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AcademicPhrasebankIntroducingwork

AcademicPhrasebankIntroducingwork
SHARETHISSITE

Therearemanywaystointroduceanacademicessayorshortpaper.Mostacademicwriters,however,
appeartodooneormoreofthefollowingintheirintroductions:
establishthecontext,backgroundand/orimportanceofthetopic
indicateanissue,problem,orcontroversyinthefieldofstudy
definethetopicorkeyterms
statethepurposeoftheessay/writing
provideanoverviewofthecoverageand/orstructureofthewriting
Inveryshortassignments,itisnotuncommonforawritertocommencesimplybystatingthepurposeof
theirwriting.
Introductionstoresearchdissertationstendtoberelativelyshortbutquitecomplexintermsoftheir
functionalelements.Someofthemorecommonelementsorinclude:
establishingthecontext,backgroundand/orimportanceofthetopic
givingabriefsynopsisoftherelevantliterature
indicatingaproblem,controversyoraknowledgegapinthefieldofstudy
establishingthedesirabilityoftheresearch
listingtheresearchquestionsorhypotheses
providingasynopsisoftheresearchmethod(s)
explainingthesignificanceorvalueofthestudy
definingcertainkeyterms
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providinganoverviewofthedissertationorreportstructure
explainingreasonsforthewriterspersonalinterestinthetopic
Examplesofphraseswhicharecommonlyemployedtorealisethesefunctionsarelistedonthefollowing
pages.Notethattheremaybeacertainamountofoverlapbetweensomeofthecategoriesunderwhich
thephrasesarelisted.Also,theorderinwhichthedifferentcategoriesofphrasesareshownreflectsa
typicalorderbutthisisfarfromfixedorrigid,andnotalltheelementsarepresentinallintroductions.
Anumberofanalystshaveidentifiedcommonpatternsintheintroductionsofresearcharticles.Oneof
thebestknownistheCARSmodel(createaresearchspace)firstdescribedbyJohnSwales(1990).
Thismodel,whichutilisesanecologicalmetaphor,has,initssimplestform,threeelementsormoves:
Establishingtheterritory(establishingimportanceofthetopic,reviewingpreviouswork)
Identifyinganiche(indicatingagapinknowledge)
Occupyingtheniche(listingpurposeofnewresearch,listingquestions,statingvalue,xxxindicating
structureofwriting)
Establishingtheimportanceofthetopicfortheworldorsociety
Xisfundamentalto
Xhasapivotalrolein
Xisfrequentlyprescribedfor
Xisfastbecomingakeyinstrumentin
Xplaysavitalroleinthemetabolismof
Xplaysacriticalroleinthemaintenanceof
Xshaveemergedaspowerfulplatformsfor
Xisessentialforawiderangeoftechnologies.
Xcanplayanimportantroleinaddressingtheissueof
Xsarethemostpotentantiinflammatoryagentsknown.
ThereisevidencethatXplaysacrucialroleinregulating
Xisacommonconditionwhichhasconsiderableimpacton
Inthenewglobaleconomy,Xhasbecomeacentralissuefor
EvidencesuggeststhatXisamongthemostimportantfactorsfor
Xisimportantforawiderangeofscientificandindustrialprocesses.
Xsareoneofthemostwidelyusedgroupsofantibacterialagentsand
Thereisagrowingbodyofliteraturethatrecognisestheimportanceof
Xisanimportantcomponentintheclimatesystem,andplaysakeyroleinY.
Inthehistoryofdevelopmenteconomics,Xhasbeenthoughtofasakeyfactorin
XsareoneofthemostwidelyusedgroupsofYandhavebeenextensivelyusedfor
Establishingtheimportanceofthetopicforthediscipline
AkeyaspectofXis
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Xisofinterestbecause
Xisaclassicproblemin
AprimaryconcernofXis
Xisadominantfeatureof
Xisanimportantaspectof
Xisafundamentalpropertyof
TheconceptsofXandYarecentralto
Xisattheheartofourunderstandingof
InvestigatingXisacontinuingconcernwithin
Xisamajorareaofinterestwithinthefieldof
Xhasbeenstudiedbymanyresearchersusing
Xhasbeenanobjectofresearchsincethe1960s.
Xhasbeenthesubjectofmanyclassicstudiesin
Xhasbeeninstrumentalinourunderstandingof
ThetheoryofXprovidesausefulaccountofhow
CentraltotheentiredisciplineofXistheconceptof
Xisanincreasinglyimportantareainappliedlinguistics.
TheissueofXhasreceivedconsiderablecriticalattention.
Xhaslongbeenaquestionofgreatinterestinawiderangeoffields.
Establishingtheimportanceofthetopic(timeframegiven)
Recently,therehasbeenrenewedinterestin
Traditionally,Xshavesubscribedtothebeliefthat
Oneofthemostimportanteventsofthe1970swas
Inrecentyears,therehasbeenanincreasinginterestin
RecentdevelopmentsinXhaveheightenedtheneedfor
Thelasttwodecadeshaveseenagrowingtrendtowards
Recently,researchershaveshownanincreasedinterestin
Overthepastcentury,therehasbeenadramaticincreasein
RecenttrendsinXhaveledtoaproliferationofstudiesthat
XprovedanimportantliterarygenreintheearlyYcommunity.
ThepastdecadehasseentherapiddevelopmentofXinmany
Sinceitwasreportedin2005,Xhasbeenattractingalotofinterest.
Recently,aconsiderableliteraturehasgrownuparoundthethemeof
RecentdevelopmentsinthefieldofXhaveledtoarenewedinterestin
Thepastthirtyyearshaveseenincreasinglyrapidadvancesinthefieldof
ThechangesexperiencedbyXoverthepastdecaderemainunprecedented.
InlightofrecenteventsinX,itisbecomingextremelydifficulttoignoretheexistenceof
Synopsisofliterature
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Recentevidencesuggeststhat
Previousstudieshavereported
Severalstudieshavedocumented
StudiesofXshowtheimportanceof
Severalattemptshavebeenmadeto
Anumberofresearchershavereported
PreviousresearchcomparingXandYhasfound
Existingresearchrecognizesthecriticalroleplayedby
RecentlyinvestigatorshaveexaminedtheeffectsofXonY.
SurveyssuchasthatconductedbySmith(1988)showedthat
FactorsfoundtobeinfluencingXhavebeenexploredinseveralstudies.
AconsiderableamountofliteraturehasbeenpublishedonX.Thesestudies
Inthepasttwodecades,anumberofresearchershavesoughttodetermine
ThefirstseriousdiscussionsandanalysesofXemergedduringthe1970swith
TherehavebeenanumberoflongitudinalstudiesinvolvingXthathavereported
XswerereportedinthefirststudiesofY(e.g.,Smith,1977SmithandPatel,1977).
WhatweknowaboutXislargelybaseduponempiricalstudiesthatinvestigatehow
Smith(1984:217)showshow,inthepast,researchintoXwasmainlyconcernedwith
Highlightingaproblem
Oneofthemainobstacles
Oneofthegreatestchallenges
Akeyissueisthesafedisposalof
ThemaindisadvantageofXisthat
Xisassociatedwithincreasedriskof
Xisacommondisordercharacterisedby
ItisnowwellestablishedthatXcanimpair
Xisacommon,chronicdiseaseofchildhood.
Xhasledtothedeclinesinthepopulationsof
Xisagrowingpublichealthconcernworldwide.
Xisoneofthemostfrequentlystatedproblemswith
Themainchallengefacedbymanyexperimentsisthe
LackofXhasexistedasahealthproblemformanyyears.
Xisamajorpublichealthproblem,andthemaincauseof
Xsareoneofthemostrapidlydeclininggroupsofinsectsin
Xistheleadingcauseofdeathinwesternindustrialisedcountries.
Despiteitslongclinicalsuccess,Xhasanumberofproblemsinuse.
ExposuretoXhasbeenshowntoberelatedtoadverseeffectsin
ThereisincreasingconcernthatsomeXsarebeingdisadvantaged
Thereisanurgentneedtoaddressthesafetyproblemscausedby
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However,Xmaycause
Xislimitedby
Xsuffersfrom
Xistooexpensivetobeusedfor
Xhasaccentuatedtheproblemof
theperformanceofXislimitedby
Xcouldbeacontributingfactorto
thesynthesisofXremainsamajorchallenge.
Xcanbeextremelyharmfultohumanbeings.
researchhasconsistentlyshownthatXlacks
amajorproblemwiththiskindofapplicationis
thedeterminationofXistechnicallychallenging.
currentmethodsofXhaveproventobeunreliable.
theserapidchangesarehavingaseriouseffecton
Xcanbeadverselyaffectedundercertainconditions.
observationshaveindicatedaseriousdeclineinthepopulationofHighlightingacontroversyinthe
fieldofstudy
Amuchdebatedquestioniswhether
OnemajorissueinearlyXresearchconcerned
Todatetherehasbeenlittleagreementonwhat
Theissuehasgrowninimportanceinlightofrecent
IntheliteratureonX,therelativeimportanceofYisdebated.
Oneobserverhasalreadydrawnattentiontotheparadoxin
Questionshavebeenraisedabouttheuseofanimalsubjectsin
InmanyXs,adebateistakingplacebetweenYsandZsconcerning
Debatecontinuesaboutthebeststrategiesforthemanagementof
ThisconcepthasrecentlybeenchallengedbyXstudiesdemonstrating
ThedebateaboutXhasgainedfreshprominencewithmanyarguingthat
ScholarshavelongdebatedtheimpactofXonthecreationanddiffusionof
Morerecently,literaturehasemergedthatofferscontradictoryfindingsabout
Oneofthemostsignificantcurrentdiscussionsinlegalandmoralphilosophyis
Onemajortheoreticalissuethathasdominatedthefieldformanyyearsconcerns
ThecontroversyaboutscientificevidenceforXhasragedunabatedforoveracentury.
TheissueofXhasbeenacontroversialandmuchdisputedsubjectwithinthefieldof
ThecausesofXhavebeenthesubjectofintensedebatewithinthescientificcommunity.
IntheliteratureonX,therelativeimportanceofYhasbeensubjecttoconsiderablediscussion.
Generalreferencetopreviousresearchorscholarship:highlightingpaucityofresearch
Thereislittlepublisheddataon
NopreviousstudyhasinvestigatedX.
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TheuseofXhasnotbeeninvestigated.
Therehasbeennodetailedinvestigationof
Therehasbeenlittlequantitativeanalysisof
DataabouttheefficacyandsafetyofXarelimited.
Uptonow,fartoolittleattentionhasbeenpaidto
Asearchoftheliteraturerevealedfewstudieswhich
TheimpactofXonYisunderstudied,particularlyfor
FewstudieshaveinvestigatedXinanysystematicway
Inaddition,noresearchhasbeenfoundthatsurveyed
Sofar,however,therehasbeenlittlediscussionabout
Sofar,verylittleattentionhasbeenpaidtotheroleofX.
Surprisingly,theeffectsofXhavenotbeencloselyexamined.
IncontrasttoX,thereismuchlessinformationabouteffectsof
AsystematicunderstandingofhowXcontributestoYisstilllacking.
DespitetheimportanceofX,thereremainsapaucityofevidenceon
Therehavebeennocontrolledstudieswhichcomparedifferencesin
Todate,theproblemhasreceivedscantattentionintheresearchliterature
Todate,therearefewstudiesthathaveinvestigatedtheassociationbetween
While
Whilst
AlthoughsomeresearchhasbeencarriedoutonX,nosinglestudyexistswhich
nostudieshavebeenfoundwhich
nocontrolledstudieshavebeenreported.
onlytwostudieshaveattemptedtoinvestigate
therehavebeenfewempiricalinvestigationsinto
thereisstillverylittlescientificunderstandingof
themechanismbywhichhasnotbeenestablished.Highlightinginadequaciesofpreviousstudies
PreviousstudiesofXhavenotdealtwith
ResearchershavenottreatedXinmuchdetail.
Suchexpositionsareunsatisfactorybecausethey
MoststudiesinthefieldofXhaveonlyfocusedon
Suchapproaches,however,havefailedtoaddress
Previouspublishedstudiesarelimitedtolocalsurveys.
Halfofthestudiesevaluatedfailedtospecifywhether
TheresearchtodatehastendedtofocusonXratherthanY.
PreviouslypublishedstudiesontheeffectofXarenotconsistent.
Smithsanalysisdoesnottakeaccountof,nordoessheexamine
TheexistingaccountsfailtoresolvethecontradictionbetweenXandY.
MoststudiesinXhaveonlybeencarriedoutinasmallnumberofareas.
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However,muchoftheresearchuptonowhasbeendescriptiveinnature
Thegeneralisabilityofmuchpublishedresearchonthisissueisproblematic.
Researchonthesubjecthasbeenmostlyrestrictedtolimitedcomparisonsof
However,fewwritershavebeenabletodrawonanysystematicresearchinto
Shorttermstudiessuchasthesedonotnecessarilyshowsubtlechangesovertime
AlthoughextensiveresearchhasbeencarriedoutonX,nosinglestudyexistswhich
However,theseresultswerebasedupondatafromover30yearsagoanditisunclearif
Theexperimentaldataarerathercontroversial,andthereisnogeneralagreementabout
Highlightingaknowledgegapinthefieldofstudy
VerylittleisknownaboutXin
muchlessisknownaboutX.
Itisstillnotknownwhether
ThenatureofXremainsunclear.
WhatisnotyetclearistheimpactofXon
TheresponseofXtoYisnotfullyunderstood.
CausalfactorsleadingtoXremainspeculative.
Todate,therehasbeennoreliableevidencethat
TheneurobiologicalbasisofthisXispoorlyunderstood.
LittleisknownaboutXanditisnotclearwhatfactors
Muchuncertaintystillexistsabouttherelationshipbetween
Todate,studiesinvestigatingXhaveproducedequivocalresults.
TheevidencethatXandYareassociatedwithZisweakandinconclusive.
ThisindicatesaneedtounderstandthevariousperceptionsofXthatexistamong
Somestudieshaveshownthebeneficialeffectsof,butothersshowedadeteriorationin
However,verylittleisknownaboutXin
fewstudieshaveinvestigated
thenatureofXremainsunclear.
muchlessisknownabouthow
theuseofXhasnotbeeninvestigated.
fartoolittleattentionhasbeenpaidto
thebehaviourofXhasnotyetbeeninvestigated.
theevidenceforthisrelationshipisinconclusive
muchuncertaintystillexistsabouttherelationbetween
therehavebeennocontrolledstudieswhichcomparedifferencesin
ApartfromSmith(2014),thereisagenerallackofresearchin
Despitethis,veryfewstudieshaveinvestigatedtheimpactofXon
DespitetheimportanceofX,thereremainsapaucityofevidenceon
SeveralstudieshaveproducedestimatesofX(Smith,2002Jones,2003),butthereisstillinsufficient
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datafor
Indicatingthefocus,aim,argumentofashortpaper
Inthispaper,Iarguethat
Thispaperattemptstoshowthat
Thecentralthesisofthispaperisthat
Inthepagesthatfollow,itwillbearguedthat
Inthisessay,Iattempttodefendtheviewthat
Theaimofthisessayistoexploretherelationshipbetween
Thepurposeofthispaperistoreviewrecentresearchintothe
Thispaperarguesthat
givesanaccountof
discussesthecaseof
analysestheimpactof
attemptstoshowthat
conteststheclaimthat
providesanoverviewof
reviewstheevidencefor
reportsonastudywhich
tracesthedevelopmentof
exploresthewaysinwhich
assessesthesignificanceof
highlightstheimportanceof
considerstheimplicationsof
criticallyexaminestheviewthat
proposesanewmethodologyfor
examinestherelationshipbetween
comparesthedifferentwaysinwhich
investigatesthefactorsthatdetermine
describesthedesignandimplementationofStatingthepurposeofresearch
Thespecificobjectiveofthisstudywasto
Anobjectiveofthisstudywastoinvestigate
Thisthesiswillexaminethewayinwhichthe
Thisstudysetouttoinvestigatetheusefulnessof
Thisdissertationseekstoexplainthedevelopmentof
Thiscasestudyseekstoexaminethechangingnatureof
Theobjectivesofthisresearcharetodeterminewhether
Thisprospectivestudywasdesignedtoinvestigatetheuseof
ThisresearchexaminestheemergingroleofXinthecontextof
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Thisstudysystematicallyreviewsthedatafor,aimingtoprovide
DrawingupontwostandsofresearchintoX,thisstudyattemptsto
Thisthesisintendstodeterminetheextenttowhichandwhether
Thisdissertationaimstounravelsomeofthemysteriessurrounding
ThisstudythereforesetouttoassesstheeffectofX,andtheeffectof
ThemainaimofthisstudyistoinvestigatethedifferencesbetweenXandY.
Partoftheaimofthisprojectistodevelopsoftwarethatiscompatiblewith
Therearetwoprimaryaimsofthisstudy:1.Toinvestigate2.Toascertain
Thisstudyseekstoobtaindatawhichwillhelptoaddresstheseresearchgaps.
Onepurposeofthisstudywastoassesstheextenttowhichthesefactorswere
ThepurposeofthisinvestigationistoexploretherelationshipbetweenXandY.
Synopsisoftheresearchdesign,method,source(s)ofdata
Dataforthisstudywerecollectedusing
Fiveworkswillbeexamined,allofwhich
Thisinvestigationtakestheformofacasestudyofthe
Thisstudywasexploratoryandinterpretativeinnature.
Thisstudyusesaqualitativecasestudyapproachtoinvestigate
Theresearchdatainthisthesisisdrawnfromfourmainsources:
Theapproachtoempiricalresearchadoptedforthisstudywasoneof
Thisdissertationfollowsacasestudydesign,withindepthanalysisof
Byemployingqualitativemodesofenquiry,Iattempttoilluminatethe
Qualitativeandquantitativeresearchdesignswereadoptedtoprovide
Bothqualitativeandquantitativemethodswereusedinthisinvestigation.
Aholisticapproachisutilised,integratingX,YandZmaterialtoestablish
Thestudywasconductedintheformofasurvey,withdatabeinggatheredvia
Themethodologicalapproachtakeninthisstudyisamixedmethodologybasedon
Acombinationofquantitativeandqualitativeapproacheswasusedinthedataanalysis.
Indicatingsignificance
Thisresearchshedsnewlighton
Thisstudyprovidesnewinsightsinto
Thestudyofferssomeimportantinsightsinto
Thepresentstudyfillsagapintheliteratureby
UnderstandingthelinkbetweenXandYwillhelp
Thisisthefirststudytoundertakealongitudinalanalysisof
Thepresentresearchexplores,forthefirsttime,theeffectsof
Thefindingsshouldmakeanimportantcontributiontothefieldof.
Thisstudyprovidesanexcitingopportunitytoadvanceourknowledgeof
Thisstudyaimstocontributetothisgrowingareaofresearchbyexploring
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Thisprojectprovidedanimportantopportunitytoadvancetheunderstandingof
Therefore,thisstudymakesamajorcontributiontoresearchonXbydemonstrating
Thereareseveralimportantareaswherethisstudymakesanoriginalcontributionto
Indicatinglimitations
Thethesisdoesnotengagewith
Thisstudyisunabletoencompasstheentire
Itisbeyondthescopeofthisstudytoexaminethe
AfulldiscussionofXliesbeyondthescopeofthisstudy.
Thereadershouldbearinmindthatthestudyisbasedon
Anotherpotentialproblemisthatthescopeofmythesismaybetoobroad.
Duetopracticalconstraints,thispapercannotprovideacomprehensivereviewof
GivingreasonsforpersonalInterest*
IbecameinterestedinXsafterreading
IhaveworkedcloselywithXformanyyearsand
MypersonalexperienceofXhaspromptedthisresearch.
Mymainreasonforchoosingthistopicispersonalinterest.
ItismyexperienceofworkingwithXthathasdriventhisresearch.
ThisprojectwasconceivedduringmytimeworkingforX.Asamedicaladvisor,Iwitnessed
*sometimesfoundinthehumanities,andtheappliedhumansciences
Outliningthestructure
ThispaperbeginsbyItwillthengoonto
Thefirstsectionofthispaperwillexamine
Mythesisiscomposedoffourthemedchapters.
Theessayhasbeenorganisedinthefollowingway.
Theremainingpartofthepaperproceedsasfollows:
Themainissuesaddressedinthispaperare:a),bandc).
ThispaperfirstgivesabriefoverviewoftherecenthistoryofX.
Thispaperhasbeendividedintofourparts.Thefirstpartdealswith
Theoverallstructureofthestudytakestheformofsixchapters,including
ChapterTwobeginsbylayingoutthetheoreticaldimensionsoftheresearch,andlooksathow
Thethirdchapterisconcernedwiththemethodologyusedforthisstudy.
Thefourthsectionpresentsthefindingsoftheresearch,focusingonthethreekeythemesthat
Chapter6analysestheresultsofinterviewsandfocusgroupdiscussionsundertakenduring
ExplainingKeywords(refertoDefiningTerms)
Throughoutthispaper,thetermXwillreferto
AccordingtoSmith(2002),Xcanbedefinedasfollows:
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Inthisarticle,theabbreviationXYZwillbeusedtoreferto
Throughoutthisdissertation,thetermXwillbeusedtoreferto
ThetermXisarelativelynewnamefor,commonlyreferredtoas
WhileavarietyofdefinitionsofthetermXhavebeensuggested,thispaperwillusethedefinitionfirst
suggestedbySmith(1968)whosawitas

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