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Revolutions in Russia

May 13th, 2016


1. Identify causes of the revolutions and

civil war in Russia.

2. Distinguish the differences between key

political parties in Russia.

3. Understand the dramatic cause and

effect relationship of actions taken by
leaders and revolutionaries.

Whos Who?
Czar Nicolas II

Reluctant leader, great

family man.

Russia continues
industrializes during his
Industry finally catches up with
some European countries
Familiar problems arise

The Warning Signs

Unrest among workers leads to strikes.

Revolutionary groups spring up, some in favor of
socialism and Marxism.
The Proletariat, the working class should rule Russia.
2 main groups of revolutionaries:
Mensheviks Wanted to appeal to the masses by working
with various political groups, had democratic elements.
Bolsheviks Our way is the only way. Sacrifice it all for
change, wanted elite and professional groups, used violence,
and were based on the ideas of Marxism.

The Warning Signs

The Bolsheviks were led by Vladimir Lenin.

Highly engaging, organized, and ruthless.

The Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)

destroyed morale and faith in the Czar.

On January 22, 1905, 200,000 Russians went

to the Czars winter palace to peacefully
Asked for 1. Better working conditions, 2. personal
freedom, and 3. an elected government

Bloody Sunday & The October

The Czar was not at his palace, however.
His generals panicked, had soldiers open

Over 1,000 killed or wounded.

Becomes known as Bloody Sunday

Bloody Sunday & The October


Czar Nicolas II had to do something, creates

the October Manifesto.

Limits his own power

Promises a constitutional government
Promises free speech
Creates a Duma
A national assembly, similar to the United States
Consisted of moderates striving for a constitutional
monarchy like Britains.
Nicholas frequently abolishes the Duma when
disagreements occurred.

Russia Enters World War I

Alliances, Protectorate
Millions of Russians die,
not properly equipped,
and the Czars weakness
is again exposed.
Nicolas II departs to rally
troops at the war front.
Leaves his wife, Czarina
Alexandra and his sickly
son and heir, Alexis at


The March Revolution

Russias World War I effort was crumbling.

Soldiers deserting, stopped cooperating
Food and supplies dwindled, prices soared.

The public demanded change.

Enormous pressure put on the Czar to step down.
Leaders of the Duma set up a provisional government.
Although mostly non-violent, this became known as
the March Revolution.

The October/November

The provisional
government kept
Russia, unfavorably, in
World War I.
Workers, peasants, and
soldiers formed local
councils called Soviets.

Lenin, leader of the

Bolsheviks, aided by the
Germans to return to

The October/November
Peace, land, and bread
Bolshevik soldiers, the Red Guard,
overthrow the provisional government.

Distributes land to peasants

Gives control of factories to workers
Engages Germany in peace talks.

Signs the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

Peaceat a cost.

Civil War: Reds vs. Whites

Russians humiliated by treaty

The White Army forms, never fully united
Some wanted more democracy
Some wanted to restore the Czar

Western allies sent aid to the White Army.

Bolsheviks The Red Army Later renamed

the Communists
Wanted Lenin to stay in power.
Led by Leon Trotsky.

The Aftermath

The Red Army was more unified, crushed their

14 million estimated dead.

Lenin used small-scale capitalism to help

restore the economy.
Farmers could sell excess produce
Small factories and businesses were privately owned
Foreign investment was encouraged.
Slowly recovered

Russia reemerged as the Union of the Soviet

Socialist Republic. (U.S.S.R.)