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DESIGN AND FABRICATE A FULLY CAPABLE

OFF-ROADER

By

SAYANTAN DAS
Name of the Student

Roll No.

SAYANTAN DAS

11ME013

Internship I/ Internship-II Course


At

BAJA STUDENT INDIA-2015

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


LINGAYA S UNIVERSITY, FARIDABAD
SESSION 2011-2015.

A REPORT
ON

DESIGN, SIMULATION AND FABRICATION OF A FULLY CAPABLE


SINGLE SEATER OFF-ROAD VEHICLE WITH
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION
By

SAYANTAN DAS
Name of Student
SAYANTAN DAS

Roll No.
11ME013

Discipline
th

4 year B-tech (M.E.)

PROJECT REPORT SUMMITED IN FULFILLMENT OF


THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE COURSE
INTERNSHIP-I; INTERNSHIP-II
At

BAJA STUDENT INDIA-2015

Guides / Professional Expert(s) Prof R. K. Deb; Prof Vibhuti Jha; Prof K. Srinath
Faculty/ Associate Faculty(s) Prof B.B. Malhotra; Associate Prof Ankur Kashyap

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


LINGAYAS UNIVERSITY, FARIDABAD
SESSION 2011-2015.

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project report titled DESIGN AND FABRICATE A FULLY
CAPABLE OFF-ROADER, submitted by SAYANTAN DAS, 11ME013 in partial fulfilment
of the requirements

of courses, ME-483(Internship-I) and ME-484(Internship-II) at BAJA

STUDENT INDIA, as part of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering


of Lingayas University, session 2011-2015 Is a record of bona fide work carried out under my/
our supervision and has not been submitted anywhere else for any other purpose.

Name of Faculty/Associate Faculty:


Prof. R. K. Deb

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This project on DESIGN AND FABRICATE A FULLY CAPABLE OFF-ROADER, is intended


to give a detailed insight of the understanding of Automobile Engineering, and processed required
to fabricate a vehicle. I hope that this treatise will prove useful to readers seeking an understanding
of building an All-Terrain Vehicle.
It gives me an immense pleasure to express my gratitude towards all who have helped me to
experience this training program with their support. Firstly, Id like to thank the Almighty God for
rendering the divine favour throughout this endeavour and immense gratitude we recognise the
moral support provided by my parents.
I express my sincere gratitude to the Head of the Department. Prof. B. B. Malhotra for the
opportunities provided for the completion of this project. I would like to thank Prof. R.K Deb and
Prof. Vibhuti Jha for their immense support and guidance throughout the course of the project.
I would also like to express my sincere thanks to our Project Guide Mr. Ankur Kashyap and Prof.
K. Srinath who provided us with essential knowledge required for commencement and completion
of this project. There constant encouragement and valuable suggestions are the key factor behind
this great success.
Im also very much thankful to all the faculty members of the mechanical and automobile
department and all our friends for their valuable suggestions and cooperation that they have
extended to us without any inhibition.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Cover Page.....1
2. Title Page...2
3. Certificate.......5
4. Acknowledgement..6
5. Abstract..7
6. Introduction........8
7. About our Design...............9
8. Goals and Objectives....10
9. Vehicle Design Aspects....11
10. Technical Specifications...12
11. Frame Design...13
12. Analysis of Front Impact.....14
Analysis of Side Impact....15
13. Analysis of Roll Over......16
14. Analysis of Load during Acceleration.....17
15. Vehicle Ergonomics....18
16. Ergonomic Angles...19
16.1.

Vehicle Prototype...20

16.2.

Driver Vision while seated.........20

16.3.

Reach Envelope..21

17. Suspension System..22


17.1.

Design Process...25

17.2.

Anti-Squat and Anti-Dive..26

17.3.

Bump Steer.27

17.4.

Motion Ratio..27

17.5.

Shock Ride Height.28

17.6.

Sprung & Un-sprung Weight.28

17.7.

Corner Weights..28

17.8.

Spring Angle & Spring Rate..29

17.9.

Wheel Rate.29

17.10.

Suspension Part Analysis...30

18. Steering System...31


18.1.

Steering Kinematics...31

18.2.

Ackerman Steering Geometry....32

18.3.

Vehicle Axis System......33

18.4.

Roll Centre Height.....34

18.5.

Knuckle Load Analysis..34

19. Power Train.....35


19.1.

Engine.....35

19.2.

Power Curve...35

19.3.

Gear Box Calculations...37

20. Braking System...41


20.1.

Brake Calculation...43

21. Project Plan ....47


22. D.F.M.E.A ..48
23. Pictures........49
24. Conclusion...60
25. References...61

INTRODUCTION
BAJA Student India is a college level engineering design competition, held every year at the NIT
Jamshedpur campus. Participating teams comprise of undergraduate & post graduate engineering
students and as a team they are tasked to design, build, test, race, and promote a single-seater 4
wheeler all-terrain vehicle.
BAJA Student India follows the BAJA SAE International rules and procedure. All the delegates
and judges are internationally acclaimed faculties and engineers from the best Colleges and
Automobile Industries.
This event is meant 'FOR THE STUDENTS' and main focus is on the educational aspect of the
competition. Department of industries, Government of Jharkhand, being the principle sponsors and
Tata Being the title sponsors for this there will be a great amount of exposure between the technical
groups and automobile industrialists.
BAJA student India started in 2013 at NIT Jamshedpur, organised by the Federation of Motor
Sports Council India, Members of NIT Jamshedpur and Baja aluminous and technical inspectors
from different countrys across the world. The Chief technical inspectors include Mr. Claude
Roulle, President of OptimumG, and Judge for Formula SAE series, USA. Mr. James. Pat Clarke,
Semi-retired Consultant, Sydney, NSW. And Mr. Stephen.M.Fox, President/Director of
engineering powertrain technology, USA.
This year Baja Student India has 44 Teams participating in the final event from all over India and
is expecting a footfall of more than 50,000. Teams include the best from India who have been
participating in Indian and International Motorsports Events.

ABSTRACT

The objective of the Lingayas Universitys Team Saksham is to design, fabricate and test a
new vehicle which can endure the off-track designed by Delta Inc, organizers of Baja Student
India-2015, held at NIT, Jamshedpur. This vehicle will be used to compete in this competition
and hence it is designed in accordance with 2015 SAE Mini-Baja Rules and Regulations.
The design process of the vehicle is iterative and is based on various engineering and reverse
engineering processes depending upon the availability, cost and other such factors. So the design
process focuses on:
Safety, Serviceability, Cost, Standardization, Strength and ruggedness, Driving feel and
ergonomics, Aesthetics
The design criterion followed here is design for the worst and optimize the design while avoiding
over designing, which would help in reducing the cost.

OUR DESIGN

The design process of the vehicle is iterative and is based on various engineering and reverse
engineering processes depending upon the availability, cost and other such factors.
So the design process focuses on:
Safety, Serviceability, Cost, Standardization, Strength and ruggedness, Driving feel and
Ergonomics, Aesthetics.
The design criterion followed here is design for the worst and optimize the design while avoiding
over designing, which would help in reducing the cost. We proceeded by setting up the budget
for the project. Throughout the design process we distributed the budget in such a way that
if we assign more money to one system, we reduce that amount from some other system.
Our last year vehicle design was based on the criterion of prevention of failure, as that year no
one knew the track and the obstructions prevalent over there. So the procedure of over designing
was followed as the safety of the driver is of utmost importance.
The main aim this year was to decrease the overall weight with keeping in mind the overall
durability of the vehicle and increase the overall performance.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

1. To fabricate a fully operational vehicle in a time period of 5 months, the vehicle was designed
in accordance to the SAE International Baja -2015 rule book. The time period will divided,
33% for designing, 33% for fabrication and 33% for testing.

2. Reinstall a mechanical drivetrain with a CVT and chain reduction and tune the CVT to
maximize performance.

3. Design and install a new front suspension that has better travel and is lighter, and still just as
strong as the current design.

4. To design and install a trailing arm suspension system in the rear.

5. Design and install a new steering system that properly balances the effects of caster and camber
to improve the handling of the vehicle in an off road environment. Maintain the original design
requirements set for the vehicle: steering wheel rotation limited to 180 degrees in each direction
with maximum steering angle of 30 degrees.

6.

Design and install a braking system with at least two (2) independent hydraulic circuits
capable of locking ALL FOUR wheels, both in a static condition as well as from speed on
pavement and on unpaved surfaces, as stated in the Baja SAE Collegiate Design Series Rules.

10

VEHICLE DESIGN ASPECTS

1. Vehicle must be capable of carrying one person 75 in. tall, weighing 250 lbs.
2. Vehicle must be safe for a 95th percentile male operator.
3. Width of the vehicle must not exceed 162 in.
4. The vehicle must be capable of safe operation over rough land terrain including, but not
limited to, obstructions such as rocks, sand jumps, logs, steep inclines, mud and snow and ice.
5. No components of the vehicle must come loose during a rollover.
6. All wiring must be sealed, protected and securely attached.
7. Vehicle must contain front and rear hitch point along the longitudinal centerline.
8. There must be a firewall between the cockpit and the engine and fuel tank compartment. It
must cover the area between the lower and upper lateral cross members on the Rear Roll Hoop.
9. The vehicle must have a hydraulic braking system that acts on all wheels and is operated by a
single foot pedal. The pedal must directly actuate the master cylinder through a rigid link.
10. The brake system must be capable of locking all four wheels, both in a static condition as well
as from speed on paved and unpaved surfaces.
11. Vehicle must be capable of completing a four hour endurance test.

11

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION

S.
No

Vehicle
Specifications

Old Vehicle

New Vehicle

Wheel Base

55

59

Wheel Track

53 Front;
52 Rear

53 Front; 50 Rear

Overall
Length

90

87

Ground
Clearance

12 Front;
11 Rear

12 Front ; 12 Rear

Kerb Weight

294 Kg

220 Kg

Brake Type

All four disc


brakes with
Tandem
cylinder.

All four disc brakes with Tandem


cylinder.

Stopping
Distance

9m

6.97 m

Max Power

10 HP @ 3600
rpm

10 HP @ 3600 rpm

Max Torque

19.6Nm @
2800 rpm

19.6 Nm @ 2800 rpm

10

Transmission
Type

Mahindra Alfa
4 Speed

Continuously Variable Transmission


(CVTech)

11

Front
Suspension

SLA Double
Wishbone

SLA unparalleled Double Wishbone

12

Rear
Suspension

SLA Double
Wishbone

Trailing Arm

12

FRAME DESIGN

The Chassis is the component in charge of supporting all other vehicle subsystems and taking
care of the driver safety at all times.
The Chassis design need to be prepared for impacts created in any certain crash or roll over. It
must be strong and durable, taking in account the weight distribution for better performance.
This year our team used AISI 1020 Steel tubes with outside diameter of 28.3 mm and thickness
of 2mm. AISI 1020 was used because it has the required carbon percentage, i.e. 0.18-0.24%, and
substantial amount of bending strength.
Finite Elements analysis
In order to prove the safety of our chassis design we decided to use Catia and Solidworks, due to
its low memory requirement and ease of use.

13

Analysis was done for the following impacts:

1. Front impact:

Load Applied: 23240 N; Max Stress: 2.49*108 N/m2 ;


Max Displacement: 0.175

14

2. Side Impact:

Load Applied: 15303 N; Max Stress: 2.32*108 N/m2 ;


Max Displacement: 0.116

15

3. Roll Over:

Load Applied: 15303 N; Max Stress: 2.32*108 N/m2 ;


Max Displacement: 0.116

16

4. Load during Acceleration:

Acceleration Applied: 9.8m/s2 ; Max Stress: 5.47*106 N/m2 ;


Max Displacement: 0.0043

17

VEHICLE ERGONOMICS

The ergonomics of a cockpit of any vehicle is a crucial part. It the vehicle controls are not
strategically placed, the operator will not be able to reach to the peak performance.
In extreme cases, the safety of the operator and other could be jeopardy, if controls are not readily
available at all times.
For our vehicle we had created a prototype and had collected data from different drivers and found
out the optimal angles that have to be set to attain the most comfortable and safe ride for a
prolonged period of time and in extreme conditions.

18

Final Design Values for the Cockpit:


S.No

Parameters

Std Range

Design Value

Angle at
Elbows

120-140o

122.921o

Angle at Knee

120-150o

120.026o

Angle at Back

8-15o

14o

Pedal Space

N/A

33 litres

Min Visibility

<1.5-2.5 m

1.386 m

Ergonomic Angles:

19

Vehicle Prototype:

Driver Vision while Seated:

20

Reach Envelope:

21

SUSPENSION SYSTEM
One of the stated goals of this Major Qualifying Project was to re-design the front suspension and
steering systems in order to improve handling and performance. Each component from the mounting
points out was re-engineered. The mounting points could not be altered without extensive
modification to the frame so the system was designed around this constraint.
In the course of designing an off-road vehicle, much attention must be paid to the terrain it will be
navigating in order to develop a fitting suspension system. A Baja vehicle suspension must provide
the car with the ability to compete in every event including the hill climb, endurance, and
manoeuvrability competitions.
A sufficient suspension will have the necessary practical features such as adequate ground clearance
and suspension travel to allow navigation of the terrain as well as provide comfort and control to
the driver.
The goal of any suspension is to maximize the contact between the tire and the track surface. Two
basic methods of accomplishing this goal include reducing the weight of the suspension, which is
called the un-sprung mass and increasing the stiffness of the mounting points on the vehicle or
sprung mass. Reducing the un-sprung mass will decrease the effects of inertia in the system allowing
it to react more rapidly to bumps.
There are several different types of suspensions, each with their own advantages; however the
double wishbone designs allows for the most control of ride behaviour and isolation of individual
tire movement. For this reason, most performance vehicles employ double wishbone suspensions
on the front axis and this design was no different. In off-road vehicle design, some attributes that
provide necessary ride height and manoeuvrability must be prioritized over other parameters that
might improve handling but cannot be optimized under the necessary design requirements.
After researching and ranking the suspension characteristics discussed above, the team was able to
define both static and dynamic goals for the new design. The design of the front suspension and
steering will be explained as one since the two are closely related and changes made to one system
can greatly affect the other. The suspension is one of the most critical component in a BAJA buggy.
It is vital that the suspension is responsive enough and has sufficient travel to handle a wide variety
of off-road terrain at speeds of 30 to 45 mph.
Overall goal of suspension is to keep the vehicle as stable as possible and provide sound
ergonimical ride over rough and unpredictable terrain and ensure that all exposed undercarriage
members are provided enough elevation to avoid impact with mentioned obstacles.

22

Vehicle Level Target:

Total Mass:

280 Kg

Unsprung Mass

82 Kg

Sprung Mass

192Kg

S. No:

Parameters

Front

Rear

1.
2.

Ride Height
Ride Frequency

12
1.69 Hz

12
2.02

3.
4.

Jounce
Rebound

4.8
3.7

3.5
2.5

5.

Wheel Rate

17.54 Kg/in

29.066 Kg/in

6.
7.

Natural Frequency
Motion Rotio

1.074 Hz
0.75

1.27 Hz
0.6

8.

Spring Rate

41.34 Kg/in

84.893 Kg/in

Supension Hardpoints:

1.

Toe:

+1.7 o

2.

Camber:

-2 o

3.

Roll Centre Height(F)

10.059

5.

SAI

9o

6.

Scrub Radius

28.3mm

23

DESIGN PROCESS
First we have to decide which suspension is better for us in according with different benefits of
different suspension. In most of the Baja Buggies we go with the Double Wishbone in the front
suspension. For designing it, we first have to see what should be the length of our arms, in that
length what should be the vertical distance between the two arms.
Think of it as Four-Bar mechanism, 2 arms and 1 roll cage and 1 upright side links. Roll cage side
link is fixed. We will first see how much travel we want from the suspension. Normally, 6 updown is enough. Then, we decide equal arms or non-equal arm or parallel arm. By simulating it in
designing software like adams or lotus, we check if we can get proper travel or not.
Shocker is mounted on the lower arm, so it would be good to have longer lower to have maximum
travel. To make it longer, lower arm is kept longer than the upper arm. This has disadvantage that
on travelling, it gains more camber angle, to compensate it, initially some negative camber is given.
While iterating we much consider how much roll centre, scrub radius, caster angle, king pin axis
angle we want, all the parameters were kept in mind.

Few Topics are explained:


Anti-Squat and Anti Dive:
Squat is the backward tipping of vehicle. As car accelerates weight is transferred to the back of
the car whose magnitude is the product of mass, acceleration and the ratio of Cg distance from
front wheel and total wheel base. Whereas, dive is the forward tipping of vehicle while braking.
Here weight is transferred from back to front wheel whose magnitude is the product of mass,
acceleration and the ratio of Cg distance from rear wheel and total wheel base. This result into very
rough riding so we use Anti dive and Anti squat geometry.
If we consider front side as double wishbone and rear side as trailing arm, the IC for front side is
intersection of two arm lines as shown in fig. and the line joining IC and centre of wheel gives you
the anti-dive percentage .4L and .6L is the breaking ratio. Line drawn perpendicularly through that
point is major responsible for percentage of anti-dive. If any dive line passes through the top of
perpendicular line, its 100% anti-dive. As it comes down, it keep on decreasing. Its impossible to
give 100% anti-dive because of other geometries like steering, roll. We kept it 50%.

24

Anti-Squat & Anti Dive Design

Bump Steer:

Bump steer is the toe in-toe out of vehicle when it encounters bump. When vehicle comes in
contact with any bump it causes tie rod to move in or out which results into steering effect. To
avoid this there should not be any movement of tie rod during bumps. Keeping these things in mind
we have to place tie rod in such a way that when wheel rotates about IC, the tie rod should also
rotate without any radial movement i.e. tie rod should lie on the line joining the IC and outer tie
rod joint. In other words inner tie rod end must lie on the line connecting the tie rod outer ball
joint with the instantaneous centre of suspension system. For double wishbone parallel arms tie
rod should also be parallel to arm.

25

Calculating Different Parameters of Suspension:


Motion Ratio:
Motion ratio is the ratio of spring travel and wheel travel or it is also the ratio of distance of wheel
and distance of spring from pivot point. It is some time called Installation ratio.

Motion Ratio = (a / b) * sine (Spring Angle)


a = distance from lower arm axis to spring mount.
b = distance from lower arm axis to ball joint.
According to Herb Adams in Chassis Engineering equation is

MR = (a/b)2 * (c/d)2
c = distance from IC to ball joint.
d = distance from IC to wheel centre.

Shock Ride Height:

Sprung Weight = Corner Weight Un-sprung Weight.

Sprung Weight:
It is the height of travel left after sprung mass is applied. A shocker gives 4-5 inch travel when
sprung mass is applied as 40 to 50 percent of shocker gets compressed. So shock ride height is 40
to 50 percent of travel of shocker. It is the weight of the vehicle that is supported by the spring and
is the only weight used when calculating spring rates.

26

Un-Sprung Weight:
Un-sprung weight is the vehicle weight that is not supported by the springs. It includes Tire-wheel
assembly, brake rotors and callipers (or drums and components), wheel bearings; steering knuckle,
differential and axle weight, hanging weight of the control arm (or trailing arms on rear axles), 1/2
of the spring and shock absorber weights.

Corner Weights:
It is the weight measured by the contact patches present at the four wheels. By adjusting the corner
weight we can adjust understeer and over steer tendency of vehicle. Increase the ride height at a
corner will increase the weight at that corner and its diagonally opposite corner. And similarly
decreasing the ride height at the corner will decrease the weight at that corner and its diagonally
opposite corner. The other two corner will gain weights. Change in stagger, tire pressures and
springs will change the ride height.

Corner Weight = Total Weight /4

Spring Angle:
It is the angle made by spring to the control arm, it is between 75 and 90 degree.

Spring Rate:
Spring Rate = Static Load / Shock Ride Height.
Static Load = Sprung Weight / Motion Ratio
k = d*G / (8ND3)
k: The spring rate.
d: The wire diameter.
G: The springs Shear Modulus.

27

N: The number of wraps.


D: The diameter of the coil.

Wheel Rate:

Wheel Rate = Spring Rate * (Motion Ratio ^ 2) * spring

Angle Correction:

Spring Angle Correction Factor:

ACF = {cos (Spring Angle) * Spring Rate}


Spring parameters in market Yamaha-Spring parameters

28

Suspension Parts Analysis:

Front Control Arm:

Force Applied: 3952N F.O.S: 2.58

Rear Trailing Arm with Upright Assembly:

Force Applied: 4100N F.O.S: 1.6

29

STEERING SYSTEM
Steering Kinematics:

Steering was designed with an aim of providing minimum turning radius, minimum slippage,
maximum rolling, and optimum steering ratio, which provides an ergonomically sound steering
system.Steering system is based on Ackerman principle and uses centrally located Rack and Pinion
steering gear box which is typically used in dune buggies.
1.

Wheel Track

53

2.
3.
4.
5.

Wheel Base
Ackerman Angle
Inner Lock Angle
Outer Lock Angle

61
21.28 o
44.8o
29.236o

6.
7.

Turning Radius
Steering Ratio

3.25m
5.08:1

8.
9.

Ackerman Percentage
Steering Arm Length

92.5%
3

10.

Castor Angle

+6 o

30

Last year, steering arm length was 7 which resulted in catastrophic structural failure of the steering
system, so learning from last years experience, steering arm length is 3 and proper support has
been provided.

31

Front Wheel Assembly:

32

Steering Geometry

33

Steering Hard Points Location:

Front Knuckle Load Analysis:

Load Applied: 3000 N;


Max Von Mises Stress: 5.23*107 N/m2

34

POWER TRAIN

The Primary Goal of the drive train is to maximize the power delivered to the rear wheels for all
practical vehicle speeds. This goalpeciallyimportant when attempting to power a off road buggy
with a small. Single cylinder engine. All components used in drivetrain should be durable enough
to last the endurance race, as light as possible, and they should occupy am acceptable space given
the restrictions derived from the rest of the vehicle sub-systems, namely the rear suspension. The
drivetrain should also contribute to the vehicles center of gravity while maintaining minimum of
12 inches of ground clearance.
The team wil be using a Cvtech CVT coupled with a four stage reduction FNR Gearbox with a
gear reducton of 13.55:1.

Engine:
All vehicles competing in the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Mini Baja Competition must
use the same engine: the Briggs and Stratton OHV Intek model 20. This single cylinder, four cycle,
air-cooled, 52 pound engine is rated for 10 HP at 3800 rpm. SAE uses this engine to level the playing
field between teams. To be competitive, the car needs to be designed to maximize the output
available from this engine. The power curve for this engine, provided by Briggs and Stratton, is
shown below in Figure 1

35

Targets:

1.

Maximum Velocity

58kmph

2.

Uniform Acceleration

2.63 m/s 2

3.

Maximum Gradability

35 o

4.

Power to Weight Ratio

45.45HP/tonne

5.

Maximum Torque Required

1604.1 N

6.

Maximum Torque Available

1902.92 N

Assumptions for drive train Calculations:

1.

Tyre diametre

22

2.

Wheel Resistance

107.45 N

4.

Gross Weight

280Kg

5.

Max Power

10 HP

6.

Reduction

13.55:1

7.

CVT Hiighest Ratio

3.1:1

8.

CVT Lowest Ratio

0.43:1

9.

CVT Efficiency

84%

36

Power Train Exploded View

GEARBOX CALCULATIONS:
Engine power @ 3600 rpm = 7.38 KW
P Engine Power
Engine rpm
Engine Torque
P = 2**3600*19.6
60,000
= 7.46KW

37

Assumptions:
22 in diameter tire
13:1 gearbox
Rolling Resistance (wet) = 0.061
Rolling Resistance (dry) = 0.045
Gross weight=280kg
Kerb weight=220kg
Maximum power = 7.38kW (10 HP)
98% efficiency of the gears
99% efficiency of the bearings.
97% efficiency of the constant velocity joints
88% efficiency of the Van Doore type CVT

CVT ratio = 3 - 2.5(800)


2800

for 800<rpm<3600

Total ratio = = 13
Torque on the wheel = Torque Output * Total Ratio
Vehicle Speed = Rpm of Axle * Perimeter of the Tyre*60
=553.846*0.00176*60
=58.486 km/h
Perimeter = 2**r
r

= radius of tyre = 0.28m

Perimeter = 1.76m = 0.00176 km


Rpm of axle = 3600

= 553.846

(13*0.5)

38

Table 1: This table displays our numerical data as it relates to our assumptions and the equations
Engine rpm
1800
2000
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600

Torque
output (N-m)
17.88
18.49
19.11
19.30
19.50
19.60
19.57
19.44
19.17
18.63

CVT ratio

Total ratio

2.107
1.929
1.750
1.571
1.393
1.214
1.036
0.857
0.679
0.500

27.391
25.077
22.750
20.042
18.109
15.782
13.468
11.141
8.827
6.5

Torque on
wheel(N-m)
489.75
463.67
434.75
394.16
353.12
309.32
263.56
216.58
169.21
121.10

Speed (km/h)
6.93
8.42
10.21
12.64
15.16
18.73
23.52
30.33
40.67
58.48

Force required to push the vehicle


Force Required = Wheel Resistance (Fw) + Air Resistance (Fa) + Gradient
Resistance (Fg) + Acceleration Resistance (Fac)

Wheel resistance = Rolling resistance + Road resistance + Slip resistance

39

Neglecting slip resistance:Then rolling resistance = fr * mv * g * inclination angle.


fr = coefficient of rolling resistance = 0.045
mv = mass of the vehicle = 280 Kg
Rolling resistance = 0.045 * 280 * 9.81 * cos30 = 107.045 N
Road resistance=0.045*280*9.81=123.606 N
Wheel resistance (Fw) = 107.045+123.606 N
Neglecting, acceleration resistance:Air resistance or drag (Fd) = cd**v2*A=247.59 N
2
Gradient resistance (Fg) = mv * g * sin30= 1373.4N
Hence,
Required force = 123.60+107.045 + 1373.4 = 1604.046N
A total force of 1604.046 N is required to push the vehicle at inclination of =30

40

BRAKING SYSTEM

The objective to bring the vehicle to rest when desired, under the condition that all four wheels
should lock simultaneously as the brake pedal is pressed.
Key points for implementing Disc brakes in both front & rear is based on the following points:
Heat Dissipation
Low Weight
Centrifugal Cleaning Action
Maximum Deceleration

Parameters

Old

New

Type

Disc ( Front & Rear)

Disc (Front & Rear)

Outer Diameter of disc

Front: 8 ; Rear: 6

Front: 6.25 ; Rear: 6.5

Brake Type

Front-Rear Split

Front-Rear Split

Brake Biasing

60(f): 40(r)

50:50

Stopping Distance

9 m at 45 Km/h

6.78 m at 45 Km/h

Leverage Ratio

4:1

7:1

Pedal Force

386 N

350 N

Deceleration

9.8 m/s2 or 1 g

11.51 m/s2 or 1.17 g

41

Brake
Components

Old

New

Calliper Used

Driver front right and rear


left: Apache 160
Driver front left and rear
right: Suzuki GS 150

Driver front right and rear left:


Apache 160
Driver front left and rear right:
Suzuki GS 150

Master Cylinder
Used

TVS Girling Tandem


Master Cylinder

TVS Girling Tandem Master


Cylinder

Disc Used

Aviator: front (8); and


Apache 160: rear ( 6)

Imported disc for ATV. Front:


6.25 ; Rear: 6.50

Braking Mounts On the front Wheel Assembly

42

Braking Calculations:
Assumptions & Requisition:

TVS Girning Tandem Master Cylinder


Brake Type: Front- Rear Split
Leverage Ratio: 7:1
Pedal force: 350 N
Front Disc: 6.50 (0.165m)
Rear Disc: 6.25 (0.158m)
Front Wheel & Tire:
Rear Wheel & Tire:
Tire Pressure: 7psi
Coefficient of Friction ( pad wrt disc) = 0.3
Coefficient of Friction ( tire wrt road)= 0.7
Gross Weight = 280 Kg

Taking Moment about Pivot Point,


=> Force on Master Cylinder * 1 = Force on Pedal (350 N) * 7
=> Force on Master Cylinder = 2450 N
Pressure Delivered on Master Cylinder:
= Force on Master Cylinder/ Bore Area of Master Cylinder
= 2450/ 0.031415
= 77988.23 N/m2

Front: Rear Biasing= 60:50


Pressure on Front Line = 46792.938 N/m2
Pressure on Rear Line = 31195.292 N/m2

43

Force Applied by Calliper Piston:


FFront = Pressure on front line * bore area of calliper
= 46792.938 * 0.0491
= 2297.533 N
Similarly,
FRear = Pressure on front line * bore area of calliper
= 31195.292 * 0.0491
= 1531.688 N

Force applied on disc by the calliper:


FfrontDisc = 2 * Force applied by calliper piston * (disc wrt pad)
= 2 * 2297.533 * 0.3
= 1378.519 N
Similarly,
FRearDisc = 2 * Force applied by calliper piston * (disc wrt pad)
= 2 * 1531.688 * 0.3
= 919.01 N

Torque on each Disc:


TFront = Force applied on front disc by calliper * Radius of front disc
= 1378.519 * 0.1651
= 227.59 N-m
TRear = applied on front disc by calliper * Radius of front disc
= 919.01 * 0.1524
= 140.057 N-m

44

Force per Wheel:


FWFront = Torque on Front Wheel/ Radius of the Wheel
= 227.59/ 0.558
= 407.86 N
FWRear = Torque on Rear Wheel/ Radius of the Wheel
= 140.057/ 0.558
= 250.99 N

Normal Force = (tyre wrt ground) * Gross weight of Vehicle


N= 0.7 * 280 * g
= 1920.8 N

Deceleration= Force/ Mass of Vehicle:


Dx= [2( FFrontWheel + FRearWheel) + Normal Force] / Mass of Vehicle
= [2(407.86 + 250.99) + 1920.8] / 280
= [2(658.85) + 1920.8] / 280
= [1317.7 + 1920.8] / 280
= 3238.5 / 280
= 11.56 m/s2 or 1.18g

Stopping Distance:
SD= v2 / (2 * Dx)
= 12.52 / (2* 11.56)
SD = 6.75m

45

Mass Transfer:
Wt = (*h*W*Dx) / b
=>Wt= (0.7*0.457*280*11.56)/1.500
=>Wt= 690.30 N

Weight of Vehicle:
W= 280*9.8
=>W=2744 N
Percentage Mass Transfer= 25.15 %

46

PROJECT PLAN

47

D.F.M.E.A
Components

Failure
Mode

Causes

Failure
Effect

Actions Taken

S O

RPN

Brakes

Leakage,
Master
Cylinder
Failure

Lose hoses,
punctured
brake lines

Loss of
braking
force and
control

Using separate
Master cylinder
for Front &
Rear brakes,
and use of
genuine parts

5 2

40

Wishbone

The arm
breaks or
bends
from the
ball joint
or
bushing

Sudden
impact,
stresses in
case of
collision

Damage to
the entire
wheel
assembly,
loss of
control

Analysis done
with high factor
of safety.

6 1

36

CVT Belt

Belt
stretches,
burns,
slips.

Incorrect
distance b/w
pulleys,
misalignment
of shafts, no
proper vents
for heat
dissipation

Power
cannot be
transmitted
to the
wheels

5 2

20

Tie Rod

Breaking
of Tie rod
from
joints

Due to
excessive
cornering
forces and
excessive
bump
stresses.

Loss of
control

6 3

18

48

Final Design:
Front View:

49

Top View:

50

Side View:

51

Isometric View:

52

Weld Destructive Test:

Welding Process:

53

Front Uprights Machining:

Front Wheel Assembly:

54

Testing Phase:

55

56

Vehicle at the Event:

57

58

59

CONCLUSION
The Vehicle was completed well in time and had a months testing time to it, the vehicle had gone
through rigorous terrains but it proved to be a good off-roader, the vehicle participated in BAJA
Student India-2015 at NIT Jamshedpur Campus, organized by Government of Jharkhand and
FMSCI.
On 7th Jan, team presented their design to the technical inspectors. The team scored decent points
in the design event and went on for the cost event. On 8th January, Team was ready for the
Acceleration Event and Traction Event.
In acceleration Event, teams had to complete a 100 feet track in the least timing, Lingayas
University finished fourth in acceleration. Next was the sledge pulling event, where we had to
pull a 1500 Kg Maruti Gypsy through a 100 feet track, in this event our college finished at 7th
position.
On 10th January Teams went through manoeuvrability track and hill climb track, our team went for
the hill climb, where it had to climb up a hill with an inclination of 24 deg. Our team did well and
completed the hill in 8 sec, and was at 8th position.
At the end, team geared up for the manoeuvrability event where the team had to showcase a great
combination of suspension, power train and driving skills. Our Team completed manoeuvrability
in 1min 10 sec and was placed 3rd position with College of Engineering, Pune at first and
Vishwakarma Institute OF technology, Pune at 2nd position.
On the last day Team was all set to participate in the 4 hour Endurance Race, and since we had a
good rank in the manoeuvrability our car stood at the third pole position. We had a good start but
due to broken CVT cover we lost 30 min in the race, but we still managed to finish at fifth position
and a total of 66 Laps. Lingayas University stood 11th in overall out of 44 teams from All over
India.
Overall it was a great learning experience, using different software for analyses and simulation and
furthermore using different machining equipment such as CNC, Lathe, Drilling Machine, Notching
Tool, Gear Hobbing and many more. This project has helped to learn more about the basic of
automobile and mechanical engineering.

60

REFERENCES

1. Automotive Mechanics by N.K. Giri.


2. BAJA SAE International -2015 Rules
3. Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics by Thomas Gillespie (1992)
4. Machine Design by Shigley, J, seventh edition.
5. Race Car Vehicle Dynamics
6. Smith, Neville and Dale Thompson, Caster, Camber & Toe Race Car Suspension Set-up

61