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SUSTAINABLE ENERGY

Unit 2

Conventional Energy Sources

Conventional energy resources
• At present most of power generation is done by the
conventional methods
• Fossil fuels is the important source
• It may include solid (coal, wood or any biomass), liquid
(LDO, furnace oil), gaseous (natural gas, bio gas, LPG)
fuel
• Sources for power generation are depleting in nature
• Thermal, Nuclear and Diesel power plant comes under
this category
• Efficiency for energy conversion is low
• Pollution caused by the plant is very high
• They are located far away from load centers
• Transmission and Distribution losses are more

Comparison of various energy sources
Energy source
Electrical

Strength




Direct Utilization
Easy transportation
No pollution
Possibility of storage
Versatile usage

Weakness



Supply fluctuation
Transmission &
Distribution losses
Cost is high
Low power factor

Opportunities


Chemical




Direct conversion to
heat or electrical energy
Higher potential
Low cost
Waste heat recovery

Pollution to the
environment
Depletion of the
source
Reaction is difficult
to control
Difficult in
transportation


Hazardous
radiation
High cost
Maintenance


Nature dependent
Initial cost is high





Nuclear

Hydro







Low quantity of fuel
Efficiency is high
Availability of the fuel
Renewable
Flexibility
Free of cost
Multiusage

Threat

Continuous
research to
improve the
efficiency
Other forms of
energy resources
Stand alone
systems

Need not depend
on grid


Should be converted to
other forms of energy
leads to low 
Continuous depletion of
resources
Frequent shutdown

Direct application is not
possible
Decrease in market
demand for the product

Improved
technology for
control fission
Safety

Handling of fuel and
disposal of wastes is a
major problem

Peak load
High continuous
depletion of fossil
fuels

Construction of storage
units
Priority
Power
Agricultural


1.
2.

Non-Renewable Energy
Sources
• Conventional
– Petroleum
– Natural Gas
– Coal
– Nuclear

• Unconventional (examples)
– Oil Shale
– Natural gas hydrates in marine sediment

Disadvantages & Limitations Of Conventional
Energy
* Resources are limited and may not be able to meet
the increase future demand
* Emission of “Green house” gasses from thermal
power stations
* Submersion of low lying areas in Hydel power
* Consumption of fossil fuels towards transportation
of raw material i.e. coal for thermal power stations
* Centralised power generation results in high losses
in transmission & distribution
* De-forestation will have adverse effect on climate
change

Demand comparison of fuels
Fuels

Calorific Value

Cost in Rs

Wood

12 MJ/kg

0.4/kg

Charcoal

20 MJ/kg

4/kg

Coal

30 MJ/kg

3/kg

Kerosene

40 MJ/kg

19/lt

Petrol

47 MJ/kg

32/lt

Diesel

44 MJ/kg

20/lt

Furnace Oil

42 MJ/kg

10/lt

LPG

80 MJ/kg

19/kg

Biogas

25 MJ/m3

0.50/m3

Electricity

3.6 MJ/unit

3/unit

Demand comparison based on calorific value
(100% efficiency)
Fuel

Wood
(kg)

Char
Coal
(kg)

Coal
(kg)

Kerosene
(kg)

Petrol
(kg)

Diesel
(kg)

Furnace
Oil
(kg)

LPG
(kg)

Biogas
m3

Electricity
Unit

Wood

1

0.6

0.4

0.3

0.25

0.27

0.28

0.15

0.48

3.33

Charcoal

1.66

1

0.66

0.5

0.42

0.45

0.47

0.25

0.8

5.55

Coal

2.5

1.5

1

0.75

0.63

0.68

0.71

0.37

1.2

8.33

Kerosene

3.33

2

1.33

1

0.85

0.90

0.95

0.5

1.6

11.11

Petrol

3.91

2.35

1.56

1.17

1

1.06

1.11

0.58

1.88

13.05

3.66

2.2

1.46

1.1

0.93

1

1.04

0.55

1.76

12.22

Furnace Oil

3.5

2.1

1.4

1.05

0.89

0.95

1

0.52

1.68

11.66

LPG

6.66

4

2.66

2

1.70

1.81

1.90

1

3.2

22.22

Biogas

2.08

1.25

0.83

0.67

0.53

0.56

0.59

0.31

1

6.94

Electricity

0.3

0.18

0.12

0.09

0.07

0.081

0.085

0.04

0.14

1

Diesel

Demand comparison based on calorific value
(Actual efficiency)
Fuel

Wood
(kg)

Char
Coal
(kg)

Coal
(kg)

Kerosene
(kg)

Petrol
(kg)

Diesel
(kg)

Furnace
Oil
(kg)

LPG
(kg)

Biogas
m3

Electricity
Unit

Wood
(12%)

1

0.36

0.16

0.07

0.06

0.06

0.06

0.03

0.11

0.44

Charcoal
(20%)

2.77

1

0.44

0.2

0.17

0.18

0.19

0.1

0.32

1.23

Coal
(30%)

6.25

2.25

1

0.45

0.38

0.40

0.42

0.22

0.72

2.77

Kerosene
(50%)

13.88

5

2.22

1

0.85

0.90

0.95

0.5

1.6

6.17

Petrol
(50%)

16.31

5.87

2.61

1.17

1

1.06

1.11

0.58

1.88

7.25

Diesel
(50%)

15.27

5.5

2.44

1.11

0.93

1

1.04

0.55

1.76

6.79

Furnace Oil
(50%)

14.58

5.25

2.33

1.05

0.89

0.95

1

0.52

1.68

6.48

LPG (50%)

27.77

10

4.44

2

1.70

1.81

1.90

1

3.2

12.34

Biogas (50%)

8.68

3.12

1.38

0.62

0.53

0.56

0.59

0.31

1

3.85

Electricity
(90%)

2.25

0.81

0.36

0.16

0.13

0.14

0.15

0.08

0.25

1

Non-Conventional Energy
Sources

Renewable Energy Sources



Source for power generation is not depleted
Wider application and utilization of nature
Mostly the energy is available at free of cost
Capital cost for power generation is high



Solar energy
Bio energy
Wind energy
Tidal energy










Resources and Technologies of
Renewable Energy

Solar
Wind
Biomass
Small Hydro
Waste to Energy: Municipal Solid / Liquid
Waste, Industrial Waste
Bio Diesel
OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy)
Wave Energy
Geo-thermal energy
Fuel Cell Technologies

Advantages of Renewable Energy
Technologies
*
*
*
*
*

Resources are everlasting
No environmental concern problems
Modular in nature
No T & D losses
Tailor made power generation system to
cater to customer needs

0
1
.
2
0
0
9

Potential of renewable energy sources in India
No.

Sources / Systems

Achievements during
2008-09

Cumulative
Achievements

I. Power From Renewables
A. Grid-interactive renewable power
 
1.

Biomass Power (Agro residues)

77.50 MW

683.30 MW

2.

Wind Power

998.85 MW

9755.85 MW

3.

Small Hydro Power (up to 25 MW)

 163.83 MW

2344.67 MW

4.

Cogeneration-bagasse

232.90 MW

1033.73 MW

5.

Waste to Energy

   3.66 MW

   58.91 MW

6.

Solar Power

 

Sub Total (in MW) (A)

     2.12 MW
1,476.74 MW

13,878.58 MW
 

B. Off-grid/Distributed Renewable Power (including Captive/CHP
 
60.92 MW

plants)

7

Biomass Power / Cogen.(nonbagasse)

150.92 MW

8.

Biomass Gasifier

8.98 MWeq.

160.31 MWeq

9.

Waste-to- Energy

4.36 MWeq.

31.06 MWeq

10.

Solar PV Power Plants and Street 
Lights

0.07 MWp

11.

Aero-Generators/Hybrid Systems

0.09MW

 

Sub Total (B)

74.42 MWeq

346.18 MWeq

 

Total ( A + B )

1551.46 MW

14,224.76 MW

3.00 MWp
0.89 MW

 
II.

 
Remote Village Electrification

300/NIL Villages/Hamlets

 
4254 villages + 1156 
hamlets

 
III. Decentralized Energy Systems
 
12.

Family Type Biogas Plants

0.66 lakh

40.90 lakh

13.

Home Lighting System

31,754 nos.

4,34,692 nos.

14.

Solar Lantern

27,360 nos.

6,97,419 nos.

15.

SPV Pumps

16.

Solar Water Heating - Collector Area

17.

Solar Cookers

18.

Wind Pumps

7,148 nos.
0.03 Mln. sq.m.

2.60 Mln. sq.m.
6.37 lakh

80 nos.

1347 nos.

 
IV. Other Programmes
 
19.

Energy Parks

26 nos.

504 nos.

20.

Akshay Urja Shops

15 nos.

289 nos.

 
MWeq. = Megawatt equivalent; MW = Megawatt; kW = kilowatt; kWp = kilowatt peak; sq. m. = square 
meter

Solar Energy
Sun radiates 180 billion MW of energy
over the earth per day.
The three exclusive technologies for
utilising
solar energy are:Solar photovoltaic technology
Solar Thermal technology
Solar Passive architecture

Prehistoric trees captured
energy from the Sun

Coal is the
remains of
prehistoric trees.

Solar Photovoltaic
• This technology facilitates in converting the
solar energy into electrical energy and is
being used for applications like

– Lighting

Solar Lanterns

Solar Street Lights

Solar lanterns offer best alternative to kerosene
lamps, gas lamps and conventional emergency
lights.
Portable, light and suitable for use in both indoor
and outdoor applications
Solar Lanterns provide opportunity to rural youth
for establishing centralised charging system to
charge set of lanterns and lease them on daily
rental basis. They can also establish sales and
service centres.

– Water pumping
Solar Pumps are useful for agriculture, horticulture
and drinking water purpose.
They can draw water from open wells, bore wells and
streams.
These systems functions during clear sunny days
without any battery back-up.

Solar Water Pump System

– communication systems
– Remote area villages electrification
– Telecom applications
– Traffic signalling
– Railway signalling systems etc.

SOLAR COLLECTORS

Solar thermal technology
The process involves utilising heat energy
from solar radiation for heating, cooking,
drying applications and power generation
etc.
– Solar water heating system

Flat Plate Solar Water Heating
System

Vaccum Tube Solar Water
Heating System

Solar flat plate collector model water heating
systems consists of solar panels having collectors
which have selective coated fins to absorb heat
from solar radiation and transmitting same to
water passing through the copper tubes attached
to the fins.
The water so heated is stored in an insulated tank
making it possible to get hot water all 24 hours.
These systems are available in capacities of 100
Litres per day (LPD) and in multiples of hundred to
any capacity.
Are ideal to replace geysers in domestic and
commercial sector i.e hotels, nursing homes,
hostels etc., and also in industries as boiler feed
water for pre- heating.
The manufacturing, installation and after sales
service of these systems provide good opportunity

Biomass

Logs, twigs, straw, dung, leaves…..

Bio-energy
Bio-gas & improved smokeless wood burning stoves
are two important schemes being promoted by Ministry
of Non-conventional Energy Sources, New Delhi in
rural areas for conservation of the fossil fuels i.e.
Firewood, kerosene, L.P.G etc.
Bio-gas
Two models of bio-gas plants are being constructed.
Low cost “Deenabandu” model for individual families
Floating drum model bio-gas plant for community and
institutional purposes.
The main raw material used for producing Methane
gas in this bio-gas plant is animal waste (Dung). Biogas plants with kitchen waste and human excretion are
also developed and also in use.

DEENABADHU MODEL BIOGAS PLANT
Biogas plants of family size, community / institutional
capacities are available.
Methane gas produced in the biogas plant can be used
primarily for cooking, lighting and running IC Engine to
generate power or for mechanical application like water
pumping running flourmill etc.

The Biogas plants can be constructed in rural areas for
individual families who own sufficient number of cattle.
The slurry which comes as by-product from bio gas
plant is rich in Nitrogen content than raw dung which is
used as fertiliser in agriculture farms. Construction of
bio-gas plant needs services of skilled masons and
unskilled workers.
Manufacturing of bio-gas stove and other auxiliary
equipment used in the system needs manufacturing
facilities.
These activities help in generating employment for
skilled and unskilled youth and also developing
entrepreneurs who are engaged as specialised
agencies in implementing the schemes.

Improved smokeless wood burning
stoves
These models help in improving the thermal
efficiency of wood burning stoves and also
help in creating smoke free kitchen. They
will also help in reducing the consumption of
fire-wood and also, helping the children and
women from eye and lung diseases caused
due to smoke.

HYDRO-ELECTRICITY

Hydro energy
• Potential energy of the water
• Potential energy totally depend upon the head of the
water stored
• Storage of water is very essential for any hydro energy
• Storage improves the irrigation and flood control
measures
• It is renewable energy
• Totally depend on the seasonal variation and
topographical of the land
• Initial investment for generation of power is very high
• Operating cost is negligible
• Source is available only few geographical area far away
from load center

Hydroelectric Energy :
• Dams are the leading sours of this type of
energy.
• Streams and rivers can also be used to produce
electricity.
• Most cost efficient power available in the world.
• Accounts for 6% of the world’s energy supply, or
about 15% of the world’s electricity.

Hydroelectric Energy (con’t) :
• The dam is placed on a river to store
water in a reservoir. Water released from
the reservoir flows through a pipe and into
a turbine, which spins to drive a generator,
Producing electricity. This type of energy
uses gravity, and the natural flow of water,
to push the water down the pipes to spin
the turbines.

Hydroelectric Energy (Con’t) :

Wind Energy :
• Windmills are used to generate electricity
as a source of renewable energy.
• The blades of a wind turbine form a rotor
that captures wind energy.
• Energy increases with the height above
the ground surface. Wind turbines are
usually located on tall towers at least 100
feet above the ground.

Wind Energy
• There are numerous wind farms located
around the world.
• In the United States they are mostly
located in the central and western part of
the US.

Wind Energy

Grid interactive power generation from
Renewable Energy Sources in India
Estimated potential :




Wind
Biomass
Co-generation
Mini Hydel
Municipal / Industrial waste

- 45,000 M.W.
- 52,000 M.W.
- 5,000 M.W.
- 15,000 M.W.
- 5,000 M.W.
------------------1,22,000 M.W.
-------------------

Alternative Energy

What do we mean by Alternative
Energy?

Electric Utilities
Wind Energy

Fuel Cells

Solar
Energy

Bio
Energy

What is an alternative source of
energy?
• An energy source that
can be used instead
of fossil fuels.
• It
is
usually
a
renewable source of
energy that could be
used should fossil
fuels run out.

Why is there a need for alternative
sources of energy?
• The graph that you completed last time
shows just how much we rely on fossil
fuels
• 90 per cent of the worlds energy supply’s
come from fossil fuels
• Fossil fuels are convenient and relatively
cheap – a litre of petrol in 1998 would
have been 20p if there was no tax added!

How much longer can we
depend on fossil fuels?
• Because they are fossil fuels they
have a life expectancy
• “Oil has 40 – 50 years left”
• In 1960 they said this too! – what
happened is that we have found
reserves of oil and new technology
made the oil we use last longer

DO

has
new
has

• Burning fossil fuels has increased atmospheric
pollution.
• Vehicle exhausts contribute to acid rain more so
than power stations burning coal.
• The carbon stored in fossil fuels is released as
carbon dioxide when they are burnt – this leads
to the green house effect and global warming
• Don’t get this confused with the hole in the
ozone layer – this was caused by CFC’s

• Coal has the longest life expectancy
• Environmentalists dislike the burning of
this fossil fuel the most as it gives off the
most CO2
• Unless cheap alternatives to burning coal
are found there is likely to be an increase
in its use – especially from Asia which has
a lot!

So what are the alternative
energy sources to fossil fuels?
• Once upon a time – nuclear power was seen as the
answer. Huge amounts of power could be produced
from a small amount of uranium
• However, it was not well known that it produced
radioactive waste
• The waste is dangerous to health and life for hundreds of
years
• There is no secure place for storage.
• Public confidence has also been shattered by the
explosion at Chernobyl in 1986

Bio-Fuels
• Outstanding potential when the price becomes
competitive, and they may allow local
availability to overcome (temporary) national
fuel shortages!
• Some adjustments may be needed for certain
boilers, and oil burners.
• Some potential exists for energy diversification
in greenhouses and in transportation.

Biomass Energy (Con’t) :
• It is burned like fossil fuels, but it is renewable.
• Biomass generates about the same amount of
carbon dioxide as fossil fuels, but every time a
new plant grows, the CO2 is actually removed
from the atmosphere. So in the end the net
emission of CO2 will be about zero as long as
plants continue to be replenished. (this is only in
a perfect scenario)
• Wood is our biggest biomass energy source
today.

Bio Fuel - Ethanol
The
process
is currently
very energy
expensive
and very
inefficient
……....but
someday
soon…..…

Advantages of using natural
sources of energy
• They are inexhaustible – they will always be
available – they are renewable
• They are clean and will not damage the Earth
• There are several types – so one or more of
them is present in each country
• Most natural sources can be used on a small
scale and serve local needs therefore cutting
costs of transmitting the energy

Biomass Energy :
• All non-fossil organic materials that have an
intrinsic chemical energy content.
• Include: all water and land-based vegetation and
trees, also virgin biomass, and all waste (MSW),
municipal bio-solids (sewage) and animal
wastes (manures), forestry and agricultural
residues, and certain types of industrial wastes.
• Biomass is renewable because it only takes a
short period of time to replace it unlike fossil
fuels.

Ocean Thermal Energy
Conversion (OTEC)

OCEAN ENERGY
• Ocean covers >70% Earth’s surface.
• Largest natural collector and storage
system.
• Largest renewable energy resource.

OTEC
• The ocean serves as a big storehouse of solar
energy.
• In the tropical regions of the earth, the surface of the
water is heated by the sun, is at an average
temperature of around 25ºC and at depths more than
100m, it is about 5ºC.
• The average difference in temperature of around
20ºC may be used in running a thermodynamic cycle
to yield mechanical power, which in turn could be
used to generate electrical power.
• Because of the very low temperatures involved,
secondary working fluids such as Ammonia,
Propane,
R-12, having low boiling point are
proposed to be used.

OTEC
BOILER

T

G

WARM SURFACE
WATER IN

WORKING
FLUID
TO OCEAN

CONDENSER

COLD WATER
FROM OCEAN
DEPTH IN

OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy
Conversion)
OTEC utilizes T between warm shallow
and cold deep ocean waters to run a heat
engine.

OTEC Technology – Open cycle
OTEC plant

OTEC Technology – Closed cycle
OTEC plant

ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN
PARAMETERS





Temperature & salinity vs depth
Deep water wave characteristics
Meteorological conditions
Extreme water level
Shallow water condition
Deep ocean nutrient content

Advantages
• Collection and storage of energy is done by nature
and hence costs nothing.
• This phenomenon of heating up of ocean water
occurs through out the year and so continuous
power supply may be assured.
• 100 MW OTEC plant prevents CO2 emission of
140,000 tonnes/year.

Disadvantages
• The very small temperature difference necessarily
means thermo-dynamic efficiency of the order of 2 to
3%.
• The low level of efficiency in turn, call for handling
large quantities of working fluid to obtain reasonable
amount of power.
• The heat exchange boilers and condensers-become
necessarily big and capital cost goes up.
• On-shore installations require long and big pipings,
which add up to the cost. The proposal is therefore
in favor of offshore installations using floating
platforms.
• The material suggested for heat exchangers are
titanium or alloy of copper and nickel, which are
resistant to corrosion. But then, the cost adds up.

Applications
• Mineral extraction from seawater
• Refrigeration and Air-conditioning
• Desalined water(2 MW plant produces 4300 m3
of distilled water every day)
• Deep water supported mari culture-rich
nutrients for aquatic systems.

TIDAL ENERGY

Tides
• Tide or wave is periodic
level of the sea
• Tides occur due to the
seawater by the moon
• Tides contains large
potential energy, which
power generation

rise and fall
attraction of
amount of
is used for

TIDAL ENERGY
*Form of water power that occurs in the ocean
* Converts the energy of tides into electricity

TIDAL ENERGY
* Renewable resource because it can be replenished
* Caused by the Moon’s gravity which will last a long
time

TIDAL ENERGY
Tidal energy is the
result of the Moon’s
Gravitational
attraction on Earth
and the way the
moon’s gravity pulls
the oceans in a
bulge as the Moon
orbits Earth – the
tide must raise the
water at least 10
feet

Tides Governed by Earth-Moon-Sun
Tidal changes in sea level
occur as Earth rotates
beneath bulges in ocean
envelope, which are
produced by solar and
lunar gravitational forces
and centrifugal forces

Greatest range occurs
when sun and moon
pull in same direction
(spring tide)

Weakest when
sun and
moon in
opposition
(neap tide)

North Pole
Earth rotates counter-clockwise

MOON’S ORBIT

Resource Variable
but Predictable

Tidal Power Generation

Tides
• When the water is above the mean sea level it is called
flood tide.
• When the water is below the mean sea level it is called
ebb tide.
• At the time of high tide, water is at a high level and can
be let into a basin to be stored at a high level there. The
same water can be let back into the sea during the low
tide through the turbines, thus producing power
• Since the basin water level is high and seawater is low,
there is a differential head comparable to the tidal
range, which can be utilized for the running of the
turbines

Turning Tides into Usable Energy
• Ebb generating system
• A dam (barrage) is built
across the mouth of an
estuary.
• Sluice gates allow
incoming tides to fill the
basin.
• As the tide ebbs, the
water is forced through
a turbine system to
generate electricity.

Types of Turbines
Bulb turbine used at La Rance tidal plant on the Brittany coast in France

TIDAL ENERGY

TIDAL ENERGY
ADVANTAGES:

Reliable and Predictable
Clean Energy
Alternative – Needs
no Fuel

Renewable

Water is Dense and Free

Advantages
– It is free from pollution, as it does not use
any fuel.
– It is superior from hydropower plant as it
is totally independent of rain.
– It improves the possibility of fish farming
in the tidal basins and it can provide
recreational facilities to visitors and
holidaymakers.

Advantages
• Renewable
• Abundant (estimated that it could produce 16% of
worlds energy.)
• Pollution free (except during construction)
• Relatively consistent (unlike wind that is
inconsistent and is highly concentrated in certain
areas depending on the topography.)
• Water is a free resource
• Presents no difficulty to migrating aquatic animals
(avoidable)

TIDAL ENERGY
DISADVANTAGES:

Limited use and can affect fish migration

Impact on shore line
Expensive parts

Disadvantages
• Tidal power plants can be developed only if natural
sites available on the bay
• As the sites are available on the bays, which are
always far away from load centers, the power
generated has to be transmitted to long distances.
This increases the transmission cost and
transmission losses
• The supply of power is not continuous as it depends
upon the timing of tides
• The navigation is obstructed
• Utilization of tidal energy on small scale is not
economical

Disadvantages
• Disturbance/Destruction to marine life (effect wave
climate that effects shallow/shore plant life)
• Expensive to construct (estimated 1.2 billion
dollars.)
• Reliability (have not been around long so we do not
know long-term reliability is.)
• Recreational costs (visual impact, sport fishing,
swimming, etc.)
• Cost of Maintenance Higher
• Power transmission from offshore facilities harder
• Power quality (waves fluctuation)

TIDAL ENERGY
* Good Alternative Energy Resource for Future

Geothermal Energy

Sources of Earth’s Internal Energy
•70% comes from the decay of radioactive nuclei with long
half lives that are embedded within the Earth
•Some energy is from residual heat left over from Earths
formation.
•The rest of the energy comes from meteorite impacts.

Availability of Geothermal Energy



On average, the Earth emits 1/16
W/m2. However, this number can
be much higher in areas such as
regions near volcanoes, hot
springs and fumaroles.
As a rough rule, 1 km3 of hot rock
cooled by 1000C will yield 30 MW of
electricity over thirty years.
It is estimated that the world could
produce 600,000 EJ over 5 million
years.
There is believed to be enough heat
radiating from the center of the
Earth to fulfill human energy
demands for the remainder of the
biosphere’s lifetime.
Geothermal production of energy is
3rd highest among renewable
energies. It is behind hydro and
biomass, but before solar and wind.

Modern Day
• Geothermal energy is used for:






heating of pools and spas
greenhouses and aquaculture facilities
space heating and district heating
snow melting
agricultural drying
industrial applications
ground-source heat pumps

How is geothermal energy created?
• Wells are drilled
into the
geothermal
reservoirs

How is geothermal energy created?
• Steam, heat, or hot
water from reservoirs
spin the turbine
• Used water is
returned down an
injection well

Different Geothermal Energy
Sources
 Hot Water Reservoirs: As the name implies these are
reservoirs of hot underground water. There is a large
amount of them in the US, but they are more suited for
space heating than for electricity production.
 Natural Stem Reservoirs: In this case a hole dug into
the ground can cause steam to come to the surface.
This type of resource is rare in the US.
 Geopressured Reservoirs: In this type of reserve,
brine completely saturated with natural gas in stored
under pressure from the weight of overlying rock. This
type of resource can be used for both heat and for
natural gas.

Normal Geothermal Gradient: At any place on the
planet, there is a normal temperature gradient of +300C
per km dug into the earth. Therefore, if one digs 20,000
feet the temperature will be about 1900C above the
surface temperature. This difference will be enough to
produce electricity. However, no useful and economical
technology has been developed to extracted this large
source of energy.
Hot Dry Rock: This type of condition exists in 5% of the
US. It is similar to Normal Geothermal Gradient, but the
gradient is 400C/km dug underground.
Molten Magma: No technology exists to tap into the
heat reserves stored in magma.

Direct uses of geothermal energy is
appropriate for sources below 1500C








space heating
air conditioning
industrial processes
drying
Greenhouses
Aquaculture
hot water
resorts and pools
melting snow

Geothermal Power Plant
• It is also a thermal power plant, but the steam
required for power generation is available in
some part of the earth surface.
• According to various theories earth has a molten
core. The fact that volcanic action takes place in
many places in many places on the surface of
earth supports these theories.

Geothermal Power Plant
CONTROLS

SEPARATOR

TURBINE
GENERATOR

STEAM TURBINE

CONDENSER

15,000m

PIPES
(STEAM WELL)

PUMP

UNDER GROUND
STEAM STORAGE

Working
 Steam Well : Pipes are embedded at places of fresh volcanic
action called steam wells, where the molten internal mass of
earth vents to the atmosphere with very high temperatures.
 By sending water through embedded pipes, steam is raised
from the underground steam storage wells to the ground
level
 Separator: The steam is then passed through the separator
where most of the dirt and sand carried by the steam are
removed
 Turbine: The steam from the separator is passed through
steam drum and is used to run the turbine, which in turn
drives the generator
 The exhaust steam from the turbine is condensed
 The condensate is pumped into the earth to absorb the
ground heat again to get converted into steam

ADVANTAGES OF USING
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
• Some advantages geothermal energy production
provides over non-renewables
– Clean
– Less land stress
– Reliable
– Stimulates Economy

Advantages
 Energy is continuously available and is more dependable
 It has a good potential among the non-conventional energy sources
 Capital and generation cost is the lowest compared to nuclear and
coal plants
 No solid pollutants and no radiation fall out Useful minerals, such as
zinc and silica, can be extracted from underground water.
 Geothermal energy is “homegrown”.This will create jobs, a better
global trading position and less reliance on oil producing countries.
 Geothermal plants can be online 100% - 90% of the time. Coal
plants can only be online 75% of the time and nuclear plants can
only be online 65% of the time.
 Geothermal electric plants production is 13.380 g of Carbon dioxide
per kWh, whereas the CO2 emissions are 453 g/kWh for natural gas,
906g g/kWh for oil and 1042 g/kWh for coal.
 Geothermal plants do not require a lot of land, 400m 2 can produce a
gigawatt of energy over 30 years.

Challenges
• High Price And Risky
• Discovering Heat
Reservoirs
• Land Space to Create
Plant

Disadvantages
• Gaseous effluent, especially Hydrogen sulphide, is a
nuisance
• Ground subsidence may occur
• Life span may be less compared with nuclear and coal
plants
• The highly mineralized effluent may pollute ground water
and hence requires reinjection into well
• Problem of corrosion of components due to salt
• Thermal pollution due to effluent if not reinjected

Disadvantages
 Brine can salinate soil if the water is not injected back into the
reserve after the heat is extracted.
 Extracting large amounts of water can cause land subsidence, and
this can lead to an increase in seismic activity. To prevented this the
cooled water must be injected back into the reserve in order to keep
the water pressure constant underground.
 Power plants that do not inject the cooled water back into the ground
can release H2S, the “rotten eggs” gas. This gas can cause
problems if large quantities escape because inhaling too much is
fatal.
 One well “blew its top” 10 years after it was built, and this threw
hundreds of tons of rock, mud and steam into the atmosphere.
 There is the fear of noise pollution during the drilling of wells.

Case Study

Simultaneous generation of heat and power based geothermal power
plant for the first time has been operated in Mecklenburg, Germany
since 2003.
Principle
• The plant uses Organic Rankine Cycle steam power units, which
works effectively at low temperatures.
Heat
 The thermal water is carried to the surface to feed the heat supply
using geothermal probes.
 This water is often mineralized, the salt content in thermal water is 220
g/l and is therefore not usually directly used.
 So it is fed through heat-exchangers to transfer the energy into the
district heating system, and then pushed back deep into the earth.
 Plant was designed for an annual output of 21,000 MWhr.

Power
 In addition to district heating, geothermal power plant is used for
generating power.
 Power plant is fed with hot water at 98°C from 2200m underground.
 Water transfers its heat energy via the heat exchanger to the turbine
circuit.
 It is relatively low temperature power generation, a synthetic organic
substance that boils at 31°C is used in the turbine.
 Geothermal power plant can supply over 500 apartments of 1400
MWhr/yr to cover electricity requirement of 74000 residents.

Magneto Hydro Dynamics
(MHD)

INTRODUCTION
Magnetic Field Effects:

­­ exerts a force 

(creates structure)

­­ provides insulation
­­  stores energy

(released in flare) 

MHD
• MHD power generation is a new system of electric power
generation, which is said to be of high efficiency and low
pollution.
• In advanced countries MHD generators are widely used but in
developing countries like India it is still under construction.
This construction work is in progress at Trichy in Tamilnadu
under joint effort of BARC (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre),
BHEL, Associated Cement Corporation (ACC) and Russian
technologies.
• As its name implies, Magneto hydro dynamics (MHD) is
concerned with the flow of a conducting fluid in the presence of
magnetic and electric field.
• The fluid may be gas at elevated temperature or liquid metal like
sodium or potassium.
• An MHD generator is a device for converting heat energy of a
fuel directly into electrical energy without a conventional
electric generator

MHD
• MHD power generation uses the interaction of
an electrically conducting fluid with a magnetic
field to convert part of the energy of the fluid
directly into electricity.
• MHD - the study of the interaction between a
magnetic field and a plasma, treated as a
continuous medium.
• Converts thermal or kinetic energy into
electricity.

MHD

COMBUSTION
CHAMBER

NOZZLE
ELECTRODES
GAS FLOW

GENERATOR
CHANNEL

D.C
LOAD

Principles of MHD Power Generation
• The principle of MHD generation is simply that
discovered by Faraday: When an electric conductor
moves across a magnetic field a voltage is induced
in it which produces an electric current.
• This is the principle of the conventional generator
also, where a gaseous conductor, an ionized gas,
replaces the conductors. If such a gas is passed at
a high velocity through a powerful magnetic field, a
current is generated and can extracted by placing
electrodes in a suitable position in the stream. This
arrangement as illustrated in the Fig provides DC
power directly.

Conversion Efficiency
• MHD generator alone: 10-20%
• Steam plant alone: ≈ 40%
• MHD generator coupled with a steam
plant: up to 60%

Losses
• Heat transfer to walls
• Friction
• Maintenance of magnetic field

MHD + Steam plant

Other uses of MHD Technology
• The “Yamoto” a boat
built
by
Mitsubishi
powered solely by MHD
propulsion
• Can travel up to 15km/hr

Thermionic Energy Conversion
system

Thermionic Energy Conversion
system
• Another form of direct conversion of heat energy to
electrical energy has been achieved in the thermionic
converter. It utilizes the thermionic emission effect, that
is, the emission of electrons from heated metal (and
some oxide) surfaces.
• The energy required to extract an electron from the
metal is an important parameter, known as the work
function of the metal. Typical values of the order of a few
electron volts. The value of the work function varies with
the nature of the metal and its surface condition.
• In principle, a thermionic consists of two metals (or
electrodes) with different work function is maintained at a
higher temperature than one with the smaller work
function.

Thermionic Energy Conversion system

Cold electrode
(Collector)
or
Anode

Hot electrode
(Emitter)
or
Cathode

Evacuated
vessel

Electrons
External
DC Load

Emitter

Collector

Heat Out

Heat In

Load

Electron
Current

Thermionic Energy Conversion system
• System consists of two electrodes held in a
container filled with ionized cesium vapour. Heating
one electrode, electrons are emitted, that travel to
the opposite, colder electrode. The hotter electrode
(or emitter) emits electrons (i.e. negative charges)
and so acquires a positive charge, whereas the
colder electrode (or collector) collects electrons and
becomes negatively charged.
• A voltage (or electromotive force) thus develops,
between the two electrodes and a direct electric
current will flow in an external circuit (or load)
connecting them.

• The voltage, which may be 1 volt (or so), is
determined primarily by the difference in the
work function of the electrode materials.
• Because electrons cannot travel far in air,
thermionic converters require that the electrodes
be in a vacuum. This limits the size of the
converter so that only small-scale power
production is feasible

Problems to be overcome
• Find material with high enough emission
• Space charge

Types of TEC
• Closed space diode
• Caesium diode
• TECs with auxiliary discharge

Thermionic Energy Conversion system
Some applications
•Electric vehicles
•Topping cycle
•Cogeneration
•Solar cell
•Domestic heating and electricity supply
•In-pile system

SUMMARY
Developments making TECs more feasible
•Advances in electronic emitter materials
•New methods of plasma analysis by computer 
  simulation
•Application of microminiaturisation techniques

Thermoelectric Energy
Conversion System

Thermoelectric Energy Conversion
• Thermo-electric generator is a device, which converts
heat energy (thermal energy) into electrical energy
through semi-conductor or conductor.
• The direct conversion of heat energy into electric energy
(i.e. without a conventional electric generator) based on
the Seebeck Thermo electric effect.
• Consider two dissimilar materials joined together in the
form of a loop so that there are two junctions.

Thermoelectric Energy Conversion
Material-1

Hot junction
T2

Cold junction
T1

Material-2

V

Seebeck Effect
• In 1821, Thomas Seebeck found that an electric
current would flow continuously in a closed circuit
made up of two dissimilar metals, if the junctions of
the metals were maintained at two different
temperatures.

S= dV / dT;
S is the Seebeck Coefficient with units of Volts per
Kelvin
S is positive when the direction of electric current
is same as the direction of thermal current

Thermoelectric Energy Conversion
• If a temperature difference is maintained
between these two junctions, an electric current
will flow round the loop. The magnitude of the
current will depend on both the materials used
and the temperature difference of the junction
(ΔT = T2 -T1). If the circuit is broken an open
circuit voltage ‘V’ appears across the thermals
of the break as shown in figure.
• The thermo emf, V produced by the device is
given by
V= S1-2ΔT
S1-2 Seebeck Coefficient.

Thermoelectric Power Generation
• Used in Space shuttles and rockets for
compact source of power.
• Energy recovery from automobile engines
• Diffusive heat flow and Peltier effect are
additive i.e. both reduce the temperature
gradient.

Fuel Cells

Fuel Cells
• Electro-chemical device for the continuous
conversion of a portion of the free energy change of
a chemical reaction to electrical energy.
• It is distinguished from a battery in that it operates
with continuous replenishment of the fuel and the
oxidant at active electrode area and does not require
recharging.
• Main component of a fuel cell are (i) a fuel electrode
(ii) an oxidant or air electrode and (iii) an electrolyte

Introduction to Fuel Cells
• A fuel cell is a device that uses hydrogen (or
hydrogen rich fuel) and oxygen to create electricity
by an electrochemical process.
• If pure hydrogen is used as a fuel, fuel cells emit
only heat and water as a byproduct.
• Current applications: power passenger vehicles,
commercial buildings, homes, and laptop
computers.

Why We Want to Use Fuel
Cells?
• Environmental concern of using
fossil fuel (e.g. poisonous emissions)
• Oil crises

• Global warming



A fuel cell is a controlled chemical and electrical energy conversion
device which continuously converts chemical energy to electrical
energy.
In a hydrogen, oxygen fuel cell electrochemical reaction involves the
process of ionisation in which atoms or molecules looses or gains
one or more electron.
Loosing one electron gives the atom overall positive charge and
gaining an electron gives negative charge.
Water can be ionised into hydroxyl ion(-) and hydrogen ion(+) when
two dissimilar metal electrodes like sodium, zinc, cadmium is placed
in a solution containing ions. Voltage is developed between
positively charged electrode.
In fuel cell the reactants are continuously fed to the cell and
electrically it is extracted.
Therefore the fuel cell is like a storage battery but with regular
supply of fuel and oxygen.

Fuel Cell
Anode

Cathode

eH+

H2
H2  2H+ + 2e-

O2
½ O2 + 2H+ + 2e-  H2O

Electrolyte
Overall: H2 + ½ O2  H2O

Fuel Cell Components

Components
– Electrolyte (Membrane)

electrodes

catalys
t

• Transport ions
• Block electrons, gases
– Electrodes
• Catalyze reactions
• Transport
– Ions, electrons, gases
• May be a composite
– (electro)Catalyst +
– Conductors +
– Pore former

sealant
electrolyte
Membrane-Electrode 
Assembly (MEA)

Fuel Cells
• Some of the fuel cells are hydrogen, oxygen(H2O2),
hydrazine (N2H4O2), Carbon/coal(C,O2),, methane (CH4,O2).
• Hydrogen, oxygen (Hydroxy) fuel cells, are efficient and
highly developed.
• In the hydrox cell, catalyst is embedded in Nickel
electrode.The electrolyte is typically 30% KOH because of
its high electrical conductivity and it is less corrosive
than acids.
• Cell reactions are,
Anode reaction : 2H2
4H + + 4eCathode reaction : 2H2 + O2

2H2O (vapour) + Energy

• H2 is fed to one electrode and is absorbed. It gives
off free electrons and also reacts with hydroxyl ions
of the electrolyte to form water.The free electrons
travel towards oxygen electrode through the external
circuit.
• The two electrons at the external circuit combine
with one molecule of water to form 2OH- ions.
• These OH- ions migrate towards H2 electrode and are
consumed there.
• The electrolyte remains invariant. The cell operates
at or slightly above atmospheric pressure and at
temperature of about 90ºC.These types of cells are
called low temperature cells. In high-pressure cells
pressure is upto about 45 atmosphere and
temperature is upto 300ºC.

• A single hydrogen, oxygen fuel cell can produce an
emf of 1.23 Volt at atmospheric pressure and at
25ºC.By connecting number of cells, it is possible to
create useful potential of 100 to 1000 volts and
power levels of 1 kW to nearly 100MW.
• The overall efficiency of the cell is the ratio of the
power generated and the heating value of the
hydrogen consumed.

Comparison between different types of fuel cells
Aspects

PEMFC

AFC

PAFC

MCFC

SOFC

Type of
electrolyte

H+ ions (With
anion bound in
polymer
membrane)

OH- ions
(Typically
aqueous KOH
solutions)

H+ ions (H3PO4
solutions)

CO32- ions (Typically
molten LiK2CO3
eutectics)

O2- ions (Stabilized
ceramic matrix with
free oxide ions)

Typical
construction

Plastic, metal
or carbon

Plastic, metal

Carbon, porous
ceramics

High temperature
metals, porous
ceramic

Ceramic, High
temperature metals

Internal
Reforming

No

No

No

Yes, Good
Temperature match

Yes, Good
Temperature match

Oxidant

Air to O2

Purified Air
to O2

Air to enriched air

Air

Air

Operational
Temperature

65 – 85 ºC

90 - 260 ºC

190 - 210 ºC

650 - 700 ºC

750 - 1000 ºC

Distributed
Generation
system level
(η %)

25 - 35

32 - 40

35 - 45

40 - 50

45 - 55

Primary
contaminate
sensitivities

CO,NH3 and
sulphur

CO,CO2 and
sulphur

CO < 1% sulphur

Sulphur

Sulphur

Types of Fuel Cell
• PEMFC – Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell or
Polymer Electrolyte Membrane
• AFC
– Alkaline Fuel Cell
• PAFC – Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell
• MCFC – Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell
• SOFC – Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

Fuel Cell Choices
Temperature sets operational parameters & fuel choice

Ambient Temperature

High Temperature

 Rapid start-up

 Fuel flexible

 H2 or CH3OH as fuels

 Very high efficiencies

 Catalysts easily poisoned

 Long start-up

Applications

Applications

– Portable power

– Stationary power

– Many on/off cycles

– Auxiliary power in

– Small size

portable systems

How Fuel Cells Work
• A fuel cell is a device that uses hydrogen (or
hydrogen-rich fuel) and oxygen to create
electricity by an electrochemical process.
• A single fuel cell consists of an electrolyte
sandwiched between two thin electrodes (a
porous anode and cathode).

Types of Fuel Cells






Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)
Phosphoric Acid
Direct Methanol
Alkaline
Molten Carbonate
Solid Oxide
Regenerative (Reversible)

PEM
• Also called SPEFC (Solid Polymer Electrolyte
Fuel Cells)
• Use a proton exchange membrane as an
electrolyte.
• Low temperature fuel cells (85-1050C)
• Nafion® membranes (developed by DuPont)
consists of a polyterrafluoreethylene (PTFE)
based structure

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane
(PEM)

Alkali Fuel Cell

Electrolyte: KOH in H2O
– Liquid in a matrix, or liquid recirculated

Mobile species: OH-

Half cell reactions
– anode:
– cathode:

Catalysts
– anode:

H2 + 2OH-  2H2O + 2e½ O2 + H2O + 2e  2OH
-

-

H2O available
in electrolyte

Ni, Ni-Pt, Ni-Co, etc.

– cathode:
NiO, Ag, etc.
– unlike other fuel cells, rapid cathode kinetics, slower anode

Features
– High power output due to rapid electrocatalysis rates
– Inexpensive materials
– Highly sensitive to CO2: KOH(aq) + CO2  K2CO3 (ppt)
– Used by NASA for manned missions

Alkaline

Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell

Electrolyte: H3PO4 + H2O (~20%)
– Liquid in a SiC matrix

Mobile species: H+

Half cell reactions
– anode:
– cathode:

H2  2H+ + 2e½ O2 + 2H+ + 2e-  H2O

Catalysts
– anode + cathode: Pt/Vulcan carbon
– Pt coarsens with time, phosphate adsorbs to surface
– like most fuel cells, slow cathode kinetics, faster anode

Features
– Low power output due to slow cathode kinetics
– Expensive catalysts, and very high cost per power output
– Catalyst relatively insensitive to CO (due to high temp)
– “Commercialized” in 1990’s, then abandoned, now on again

Phosphoric Acid

Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell

Electrolyte: K2CO3, Na2CO3, Li2CO3 eutectic liq (500-700°C)
– Liquid in a LiAlO2 matrix

Mobile species: CO3=

Half cell reactions
– anode:
– cathode:

Catalysts
– anode:

H2 + CO3=  CO2+ H2O + 2e½ O2 + CO2 + 2e-  CO3=

CO2
recirculated

Ni-Al, Ni-Cr alloys

– cathode:
NiO
– like most fuel cells, slow cathode kinetics, faster anode

Features
– High temperature  in situ hydrocarbon fuel reforming
– Highly corrosive environment
– NiO dissolution at cathode & precipitation at anode as Ni
– Largely abandoned in the US, but Japan and Europe continue

Molten Carbonate

PEM Fuel Cell

Electrolyte: Sulfonated, perfluorinated polymer [Nafion]
– “water–polymer composite”

Mobile species: H(H2O)n+

Half cell reactions
– anode:
– cathode:

Catalysts
– anode:

[not H+]

H2 + 2nH2O  2H(H2O)n+ + 2e½ O2 + 2H(H2O) + 2e  H2O
+
n

-

H2O
recirculated

Pt/Vulcan carbon ~ 0.1 mg/cm2

– cathode:
Pt/Vulcan carbon ~ 1 mg/cm2
– like other fuel cells, slow cathode kinetics, fast anode

Features
– High power output due to rapid electrocatalysis rates
– Expensive materials
– Catalyst highly sensitive to impurities: CO
– Corrosive environment  degradation, e.g. Pt coarsening

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane
(PEM)

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

Electrolyte: yttria stabilized zirconia, YSZ, Zr0.92Y0.08O1.96
– true solid electrolyte

Mobile species: O=

[or oxygen vacancy]

Half cell reactions
– anode:

H2 + O=  H2O + 2e-

– cathode:

Catalysts
– anode:
– cathode:

½ O2 + 2e-  O=
Ni + YSZ
(La,Sr)MnO3-

– like other fuel cells, slow cathode kinetics, fast anode

Features
– Relatively high power output
– Expensive manufacturing, auxiliary component materials
– In principle, hydrocarbon fuels can be directly oxidized
– Under steady conditions, little degradation

Solid Oxide

Advantages
Some of the advantages of fuel cells are:
• It is a direct conversion process and does not
involve a thermal process, so it has high operating
efficiency. Present day fuel cell efficiency is 38% and
is expected to reach 60%.
• The unit is lighter, smaller and needs less
maintanence.
• Fuel power plants may further cut generation costs
by reducing transmission losses.
• Little pollution, little noise so that it can be readily
acceptable in resident areas.

Benefits of Using Fuel Cells
• They produce much small quantities of
greenhouse gases that contribute to global
warming.
• None of the air pollutants that create smog and
cause health problems.
• If pure hydrogen is used as a fuel, ONLY heat
and water are emitted.

Drawbacks
The drawbacks are:
 Low voltage
 High initial cost
 Low service life

Applications

Fuel Cell Generator
Fuel Cell Bus

Power Generation/Conversion

Fuel Cell Car

Hydrogen as a future energy
source

Reasons for change

Environment




Reduction in greenhouse
gases (CO2, NOx, SOx)
Eco friendly use of waste
products
Desire to use renewable
energy
Desire to meet emissions
goals
(eg: Kyoto)

Energy shortages




Peak oil running out
Hydrocarbon gas supplies a long
way from point of use
Emergence of rapidly developing
economies greatly increasing
World’s energy requirement
A long term energy solution

Energy security



Minimising reliance on
Imported energy
Changing political climate
increases dependence on
unstable regimes
Hydrogen can be produced
from multiple sources

Energy Efficiency



Maximum 80% efficient for conversion to H2 from other fuels.
Liquefying H2 uses up to 1/3 rd of it’s energy value!
Liquid storage losses can be 2-3% per day
Compression requires significant energy input input

It’s not energy efficient!

Environmental issues
• Steam Methane reforming produces more CO 2
than current Hydrocarbon fuels for vehicles.
• Electrolysis can be environmentally friendly
depending on how the electricity is produced.

It may not be Environmentally friendly !

So why Hydrogen?
• It will never run out – unlike Oil and Gas.
• It can be produced in several ways from different
sources.
• It provides energy security - any country can make
their own.
• It can be used in either Fuel Cells (FC’s) or Internal
Combustion Engines (ICE’s)
• The world wants an environmentally friendly fuel –
Hydrogen has the potential.
• At some point, Hydrogen will be cheaper than
Hydrocarbons.
• Clean at point of use

Hydrogen as a future energy source
• The use of energy may lead to climate changes. It is
thus necessary to make the transition to cleaner and
environmentally favourable energy carriers.
• Hydrogen has the best potential of becoming the fuel of
the future. Hydrogen can be produced from sustainable,
renewable sources and may contribute to meet the
growth in world energy demand.
• Hydrogen is an energy carrier for the future. It is a clean
fuel that can be used in places where it is hard to use
electricity. Sending electricity a long way costs four times
as much as shipping hydrogen by pipeline.

Hydrogen as a future energy source
• Hydrogen is a carbon-free energy carrier. When used in
fuel cells, there are no harmful emissions.
• The current production of hydrogen is 500 billion
m3/year,equivalent to 3.3 million barrels of oil per day.
This again is equivalent to 10% of the energy currently
used in transportation.
• Presently, hydrogen production represents only about 1
percent of worldwide oil production. The only place it has
been used for fuel in significant quantity is the NASA
space shuttle.

H2 as the energy source of tomorrow
A storage medium for heat and electricity:
• hydrogen = ideal energy source to bridge the time and
distance gaps between supply and demand:
 as a component of water, a resource available in large
quantities

 environmentally compatible as part of the biological life
cycle
 its oxidation creates pure water
 easily transported and stored in compressed gas form or as
a supercooled liquid
 releases chemically stored energy in the form of heat, or in
the form of electricity and heat in fuel cells
 high energy content = suitable as fuel for cars

H2 as the energy source of tomorrow

H2 as the energy source of tomorrow

On the way to our energy source of the future

On the way to our energy source of the future
 Advantages of Sustainable Energy:
 fossil fuel resources no longer burnt
 cyclical system: hydrogen as well as the energy
required to generate it are derived from
renewable sources
 combustion of hydrogen emits no greenhouse
gases
 local power supply in the home and cars

• The following hurdles may be overcome if hydrogen is to
be a viable source of energy in the future:
 The long-term nature of the transition may be recognized
and a strategy developed now.
 Durable and affordable fuel cells must be developed.
 On-board storage and safety issues must be resolved for
hydrogen – powered cars.
 Hydrogen has to be produced cheaply and in such a way
that doesn’t use more than it is produced.

Energy Conservation and Energy
Management

Energy Management vs
Energy Conservation
Conservation is the reduction of usage.
Management is the judicious and effective
use of utilities to maximize profits
(minimize costs) and enhance
competitive positions.

Energy and Financial Management
EM is strikingly similar to FINANCIAL
management:






Identify goals;
Select the investments needed to reach the goals;
Establish a blueprint & strategy for goal attainment;
Start early, if only with small efforts;
Maintain regular contributions over time;
Keep track of earnings; and
Defeat risk through reinvestment and diversification of
earnings.

Energy Management Benefits
Initial Effort (First two years)
• 5-15% cost savings
• Little or no capital expenditure
Long-Term Effort
• 25% or higher cost savings
• Requires management commitment
• A never ending process

Focusing Energy Management
• Focus on COST not USAGE
• Pareto Principle
– 20% of loads account for 80% of costs
– Identify these 20% loads

• Control and meter these loads
• Develop a “Cost Center” mentality
– Don’t treat utilities as overhead

Starting Your Energy Action Plan
•Designate an Energy Management
Coordinator
•Establish the Energy Management Team
•Evaluate cost saving opportunities
•Prioritize implementation
•Implement
•Evaluate success (e.g. benchmarking) and
promote

Energy Management
Coordinator




A single person
Dynamic
Goal oriented
Good manager
Wears other hats

GOALS OF THE EMC
• Architect of the “Energy Action Plan”
• Provide effective energy reporting and
analysis (energy accounting)
• Secure management commitment
• Establish “cost center” mentality
• Establish energy cost/usage standards
• Provide EM training
• Set EM objectives (defined goals)

EXAMPLE ENERGY
MANGEMENT GOALS
• Reduce electric cost per unit of production
by 10% the first year and 5% in the second
• Within 2 years all tenants will be separately
metered
• Facility will have a contingency plan for gas
curtailment by end of first year
• All boilers will be examined for waste heat
recovery potential the first year

ENERGY MANAGEMENT TEAM
Energy Management
Coordinator
Technical Support
Steering Group

Energy Management

Which factors does Energy Management deal with?
•People
•Building
•Energy type used
•Installed equipment
•External factors
•Legislation – ‘One will have to
comply’

Energy Conservation

Energy Conservation
• In economic terms, energy is termed as a demand- derived
good.That is, energy is an intermediate good whose
demand depends on the demand of the final (end-use)
goods and services it produces.
• Energy conservation can be defined as the substitution of
energy with capital labour or material and time.
• Energy conservation can also be defined as the substitution
of this generation’s energy with that of future generations,
known as “intertemporal substitution” (substitution of this
generation energy with that of future generations).
• Energy conservation invokes avoiding wastage of energy
and adopting methods to save energy without affecting the
productivity and comforts of machine / labour.

The two points to be considered before demanding more
conservation efforts are:
• Whether the depletion of the given resource can be offset
by new exploration and findings. That is, is the resource
really limited, and hard to replace in a short time.
• The intertemporal welfare of consuming this type of
energy. That is, is the marginal utility of consuming this
energy in this generation larger than the utility of
consuming it in the next generation.

Principles of Energy Conservation
 The two principles governing energy conservation are
• Maximum thermodynamic efficiency.
• Maximum cost-effectiveness in energy use.
 We can maximize this efficiency by the following
conservation measures
• Using condensers to recapture the heat discharged as many
times as possible
• Reducing heat loss with better heat exchangers

 Maximum cost-effectiveness in energy use is achieved if
the production factor or intertemporal substitution is
made to maximize energy efficiency at the least cost.
From this, maximum cost-effectiveness in energy use is
determined by two cost components:
• Conservation costs (Costs for implementing energy
conservation efforts in order to save energy)
• Energy costs (Unit energy cost will decline as more
conservation measures are implemented to reduce
energy use)

Energy Use in India

Energy consumption in India is low, though efficiency of use is reasonable
– Per capita energy consumption is 530 kgoe; world average is 1770
– Energy intensity of Indian economy was 0.18 kgoe/$-GDP(PPP) in 2004; compared to
0.14 in Japan and 0.19 in the EU

Energy demand is increasing due to rising incomes, accelerated industrialization,
urbanization and population growth

2003-04

:

572

2016-17

:

842-916 Mtoe

2026-27

:

1406-1561 Mtoe

Mtoe

Meeting the increasing demand only through increases in supply may lead to:
– Reduced energy security due to volatility in availability and prices of imported fuels
– Adverse environmental impacts
– Strain on balance of payments

Energy conservation and energy-efficiency are an essential part of national energy strategy

IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY
CONSERVATION

Energy efficiency/conservation measures can reduce peak
and average demand.

.
• One unit saved avoids 2.5 to 3 times of fresh capacity.
• Also avoids investment in fuel, mining, transportation etc.
• Keeping the above factors in view and also to provide a policy
guidance, Government of India enacted the Energy
Conservation Act,2001

Application of waste heat for energy
conservation
Case study 1 : Distilled water from Engine exhaust heat
• CHP delivers electrical and thermal energy in such a way that
much more of the energy content of the input fuel is used - by
utilizing waste heat.
• Diesel engine operates with a thermal efficiency of 40%. So
waste heat is 60% of the available heat.
For example, diesel car having the Air, Fuel ratio of 1: 15
• Mass of Exhaust gas leaving from the engine = 16 kg/kg of fuel
• Engine exhaust gas temperature
= 600 C
• Specific heat of flue gas
= 0.25 kcal / kg K

• Quantity of heat available if we reduce the flue gas
temperature 600 to 300 C
Q
=
m Cp (T2-T1)
=
1200 kcal
• Quantity of heat required making the water into steam
• (Sensible heat + Latent heat) =
594.5 kcal / kg
  We are able to get 2 lt of distilled water for every liter
of Diesel

Application of Renewable energy
systems for energy conservation
Case study 2 : Solar water heater for fuel savings
 1% fuel can be saved for every 6ºC rise in temperature
of boiler feed water.
 100 LPD (Litres per day) solar water heater can rise the
temperature from 32ºC to 62ºC (ΔT = 30°C), costs
around Rs 18,000.
 5% fuel saving can be achieved with the help of solar
water heater.
 100 MW thermal power plant requires 60 tons/hr of coal
 5% of fuel saving is 3 tons/hr so Rs 9000/hr is saved.

• 8000 working hours in a year, saves Rs 7,20,00,000.
• 100 MW thermal power plant requires 10 tons/hr (2,40,000
lt/day) of feed water.
• So 2400 Nos of 100 LPD solar water heater is needed for 100
MW thermal power plant which can rise the boiler feed water to
62°C.
• Initial investment for 2400 nos of solar water heater is
Rs.4,32,00,000.
• Payout time is less than one year. (4,32,00,000 / 7,20,00,000).
• Life of the solar water heater is 10 yrs.
• The energy conservation method could be thought of wherever
there is a demand for process heat.

Optimum Utilization of Heat and
Power

Waste Heat Recovery
• Waste heat is defined as the heat rejected from a process
which is sufficiently at a higher temperature than the
ambient temperature.
• Waste heat could include exhaust steam from process
industries, heat from power plants and heat generated
from various other streams such as agricultural crops,
food process waste, waste tyres etc.
• Approximately two-thirds of industrial energy is used in
process steam and heat, and this is in the form of thermal
energy, rather than in the form of power. Consequently, the
opportunities for waste heat recovery are plentiful.

• However in establishing the opportunities, process
energy requirements and waste streams technology of
recovery need to be evaluated. Their costs and energy
savings are vital to the determination of the economic
viability of waste heat recovery.
• Three temperature ranges are used to classify waste
heat.
 The high temperature range
- above 1200°F
 The medium temperature range - between 450°F and
1200°F
 The low temperature range
- below 450°F

Waste Heat Recovery
Sources of waste heat
• High temperature waste heat
- Aluminium refining furnace, cement kiln, solid waste
incinerators
• Medium temperature waste heat
- Steam boiler exhausts, gas turbine exhausts, heating furnaces
• Low temperature waste heat
- Cooling water from internal combustion engines, process
steam condensate
There are two basic ways to recover heat from the sources:
o Using heat exchangers to transfer heat in one fluid stream to another.
e.g. from flue gas to feed water (economizer) or combustion air (air
preheater).
o Waste heat boilers to produce steam.

Combined Heat and Power
• Scheme which combines electrical power generation with
utilization of heat for space heating and / or specific industrial
process.
• The maximum efficiency of the thermal power plant is 30-40%.
• The application of the Carnot principle to any heat engine
cycle shows that however efficient the cycle may be, the
maximum efficiency is given by
carnot = 1-(T2/T1)
T1 = Maximum temperature available (e.g. the
metallurgical limit)
T2 = Lowest temperature available
• In a steam power plant, if the heat rejected in the condenser
were utilized the overall efficiency would be increased to about
75-80%.

• The existing power plants, scope for use the heat
rejected from the condenser is limited-the reason.
– The temperature of heat rejection is low (Lower
grade Heat)
– Power stations are far away from the recipients of
thermal energy

Benefits of CHP
• Local generation of electricity
• Improvement in national energy efficiency and
preservation of non-renewable energy sources
• Cogeneration
• Employment opportunities

Energy Management and Energy
Audit

Energy Management & Audit
Energy Management can be divided into 3 process
• Analysis, Action & Monitoring
• Energy Audit is a part of the Action step. An
energy audit is the collection and analysis of
data on present energy use, the choice of
energy management objectives and of specific
measures to meet these objectives and the
process used to monitor progress towards these
objectives
• To convert data into information

ENERGY MANAGEMENT
....INVOLVES A COMBINATION OF
-

MANAGERIAL
&

-

TECHNICAL/TECHNOLOGICAL
SKILLS/KNOWLEDGE

GLOBAL/NATIONAL BENEFITS









immediate results
lower power plant capacity
reduced load shedding
reduced energy imports
lower foreign exchange needs
use of local equipment
job creation
lower inflation
reduced emissions/pollution
conservation of scarce/limited resources

GLOBAL ISSUES
• ENERGY USE
• ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE
• NUCLEAR SAFETY/HEALTH
• SO2, NO - ACID RAIN, OZONE DEPLETION
• CO2 - GREENHOUSE EFFECT.

BARRIERS/OBSTACLES TO
MANAGEMENT OF ENERGY
• Artificially low energy prices.
• Little energy consciousness.
• Higher priority to “more important” issues (eg., keep plant
running).
• Automation seen as more important than energy cost
management, in plant modernisation of plant.
• Lack of energy management expertise
• Lack of knowledge of own energy consumption
patterns/costs/ potential for saving

BARRIERS/OBSTACLES TO MANAGEMENT
OF ENERGY



Old, high-energy plant.
Lack of capital.
Other investment priorities.
Local energy infrastructure may not encourage energy
saving.
• Apathy on the part of managers and staff.
• Lack of awareness of energy engineers,

technological possibilities, and economics.

ENERGY MANAGEMENT
The objective of Energy Management is to achieve and maintain
optimum energy procurement and utilisation, throughout the
organisation:
-

To minimise energy costs/waste...

-

Without affecting production.

-

To minimise environmental effects.

ENERGY MANAGEMENT INVOLVES
FOUR MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS
... PLANNING
... LEADING
... ORGANISING
... CONTROLLING

THE TOTAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT
PROCESS
Awareness of
Potential Savings
Top Management Commitment
Preliminary Energy Audit
Detailed Energy Audit
Implement No-Cost/
Low-Cost Measures

Training

Monitor

Feasibility Studies
-Capital Intensive Projects
Implement
Higher-Cost
Measures

Conducting An Energy Audit
OUTLINE







Initiating an Energy Management Program
Goals of the Energy Audit
Energy Bills
Steps in the On-Site Energy Audit
Degree Days, Layout, Operating Hours
Equipment List
Systems to Consider
Energy Audit Report

Starting an Energy Management
Program
Conduct an energy audit
An energy audit (or energy survey) is:
A study of how energy is used in a facility
and an analysis of what alternatives could
be used to reduce energy costs
improve profits

Goals of the Energy Audit are to:
 Clearly identify types and costs of energy use
 Understand how that energy is being used – and
possibly wasted
 Identify and analyze more cost-effective ways of
using energy
- improved operational techniques
- new equipment
 Perform an economic analysis on those alternatives
and determine which are cost-effective for your
business or industry

Steps in the On-site Energy Audit
1.

Identify layout and operating schedule for facility.
Make a plan or sketch of the building(s) which shows
building size, room sizes, window areas, and wall and
roof composition and insulation (offices, prod, maint,…)

2.

Compile an equipment inventory.
List all energy consuming equipment, with hours of use
each year and energy ratings or efficiencies.

Steps in the On-site Energy Audit
3. Determine the pattern of building use to show
annual needs for heating, cooling, & lighting.

4. Conduct a room-by room lighting inventory
- light fixtures
- lamp types, sizes and numbers
- levels of illumination
- uses of task lighting

Responsibilities and Duties of Energy Auditor








Carry out a detailed energy audit
Quantify energy consumption and establish base line energy
information
Construct energy and material balance
Perform efficiency evaluation of energy & utility systems
Compare energy norms with existing energy consumption
levels
Identify and prioritization of energy saving measures
Analyse technical and financial feasibility of energy saving
measures
Recommend energy efficient technologies and alternate
energy sources
Report writing, presentation and follow up for implementation

Responsibilities and Duties of Energy Manager
• Establish an energy conservation cell & prepare an annual activity
plan
• Develop and manage training programme for energy efficiency at
operating levels
• Develop integrated system of energy efficiency and
environmental improvement
• Initiate activities to improve monitoring and process control to
reduce energy costs
• Co-ordinate implementation of energy audit/efficiency
improvement projects through external agencies
• Establish / participate in information exchange with other energy
managers of the same sector through association
• Provide information to BEE and Designated Agency of the
respective States as demanded in the Act

Industrial and Building Energy
Management

Industrial and Building Energy Management
• Optimum uses of thermal, Electrical energy in industrial &
building activities
• In industrial activities, the following is the key elements for
energy management
• The efficiency improvement
• Waste heat recovery potential
• Optimum use of steam
• Cogeneration
• Optimum thickness of insulation
• Optimum of natural lighting & ventilation
• In Building energy management, the key elements are
– Lighting
– Heating & Cooling
– Construction

Some important points in Building Energy Management
• Switch off the fans, light and TV whenever they are not in
use
• Clean the tube light for every fortnight to get a good level
of illumination
• Clean the dust settled over the fan blade to get a
designed amount of air
• Use CFL (Compact Fluorescent Lamp) – lead to energy
conservation
• CFL lamps can be used where maximum duration of
lighting is essential
• For Street lightings, CFL gives more benefit than our
incandescent lights

• If you use Electronic choke instead of regular choke in
Tube light, you can save 16% of Electricity
• Use electronic regulator instead of ordinary regulator for
fans
• Keep your refrigerator 7” away from the wall to save 7%
of electricity
• Decide the level of cooling you required for the operation
of the refrigerator to save power (Low, Medium or High
Cool)
• Choose the required size of the refrigerator in order to
avoid the power for cooling the empty space of the
refrigerator

Bulb (Watt)

CFL lamp
(Watt)

Lumens

Amount (Rs)

40

8

400

215

75

14

900

235

100

18

200

400

Comparison in cost saving of CFL lamp – basis: 8 hours operation /day
40 Watt Lamp

8 Watt CFL Lamp

40 W  8 hours  30 days = 9.6 Units

8 W  8 hours  30 days = 1.92 Units

For 1 year = 115.2 Units

For 1 year = 23 Units

Cost = 115.2  Rs. 2.20 = Rs. 253.44

Cost = 23.0  Rs. 2.20 = Rs. 50.60

Cost saving for one year=Rs 202.84
Payout Time

=

l year

Energy Management in Lighting

Lighting
• When a metallic material becomes hot, it emits radiation.
This happens in an incandescent bulb when it is
switched on. The thin filament is heated to such a high
temperature by the electrical energy fed into it that it
begins to glow and emit radiation. Some of the radiation
is invisible (heat radiation) and some visible (light)
Sources of light:
• Light source can be classified as
• Natural light – Varies constantly with changing
metrological conditions, time of the day, seasons and
specific location on earth
– Sunlight – light received directly from the sun
– Skylight – scattered light received from other
luminous parts of the sky

Artificial light
• Flame based – they evolved from firelight, oil
lamps, modern kerosene, gas lamps, candles
etc.,
• Electrical light – incandescent and discharge
lamps

Light and Energy
– A source of light needs energy, either electrical or heat
– Input to lighting – for the flame based systems it is
necessary to know the net heating value and rate of
consumption of the fuels used or for electrical lighting
systems, the power ratings of the lamps
– Output energy – it is also possible to measure the
quantity of energy that is contained in the output of
lighting system, i.e., in the light
– It is possible to measure how the emitted energy of a
100W incandescent lamp is distributed over the
radiation spectrum
– These measurements take the spectral sensitivity of
the eye in to account

- Total light energy emitted by a 100W bulb is 1700
lumen, which is only a fraction of the 10W energy in the
visible range. This quantity is called by definition the
luminous flux

UV Visible

Infrared

Energy

0

0.4

0.8

1

2

3

Wave length (micrometers)

4

Photometric Quantities
Illuminance - unit Lux (lx)
• The luminous flux falling on unit area of a surface and is
expressed in lux
• Office desk - 300/500 lx
• Corridor
- 100/500 lx
• Classroom - 300 lx
• Restroom - 150 lx
• Living room - 50/300 lx
• Bedroom
- 50 lx
Luminous intensity – unit candela (cd)
The luminous flux per unit of solid angle in a given direction

Luminous flux – unit lumen (lm)
• Total amount of light emitted by a source or received by a
surface
• Candle – 5 lm
• 100W incandescent lamp – 1700 lm
• 60W fluorescent lamp – 3600 lm
Luminance – unit (cd/m2)
• Express how bright the source appears
Luminous efficacy – unit (lm/W)
• It is the energy to light conversion
• In incandescent bulb, it gives 17 lm/W (i.e., 1700 lm/100W)

Average illuminance on an area:
• It is expressed as,
E = lu/s
where, E – Average illuminance (lx)
lu – Average luminous flux (lm)
s – Surface area (m2)
Illuminance at a point:
• The illuminance at a point can be
calculated easily when the size of the
source is small compared with its distance
from the surface

E point = (Li / d2)  cosine b
where
• E point – illuminance at a point (lx)
• Li – luminous intensity (cd)
• d – distance between the source of light and the point
(m)
• b – angle between the beam and a line perpendicular to
plane of the surface

Spot light

d
b
Epoint

Colour and Colorimetry
• A distinction is made between the colour temperature of
a light source when you look at the light itself and the
colour rendering that it gives to surface when it shines
onto them
• The colour-rendering index expresses how a light source
compares with natural light or daylight in its ability to
make objects appear to their natural colours. Put more
precisely, it is a measure of the degree to which the
colour of surfaces illuminated by a given light source
confirm to those of the same surfaces under a reference
light. Some form of daylight is taken as the reference
source
• Perfect agreement between the source being judged and
the reference source is given a value of 100

CIE colour rendering %

Typical applications

Example of lamps

90 (Good)

Accurate colour matching

Incandescent lamps

80-90 (Good)

Accurate colour judgment Fluorescent tubes (with
or good colour rendering triphosphor fluorescent
for reasons of appearance coating)

60-80 (Medium)

Moderate
rendering

40-60 (Medium)

Little significant colour High-Pressure mercury
rendering, but marked lamps
distortions of colours
unacceptable

20-40(Poor)

Colour rendering not Low-Pressure
important and colour lamps.
distortion acceptable

colour Standard
tubes

Fluorescent

sodium

Illuminance for different purposes
• The following table gives the scale of illuminance
recommended by CIE for use in working
interiors:
• These standards illuminances are based on
consideration of the performance of the
respective tasks, the comfort of people doing the
tasks, and the time, which the space is occupied

Comparison of lighting systems
Type of
light source

Candle

Kerosene
lantern

Pressure
lamp

Gas lamp

Biogas lamp

Energy
source

Wax

Kerosene

Kerosene

LPG

Biogas

Rate of
consumption

Total
power

Luminous
flux

Luminous
efficacy

W

lm

lm/W

5.50 g/h

55

1

0.02

7.20 g/h

72

16

0.22

0.02 l/h

200

10

0.05

0.05 l/h

488

100

0.25

0.06 l/h

563

220

0.39

0.08 l/h

813

1300

1.60

28 l/h

350

330

0.94

34 l/h

425

1000

2.35

0.10 m3/h

639

330

0.48

0.20 m3/h

1385

1300

0.94

Color
rendering

Equivalent
number of
lamps(*)

Good

75

Good

12

Poor

1

Poor

1

Poor

1

Examples of electrical lamps
Incandescent
lamp

Electrical

100W

100

1200

12

Good

1

Halogen lamp

Electrical

25W

25

500

20

Good

2

Fluorescent
tube

Electrical

13W

13

585

45

Good

2

(*) – The equivalent number of lamps is the number of lamps required to
produce the same luminous flux as the reference of 100W incandescent
electrical bulb (i.e. 1200 lm)