgeting demands, and scheduling limitations.

1. fUNCTlONAL REQUIREMENTS
Of all programming information. the amount of space and the relationships between
spaces are two of the PRIMARY FACTORS in determining building size and
configuration.
In addition to the primary function of a building in housing a specific use. there are
always support spaces required that add to the overall size. These include such
areas as mechanical rooms, toil.et rooms, storage. and circulation space.
A. Determining Space and Volume Needs

Space Standards of a corporation may dictate that a senior manager have a 22 square
meter office while a junior manager be alloted 15 square meter. Where square meters
are not defined by one of these methods. space for a particular use is determined in
one of three ways:
a. by the number of people that must be accomodated
b. by an object or piece of equipment
c. by a specific activity that has Its own. clearly specified space needs
People engaged in a particular activity most commonly define the space required.
For example, a student sitting in a classroom needs about 1.35 sq.M. This includes
space for actually sitting in a chair in addition to the space required for circulating
within the classroom and space for the teacher's desk and shelving. An office worker
needs from 30 to 85 square meter. depending on whether the employee is housed, in
a private office or is part of an open office plan. This space requirement also includes
room to circulate around the desk and may include space for visitor's chairs, personal
files. and the like.

382

Occasionally, space needs can be based on something other than the number of
people but which is directly related to the occupancy. For instance, preliminary planning
of a hospital may be based on an area per bed, or library space can be estimated
based on the number of books.
Some Common Space Planning Guidelines
Offices .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. ... ..

30-70 net sq M.
per person

restaurant dining .......................................................

1.35-1.65 net sq.M


per seat

restaurant kitchens................................... ........ ......

o 30-0.45 net sq.M.


per room

hotel (1.5 persons/room) ........................................ ..

50-54 gross

library reading room ..................................................

1.80-3.15 net sq.M


per person

book stacks ...............................................................

.0075 net sq.M


per bound volume

theaters with fixed seats ................... ............ ............

0.66 net sq. M


per person

assembly areas;'movable seats................................

1.35 net sq.M


per person

the~ter

lobbies ....... .

30% of seating area

classrooms
stores .................................................................... .

1.35-1.70 net sq.M


per student
2.70-4.86 net sq.M
per person

1. Whichever way it is done, the number of people that must be accomodated


is determined and multiplied by the square meter per person. However this
only includEls the space needed for the specific activity, not the space required
to connect several rooms or spaces or for support areas such as mechanical
rooms. These must be added to the basic area requirements.
2. The second way space needs are determined is by the size of an object or
piece of equipment. The size of a printing oress. for example, partially
determines the area of a press room. Automobile sizes determine the space
needs for parking garages.
3. The third way space needs are defined is through a built-in set of rules or
customs related to the activity itself. Sports facilities are examples of this
method. A basketball court must be a certain size regardless of the number
of spectators present, although the seating capacity would add to the total
space required. A courtroom is an example of an activity where the
procedures and customs of a process (the trial) dictate an arrangement of
human activity and spacing of individual areas in the courtroom that only
partially depend on the number of people.

B. Determining Total Building Area


The areas determined with one of the methods described above resu.lt in the net area
of a facility. These areas do not include general circulation space between rooms,

383

mechanical rooms, stairways, elevator and mechanical shafts, elect'ical and telephone
equipment rooms, wall and structural thicknesses, and other spaces not directly
musing the primary activities of the building.
Sometimes the NET AREA is referred to as the net ASSIGNABLE area and the
secondary spaces are referred to as the UNASSIGNED areas.
The sum of the net area and these ancillary areas gives the GROSS building area.
The ratio of the two figures is called the "net-to-gross"ratio and is often referred to as
the "efficiency" of the building. EFFICIENCY depends on the type of occupancy and
how well it is planned. A hospital that contains many small rooms and a great number
of large corridors will have a much lower efficiency ratio than a factory where the
majority of space is devoted to production areas and very little to corridors and other
secondary spaces.
Generally, net-to-gross ratios range from 60 to 80 percent, with the same uses more
or less efficient than these numbers. A list of some common efficiency ratios is shown
in Table 1.1. In some cases, the client may dictate the net-to-gross ratio that must be
met by the architect's design. This is usually the case where the efficiency is related
to the amount of floor space that can be leased, such as in a retail mall or a speculative
office building. Increasing the efficiency of a building is usually done by careful layout
of the building's circulation plan. A corridor that serves rooms on both sides of it, for
example, is much more efficient than one that only serves rooms on one side.
Table1.1
Some Common Efficiency Ratios
0.75-0.80
0.75
0.65-0.70
0.75-0.80
0.83
0.60-0.75
0.50-0.65

offices
retail stores
restaurants
public libraries
m~seums

theaters.
hospitals

Once the net square Meter is determined and th8 appropriate efficiency ratio
established (or estimated), the gross area of the building is calculated by dividing the
net square Meter by the net-to-gross (efficiency) ratio.
Example 1.1
The net assignable area of small office building has been programmed as 6,500
square Meter. If the efficiency ratio is estimated to be 73%, what gross area
should be planned for?

gross area

65,000

or

0.73

6,500

0.73
= 8,900 square Meter

89,000 square feet

The design portion of the Board Exatns. often requires that you provide various
unassignable spaces within the context of the problem without giving you the square
meters. You are expected to make a reasonable allowance for mechanical rooms,
toilet rooms, elevators, and the like if they are not specifically listed in the program.

384

Table 1.21ists some typical space requirements with which you should be familiar {,,.r
projects of the size and type normally found in the design portion of the exam.

C. Determining Space Relationships


Spaces must not only be the correct size for the activity they support, but they also
must be located near other spaces with which they share some functional relationship.
Programming identifies these relationships and assigns a hierarchy of importance to
them. The relationships are usually recorded in a matrix form~t or graphically as
adjacency diagrams. See Figure 1 .1.
Table 1.2
Space Requirements for Estimating Non-assignable Areas
m~chanical rooms, total
heating, broiler rooms
heating, forced air
fan rooms

5%-9% of
3%-5% of
4%-8% of
3%-7% of

vertical duct space

0.36 sq.M per 100 sq.M of


floor space available

toilets
water closets

4.5 sq.M per water closet


1 per 15 people up to 55:
1 per 40 people over 55
Substitute or.e for each water
closet, but total water closets
cannot be reduced less than 2/3
of the number required
1 per 15 people for offices and
public buildings up to 60 people

urin.als

lavatories

gross
gross
gross
gross

building
building
building
building

area
area
area
area

1 per 100 people for public


assembly use
hydraulic elevator,91 kilos

2.20 M wide by 1.80 M deep

elevator lobby space

1.80 M deep

main corridors

1.50 to 2.1 0 Meters

exit corridors

1.20 M; 1.10 M minimum by code

monumental stairs

1.50 to 2.40 Meters

exit stairs

1.20 M; 1.10 M minimum by code

385

entrY
living room
dining room
kitchen
study

bedrc.om
becJroom

bath

(a} adjacency matrix

(b) adjacency diagram

Figure 1.1 Methods of Recording Space Relationships

There are three ba~ic types of adjacency needs: people, products, and information.
Each type implies a different kind of physical design response. Two or more spaces
may need to be phys_ically adjacent or located very close to one another when people
need face-to-face contact or when people move from one area to another as part of
the building's use. For example, the entry to a theater, the lobby, and the theater
space h(lve a particular functional requirement for being arranged the way they are.
Because of the normal flow of people, they must be located adjacent to one another.
With other relationships, two spaces may simply need to have access to one another,
but this can be with a corridor or through another intervening space rather than with
direct adjacency.
Products, equipment, or other objects may move between spaces and require another
type of adjacency. The spaces themselves may not have to be close to one another
but the movement of objects must be facilitated. Dumb waiters, pneumatic tubes,
assembly lines, and other types of conveying systems can connect spaces of this
type.
Finally, there may only be a requirement that people in different spaces exchange
information. The adjacency may then be entirely electronic or with paper-moving
systems. Although this is quite frequently the situation, personal, informal, human
contact may be advantages for other reasons.
The programmer analyzes various types of adjacency requirements and verifies them
with the client. Since every desirable relationship can seldom be accommodated, the
ones that are mandatory need to be identified separately from the ones that are
highly desirable or simply useful.
2. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
During programming, general concepts are developed as a response to the
goals and needs of the client. These programmatic concepts are statements about
functional solutions to the client's performance requirements. They differ from later
386

design concepts because no attempt at actual physical solutions is made during


programming; programmatic concepts guide the later development of design concepts.
For example, a programmatic concept might be that a facility should be easily
expandable by 20 percent every three years. Exactly how that would happen with a
building would be developed as a design concept. It might take the form of a linear
building that could be extended by a simple addition to one wing. Some ot the more
common design considerations that must be addressed during programming are
outlined in the following sections.

A. Organization Concepts
The functional needs of a particular type of building most often influence how
the physical environment is organized. At other times, the client's goal, the site, the
desired symbolism, or additional factors suggest the organization pattern. There are
six fundamental organization concepts: linear, axial, grid, central, radial, and clustered.
These are shown diagrammatically in Figure 1.2.
Linear organizations consist of a series of spaces or buildings that are placed in
a single line. The spaces can be identical or different sizes and shapes, but they
always relate to a unifying line, usually a path of circulation. A linear organization is
very adaptable; it cari be straight, bent, or curved to meet the requirements of the
client, the site, solar orientation, or construction. It is easily expandable and can be
built in a modular configuration if desired.

(a) linear
(b) axial

(d) central
(c) grid

387

(e) radial

(f) clustered
Figure 1.2 Organization Concepts

Axial plans are variations of the linear system with two or more major linear segments
about which spaces or buildings are placed. There may be additional, secondary
paths growing out of the primary axes and the major linear segments may be at right
angles to each other or at some other angle.
Grid systems consist of two sets .of regularly spaced parallel lines, which create a
very strong pattern and one that is quite flexible. Within a grid, portions can be
subtracted, added or modified. The size of the grid can be changed to create different
sizes of spaces or to define special areas. However, it can become very monotonous
and confusing if not used properly. Since a grid system is usually defined by circulation
paths, it is more appropriate for very large buildings and building complexes where a
great deal of circulation is required.
Central organizations are based on one space or point about which secondary
elements are placed. It is usually a very formal method of omanizing spaces or
buildings and inherently places the primary emphasis on the central space. Central
organizations are often used in conjunction with axial or linear plans.
When more than one linear organization extends from a centralized point, it becomes
a radial organization. Radial plans have a central focus but also have the ability to
extend outward to connect with other spaces, or for expansion. These types of
organizing plans can be circular or assume other shapes as well.

Clustered organizations are loose compositions of spaces or buildings related around


a path, axis, or central space, or simply grouped together. The general image is one
of informality. Clusters are very adaptable to requirements for different sizes of spaces
and they are easy to add onto without disrupting the overall composition.

B. Circulation Patterns
Circulation patterns are primary ways of organizing spaces, buildings, and groups of
buildings. They are vital to the efficient organization of a structure and provide people
with their strongest orientation within an environment. Paths of circulation provide

the means to move people, cars, products, and services.


388

Circulation is directly related to the organizational pattern of a building, but it does not
necessarily have to mimic it. For example, a major circulation path can cut diagonally
across a grid pattern. Normally, there is a hierarchy of paths. Major r..:>utes connect
major spaces or become spaces themselves and have secondary paths branching
from them. Different sizes and types of circulation are important for accommodating
varying capacities and for providing an orientation device for people using them.
Circulation for different functions may need to be separated as well. In a government
building; one set of halls for the public may be separated from the internal set of
corridors for the workers. A jail may have a secure passage for moving prisoners
completely separate from other areas of public movement
Establishing and maintaining a simple, efficient, and coherent circulation scheme is
critical to successfully completing the design portion of the Board Exam. One of the
common mistakes is to let the arranging of spaces according to the adjacency
requirements take over your design and to connect them with a circulation path as an
afterthought. You are then left with a maze of awkward corridors that decreases the
efficiency ratio and creates dead end corridors and other exiting problems.
All circulation paths are linear by their very nature, but there some common variations,
many of which are similar to the organizational patterns described in the previous
section. Since circulation is such an important aspect of successful completion of the
design portion of the examination, you should have a good mental picture of the
various circulation concepts and the advantages and disadvantages of each F1ve
basic patterns are shown in Figure 1.3, along with a hypothetical structural grid on
top of them to illustrate how some patterns are better suited than others to integration
of structure, adjacencies, and circulation system. Also remember that mechanical
services can easily follow a logical circulation system.
The linear, dumbbell layout is the simplest and one of the most flexible. Spaces are
laid out along a straight path that connects two major elements at the ends These
are usually the entrance to the building at one end and an exit at the other, although
the primary entrance can occur anywhere along the path. Spaces are laid out along
the spine as required. Various sizes of spaces can be easily accommodated by simply
extending their length perpendicular to the path, and if outdoor spaces are required
they are simply located as needed. The double-loaded corridor makes the building
very efficient.
Site constraints may restrict the length of the spine, but the concept can still be used
by bending the path at a right angle. With this layout it is very easy to establish a
regular, one-way structural grid perpendicular to the direction of the path. Simply
extending the length of a bay can accommodate larger spaces as the program requires.

389

entry

.I

D'o
D
.D!D!O!D!Di
1

I I

!DID!
!

exit

l!!

structural grid

two-Y structural grid

I
i
'

f\

,(a) dumbbell

--~---<=-==

entry

L_ ___,

entrv

(b) donut

(d) radial

(e)

Figure 1.3 Circulation Patterns


390

field

Conversely, eliminating a line or two of structure gives you the location for a very
large space and a long-span structural system. A two-way structural grid can also be
used with this layout.
Making a complete loop results in a doughnut configuration. Th1s is also very efficient
because it provides a double-loaded corridor and automatically makes a continuous
exit way. Building entries, exits, and stairways can be placed wherever needed. Spaces
that do not need exterior exposure can be placed in the middle. Various sizes of
spaces are easily accommodated on the perimeter because they can be expanded
outward just as wHh the dumbbell layout. A simple structural grid-can be coordinated
with the space layout as required. A doughnut pattern is good for square or nearly
square sites and for buildings that must be compact.
A grid system is often used tor very large buildings where access must be provided to
many internal spaces. For the small buildings that are usually found on the Board
Exam., a grid system is seldom appropriate because it results in a very inefficient
layout, with single spaces being surrounded by corridors.
A radial layout is oriented on one major space with paths extending from this central
area. The radial configuration generally requires a large site and is more appropriate
for large buildings or huilding complexes. Establishing a simple structural system is
more difficult with this pattern unless the circulation paths extend from the central
space at 90 degree angles. Each corridor must also have an exit at the end if it is
longer than 20 feet.
Finally, a field pattern consists of a network of paths with no strong direction. There
are major paths with secondary routes extending from or connecting the primary
routes. Orientation within a field pattern is difficult, as is integrating a logical structural
system.

c.

Service Spaces

In additon to the primary programmed spaces (the net assignable), secondary spaces
such as toilet and mechanical rooms must ~llso be planned from the start. They should
not be tacked on after the majority of the design work is done.
Depending on the type of mechanical system, mechanical rooms should be centrally
located to minimize lengths of duct runs and piping. This is especially true with all air
systems. Mechanical rooms usually need easy access to the outside for servicing as
well as provisions for fresh air intakes.
Toilet rooms should be located to satisfy adjacency requirements as stated in the
program or in an area that has easy access to the entire floor. Men's and women's
toilet rooms should be back to back to share a common plumbing wall and to be near
other plumbing in the building, if possible.
Service access must also be given careful consideration. This includes service drives
for trucks, the service entrance to the buidling, and access to mechanical rooms,
storage rooms, and other functional areas as required by the program. The Board
Exam. design problem usually has a requirement for some type of service access
that must be kept separate from the primary entrance and circulation paths.

391

D. Flexibility
Flexibility is a design consideration that involves a variety of concepts. Expansibility
is the capacity for a building to be enlarged or added onto easily as needs change or
growth oocurs. Convertibility allows an existing building or space to be changed to a
new use. For example, a school gymnasium may be converted into classroom space
in a second phase of construction. VersaUiity means the ability to use the same space
for a variety of uses in order to make maximum use of limited space.

If a program calls for flexibility, the designer must know or determine what type is
required Expansibility may suggest one type of organizational and structural system
while convertibility may require a completely different approach.

3. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL INFLUENCES


,
Developing physical guidelines that respond to the psychological needs of people is
one of the most difficult tasks in programming. Although there has been a great deal
of research in the field of environmental psychology, predicting human behavior and
designing spaces and buildings that enhance people's lives is an inexact process.
However, the architect must attempt to develop a realistic model of the people who
will be using the designed environment and the nature of their activities. This model
can then serve as the foundation on which to base many design decisions.
During programming, tbere must be a clear distinction made between the architect's
client and who the actual users will be. They are not always the same. For example,
a public housing agency may be the client for a subSidized housing complex, but the
actual users will be people who probably have an entirely different set of values and
lifestyles than those helping to develop the program. Environmental psychology is a
very complex subject, but the following concepts are some with which you should be
familiar.
A. Behavior Settings
A behavior setting is a useful concept for studying the effects of the environment on
human activity. A behavior setting can be thought of as a particular place. with definable
boundaries and objects within the place, in which a standing pattern of behavior
occurs at a particular time.
For example, a weekly board of directors meeting in a conference room can be
considered a behavior setting. The activity of the meeting follows certain procedures
(call to order, reading of minutes, discussions, and so forth). it occurs in the same
place (the conference room), and the room is arranged to assist the activity (chairs
are arranged around a table, audio-visual facilities are present, lighting is adequate).
The idea of a behavior setting is a useful concept for the architect becc.use it connects
the strictly behavioral aspects of human activity of interest to the psychologist with
the effects of the physical environment on people. Although a behavior setting is a
complex system of activities, human goals. administrative requirements, physical
objects, and cultural needs, it provides the architect with a definable unit of design.
By knowing the people involved and the activities taking place, programmatic concepts

can be developed that support the setting.

392

'

B. Territoriality
As mentioned earlier, territoriality is a fundamental aspect of human behavior. It refers
to the need to lay claim to the spaces we occupy and the things we own. Although
partially based on the biological imperative for protection, territoriality in humans is
more related to the needs for self-identity and freedom of choice. In addition to marking
out objects and larger spaces in the environment, people also protect their own
personal space, that imaginary bubble of distance that varies with different
circumstances.
Territoriality applies to groups as well as to individuals. A study club, school class, or
street gang can claim a physical territory as their own, which helps give both the
group and the individuals in the group an identity. Environments should allow people
to claim territory and make choices about where to be and what activities to engage
in.

c.

Personalization

One of the ways territoriality manifests itself is with the personalization of space.
Whether it happens in one's home, at the office desk, or in a waiting lounge, people
need to arrange the environment to reflect their presence and uniqueness. The most
successful designs allow this to take place without major adverse affects to other
people or to the environment as a whole. At home, people decorate their spaces the
way they want. At the office, people bring in personal objects, family photographs,
and pictures to make the space their own. In an airport lounge, people place coats
and suitcases around them, not only to stake out a temporary territory but also to

make the waiting time more personal and a little more comfortable.
Another way people personalize space is to modify the environment. If a given space
is not conducive to meeting the needs of the people using it, they can either modify
their behavior to adapt to the environment, change their relationship to the environment
(leave), or try to change the environment. The simple act of moving a chair to make
viewing a screen ea~ier is an example of modifying and personalizing a space. If the
chair is attached, the design is not as adaptable to the varying needs of the people
using the design.

D. Group Interaction
To a certain extent, the environment can either facilitate or hinder human interaction.
In most behavior settings, groups are predisposed to act in a particular way. If the
setting is not conducive to the activities, the people will try to modify the environment
or modify their behavior to make the activity work. In extreme cases, if the setting is
totally at odds with the activity, stress, anger, and other adverse reactions can occur.
Seating arrangement is one of the most common ways of facilitating group interaction.
Studies have shown that people will seat themselves at a table according to the
nature of their relationship with others around them. For intimate conversation, two
people will sit across the corner of a table or next to each other on a sofa. For more
formal situations or when people are competing, they will sit ace ross from one another.
Where social contact is not desired, two people will take chairs at opposite corners of
a table.

393

Round tables tend to foster more cooperation and equality among those seated around
them. Rectangular tables tend to make cooperation more difficult and establish the
P'JrSOn sitting at the end in a more superior position. Strangers do not like to share
the same sofa or park bench. Knowing the people and activities expected to be in a
place can assist the architect in making decisions. For example, individual study
carrels in a library will be more efficient .than large tables because the tables will
seldom be fully occupied by strangers.
In places where informal group interaction takes place, studies have shown that over
97 percent of groups comprise two to four people. Designing to accommodate these
sizes of groups makes more sense than anticipating groups of more people, although
a plan that allows for the possibility of very large groups while preferring small groups
would be the best combination. In most cases, providing a variety of spaces for
interaction is the best approach.

E. Status
The physical environment holds a great deal of symbolism that indicates status for
some human beings. Some people like colonial houses because such designs
symbolize to the occupants the idea of "home." Others prefer banks of classical design
with large lobbies, because that is what they think a bank should look like.
The environment can thus communicate status. In the United States, for example,
someone with a corner office has more status than someone with only one exterior
wall. Office size is also equated with. the status in many cultures. A house in a better
neighborhood provides a higher status than one in other neighborhoods. Status can
also operate at the scale of an entire building or complex. The client may want the
building to symbolize some quality of the organization and give him or her a physical
and psychological status in the community.
An architectural program should investigate the requirements or implications of status.
Sometimes clients may clearly state what status-related goals they want to achieve.
Other times, the programmer must raise the issue, explore it with the client, and
document the response as a programmatic concept.
4. BUDGETING AND SCHEDULING
Establishing a budget and setting up a time frame for design and construction are
two of the most important parts of programming because they influence many of the
design decisions to follow and can determine whether the project is even feasible.
During later stages of design, the initial budget and scheduling are simply refined as
more information becomes available.
Budgets may be set in several ways. For speculative or for profit projects, the owner
or developer works out a pro forma statement listing the expected income of the
project and the expected costs to build it. An estimated selling price of the developed
project or rent per square meter is calculated and balanced against all the various
costs, one of which is the construction price. In order to make the project economically
feasible, there will be a limit on the building costs. This becomes the budget within
which the architect must work.
Budgets are often established through public funding or legislation. In these cases,
the construction budget is often fixed without the architect's involvement and the

394

project must be designed and built for the fixed amount. Unfortunately, when public
officials estimate the cost to build a project, they sometimes neglect to include all
aspects of development, such as professional fees, furnishings. and other line items.
Budgets may also be set by the architect at the request or H1e owner anc:l.based on
the proposed project. This is the most realistic and accurate way to establish a
preliminary budget because it is based on a particular building type of a particular
size on a particular site (or sites if several are being reviewed for selection).
There are four basic variables in developing any construction budget: quantity, quality,
the budget itseH, and time. There is always a balance among these four elements
and changing one or more affects the others. For instance, if an owner needs a
certain amount of square meter built (quantity), needs the project built at a certain
time, and has a fixed budget amount, then the quality of construction will have to be
adjusted to meet the other constraints. In some cases, value engineering can be
performed during which individual system and materials are reviewed to see if the
same function can be accomplished in a less expensive way If time, quality. and the
budget are fixed, then the amount of space constructed (quantity) must be adjusted.

A. Cost Influences
There are many variables that affect project cost. The first thing to remember is
that construction cost is only one part of the total project development budget. Other
factors include such things as site acquisition, site development, and financing. Figure
1.4 lists most of the items commonly found in a project budget and a typical range of
percentage values based on construction cost. Of course, not all of these are a part
of every development, but they illustrate the things that must be considered.
Building cost is the money required to construct the building, including structure,
exterior cladding, finishes, and electrical and mechanical systems. Site development
costs are usualiy a separate item. They include such things as parking, drives, fences,
landscaping, exterior lighting, and sprinkler systems. If the development is a large
line item
A

c
D
E
F
G
H
I
J

example

site acquisition
building costs

1,100,000

site develof}ment
total construction cost
movable equipment
furnishings
total construction and
furnishings
professional services
inspection and testing
escalation estimate

contingency
financing costs
moving expenses

Total Project Budget

K
L

sq. M. times cost


per sq. M.
10% to 20% of B
B+C
5% to 10% of B

D+E+F
5% to 10% of D
2% to 10% of G
per year
5% to 10% of G

G + H through M

Figure 1.4 Project Budget Line Items

395

(assume)
6,800,000
(15%) 1,020,000
7,820,000
(5%) 340,000
200 000
8,360,000
(7%) 54 7,400
15,000
(10%) 836,000
(8%) 668,800
250,000
(assume) 90,000
fJ 11,867,200

one that affects the surrounding area, a developer may required to upgrade roads,
extend utility lines, and do other major off-site work as a condition of getting approval
from public agencies.
Movable equipment and furnishings include furniture, accessories, window coverings,
and major equipment necessary to put the facility into operation. These are often
listed as separate line items because the funding for them may come out of a separate
budget and because they may be supplied under separate contracts.
Professional services are architectural and engineering fees as well as costs for such
things as topographic surveys, soils tests, special consultants, appraisals and legal
fees, and the like. Inspection and testing involve money required for special on-site,
full-time inspection (if required), and testing of such things as concrete, steel, window
walls, and roofing.
Since construction takes a great deal of time, a factor for inflation should be included.
Generally, the present budget estimate is escalated to a time in the future at the
expected tnidpoint of construction. Although it is always difficult to predict the future,
using past cost indexes and inflation rates and applying an estimate to the expected
condition of the construction, the architect can usually make an educated guess.
A contingency should also be added to account for unforeseen changes by the client
and other conditions that add to the cost. For an early project budget, the percentage
of the contingency should be higher than contingencies applied to later budgets,
because there are more unknowns. Normally, from 5 to 10 percent should be included.
Financing includes not only the long-term interest paid on permanent financing but
also the immediate costs of loan origination fees, construction loan interest, and other
administrative costs. On long-term loans, the cost of financing can easily exceed all
of the original building and development costs. In many cases, long term interest,
called debt service, is not included in the project budget because it is an ongoing cost
to the owner, just as maintenance costs are.
Finally, many clients include moving costs in the development bud~et. For large
companies and other types of clients, the money required to physically relocate,
including changing stationery, installing telephones, and the like, can be a substantial
amount.
B. Methods of Budgeting
The costs described in the previous section and shown in Figure 1.4 represent a type
of budget done during programming or even prior to programming to test the feasibility
of a project. The numbers are very preliminary, often based on very sketchy information.
For example, the building cost may simply be an estimated cost per square meter
multiplied by the required number of gross square meter needed. The square footage
cost may be derived from similar buildings in the area, from the past experience, or
from commercially available cost books.
Budgeting, however, is an ongoing activity for the architect. At each stage of the
design process, there should be a revised budget, reflecting the decisions made to
that time. As shown in the example, pre-design budgets are usually based only on

396

area basis, but other units can also be used. For example, many companies have
rules of thumb for estimating based on items such as cost per hospitals bed, cost per
student, cost per hotel room, and similar functional units.
After the pre-programming budget, the architect usually begins to concentrate on the
building and site development costs. At this stage an average cost per square meter
may still be used, or the building may be divided into several functional parts and
different square meter prices assigned to each. A school, for example, may be classified
into classroom space, laboratory space, shop space, office space, and gymnasium
space, each having a different cost per square meter. This type of division can be
developed concurrently with the programming of the space requirements.
During schematic design, when more is known about the space requirements and
general configuration of the building and site, budgeting is based on major subsystems.
Historical cost information on each type of subsystem can be applied to the design.
At this point it is easier to see where the money is being used in the building. Design
decisions can then be based on studies of alternative systems. A typical subsystem
budget is shown in Figure 1.5.
Values for low-average and high quality construction for different building types can
be obtained from cost databases and published estimating manuals and applied to
the structure being budgeted. The peso amounts included in system cost budgets
usually include markup for contractor's overhead and profit and other construction
administrative costs.
During the later stages of schematic design and early stages of construction
documents, more detailed estimates are made. The procedure most often used is
the parameter method, which involves an expanded itemization of construction
quantities and assignment of unit costs to these quantities. For example, instead of
using one number for floor finishes, they are broken down into carpeting, vinyl tile,
wood strip flooring, unfinished concrete, and so forth. Using an estimated cost per
square meter, the cost of each type of flooring can be estimated based on the area.
Office 9uildings
average cost
subsystem

:til/sq. Mts.

foundations
floors on grade
superstructure

%of total

3.96
3.08
16.51

5.2
4.0
21.7

roofing
exterior walls
partitions

0.18
9.63
5.19

0.2
12.6
6.8

wall finishes
floor finishes
ceiling finishes

3.70
3.78
2.79

5.0.
3.7

conveying syste!'lls
specialties
fixed equipment

6.45
0.70
2.74

8.5
0.9
3.6 .

397

4.8

HVAC
plumbing
electrical

9.21
3.61
4.68
~76.21

12.1
4.6
6.1
100.0

Figure 1.5 System Cost Budget

With this type of budgeting, it is possible to evaluate the cost implications of each
building component and to make decisions concerning both quantity and quality in
order to meet the original budget estimate. If floor finishes are over budget, the architect
and the client can review the parameter estimate and decide, for example, that some
wood flooring must be replaced with less expensive carpeting. Similar decisions can
be made concerning any of the parameters in the budget.
Paramete.tline items are based on commonly used units that relate to the construction
element under study. For instance, a gypsum board partition would have an o.ssigned
cost per square foot of complete partition of a particular construction type rather than
separate costs for metal studs, gypsum board, screws, and finishing. There would be
different costs for single-layer gypsum board partitions, one-hour rated walls, twohour rated walls, and other partition types.
Two additional components of construction cost include the contractor's overhead
and profit. Overhead can be further divided into general overhead and project
overhead. General overhead is the cost to run a contracting business that involves
such business that involves such things as office rent, secretarial help, heat and
other recurring costs. Project overhead is the money it takes to complete a job that
does not include labor, materials, or equipment. Temporary offices, project telephones,
sanitary facilities, trash removal, insurance, permits, and temporary utilities are
examples of project overhead. The total overhead costs, including both general and
project expenses, can range from about 10 percent to 20 percent of the total costs for
labor, materials and equipment.
Profit is the last item a contractor adds onto an estimate and is listed as a percentage
of the total of labor, materials, equipment, and overhead. This is one of the most
highly variable parts of a budget. Profit depends on the type of project, its size, the
amount of risk involved, how much money the contractor wants to make, the general
market conditions, and, of course, whether or not the job is being bid.
During extremely difficult economic conditions, a contractor may cut the profit margin
to almost nothing simply to get the job and keep his or her work force employed. If the
contract is being negotiated with on'ly one contractor, the profit percentage will be
much higher. In most cases, however, profit will range from 5 to 20 percent of the
total cost of the job. Overall, overhead and profit can total about 15 to 40 percent of
construction cost.

C. Cost Information
One of the most difficult aspects of developing project budgets is obtaining
current, reliable prices for the kinds of construction units you are using. There is no
shortage of commercially produced cost books that are published yearly. These books
list costs in different ways; some are very detailed, giving the cost for labor and

398

materials for individual construction items, while others list parameter costs and
subsystem costs. The detailed price listings are of little use to architects because
they are too specific and make comparison of alternate systems difficult.
There are also computerized cost estimating services that only require you to provide
general information about the project, location, size, major materials, and so forth.
The computer service then applies its current price database to the information and
returns a cost budget to you. Many architects also work closely with general contractors
to develop a realistic budget.
You should remember, however, that commercially available cost information is the
average of many past construction projects from around the country. Local variations
and particular conditions may affect the value of their use on your project.
Two conditions that must be accounte.d for in developing any project budget are
geographical location and inflation. These variables can be adjusted by using cost
indexes that are published in a variety of sources, including the major architectural
and construction trade magazines. Using a base year as index 1000, for example, for
selected cities around the country, new indexes are developed each year that reflect
the increase in costs (both material and labor) that year.
The indexes can be used to apply costs from one part of the country to another and
to escalate past costs to the expected midpoint of construction of the project being
budgeted.
Example 1.2
The cost index in your city is 1257 and the cost index for another city in which
you are designing a building is 1308. If the expected construction cost is 1.250,000
based on prices for your city, what will be the expected cost in the other region?

Divide

th~

higher index by the lower index:


~

1257 = 1.041
Multiply this by the base cost:
1,250,000x 1.041 =1"1,300,716

D. Scheduling
There are two major parts of a project schedule: design time and construction time
The architect, of course, has control over the scheduling of design and production of
contract documents but has practically no control over construction. However, the
design professional must be able to estimate the entire project schedule so the best
course of action can be taken in order to meet the client's goals. For example, if the
client must move by a certain date and normal design and construction sequences
make this impossible, the architect may recommend a fast-track schedule or some
other approach to meet the deadline.
The design process normally consists of several clearly defined phases, each of
which must be Substantially finished and approved by the client before the next one
can begin. These are generally accepted in the profession and are referred to in the
United Architects' Phils. owner- architect agreement as well as oth.er documents.

399

Following programming, the first phase is schematic design. During this phase, the
general layout of the project is developed along with preliminary alternate studies for
materials and building systems. Once the direction of the project documented in
schematic design drawings is reviewed and approved by the client, the design
development phase starts. Here, the decisions made during the previous phase are
refined and developed in more detail. Preliminary or outline specifications are written
and a more detailed cost budget is made.
Construction documents are produced next, which include the final working drawings
as well as the full project manual and any bidding and contract documents required.
These are used for the bidding or negotiation phase, which includes obtaining bids
from several contractors and analyzing them or negotiating a contract with one
contractor.
The time required tor these phases is highly variable and depends on the following
factors:
the size and complexity of the project. Obviously, a 50,000-square-meter
hospital will take much longer to design than a 3,000-square-meter office
building.
the number of people working on the project. While adding more people to
the job can shorten the schedule, there is a point of diminishing returns.
Having too many people simply creates a management and coordination
problem, and tor some phases, only a few people are required, even for
very large jobs:
the abilities and design methodology of the project team. Younger, less experienced designers will usually require a little longer to do the same amount
of work as a more senior staff.
the type of client and the decision-making and approval processes of the
client. Large corporations or public agencies are likely to have a multi-layer
decision-making and approval process. The time required for getting the
necessary information or approval on one phase may take weeks or even
months, where a small, single-authority client might make the same decision in a matter of days.
The contruction schedule may be established by the contractor or construction
manager, but it must often be estimated by the architect during the programming
phase so the client has some idea of the total time required from project conception
to move-in. When the architect does this, it should be made very clear to the client
that it is only an estimate and the architect can in no way guarantee an early (or any)
estimate of the construction schedule.
Many variables can affect construction time, but most can be controlled in one way or
another. Others, like weather, are independent of anyone's control. Beyond the obvious
variables of size and complexity the following is a partial list of some of the more
common ones.
the management ability of the contractor to organize his or her own forces
as well as those of the subcontractors
material delivery times

400

the quality and completeness of the architect's drawings and specification


the weather
labor availability and labor disputes
new constructions or remodeling. For equal areas, remodeling generally
takes more time and coordination than new building.
site conditions. Constricted sites or those with subsurface problems usually
take more time to build on.
the architect. Some professionals ar more diligent than others in performing their duties during construction.
lender approvals
agency and governmental approvals
There are several methods that are used to schedule both design and construction.
The most common and easiest is the barchart. The various activities of the schedule
are listed along the vertical axis and a time line is extended along the horizontal axis.
Each activity is given a starting and finishing date, and overlaps are indicated by
having the bars for each activity overlap. Bar charts are simple to make and understand
and are suitable for small to midsize projects. However, they cannot show all the
sequences and dependencies of one activity on another.
Another scheduling tool often used is the critical path method (CPM) and the CPM
chart. TheCPM chart graphically depicts all of the tasks required to complete a project,
the sequence in which they must occur, their duration, the earliest or latest possible
starting time, and the earliest or latest possible finishing time. It also defines the
sequence of tasks that are critical or that must be started and finished exactly on time
if the total schedule is to be met. A CPM chart for a simple design project is shown in
Figure 1.6.
Each arrow in the yhart represents an activity with a beginning and end point
(represented by the numbered circles). Ne> activity can begin until all activities leading
into the circle have been completed. The dashed lines indicate dependency
relationships but not activities themselves, and thus they have no duration. They are
called dummies and are used to give each activity a unique beginning and ending
number and to allow establishment of dependency relationships without tying in nondependent activities.
The heavier line in the illustration shows the critical path, or the sequence of events
that must happen as scheduled if the deadline is to be met. The numbers under the
activities give the duration of the activity in days. Delaying the starting time of any of
these activities or increasing their duration will delay the wt1ole project. The noncritical activities can begin or finish earlier or later (within limits) without affecting the
final completion date. This variable time is called the float of each activity.
Scheduling isvitally important to any project because it can have a great influence on
cost. Generally, the longer the project takes the more it costs. This is due to the effect
of inflation on materials and labor as well as the additional construction interest and
the lost revenue a client can- suffer if the job is not completed in a timely manner. For

example, delayed completion of a retail store or office building delay.s the beginning
of rental income. In other cases, quick completion of a project is required to avoid

401

building during bad winter weather, when it costs more to build, -or to meet some
other fixed date set by the client's needs.
Besides efficient scheduling, construction time can be compressed with fast-track
scheduling. This method overlaps the design and construction phases of a project.
Ordering of long lead materials and equipment can occur and work on the site and
foundations can begin before all the details of the building are completely worked
out. With fast-track scheduling, separate contracts are established so each major
system can be bid and awarded by itself to avoid delaying other construction.
AHhough the fast-track method requires close coordination between the architect,
contractor, subcontractors, owner, and others, it is possible to construct a high-quality
building in 10 to 30 percent less time than with a conventional construction contract.

5.

COD~S

AND REGULATIONS

A comp(ete program for a building project will include the various legal restrictions
that apply to a project. Two of the most common are zoning ordinances and building
codes. Zoning is discussed. Building code requirements, including provisions for
making buildings accessible to the physically disabled, are reviewed. In addition to
zoning regulations, other land development regulations may apply. Such regulations
as deed restrictions and easements are also discussed in other Chapters.

r\.

review site alternatMis

refine

with 1client

complete prefiminary
code analysis

/continue

~
,' analyze
develop site planning
alternatives
site (:;\
4
8
4

study energy I
conservation ,
i lications I

develop building ,'


work~
configuration ' configuration
alternatives{.;\ alternatiVes

)---~--~

3 . 2
',

;
,.

finalize
design

complete
, presentation

make
presentation

~Qdlawifl!E (.;;\.______._{.";;\

~~~~

'I

5 .i0l.3 1
11

4
prepare cost
budget

~tructural
framing alterna!Nes

critical path time: 30 days

(Numbers in circles are beginning and ending points.


Numbers between circles indicate days.)

Figure 1.6 CPM Schedule

Other regulatory agency requirements that may be in force. in addition to zoning


ordinances and building codes, include special rules of the local fire department. fire
zones set by the local municipality, and rules of government agencies like the Housing

402

and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLRB) and the Environmental Protection Agency.
Additional regulations may include local health and hospital department requirements
that spell out needs for restaurants and hospitals. Local and state energy conservation
regulations may also be in force.
6. THE PROGRAMMING PROCESS
Programming is an attempt to define the problem and establish all the guidelines and
needs on which the design process can be based. It is a time of analysis of all aspects
of the problem and a distillation of the problem's complexity into a few clear problem
statements.
One popular programming method uses a five-step process in relationship to four
major considerations. It is described in Problem Seeking by William Pefia (AlA Press,
1987). The process involves establishing goals, collecting and analyzing facts.
uncovering and testing concepts, determining needs, and stating the problem. All of
these steps include the considerations of form, function, economy, and time.

A. Establishing Goals
Goals indicate what the client wants to achieve and why. They are important to identify
because they establish the direction of programmatic concepts that ultimately suggest
the physical means of achieving the goals. It is not enough to simply list the types of
spaces and required square footages the client needs; the client is trying to reach
some objective with those spaces and square footages. For example, a goal for a
school administration might be to increase the daily informal interaction between
students and teachers.

B. Collecting Facts
Facts describe the ex,isting conditions and requirements of the problem. Facts include
such things as the number of people to be accommodated, the site conditions, space
adjacency needs, user characteristics, equipment to be housed, expected growth
rate, money available for construction, building code requirements, and climate facts.
There is always a large number of facts; part of the programmer's task is not only to
collect facts but to organize them as well so they are usefuL
C. Uncovering Concepts
The programming process should develop abstract ideas that are functional solutions
to the client's problems without defining the physical means that should be used to
achieve them. These are programmatic concepts and discussed earlier in this chapter.
They are the basis for later design concepts. To use the previous example described
under goals, a programmatic concept concerning increasing the daily interaction
between students and teachers might be to provide common spaces for mixed flow
in circulation patterns. One possible design concept in response to this could be to
provide a central court through which all circulation paths pass.

403

D. Determining Needs
This step of the programming process balances the desires of the client against the
available budget or establishes a budget based on the defined goals and needs. It is
during this step that wants have to be separated from needs. Most clients want more
than they can afford, so clear statements of true needs at this early stage of the
process can help avoid problems later. At this stage, one or more of the four elements
of cost (quantity, quality, budget, and time) may have to be adjusted to balance needs
against available resources.
E. Stating the Problem
The previous four steps are a prelude to succinctly stating the essence of the problem
in just a few statements. The problem statements are the bridge between programming
and the d~sign process. They are statements the client and programmer agree
describe the most important aspects of the problem and serve as the basis for design
and as design criteria by which the solution can be evaluated. There should be a
minimum of four problem statements, one for each of the major considerations of
form, function, economy, ~nd time.
F. Four Major Considerations During Programming

The four major considerations of any design problem are form, function, economy,
and time. Form relatesto the site, the physical and psychologicai environment of the
building, and the quality of construction. Function relates to the people and activities
of the space or building and their relationships. Economy concerns money: the initial
cost of the facility, operating costs, and life cycle costs. Finally, time describes the
ideas of past, present, and future as they affect the other three considerations. For
example. the required schedule for construction is often a time consideration, as is
the need for expansibility in the future.
7. SAMPLE QUESTIONS
1. The statement "develop a multilevel system of pedestrian
circulation" is an example of:
A. a need

C. a goal

B. a programmatic concept

D. a design concept

2. The developer of a retail shopping complex has estimated


through an economic analysis that he can afford to build up
to 8,500 square meter of gross building area. If a central,
enclosed pedestrian mall is planned to take up about 6 percent of the area and the efficiency ratio is estimated to be 75
percent, about how much net rentable area wili be available?
A. 6,000 &quare meter

C. 67,600 square meter

B. 6,370 square meter

D. 10,650 square meter

3. A published cost index indicates construction in city A to be


1440 and construction in city B to be 1517. If the same index
404

0000

0000

0000

suggests that inflation will increase by 5 percent by the midpoint of construction and the project is now budgeted to cost
P1 ,500,000 in city A, what should be budgeted for city B?

.A.

P1 ,495,000.00

C. P1 ,659,000.00

B. P1 ,650,000.00

D. P1,715,000.00

4. Contractor's overhead and profit typically amount to what


percentage of construction cost?

A 5% to 20%

C. 15% to 30%

B. 10% to 20%

D. 15% to 40%

0000

Questions 5 through 7 are based on the following programming situation.


A small medical clinic is being planned for a suburban location on an open, level site.
It is to include services of general practice, obstetrics/famiiy planning, test1ng and
laboratories, and dental offices, along with medical offices and an administration area
comprising about 7,000 net square meter of space. Access to the building is primarily
by automobile.
The group developing .the project want the facility to be a comfortable, friendly place
that minimizes the anxiety of a visit to the doctor and that makes it as easy as possible
to get around. They expect the venture to be successful and each department to
grow as the catchment area grows.
5. In order to meet the goals of the client, which of the following
design responses would not be appropriate?
A. Base the size of waiting rooms on a behavior setting
where establishing territory should be encouraged.

B C

0000

B. Group waiting areas and the reception area together to


encourage social interaction.
C. Develop a different color scherme for each of the separate services.
D. Arrange individual chair seating against walls and other
objects so it faces room entries
6. Which of the following organizational concepts would probably be most appropriate for this facility?
A. grid

C. central

B. axial

D. radial

7. Which of the following aspects of flexibility related to expected


growth of the facility is most important in developing the structural framing concept?
A. convertibility

C. expansibility

B. versatility

D. all of the above

405

A B C D

0000
A

0000

8. A clienl discovers shortly after hiring the architect for prograrnrt*lg and design services that they must move out of
their existing faclily sooner than expected. If the new schedule requ.-es that construction and move-in be completed in
18 rilonlhs instead of the original 21 months, what recommendation from the architect is the most feasible?

0000

A. Consider fast-track construction.

B. Use CPU scheduling and use a negotiated contract


rather than bidding.

C. Assign more staff to programming and design and work


overtime to get construction started earlier.
D. Suggest that the client streamline its decision-making
process and hire a construction manager.

9. Whictt element of project cost does the architect typically


have' least control over?

A. the budget for escalation


B. percentage of site work relative to building costs

0000

C. professional fees and consultant services


D. financing costs

10. A school district is planning a new elementary school to replace an outdatedfacility. A preliminary budget made during
programming has shown that" the available funds set ~side
for the school have been exceeded by 8 percent. What should
the architect do?
I. Suggest that additional funds from other school building projects be used.

II. Review the design from a value engineering standpoint for approval by the client to see if costs can be
reduced without sacrificing quality.
Ill. Discuss with the client the possibility of reducing the
required area.

IV. Modify the statement of need concerning the desired


level of finish and construction quality on non-critical
portions of the facility after consultation with the client.
V. Propose that building be postponed for a school term
until more money can be allocated.
A. V then IV

C. II then Ill

B. Ill then IV

D. IV then I

406

0000

AREA ''C''
PART II ARCHITECTURAL
DESIGN

AREA "C"

PART II

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN portion of the Board examination is the most difficult


parts of the entire examination. The candidate must synthesize a large amount of
information into a comprehensive design solution ~nd do it under severe time contraints
say, in 10 hours, in what becomes, at best, an arduous test of endurance.
Many candidates fail, not because they cannot solve the problem but because they
let it get the best of them. They begin to make the wrong decisions and choices at the
wrong tim[. spend too much time on one part of the problem. Then panic and run
short on time, and end up either not solving the problem or forgetting to include
critical elements.
The key elements of success are to budget your time, stick with your scheduled
procedure of solution.
The exa~ination demands that the building aspects: Function, life/safety code
compliance, structure, mechanical systems, lighting, and so forth. Although it does
ask that the building be appropriate for human occupancy in terms of scale, proportion,
relationship to its surroundings, use of materials, and other design parameters, it
does not demand an award winner.
Your EMPHASIS, therefore, should be on solving the stated problem in ten (10) or
twelve (12) hours, as required, COMPLETELY (plans, all floors, sections, elevators,
IQt and site plan, and an impressive perspective) with reasonable design decisions.
I

1. HOW TO SOLVE THE 10 OR 12-HOUR DESIGN PROBLI;M

A. Strategies for Time Management (8:00- 8:15)


First task should be to quickly read the problem statement and set up your
own timetable. Do NOT read the program in detail the first time through;
simply get a feeling for the problem, where major difficulties might be, and
how much time you should allow for the final drafting of the solution.
As a startmg point, the following TIMETABLE might prove useful.
Step 1:

Make a quick overview of the ..... , ........ 15 minutes (8:00- 8:15)


problem statement and a
determination of your own timetable

Step 2:

Read the examination information.....


booklet and translate the written
data into a programming base sheet

408

45 minutes (8:15- 900)

Step 3:

Translate the programmed spaces ........ 30 minutes (9:00- 9:30)


into graphic or and calculate the
maximum allowable gross area

Step 4:

Check areas and functions .................... 15 minutes (9:30- 9:45)


for each floor

Step 5:

Begin adjacency/ ................................. 90 minutes (9:45- 11 :15)


circulation diagrams

Step 6:

Study the structural system ............... 30 minutes ( 11 :15 - 11 :45)

Step 7:

Study the mechanical/ ....................... 15 minutes (11 :45- 12:00)


plumbing systems

Step 8:

Design the development including .... 120 rninutes (12:00- 2:00)


plan, section and elevations

LUNCH BREAK .................................................... 30 minutes (2:00- 2:30)


Step 9:

Make the FINAL drawings ..................... 300 minutes (5 hours)


a. perspective first 3 hrs.
b final drawings 2 hrs. ...................

Step 10: Make a final check................


TOTAL TIME:........................................ .... ....
Note:

. . (2 30 -'7:30)
.. 30 minutes (7 30-8:00)
. 12 hours

If the total time required is only ten (1 0) hours. then readjust the
allotted minutes.

Tip #1: a) If the project is a multi-storey building, make your final footprint
or the first floor plan, then just trace it for the upper floors.
b) to make the elevations or sections, use your triangle and just
slide it and make vertical lines through the walls, windows so
as to save time instead of using again your scale.
c) Remember you should proceed from "within" to "without"
meaning from the circulation or plan to the exterior looks.
d) Then proceed from "General" to "Particular" meaning, when
making a perspective, first form the general outline before you
even make any detail.
e) If the perspective comes out alright, from there, you can now
translate it to the elevations, the windows, doors. balconies,
porte-cochere, entrance, roofing shape, and others.
f)

You may want to put in as a good design some details you have
researched previously to enhance your design.

409

B. Read Information Booklet and Create a Programming Base Sheet

(8:15- 9:00)
This is a process of reading and SIMULTANEOUSLY translating the written
word into graphic form as much as possible.
To do this, put a piece of paper over the first level site plan and schematically
mark requirements and facts as given by the program as you read. These
are conditions that might affect the overall conceptual siting of the building
and the plan of the major elements. This will become the "programming
base sheet."
Some of the conditions that should be noted include:
views
probable (or required) entrance locations
any required pedestrian access to adjacent sites or buildings
service access
any special circulation requirements: for example, separation of public
and private corridors or division of areas for security purposes.
any unusual or apparently important topographic or landscape conditions.
onentation requtred for energy conservation reasons
location of utiliti\s. drainage. or any other servtce that rnay d1Ua1e tne
location ot building elements
Tip #2

The candidate must know how to plot the shape of the lot given
from the title or from the technical descnptiops g1ven as to the
start from pt. 1 to pt. 2 say (N-54 o 48'08'"E) 1~ 80 M. thence (N650-08'42"W) 10.38M and so on.

As you read the program you should also make quick bubble diagrams of
critical adjacency relationships. Place these on the same sheet of tracing
paper as your pfan diagram of other program requirements. but off to the
side so they do not interfere with your later schematic planning. Later, you
can work on smaller-scale relationships such as the adjacency of two office
within a \larger office suite or the position of a steam room near a shower
room.

410

C. DEVELOP GRAPHIC NOTES OF PROGRAMMED SPACES

(9:00- 9:30)
In orderto give yourself a strong, graphic mental image of numbers, translate
the individual programmed spaces into graphic squares or rectangles at
the same scale the final drawings roost be. Take graph paper (instead of
scale) to make this job easier. Use consistent dimensional increments such
as 1.50 M. This will save your time and help you see spatial relationships
between functional groupings more easily. (Example: is squares or
rectangles, assume lounge dining - 200 sq. M, service are 50 sq. M,
classrooms 100 sq. M, toilet M & W 50 sq. M and so on.)
Next, group individual spaces as required and indicated by the program
into their most probable, logical shape. For example, several offices that
make up an administrative suite might be grouped into a rectangle two offices
deep by whatever length is required too yield the programmed area {where
the plan is scheme comes in).
If you are grouping several small spaces, be sure to add some extra area
(15 to 20 percent) for circulation so that when you begin detailed planning
of the functional group, you do not have to use programmed space from net
assignable areas to make up for corridors.

D. CHECK AREAS (9:30 - 9:45)

Add up net assignable square meter footage if included in the program


sheet. Divide by an efficiency factor to get gross square meter allowed. Use
this to check yourself once you get your first layout. If no efficiency factor is
given in the program, use 25% (0.25).
* note - sometimes the prograr'n states that the budget is say, P20 million
only. You have to know the current price or cost per square meter during the
year say at P16,000.00 per sq. M so you have at least 1.250 sq. M to work
on (as of year 2001).

Next, compare square meter required for each floor. If they are divergent,

you know you have to have some setbacks or make other provisions. Be
sure to consider any two-storey spaces, atrium, mezzanines, and so forth
that may balance or unbalance the total square meter requirements on each
floor.
The program will probably state what functions are to be located on each
floor. If not, study the adjacency requirements, entrances, and other external
access requirements and balance the programmed square meters to
approximately even out each floor area.

411

E. DEVELOP ADJACENCY DIAGRAMS (9:45- 11 :15)


Adjacency diagrams should include the entire buildinq, not just the individual
bubble diagrams you sketched as visual as you read through the program.
Instead of using amorphous, unsealed diagrams, use the square or
rectangular blocks of space you have developed as your bubbles.
Begin adjacency diagrams using the larger, functional groupings developed
earlier. Sketch the adjacency diagrams on a separate sheet of tracing paper,
over the programming base sheet diagram you developed while you were
reading the program. Both of these sheets of tracing paper should be placed
over the exam pad provided to you. The diagram serves as a constant
reminder of critical program requirements while you do your sketching.
As you study and layout possible adjacencies. make an overall
CIRCULATION SCHEME one of your primary concerns, an integral part of
y6ur early planning, because it has so much learning on critical portions of
the test. The circulation scheme:
gives overall organization to the building, the spaces and the required
agencies
determines existing and handicapped access
provides a. logical place to separate long-span spaces from smaller
spaces and can make you structural solution easier
One of the common mistakes candidates make is to work on adjacencies
and locations of spaces and then string them together with a resulting maze
of corridors, stairways and lobbies. If your corridor has more than one change
in direction, you may need to replan.
Two common circulation patterns will work with the type and scale of problem
given in the exam.
The linear, (one straight line) double loaded corridor with rooms on its left
and right and the AXIAL, (two corridors meeting at the center like a cross)
with rooms on all the corridors side.
The program will directly state or snongly imply many conditions for
conceptual layout of the plans. These should be on your programming base
sheet. ~or example, a requirement for service from an alley will immediately
locate the service entrance, loading dock, and spaces that need easy service;
desired views will suggest' the location of prime offices, lounges, eating
areas, and other rooms (handicapped parking should be near the entrances,
and so forth).
After you have two or three schematic alternatives, take a QUICK BREAK
and then review them with your own mini-critique. Check your solutions
against the program requirements, possible problems with or opportunities
for structural and mechani~af layout, efficiency, and so forth. At this point
you should be able ~o ~elect an alternative that provides a good direction
for more detailed development. You may find that you want to combine the

best features of t~o or more approaches.

412

F. STUDY STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS (11 :15- 11 :45)


At some point in the early stages of conceptual design, you should begin to
consider a structural system. Trying to apply structure late in the test, after
you have locked yourself into a plan, will only cause problems and t;>e obvious
to the examiners. In the best case it will be and look awkward; in the worst
case, it will result in columns in the middle of spaces. unreasonable spans.
and grading marks against you.
Keep your structure si111>le. The graders will not be looking for innovative
structural concepts, just for your understanding of how to integrate structure
into your building.
Unless the program states differently, use a post-and-beam system in steel
with exterior bearing watts. If the steel needs to be fire proofs, that is easy to
show on the section drawing.
As you layout the programmed spaces, you should begin to see patterns of
dimensions that can have implications for a structural bay or rigid size while
still accommodating different-sized rooms. You will probably have to adjust
your preliminary room layout somewhat to work with a structural bay size
that makes sense. Once again, remain mentally flexible. A structural bay
size does not have to be uniform throughout- just reasonable and arranged
so you do not have any impossible spans or columns in the middle rooms
I

_There are may ways to logically organize a combination of small spans and
large spans so that the solution works structurally, functionally, and
aesthetically. Large spaces with long-span structure and higher ceiling
heights may be sized to work within two smaller bay sizes or be separated
from the small-span structural system with circulation system or in a separate
building wiring.
Before the test you may want to decide on two or three ppssible structural
grids, incltJding needed dept~s of structural members and thickness of
bearing walls. Once you read the problem statements, you may be able to
select one of these grids and draw it right away as a framework for any
subsequent planning.

G. STUDY MECHANICAL AND PLUMBING SYSTEMS (11 :45- 12:00)


After you consider possible structural systems and grid sizes with your
preliminary block adjacency diagrams, quickly review how the mechanical
system will layout. This simply means locating the mechanical room and
horizontal and vertical spaces for ductwork\Depending on the system stated
in the program or selected by you, there may be additional constraints such
as outside air or social exhaust needs. If no mechanical system is specifically
stated in the progr~m. a variable air volume system usually works.

413

In most cases. providing space for ductwork is not a great problem because
of the sizes is not a great problem because of the size of the building in the
test problem. Suspended ceilings usually provide enough flexibility for
mechanical services as long as you allow enough room bek>w the bottom of
the struclure and show trims in the sections drawing.

At this~. also quickly review provisions for plumbing. At least be placing


toilet rooms back to back, stacking them on each floor, and k>cating other
plunDng services nearby. AlsO check that other special plumbing conditions
- such as unreasonably long supply or drainage lines that may have to
pass through rooms above - do not present obvious problems.

H. JJEGIN DETAILED DESIGN (12:00- 2:00)

Once you have selected a workable schematic design from your alternatives
and know you have a struetural grid that works, you can begin more
DETAILED DESIGN. Before proceeding, be sure that you have satisfied
program requirements that affect the overall siting and planning of the
building. You should be sure all major life/safety considerations are satisfied.
These include such things as the number of exits. avoiding dead-end
conidors, andrequired distances to exits often, the same requirements is
stated in the program more than once: first in the general project statements
and again in the detailed program requirements. It is wise to give these
highest priority. The next priority should go to requirements specifically stated
in the program at least once. Finally, here are priorities that may simply be
ifl1>1ied by the program or considered good design practice. For example, if
you had to decide between an arrangements to improve energy efficiency
or one to satiSfy your concern for appearance, you would be wise to choose
energy efficiency.
At this point, take a short break so you can come back to be test refreshed
and able to concentrate on more detailed design.
As you begin detailed development of your schematic plan you will have a
very good idea of major elements, organization of the building, siting, major
circulation paths, exiting, structure, and provisions tor the mechanical system.
It should be fairly easy to make minor adjustments to fine tune adjacencies.
modify dimensions of spaces to fit within the structural grid, layout toilet
rooms. property orient exits and stairways, located doorways, and satisfy
the more detailed program requirements.
At this time, you should also be k>oking at the shapes and proportion of
individual rooms to make sure they make sense and allow tor reasonable
furniture arrangements and circulation within the room. ( Exa111>le one sketch
may show a square 40 sq. M room that can accommodate only one secretary
and a ~I space for waiting area, while the same 40 sq. M but rectangular
in shape may accommodate two secretaries and a bigger space for waiting
area.)

414

Before you proceed too far into detailed development of the FL()(lR PLAN
begin a BUILDING SECTION. You may not know at this time exactly what
the best location for the section cut wiH be, but make you best estimate.
Beginning a section drawing at this time will help get out of the twodimensional floor plan mentality and force your attention on the THIRD
DIMENSION. You should also do this with elevations. You may discover
things by working on the elevations and section that wil influence how you
develop your floor plans. It is better to find this out early than to wait. Until
the last minute to complete the elevations when it. is too late to make
corrections.

I.. CHECK. COMPLETE FINAL DRAWINGS (2:00- 2:30)


Once you have finished development of the floor plans and worked on the
elevations and sections enough to know everything works.

"TAKE A LUNCH BREAK AND REST" - 30 minutes


When you come back, go through a final checklist following the same criteria
the juror use: Check the program requirements, look at design logic, verify
that building codes and exiting have been satisfied. and review technical
issues of life/safety, structure, mechanical systems, energy conservation,
and use of materials. Also check for conflicts such as ducts going through
rooms, exit door 1.20 M above grades level, and the like.
If everything is satisfactory, you are ready to begin your FINAL DRAWINGS.
You should have decided on a graphic technique before coming to the test
and solved the majority of problems during your design development, so
this part should go smoothly. Any changes you make at this point will be
minor, such as moving a door way slightly or switching two adjacent spaces
of similar size.

Try to leave yourseH 30 minutes to one hour of time at the end for a FINAL
CHECK. Of course, it will be too late at this time to make any major revisions,
but you can check for minor omissions and incomplete graphics. If you find
you have left out any indication of a required sprinkler system. for example,
you can at least show a portion of it on the section and make a note on the
drawing. This extra time at the end of the test also allows for making additional
explanatory notes to clarify your design.

415

CHECKLIST FOR YOUR DESIGN SOLUTION


(Part of lunch break)

One of your primary checklist should be the problem statement itself. When
you read through the program and problem statement. underline individual
words, phrases. or sentences that you can identify as having a single design
consequence. Later, as you work through your solution; use these underlined
items as checklist and make sure you have responded to every one.
Omission
any one will count against you, and omission of particularly
important requirements will be enough to fail you.

of

1. PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS
Q solution contains all the required spaces
-~ required spaces contain the correct amount of square meters; solution

contains no less than the program requirements but may contain slightly
more

0 efficiency ratio (net-to-gross) not exceeded


Q required adjacencies satisfied

':l exterior adjacencies satisfied: service, pedestrian access, entries. and


so forth
Q correct shapes and proportions of spaces for the intended function; rea-

sonable allowances made for furniture


Q furniture shown if required by problem statement

Q all desirable views considered

0 sight lines into toilet rooms considered


0 relationship to adjacent buildings appropriate in terms of scale. materials and access

fife/safety items addressed

2. DESIGN LOGIC
0 circulation efficient. direct. and properly sized

:..J no tight circulation spaces; consideration of handicapped access


..J direct parking - to building access
:...J direct access for handicapped from parking to entrance

CJ elevator easily accessible to all users and opens in correct direction on


all floors

416

0 building entrance or exit avoided through stair vestibules

building zoned as required by program

o
o
o

incompatible traffic types separated


awkward crossing paths avoided
service entrances and access separate from incompatible functions and
leading directly to areas they serve

0 building security shown and noted as required by program


0 topography utilized appropriately
0 all major spaces with exterior exposure if appropriate

3. CODE COMPUANCE
0 two exits from each floor remotely located from each other; monumental
stairs may not count as required exit
0 stairs located within minimum and maximum distances from each other
0 second-level egress exiting directly to outside as required by program
statement

all required exit doors swinging in the direction of travel and not decreasing required corridor width when open

0 widths of exit appropriate; minimum of 1.10 Moras required by program

statement

u at least' two exits from assf}mbly spaces remotely located from each
other
0 maximum travel distances from doors to exit: 15 meters (20 meters in
sprinklered buildings) or as indicated in the program

,:.J maximum 28 em. riser height; 28.50 em. minimum tread width
D fire separation walls and ceiling/floor assembly indicated on plan and
section
0 building accessible by the physically disabled, entrance ramp, corridor
widths, vestibule sizes, toilet rooms, and all parts of the building
0 ramps checked for maximum allowable slope 1:12
0 dead-enEt corridors avoided or limited to 6.00 M
0 guard rails and handrails shown and dimensioned if required

417

4. TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS
0 framing clearly shown and noted: beams, bearing walls. columns, floor
and roof deck
0 footings and roundations shown under all walls, columns. and elevator
shafts both in section and elevations

i.J footings stepped if sloping site

footings at correct bearing

:.J slab on grade construction shown and noted


i.J bearing walls thick enough for loads and unsupported height

w all structural elements accurately drawn to scale


:.J mechanical room and ductwork routing shown, heating may need to be
separate from air conditioning
i.:J energy conservation measures shown and noted as appropriate building orientation, building form, insulation, shading. thermal mass. landscaping, and glazing types

glass type noted in response to solar control and other needs

:J appropriate solar control on south and west


;.:.. natural lighting utilized

.J artificial lighting indicated and described


..1 toilet rooms stacked and other plumbing grouped as appropriate; toilet

room ventilation noted

'..! sprinklers indicated if required by program


.J acoustical control techniques indicated and noted if required by programmed space

.:J all major materials indicated and noted


..1 materials use consistent. cost effective, appropriate for function. and

compatible with adjacent buildings as required by program


..1 roof slope and drains indicated on section

:.J fenestrations thought out in terms of view, energy conservation, exterior


design and compatibility with adjacent buildings
..1 foundation and hydraulic shaft indicated under elevator

_. exterior spot elevations checked on site plan, especially near building,


drainage slopes. handicapped ramps. and other areas
:... natural features such as trees, rock outcropping, and water used to enhance design
418

5. GENERAL TIPS

Do not read anything into the program requirements.

0 Use only rectangular building shapes and structural system.


Q Make exterior design compatible with the surrounding buildings and

neighborhood.
0 Make building spaces and exterior compatible with the human scale.
0 Be sure that composition, proportion, texture, materials, and form are
appropriate to the building type and surrounding area
0 Make elevations on first-floor site plan and second-floor plan, exterior
elevations, and section correspond to each other

J. GRAPHIC PRESENTATION (2:30- 7:30)


A perfect solution may fail if the required drawings are NOT complete. You
may have a finished perspective but no elevations and sections, or you
may have a complete plan and elevations but incomplete, unsatisfactory
perspective with no sections.
You have then to complete a 1) combination site plan and first-floor plan,
second-floor plan, 2) two elevations, and 3) a building section, and 4) a
Rresentable perspective compatible with the elevations.
Your drawings must be easy to read. Since the required number of drawings
with the stated in the problem, they should all be rendered to approximately
the same level of detail. Do npt spend all your time on three and leave
yourself only 30 minutes for the last one. You will not finish and not pass.
It is better to do good line drawings of all the required sketches along with
the necessary notes sb you are sure the problem is solved, and then go
back and darken walls and add material indications, shadows, entourage,
and other graphic elements that make your drawings read better. If you run
short of time, at least you will have the absolute minimum required
submission.
Review the following suggestions for the three types of drawings required.

A. FLOOR PLANS
Use double lines for walls and single lines for windows, and poche the
walls in with solid black. (This is done near the end of the exam period
when you know changes are not going to be made.)
Show door swings with a one-quarter circle arc and _indicate the
door itself with a single line.

419

Draw overhangs with dashed lines.


Indicate all built-in items as well as plumbing fixtures. It is especially
important to show the detailed layout of the toilet rooms.
Show stairways with individual steps drawn in and an arroW indicating direction up or down.
Draw all required furniture and furniture necessary to explain your
design or show a workable plan, using a single line.
Label all rooms and spaces with the names exactly as given in the
program.
Indicate the location of your section cut with a line through the building and an arrow pointing in the direction of the cut.
Indicate drainage away from the building with arrows and a note.
Use a simple paving pattern to indicate circulation both inside and
outside the building. Use quick, simple indications for tress, shrubs,
and groundcover.
When drawing the second-floor plan and open volumes of high
spaces below, label them "open to below".
B. ELEVATIONS
Show a design that incorporates aesthetic appeal, simple use of
materials, and massing of forms that indicate you know how to integrate
the internal functions of a building with the structure, fenestration pattern,
and human scale. Keep the elevations simple; try not to use more than
two exterior materials in addition to glazing. Use simple material
indications that are easy an,d quick to draw. Brick can be shown with
closely spaced horizontal lines, stucco, stone, and precast concrete
with stipple marks.
Draw a heavy profile line around the perimeter of the elevation, and
use varying line weights to indicate those portions of the elevation that
are closest to the viewer- heaviest lines close and thinner lines farther
away. The base line should be the heaviest and must correspond to the
contour lines on the first-floor plan. Show the foundations and floor and
ceiling levets with dashed lines.
Use a few scale figures and indicate landscaping if appropriate and if it
corresponds to your site plan. However, the indications and other
landscaping must not obscure the other elements of your design.
Use shade shadowing if time allows this a good way to provide contrast
to the elevations and to indicate overhangs and the form of the building
more distinctly.

420

I
'I

C. SECTION
Take the section cut through your buUding where most three-dimensional information will be shown. This includes two-storey spaces,
changes in topography or levels of the building, areas for mechanical equipment, structure, and typical wall sections.
PoeM the cut sections of walis and foundations with solid black.
Indicate ceiling heights and finish elevations of both first and second floors.
Show the existing grade with a dashed line and the new grade at
perimeter walls.
Include a few scale figures.
Clearly note the mechanical system, structural system, fire rating of
walls, roof system and roof drainage, ceiling finish, representative
wall finishes, and footing depth.
D. DRAFTING TECHNIQUES AND FINAL CHECKS (7:30- 8:00)

Before you take the test you should decide on the type of drafting
techniques you will use. You can complete the sketches with either freehand or hard-line methods; use the one you feel most comfortable with
and the one that is fastest for you. Use simple block lettering on all the
drawings and do not overdraft.
Provide just enough to clearly present all the required information. In
the half hour so you should leave at the end of the test for final checking
make sure you have included everything specifically required by the
problem statement. If you discover something is missing for your
drawings and you do not have time to make changes, at least a note on
the drawing to show the examiners you did not forget it.

AREA ''C''
PART Ill

SITE
PLANNING

AREA "C"

PART Ill

A. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS RELATED TO TOPOGRAPHY

A thorough knowledge of topography, its representation with contour lines, and


how contours are modified to suit the program requirements i5 mandatory for a
successful solution of the site design problem.
As you work through the problem, keep the following points in mind.
o

Although it is unlikely that you will have to locate a building on a site in this
portion of the exam, remember that it is better to ORIENT buildings with
their length parallel to the contour lines. This makes modifying the contours
easier and makes excavating and foundation work less expensive than an
orientation perpendicular to the contour lines.
Driveways and roads are best run parallel to if little or no change in elevation
is required. If a grade change is necessary, run the road at a slight angle to
the existing contours and modify the road contour to provide for drainage.

Roads should be laid out perpendicular to contour lines only if the resulting
grade does not exceed recommended limits - usually 8 percent but a more
gentle slope is preferred. Calculate the slope after grade have been changed to
verify that you are within recommended limits.
o

Modify contours to BALANCE cut and fill. During the site exam you do not
have to do detailed calculations, but it should appear that you are
accomplishing this. One simple method is to draw as many new contour
lines on the "FILL" side of existing contour lines as you do on the "CUT"
side at approximately the same distance from the existing lines.

----- ---

78

''
CONTOUR MODIFICATIONS FOR ROADS

423

' '

-------------..........

-------------

----------

o----2 .---

4 -

area of cut
(b) fill exceeds cut

(a) cut and fill balanced

BALANCE CUT AND FILL

Minimize the amount of conrour changes, since earth moving costs money
and can create other problems such as steep grades; increased excavation
costs. and a need for retaining walls.
Make sure you have positive drainage away from buildings on all sides.
This can be particularly troublesome when the building is located parallel to
the contours and therefore perpendicular to the natural drainage pattern.

There should be a minimum of a 2 percent slope in landscaped areas away


from the building, although 4 percent is preferred.
These slopes correspond to 6.3 mm to 31 em. (1/4inch per foot) and .0126 M to
0.31 M (1/2" per foot) respectively. A comparison of percent slopes, slopes in
inches per foot (mm to em) and the visual qualities of various slopes is given in
the table below.

percent slope

inches/foot

0.5%

about

1
/

1.0%

about

1
/

1.5%

about 31, 6

2.0%

about

2.5%

about 51, 6

3.0%

about

1
/

mm/cm

appearance
o

16

424

appears flat; use only for


smoothest type of pavement
slope hardly noticeable
good minimum for rough
paving
noticeable in relation to
level construction
quite noticeable in relation
to level construction
very noticeable in relation
to level construction

----------}-i--*--

--------10

-~------------------------8

------- ---------- -------6

------- ---------- -------4


------- ---------- -------2

--------------------------0
(a) drainage directly into building

(b) drainage diverted around building

DRAINAGE AROUND BUILDINGS


Drain approach walks away from buildings as well as landscaped areas. A
minimum of 1 percent (1/8) inch per foot) (10 mm per meter) is required.
Try to avoid elaborate drainage patterns or systems of drainage ditches
and channels. In most cases, the drainage for the site design problems can
be accomplished directly.
If roads or paths must traverse ditches or drainage swales, make sure you
maintain drainage with culverts and call them out on the plan.
Check parking areas for proper drainage. Ideally, parking lot slopes should
be between 1 1/ 2 percent and 5 percent.
Avoid very steep slopes that might be susceptible to erosion or make
landscaping difficult. A 1 to 3 slope (0.10 M to 0.30 M) (4 inches per 12
inches) is considered the maximum for a mowed grass slope while a 1 to 2
slope (6 inches per foot or 12 inches) (0.15 M to o.30 M) is considered the
maximum for unmowed landscape slopes. Steeper slopes require the use
of retaining' walls.

B. PLANNING FOR CIRCULATION


Separate pedestrian circulation from vehicular circulation. There should be
walks next to parking lots that provide a path to the building.
Provide ramps accessible by the physically disabled for all changes in
elevation. Changes in elevation that cannot be made with a 1 in 20 sloped
sidewalk are most efficiently accomplished with a ramp that returns on itself.
Be aware of features adjacent to the site that generate pedestrian movement,
such as sidewalks, entrances to nearby buildings, and public transportation
stops. When the problem mentions these, it is important to provide for them.
Locate vehicular entries to the site away from intersections. Cars waiting
for a stop sign or stop light interfere with cars trying to pull into the site. In
most cases, access from a one-way street is preferable to access from a
two-way street.
425

Driveways into sites facing each other with a street in between should line
up exactly or be separated by at least 6.00 M.
If a driveway and a pedestrian path both need to enter a site from a street,
they should either be side by side or separated by at least 18.00 M.
0.9 M clear, minimum

landing

handrails both
sides

return handrail

EFFICIENT HANDICAPPED RAMP LAYOUT


o

Both vehicular and pedestrian circulation should be direct, convenients and


easy to understand. Usually the shortest distance between two points is a
good rule of thumb to follow.
Locate the service drive and loading area close to the area of the building
that need them. Conceal service areas from view as much as possible with
vegetation or structures.
If require(:!, verify that there, is emergency access to the building. This may
include provisions for fire trucks and ambulances.

C. PARKING REQUIREMENTS
o

If a specific number of parking spaces is called for, make sure you provide
at least that number. Unless stated otherwise, make each stall 2. 70 M wide
by 5.70 M long. Spaces for backing out of a 90 degree parking stall should
be at least 7.20 M wide.

426

There should be at least one parking space for the physically disabled,
more if the program specifically calls for it. Design guidelines for parking
spaces are shown here.
pedestrian

auto

GO' minimum
(18 Meters)

(a) adjacent

(b) separated

PREFERRED LOCATIONS OF AUTOMOBILE AND


PEDESTRIAN ENTRIES TO STREETS

Arrange the parking spaces and access sidewalks so that people do not have
to go behind cars or across the parking drive. Handicapped parking should be
as close to. the entry as possible, but never more than 37.50 M away.
Parking layout is more efficient if parking stalls are grouped rather than
spread out. Ninety-degree parking is the most efficient angle. If the site
design problem requires a detailed plan for more than about a dozen cars,
try to use a double-loaded 90 degree parking scheme.

D. Other Design

~onsiderations

Entries to buildings and major outdoor areas are best located on the south
side of buildings where they will receive sunlight.
Make every attempt to save existing trees and major vegetation. If it is not
possible to keep every tree, at least protect the larger ones. Other major
site features, such as rock formations and creeks, should not be altered but
used to a design and advantage.
Respect desirable views and incorporate them into the site planning. If views
are important, the program usually mentions such a requirement specifically.
Make sure that no structure or site development occurs outside the limits of
zoning setback lines or within easements.

427

E. DESIGN PROCEDURE AND SCHEDULING


Like the building design section of the exan. the graphic site design section
requires that you synthesize a great deal of information and complete a
satisfactory drawing in a very short time. You may find the following suggested
procedure a useful way to proceed.
Step 1 : Read .the problem thoroughly, twice

Step 1:

Read the problem thoroughly, twice. Satisfy every statement or


requirement, especially those related to topography, drainage, safety,
circulation, parking, accessibility for the physically disabled, and
relationships with surrounding physical features.
Lay a sheet of tracing paper over the site plan included with the test
package and as you read, mark the requirements in some graphic
format. You should try as much as possible to quickly translate the
written word into a graphic form that will make sense to you as you
design.
These site influences may include such things as adjacent buildings,
pedestrian paths, wind directions, utility locations, traffic volume and
direction, views, and similar constraints and design considerations. At
this point, some design criteria may simply be a range of locations,
such as the most probable areas for vehicle entry onto the site.

Step 2:

Be careful not to read mor~ into the problem than is there. The test
writers are usually very specific about what they want; there is no
need to add to the problem requirement and to your work. If a
requirement is stated and a particular type of solution is strongly
suggested, follow the lead.

Step 3:

Mark the corners of the site wih elevation points. This gives you a
quick reference point for checking how your new grading matches up
with adjacent property. You may want to mark the midpoints along
property lines as well.
If the problem requires the use of storm sewers, find the lowest place
where the existing storm sewer can be tapped and work backward
from there to determine the invert of any required drain inlets. Unless
stated otherwise, use a minimum storm sewer slope of 0.5 percent
(1.588 mm per 30 em.) (1/16 inch per foot)

Step 4: Draw schematic sections through ~he significant slopes. It is usually


only necessary to do, this in one direction perpendicular to the slope.
Draw a section in both directions if the existing contours are
complicated. Draw these sections on the same sheet as your markings
of site constraints. They can be placed at the tops or off to one side as
a graphic reminder of the existing slope conditions. Draw the section
at the same scale as the site plan.
Step 5:

Using another sheet of tracing paper over the one you have marked
with site constraints, begin laying out roads, walks, parking lots, plazas,
or whatever major site features the problem requires.

428

You will find that the site constraints you can read through the tracing
paper will resolve many planning questior.s for you. Others may not
be so obvious and will require some study.

Step 6: When you have a scheme that works for the major site features. overlay
another sheet of tracing paper begin to study the contour modifications
that are needed.
S(ep 7: Work back and forth between the contour sheet and the plan of the
site features. If the problem seems to be based more on topography
than road and walk design; begin with that sheet. Otherwise, start
with the layout of site features. If you have difficulty solving a particular
problem with the contours, you may find that you need to change the
location or orientation of a plan feature. Or, the required placement of
a stairway, sidewalk, or other feature may imply a change in grading.
Step 8: When you have solved both major components of the site plan. overlay
another sheet of tracing paper and transfer both layout of site features
and the new grading plan onto one sheet. As you do this, add other
required features, such as landscaping, site furniture, lighting and so
forth.
Step 9:

Locate spot elevations at building corners, top and bottom landings of


stairs and ramps, and other critical locations. Double check that all
ramps work with the proper slope and that contour lines are resolved.
It abrupt changes in elevation are required, check to see that you have
provided a retaining wall or culverts if natural drainage patterns are
covered with roads. Double check all requirements as stated in the
program.

Step 10: Place your final tracing paper sketch under the paper given to you as
part of the test package and trace your solution. Incorporate suitable
graphic techniques to clearly communicate your solullOn. As you do
this, you can make minor modifications or corrections to problems
that you found in the pre11ious step. Make sure every item is labeled
so the graders know you have included what was required (allow 45
minutes to do the final drawings)
3. GRAPHIC TECHNIQUES
Good graphic techniques help you in two ways
First, they help you complete the test on time with the required drawings at
the correct level of detail. Second, well-done graphics help communicate
your solution to the graders in the short time they have to look at each
solution.
Part of the trick of finishing on schedule is to budget your time so you have
enough left to adequately finish the drawings. However, many candidates
fail to finish because they use graphic techniques that take an excessive
amount of time for their abilities. This is especially true of the building design
portion because thereis so much drawing to do.

429

The goal is to use graphic techniques that are easy to complete yet boldly
and clearly show your solution. Before you take the test, you should have a
good idea of the tools arid techniques your are going to use. Practice making
lines, textures, material indications, paving, trees, entourage, and other
graphic elements that will be required to draw your solution.

The graphic site design section of the exam is~ little easier than the building
design portion because there is not so much drawing to do, but similar
requirements apply. You need to first get the required lines that show your
solution down on paper, and then add rendering techniques that improve
the appearance and communication of your work. Keep the following
guidelines in mind as you work.
You can use either hard-line or free-hand techniques or mix them, whichever is faster and easier for you
Complete all drawings or portions of one drawing to the same level of
detail and appearance. To do this, complete a good line drawing with
appropriate line weights. Then go back and add textures, material indications, shadows and other markings. Since the site design test requires
only one drawing. This is easier to do than with the multiple sketches
required in the b' jing design portion.
Use guidelines for lettering
Use different line weights to show hierarchy of drawn elements. The outline of an object should be da.rker and heavier than the lines within the
object. Use contrast to show important elements such as walkways.
Show existing contour lines with dashed lines (usually these are already
marked on the base sheet handed out with the test) and new contours
with solid lines.
Do not waste your time or make the drawing hard to read by overrendering. Show what the problem requires you to show. If you are to
provide screening for the delivery area, for example,, there must be an
indication of landscaping or some constructed object to accomplish this.
Shades and shadows help provide contrast and interest to the drawing,
but do these only if you have sufficient time and adding them does not
obscure important information within the shadows.
Use markers that make it easy to lay down a variety of line and texture
types. Soft pencils are preferredbecause they can be erased, while markers may bleed before grading and cannot be erased. Use ink to provide
very dark contrast only at the very end of the test session if you have time
and if you are sure nothing will change.

430

(a) parking at large scale

(a) double line

~~~~~ll~lll~llllll~llllll~lllllli

(b) parking at

~I

small~cale

(b) half of pitched roof shaded

PARKING LOTS

--------------(a) single line with center line

(b) double lfne


(c) high contrast with shadow
CONTOUR LINES AND BUILDINGS

(d) shadow effect

(c) contrast with background


ROADWAYS

431

ANSWER KEYS

AREA "A"

PART I

A. EXAMPLE OF BUILDINGS/STRUCTURES

1. D

4. H

7.

2. F

5. I

8. G

3. A

6. B

9. E

B. EXAMPLE OF BUILDINGS/STRUCTURES
1. G

3. A

5. C

2. E

4. F

6. B

7. D

C. EXAMPLE OF BUILDINGS/STRUCTURES
1. F

3. G

5. A

2. D

4. B

6. E

7.

D. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTERS OF COUNTRY


1. G

4. H

7. C

2. I

5. A

8. B

3. E

6. D

9. F

E. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTERS OF COUNTRY

,. c

3. G

5. B

2. F

4. E

6. A

7. D

F. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACJERS OF COUNTRY

7. B

1. D

3. G

5.

2. F

4. A

6. E

1. D

3. G

5.

7. H

2. E

4. F

6. A

8. B

G. DEFINITIONS

434

H. DEFINITIONS
1. H

4. G

7. L

2. J

5. K

8. E

11. D

3. I

9. A

12. B

1. L

4. H

7. F

10. A

2. J

5.

8. B

11. E

3. I

6. K

9. D

12. G

1. J

4. K

7. L

10. E

2. G

5. F

8. I

11. A

6. D

9. B

12.

1. F

4. L

7. I

10. G

2. J

5. H

8.

11. E

3. K

6. D

9. A

12. B

1. H

5. K

9. p

13. 0

2. F

6.

10. M

14. A

3. J

7. N

11. B

15. L

4. G

8. E

12. D

-16.

1. I

4. H

7. D

10. A

2. J

5. G

8. B

11. F

3. K

6. L

9. E

12.

1. J

4. L

7. D

10. F

2. H

5. I

8. G

11.

9. B

12. E

6.

10. F

I. DEFINITIONS

J. DEFINITIONS

3. H

K. DEFINITIONS

L. DEFINITIONS

M. DEFINITIONS

N. DEFINITIONS

3. K

6. A

435

0. DEFINITIONS
13.

1. J

5. K

9. N

2. F

10. D

14. L

3. H

6. B
7. p

11. G

15. A

4. I

8. E

12. 0

16. M

5. G

9. D

13. A

P. DEFINITIONS
1. K

a.

2. J

6. H

10. M

14. F

3. I

7. 0

11. E

15.

4. l

8. B

12. p

16. N

1. 0

5. J

9. D

2. H

6. K

10. F

14. B

3. G

7. M

11. A

15.

4. L

8. E

12. p

16. N

1. M

5. G

9. D

2. H

6. K

10. E

14.

3. J

7. L

11. B

15. A

4. 0

8. p

12. F

16. N

1. F

5. B

9. L

2. K

6. H

10. D

13. 0
14. p

3. E

7. J

11. A

15. N

4. G

8. I

12.

16. M

9. M

17. B

10. 0

14. F

11. L

15. D

12. N

16. G

DEFINITIONS
13. I

R. DEFINITIONS
13. I

S. DEFINITIONS

T. ARCHITECTS/BUILDING DESIGNED
1. E

5. A

2. K

6. I

3. H
6. p

7.

8. J

436

AREA "A"

PART II

A. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION

3. F
4. A

5. G
6. B

1. E

3. H

5. G

7. B

4. F

6. A

8. D

3. A
4. E

5. B
6.

1.

2. D

B. CATEGORIES

'

2.

C. CONTRASTS
1. D
2. F

D. PROPORTION, SCALE, BALANCE


1. L
2. F

4. G
5. H

7. J
8. A

10. B
11. D

3. I

6. K

9. E

12.

7. L

10. K

E. RHYTHM, UNITY, CHARACTER


4. I
1. D

2. H

5. A

8. E

11.

3. G

6. J

9. B

12. F

F. COLORS
1. D

3. F

5. G

7. B

2. E

4. H

6.

8. A

1. H

4. I

7. K

10. A

2. J

5. B

8. E

11. F

3. G

6. L

9.

12. D

G. FUNCTIONS

H; SPACE

1. F
2 H

3. A

5. G

7. C

4. E

6. 0

8. B

437

I. CIRCULATION

J.

K.

1. I

4. A

7. K

10.

2. G

5. J

8. E

11. D

3. H

6. B

9.

1. E

4.

7. A

10.

2. F

5. B

8. J

11. H

3. G

6. K

9. D

1. H

4. A

7. K

10.

2. G

5. J

8. B

11. E

3. I

6. D

9. F

MASSING

SITE CONTROL

L. ENCLOSURE AND SYSTEMS

10.

1. H

4. F

7. I

2. G

5. A

8. D

3. B

6. J

9. E

1. G

3. H

3.

7. A

2. D

4. F

6. B

8. E

M. ECONOMICS

N. HUMAN FACTORS AND BEHAVIOR

1. F

3. E

5.

2. D

4. B

6. A

0. ARCHITECTURAL LINGO
9. E

13. p

14. F

7. 0

11. H

15. D

8. N

12. B

16. G

7. K

10. D

1. K

5. A

2. L

6. M

10.

3.
4. J

P. ARCHITECTURAL LINGO
4. J
1. F
2. I

5. H

8. E

11. G

3. L

6. A

9. B

'12.

438

AREA "A"

PART Ill

A. AGENCIES INVOLVED IN SHELTEA


1. H

4. I

7. A

2. G

5. B

8.

3. F

6. J

9. E

10. D

B. NATIONAL BUILDING CODE

c.

1. L

4. A

7. B

10.

2. K

5. J

8. E

11. F

3. I

6. H

9. G

12. D

1. K

4. J

7. E

10. G

2. D

4. A

6. L

11.

3. H

6. I

9. B

12. F

1. J

4. B

7. L

10.

2. H

5. I

8. A

11. G

3. F

6. K

9. E

-12. D

5. B

9. p

13. K

2. H

6. J

10. 0

14. F

3. M

7. D

11. N

15. A

4. I

8. L

12. G

16. E

BUILDING CODE

D. BUILDING CODE

E. FIRE CODE
1.

F. OFFICE PRACTICE
1. M

5. K

9. D

13. B

2. F

6.. A

10. 0

14. G

3. J

7. L

11.

15 .. E

4. N

8. p

12. I

439

16. H

G. ARCHITECTS CODE OF ETHICS/RESPONSIBILITIES

H. PROJECT CLASSIFICATION
I. THE SPECTRUM OF THE ARCHITECT'S SERVICES

J. CONTRACTS
1. H

3. E

5. D

7. 8

4. G

6. A

8. F

5. A

9. p

13. 8

6. J

10. M

14. F

3. G

7. D

11. 0

15.

4. I

8. K

12. E

16. N

2.

K. BIDDING
1. H

2.

L. TIME OF CONSTRUCTION COMPLETION

1. D

3. H

5. G

7.

2. F

4. 8

6. A

8. E

1. H

3. E

5. G

7. D

2. F

4. A

6. 8

8.

M. PROJECTS

N. CONTRACT DOCUMENTS
1. D

4. A

7. D

10. A

5. 8

8. 8

11. 8

3. 8

6. D

9. 8

12. D

2.

0. BIDDING AND CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS


1. 8

4.

7. A

10. 8

2. A

8.

8. D

1~.

3. D

6. 8

12.

9.

440

PART IV

AREA "A"

I. PRE-DESIGN- ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS


A. INFLUENCES ON URBAN DEVELOPMENT
1. 8

5. 8

2. A

6.

3. D

4.

9. D

13.

14. D

7. D

11. 8

15. A

8. A

12. A

16. 8

10.

B. COMMUNITY INFLUENCES ON DESIGN AND ANALYSIS


1. B

2.

3. A

4. D

7. D

8. 8

6. A

9. A

5.

C. TRANSPORTATION AND UTILITY INFLUENCES


1.

2. D

3. 8
4.

5. 8

7. A

8. D

6.

D. CLIMATIC, ECOLOGICAL, LEGAL AND ECONOMIC INFLUENCES


1. D

5. B

9. C

13. B

2. C

6. D

10. 8

14. A

3. 8

7. C

11. A

15. D

4. A

8. A

12. D

16. C

E. MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS
1. 8

4. D

7. D

5. 8

8.

2.

3. A

6.

9. 8

II. SITE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN


1. A

4. 8

7. D

2.

5. D

8.

6. 8

9. D
441

10. A
11.

12. 8

PART I

AREA "B"

I. STANDARD STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS


A. WOOD, STEEL, CONCRETE

13.

1. E

5. K

9. L

2. D

6. J

10. F

14. I

3, N

7. p

11. 0

15. B

4. A

8. M

12. G

16. H

II. COMPLEX STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS

4. D

7. D

2. B

5. B

8. A

9. B

1.

3. A

. 6.

Ill. STRUCTURAL SYSTEM SELECTION CRITERIA


1. A

3. B

2. D

4.

5. A

7. D

8. B

6.

IV. LOADS ON BUILDINGS

1.
2.

v.

c
c

3. A

5. B

7.

6. A

8. B

9. A

13. B

14. D

4.

STRUCTURAL FUNDAMENTALS

1. B

5.

6. A

10.

3. A

7. B

11. B

15.

4. D

8. D

12. D

16. A

9. B

13. D

14. B

2.

VI. DEFINITIONS

1.

5.

2. B

6. D

10.

3. D

7. A

11. D

15.

4. A

8. B

12. A

16: A

442

MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS

VII. SELECTION OF STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS


1. B

2.

4. A

5.

8.

6. B

. 3. D

10. B

7. D

9. A

VIII. LOADS ON BUILDINGS

1.

4.

2.
3.

A
D

5.
6.

B
D

7.
8.
9.

10.

on Question no. 7, find the weights of building materials and calculate the dead load.
Remember that office buildings require an additional 0 957 KPa allowance for
partitions. From table 2.1
hardwood floor
joist system
gypsum wallboard
partition allowance

2.5 psf
6.0 psf
1.8 psf
20.0 psf

0.120
0.287
0.086
0.957

KPa
KPa
KPa
KPa

120 Pa
287 Pa
86 Pa

Total

30.3 psf

1.450 KPa

1450 Pa

fromtable 2.2, the live load for an office building Is 2.393 KPa. The total load is
therefore 3.846 KPa. For one linear Meter on the beam1 before any reductions are
made, the total load is:

4.88 x 3.843 KPa

18.75 KN/M

on Question 8:
Load reduction is allowed if the live load is less than 47.86 Newtons per square Meter
on Question 10:

6 M x 4.71 KN/M 3
x 6 = 84.78 KN/M

= 28.26 KN per linear meter the total

load is ~bh, or 0.5 x 28.26

IX. STRUCTURAL FUNDAMENTALS

7.

1. A

4.

2. D

5. D

8. A

3. B

6. A

9. B

443

10.

on Question 1:
The horizontal component is found with Fx = Fcos 61) = 60 KN. The vertical component
is found with Fy = Fcos 30 = 103.9 KN. The vertical component can also be found by
Fy = Fsin 60.
on Question 7:
To solve this problem, draw a force triangle. Since the forces are in equilibrium, the
triangle must close as shown in the illustration.
13.34
sin 130
a

B
sin 30

13.34 KN

130

8.70 KN

On side of the triangle and all three angles are known, so the other two sides can be
found by the law of sines.
13.34
sin 130

A
sin 15

4.51 KN

on Question no. 8
Draw the diagonal member as a free-body diagram with the forces acting on it as
shown.

I
Draw a force as shown and calculate the angle
problem:
tan

e from the dimensions given in the

1
e =3.5-

e = 15.945 degrees
444

Now,
sin 15.945

600

=F

F = 2184 Newtons
You can also solve the problem by similar triangles. First, find the length of the diagonal
by the Pythagorean theorem, which gives 3.64 feet. Then,

600

F
. 3.64

----1

F = 2184
on Question no. 9
By the laws of equilibrium, the summation of moments about any point must equal
zero. Take moments about R 7, keeping in mind that rotation in a clockwise direction is
positive and in a counterclockwise direction it is negative.
about R,

13.34 (2.4) + 3.56 (4.27) + 8.89 (4.88)- R2 (3.66)


R2 = 24.75 KN
R, = 25.79-24.75 = 1.04 KN

X. BEAMSANDCOLUMNS

4. 8

7. B

2. D

5. A

8. D

3. A

6. C

9. A

1.

10.

on Question no. 7
First, find the reactions. The weight of the uniform load is assumed to act at its midpoint.
Taking moments about R,,

2.3(14)(7)- R2 (18) = 0
R2 = 12.52 KN
The summation of moments about R2 must also equal zero:

-2.3(14)(11) + R, = 0
R, = 19.68 KN

445

The maximum moment occurs where the shear is zero. Draw the shear diagram.

Calculate the distance x, where shear is zero. Since you know the sloped lined
drops 2.3 KN per Meter, it will drop proportionally 19.68 KN in x Meter, or:

2.3

19.68
X

X=

8.56 M.

You can find the moment either by calculating the area of the triangle or by calculating
the moment of a free-body diagram from reaction R1 to the point 8.56 Meter from R1 .
Area of triangle method:

A= bh
2
19.68(8.56)

2
=

84.2 KN-M

Free-body diagram method:

2.3 KN/M

19.68

t....--..:c:8.=56::...:M~- i
...

= 19.68(8.56)- 2.3(8.56)(8.56/2)

= 168.46 - 84.26
= 84.2 KN-M

446

on Question no. 8

Dis correct

S=-M
f

(413.86}(1 000)
10.335 MPa

= 40044.51
XI. TRUSSES
1. B
2. A

3.

7.

4. D

8. D

6. A

9. B

5.

mm3

10. A

EXPLANATIONS:

7. C is correct.
The simplest approach to find the answer is to use the principle that the summation
of vertical forces at any point must equal zero. Draw a free-body diagram through
member A.
15k

15k

/l?12_{__

Since the forces in the top and bottom chords have no vertical components, it is clear
that only the vertical component of the force in member/\ is available to balance the
two 15 KN loads and the reaction.
First, find the value of the reaction, R:

R = 1/2(15 X 5
= 37.5 KN
Assuming for the moment that the member is in tension (with the arrow pointing away
from the joint), the vertical component, Fy, of force A must be:

37.5 - 15 - 15 + Fy = 0
Fy = -7.5 KN
The number is negative, so the assumption that the member is in tens_ion was wrong.
It is in compression. Draw a free-body diagram of member A.

447

tan

3m

3
8=1.8
8 = 59 degrees

Fy = FAcos 8

1.80m

7.5
cos 59

= 14.56 KN

FA

(compression)

This problem can also be solved using the method of sections, but it is more involved
because you first have to find the force in the lower chord using the summation of
moments being zero and then find the force in member A. In addition, extra
trigonometry is involved to find the length of moment arms.
on Question no. 10
Draw a free-body of the reaction point RA.

The vertical component of FA 8 must balance the reaction and the 5 KN load. It must
be acting downward toward the joint. so it is comp.ession.
20-5- Fy = 0
5KN

Fy =15M.

~/AB

Fy = FABCOS 8

-~

= _1_5_

AB

COS

45

= 21.5 KN

20 KN

XII. SOIL AND FOUNDATIONS


2. D

5.

c
c

8. A

3. B

6. A

9. B

1. B

4.

7. D

10.

Explanation on Question no. 3


Formula 6.8 is used to find the total earth pressure, with the weight of the soil taken
to be equivalent to a fluid weighing 4.71 KN/M 3

P=

h Wfi

= (0.5)(4. 71 )(0.9)

= 2.1195 KN
448

This pressure acts througn the centroid of the pressure triangle or one third from the
base, which in this case coincides with the level of the lower grade.
on Question no. 4
The width of the footing is found by dividing the total load by the soil bearing pressure
considering a one meter length of foundation. The load allows:
fol_Jndation wall

1.3 x 0.3 x 23.56 = 9.1884 KNs

footing
(assume 1 meter width)

4 X 1 X 150 = 600
pounds
3 X 0.67 X 150 = 600
pounds

soil
(assume 1 meter width)

3 X 1 X 100 = 600
pounds

1 X 1 X 15.71=15.71

dead load

1000 pounds

4.448 KN

live load

500 pounds

2.224 KN

total

3000 pounds

36.2824 KN

1 X 0.2

23.56 = 4,712

36.2824

3000
width=-1500

W=---

71 79

= 2 feet

= 0.505 M

Since a 1 meter width was assumed, the weight of the footing will be less so 0.505 M
is more than adequate.

XIII. CONNECTIONS
1. B

4. D

7.

2. A

5.

8.

3. B

6. 0

c
c

10

9. A

Explanation on Question no. 6


The maximum size of a fillet weld for 6 mm. thick material is 4.5 mm. From Table 7.6,
the allowable load per inch for this size weld made with E70 electrodes is 490.35 N.
The weld is on both sides, so the total capacity 1s:
490.35 X 150 X 2 = 147,105
However, the allowable tensile load on the single bar must be checked. From Formula
7.5, the allowable stress is:
0.60 x 248 MPa = 148.8 MPa
The area of the bar is:
6 x 150 = 900 mm2

449

The total allowable load is:


900 X 148.8 = 133920 N
Since this is less than the allowable load on the welds, this value governs.

XIV. BUILD lNG CODE REQUIREMENTS


1. A

2.

3. B

4. D

7. A

8. D

6. B

9. A

5.

10.

Explanation on question no. 8


For snow loading, allowable stresses for wood may be increased by 15 percent.
10 x 1.15 ~ 11.5 MPa allowable
The section modulus is S = Mit.

= 623 X 1000

11.5
=

54174 mm 3

XV. WOOD CONSTRUCTION

c
c

4. B

7. A

5. D

8. B

3. A

6. D

9. B

1.
2.

10. D

on Question no. 2
For snow loading, the allowable stresses may be increased 15 percent. Using the
maximum moment, the re::Juired section modulus is:

$ =2693.08

1000

7.23(1.15)
= 323901.61 mm3
= 323.90

em~

Looking in Table 9.1, a 2 x 10 joist has a section modulus of 350.53 cm 3 so this will
work for bending.

450

Next, check for horizontal shear. Take the worst case of vertical shear which is the
4003.38 pounds found on the shear diagram. You can neglect the loads within a
distance from the distance from the support equal to the depth of the member, so the
vertical shear to be used in the calculation is:
235
V = 4003.38- ( - 1000

2516.25]

= 3412.06

Using formula 9.3 to find the actual horizontal shear,

b = 1 .5 (38 mm)
d = 9.25 (235 mm)
3V
Fv=2bd
3
3412.06
=-x---2 2(38)(235)

= 0.286 MPa
The allowable horizontal shear of 0.516 MPa psi can also be increased by 15 percent
for snow loading, so the allowalbe stress is:

Fv = 0.516 x 1.15 = 0.593 MPa


Since this is more than the actual, a 50 x 250 joist will work.
on Question no. 8
The top chord member acts just as a column. Its lid is:
900

1/d = - = 10.23
88

Therefore, it is a short column and the allowable

F~is

the same as Fe.

The maximum axial load is:


p = 950(3.5 X 5.5)
=

18.3 kips

6.545 X (88 X 138)


or

79482.48 N

on Question no. 9
Different values of Fb must be use<;! to find the section modulus depending on whether
you use a 100 mm wide beam or a 6-inch wide beam. For a 150 mm wide beam, find

451

-------

--------------

the Fv value from Table 9.2 under beams and stringers, and find the seGtion modulus
required.

= 11 085.97 X 1000

10.68
= 1038012.17 mm 3
= 1038 cm 3

From Table 9.1, a 6 x 10 has a section modulus of 1355.68 cm 3


For a 4-inch wide beam,

11085.97 X 1000
12.402

893885.66 mm 3

8938.85 cm 3

From Table 9.1. a 4 x 12 has a section modulus of 1209.82 cm3 with an area of 254
cm 2 square inches. Because there is less area in the 4 x 12 beam, it would be more
economical.

XVI. STEEL CONSTRUCTION


1. B

4. 0

2. A

5.

7.

8. B

6. A

9. A

10. 0

on Question no. 4
First. find the bending moment t-hat must be resisted by-the beam. From Table 4.12,
the equation is:

PL
M=--

53.38 X 4.87
4

= 64.99 KN-M

452

Next, find the required section modulus:

S=Fb

= 64.99 X 10002
165.5 MPa
= 392688.82 mm 3

= 392.68 cm 3
From Table 10.4, the most economical section is a 300 x 550 with a section modulus
of 416.23 cm 3 . This does not include the weight of the beam, which would be negligible
since it would only add another 0.7 kip-feet of moment.

XVII. CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION

4. c

7. 8

2. 8

5. A

8. 0

6. 0

9. A

1.

3.

10. 0

on Question no. 3
The minimum percentage of steel is found with the formula

p = ~ = ~ = 0.0033
.fy
413
(Grade 60 steel means the yield point is 413 MPa)
The maximum percentage by code is 0. 75 of the steel required for a balanced design,
or 0.75(0.0285) = o.'o214.
To find the area of the steel, the percentages must be multiplied by the width of the
beam by the effective depth of the beam, or 300 x 564 = 169200 mm 2
A(min.) = 0.0033(169200)
A(max.)
4.

= 0.0214(169200)

= 558.36 mm2
= 3620.88 mm 2

C is correct.

The typical water-cement ratio is from 0.35 to 0.40 for concrete mixes without
plasticizers or other admixtures.

453

XVIII.

CONSTRUCTION

1. A

4.

2. B

5. A

8. A

3. D

6. D

9. B

7.

10. B

XIX. LATERAL FORCES WIND

1. B

4. D

2. D

5.

3. B

6.

7.

c
c

10. A

8. A
9. A

XX. LATERALFORCESEARTHQUAKE
1.

4.

7. D

2. B

5. D

8. A

3. A

6. B

9. B

10.

Seattle is in zone 3, so Z = 0.30. The importance factor is 1.0. From Table 14.1 the Rw
factor is 6. The S factor is 1.2 because the soil profile is 52 . Knowing the period is
0.19, the Cfactor can be calculated from

c =.L2...S
J213

'"' 1.25(1.2)
(0.19) 213
=

4.54

Because 2.75 is the maximum value required for C, use this.


The shear is therefore
ZICW
V= R

0.30 (1.0) (2. 75)

= 3,975.54 KN

454

,
28 913

XXI. LONG SPAN STRUCTURES


-ONE WAY SYSTEMS

.1. D

4. B

7.

5. A

8. A

9. D

2.

3. A

6.

10. B

XXII~ LONG SPAN STRUCTURES

-TWO WAY SYSTEMS

1. D

6. A

7.

6. D

8. A

3. B

6. B

9. A

2.

455

10.

PART II

AREA "B"

I. BUILDING MATERIALS
A. CONCRETE

13. D

10. D

14. A

3. B

7. D

11. B

15. B

8. A

12.

16. D

1. B

5. A

2. D

6.

4.

9.

B. WOOD, BOARDS
1. D

5. D

9. B

13. A

2. A

6. A

10. D

14. B

3. B

7.

11. A

15.

4.

c.

12.

8. B

16. D

METALS
1. B

4. D

7 B

10. B

5. D

8. A

11.

2.

3. A

6.

9.

12. A

D. GLASS, PLASTICS, SEALANTS

1. A

4.

7. B

10

2. B

5. B

8. A

11. B

3. A

6. A

9.

12.

1 B

3. D

5. D

7.

2. A

4.

6. A

8. B

E. INSULATION

F. DOORS, HARDWARES
1. E

5. A

9. p

13. 0

2. N

6. K

10. G

14. H

3. F

7.

11. D

f5. B

4. L

8. M

12. J

16.

456

G. WINDOWS, HARDWARES
1. I

5. M

2. L

6. K

10.

3. J
4. A

9. 0

13. 0

14. F

7. B

11. H

15. p

8. N

12. G

16. E

H. BUILDING PROTECTION
1. G

4. K

7. L

10. F

2. J

5. A

8. B

11

3. H

6. I

9. D

12. E

I. ABILITIES, QUALITIES, CAPACITIES AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

J.

1. 0

5. K

9. N

13. G

2. H

6. L

10. A

14. E

3. F

7. I

11. p

15. 8

4. J

8. 0

12.

16. M

MATERIAL, SUPPLIERS OR MANUFACTURERS


1. E

6. M

11. p

16. R

2. N

7. Q

12. A

17. K

3. I

8. T

13.

18. H

4. 0

9. D

14. G

19. L

5. J

10. F

15. B

20.

1. E

5 K

9. p

13.

2. G

6. B

10. F

14. J

3. N

7. L

11. 0

15. M

4. I

8. D

12. A

16. H

K. PAINTING

L. MISCELLANEOUS, SPECIFICATIONS
1. A

5.

9. 8

13.

2. B

6. A

10. A

14.

c
c

7 D

11. 8

15. A

8. B

12. D

16.

3.
4.

457

c
c
c

M. MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS

5. B

2. D

6. D

10.

4. A

1.
3.

9. A

13.

14. B

7. A

11.

c
c

8. D

12. A

16. A

15. D

N. MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS

1. B

4. B

7. A

10. D

5. A

8. 8

11. 8

3. D

6. D

9. A

12. A

2.

II. METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION


1. 8
2.

3. D

4. A

7. A

10. D

8. D

11. A

6. 8

9. 8

12.

5.

458

AREA UB"

UTILITIES

PART Ill

1. SANITARY AND PLUMBING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENTS


A. WATER SUPPLY

13. D

10. D

14. A

3. D

7. A

11. 8

15.

8. D

12. A

16. 8

13. A

1. A

5. 8

2. 8

6.

4.

9.

B. WATER SUPPLY
1. 8

5. 8

2. D

6.

10. D

14. 8

3. A

7. D

11. 8

15.

8. A

12. A

16. D

4.

c.

9.

FIRE PROTECTION, STORM WATER

7. D

6. 8

8. A

9. D

13. A

2. D

6. A

10. A

14. 8

3. 8

7 8

11.

15. D

4. A

8. D

12. 8

1. A

3.

2. D

4. 8

5.

D. SANITARY DRAINAGE SYSTEM


1.

5.

16.

E. SEWAGE DISPOSAL, REFUSE HANDLING


7. D

10. D

2. D

5.

c
c

8. A

11. A

3. 8

6. 8

9. 8

12.

7. D

10.

1. A

4.

F. MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS
2. A

5.

c
c

8. 8

3. D

6. A

9. A

1. 8

4.

459

AREA "B"

UTILITIES

PART Ill

2. MECHANICAL SYSTEMS
A. HEAT, MOISTURE, HUMAN COMFORT

1. A

5. D

9. A

6. A

10. D

14. A

3. B

7. B

11. B

15. D

4. D

8.

2.

12.

13.

16.

B. HEATING, VENTILATING, SOLAR ENERGY

9. D

13

6. B

10. B

14

3. D

7. A

11.

4. A

8. D

12. A

1. B
2.

c.

5.

15. A
16.

AIR CONDITIONING
1. B
2.

5.

9.

13. B

6. A

10. D

14.

3. D

7.

11. B

15. A

4. A

8. D

12. A

1q

D. CONVEYORS, VERTICAL TRANSPORTATION,


BUILDING MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT

9. B

6. B

10. D

3. D

7. D

11.

4. B

8. A

12. A

1. A
2.

5.

13. D
14.

10.

E. MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS
1.

2. A

7.

4. D

7. B

8. A

6. D

9. D

5.

460

AREA "B"

UTILITIES

PART Ill

3. _ELECTRICAL AND OTHER POWER SYSTEMS


A. PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY

10.

1. A

4. 8

7.

2. D

5. A

8. D

11. D

6. 8

9. 8

12. A

3.

B. ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS: MATERIALS, WIRING


1. C

4. A

7. C

10. B

2. 8

5. 8

8. 0

11.

3. D

6. D

9. A

12. A

9. D

13. A

14. 8

C. SERVICE AND UTILIZATION


1. B

5. 8

6. A

10.

3. D

7. D

11. A

15.

8.

12

16

2.

D. MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS
1. A

3. C

5. 8

7. A

2. B

4. D

6. C

8. B

461

AREA "B"

UTILITIES

PART Ill

4. ACOUSTICS AND ILLUMINATION


A. SOUND SOURCES HUMAN RESPONSE

1. A

4. B

7. D

10.

2. D

5.

8. A

11. A

6. B

9. B

12. D

3,

B. ACOUSTICAL PROPERTIES OF BUILDING MATERIALS


5. 8

9. A

2. A

6. D

10. B

14. D

3. D

7.

11. A

15. B

8. B

12. B

16.

4.

c.

1. B

13.

SOLID STRUCTURE AND AIR-BORNE NOISE REDUCTION

3. A

5. A

7. D

2. B

4. D

6. B

8.

1.

D. PHYSICS OF LIGHT, SOURCES

9.

13. B

1. A

5.

2. D

6. B

10. D

14.

7. D

11. A

15. D

4. B

8. A

12. B

16. A

3.

E. MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS

1 A

4. D

7.

2. 8

5. B

8. 8

9. D

6.

462

AREA "B"

UTILITIES

PART Ill

5. DISASTER PREVENTION/FIRE/SECURITY
A. BUILDING PROTECTION

1. A

4.

2. B

5. A

3. D

6.

7. B
D

9 B

10. D
11. A
12.

13.

B. BUILDING PROTECTION MATERIALS


1. D

5.

9. B

2. A

6. B

10. D

14. B

7. A

11.

15. D

4. B

8. D

12. A

16. A

3.

c.

FIRE DETECTION AND ALARMS


1. D

4. A

7. D

10. B

5. B

8.

11. A

3. B

6. A

9.

c
c

12. D

9.

13. B

10. 8

14. D

2.

D. FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS


1. B

5. B

2. D

6. A

3.

4. A

7.

11

12. A

8. D

E. FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS


1. A

4.

7. A

10

2. 8

5. D

8. 8

11. A

3. D

6.

9.

12. D

F. FIRE PREVENTION
1. A

3.

5. D

7. B

2. D

4. B

6. A

8.

G. SECURITY-BURGLAR PROOFING (INTRUSION DETECTION DEVICES)

1. A
2. D

3. C
4. B

5. C
6. D

463

7. B
8. A

AREA "B"

PART Ill

UTILITIES

6. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
A. SIGNAL SYSTEMS
1. A
2. D

3. 8
4.

B. TELELINGO
1. 8

2.
3. D

9. 8
10. D
11.

5. A
6.

13. D
14.

7. B
B. 0

12. A

16. 8

4. A
5.
6. 8

7. A
8. D
9.

10. D
11. A
12. 8

15. A

AREA "C"

PART I

1. D
2. A
3.

4. D
5. 8
6. D

7.

10. 8

8. A
9. D

on answer No. 2 (A)


None of the enclosed mall would be rentable so substract the 6 percent (51 0
square meter) right off the top
8,500-510

= 7,990

square M.

then, take 75 percent of the remainder, which gives about 6,000 square Meter
on answer No. 3 (C)
These are a number of ways of arriving at the same answer for this question,
City 8 has a higher cost index so divide the lower into the highar:
1517 = 1.053
1440

Multiply this factor by the cost in City A, P1 ,500,000, to get 1 ,580,208. Then,
increase this by the 5 percent inflation factor:
1,580,208 X 1.05 = 1,659,218

or 1 ,659,000
464

rounded figure