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The Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association

Handbook
of
PVC Pipe
Design and Construction

Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association

2655 Villa Creek Drive, Suite 155

Dallas, Texas 75234

$40.00

© Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association, 2001


Copyright © 1977, 1979, 1982, 1991, 2001

by
Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association
Dallas, Texas

All rights reserved.

This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced


in any form without permission of the publishers.

First Edition, October 1977


Second printing, February 1978
Third printing, May 1979
Fourth printing, June 1980
Fifth printing, April 1981
Second Edition, March 1982
Second printing, October 1983
Third printing, October 1986
Third Edition, September 1991
Second printing, December 1993
Third printing, December 1997
Fourth printing, September 1999
Fourth Edition, August 2001

Printed in the United States of America

© Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association, 2001


PREFACE

In 1971 a group of responsible PVC pipe producers had the foresight to


recognize that the exceptional qualities of performance and value would eventually
make gasketed-joint PVC pipe the product of choice for buried water, sewer,
drainage and irrigation piping. To properly service the future design and technical
information needs associated with such a large scale and growing industry, these
leaders combined their resources to create a non-profit technical, educational and
research-oriented organization known today as the Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association.
Since it was organized, Uni-Bell has served the engineering, regulatory,
public health and standardization communities with integrity and considerable
measures of both time and resources. Whenever questions or problems have arisen
relative to PVC pipe performance, Uni-Bell members, through their Association,
have responded. Uni-Bell sponsored research in the areas of buried pipe deflection,
durability, ultraviolet aging, direct tapping and cyclic surge performance has
provided pipe designers and installers with much needed practical information.
Today Uni-Bell is working for all PVC pipe users and potential pipe users,
helping to assure proper product application and performance through research and
education. Uni-Bell's highly qualified professional staff work to provide users with
the information they need concerning gasketed-joint PVC pipe. In addition, Uni-Bell
continues to develop useful technical publications and recommended standards
recognized around the world.
The Uni-Bell Handbook of PVC Pipe: Design and Construction is the
Association’s preeminent publication. It has been prepared with the objective of
being the most comprehensive reference text on PVC pipe and fittings. This
handbook provides practical engineering and construction information together with
recommendations applicable to the design and use of primarily underground PVC
piping systems in both pressure and non-pressure applications.
Handbook users are invited to contact Uni-Bell's staff of qualified engineers
for additional technical support or to clarify information contained within the book.
Technical services are available on request through member companies or upon
direct request to Uni-Bell. A directory of the current membership of the Uni-Bell
PVC Pipe Association is available by contacting Uni-Bell.
The statements contained in this Handbook are those of the Uni-Bell PVC
Pipe Association and are not warranties, nor are they intended to be such. Inquiries
for information on specific products, product attributes and the manufacturer's
warranty should be directed to member companies.

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© Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association, 2001


Handbook of PVC Pipe

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface ...................................................................................................... i

Chapter I, Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pipe ...............................................1


PVC -- An Engineered Thermoplastic..........................................3
Historical Background ..................................................................3
A Rational Choice.........................................................................5
PVC Pipe Technology...................................................................9

Chapter II, Raw Materials.......................................................................11


PVC Pipe Compounds ................................................................12
Gasket Materials .........................................................................20

Chapter III, Resistance to Aggressive Environments .............................23


Corrosion ....................................................................................25
Chemical Attack..........................................................................26
Permeation ..................................................................................56
Biological Attack ........................................................................57
Weathering..................................................................................61
Abrasion......................................................................................62
Soil Movement............................................................................66
Repetitive Fatigue .......................................................................66

Chapter IV, PVC Pipe Manufacturing and Testing ................................71


Manufacturing Processes ............................................................72
Manufacturing of Profile Wall Pipe............................................78
Manufacturing of Injection Molded PVC Fittings......................80
Fabricated PVC Fittings..............................................................84
Standard Specifications...............................................................87
Testing ......................................................................................105
Qualification Tests ....................................................................106
Quality Control Tests and Inspection .......................................113
Quality Assurance Testing........................................................116
Test Certification and Warranty ...............................................116
Packaging and Shipping............................................................117
Manufacturing of PVCO...........................................................117

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© Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association, 2001


Table of Contents

Table of Contents (cont.)

Chapter V, Pressure Pipe and Fittings, Design and Selection ..............121


Pressure Pipe Design and Selection..........................................122
Internal Hydrostatic Pressure....................................................122
Distribution Mains ....................................................................132
Transmission Mains ..................................................................133
Transmission Pipe Design Example .........................................137
Design of Molded PVC Pressure Fittings.................................144
Fabricated PVC Pressure Fittings .............................................148
Surge Pressures In PVC Pipe....................................................148
Sewage Force Mains .................................................................157
Pressure Pipe Longevity ...........................................................166
Molecularly Oriented PVC Pressure Pipe (PVCO) ..................168

Chapter VI, Superimposed Loads on Buried Pipe ................................173


Earth Loads ...............................................................................174
Live Loads ................................................................................207
Design Software........................................................................212

Chapter VII, Design of Buried PVC Pipe.............................................217


Sewer Pipe Longevity ...............................................................257
Alternative Design Methods .....................................................258

Chapter VIII, Special Design Applications ..........................................275


Longitudinal Bending ...............................................................276
Support Spacing ........................................................................295
Expansion and Contraction.......................................................302
Molecularly Oriented PVC Pipe (PVCO).................................306

Chapter IX, Hydraulics .........................................................................311


Flow of Water in PVC Pressure Pipes ......................................312
Gravity Flow in PVC Sewer Pipe .............................................356
Molecularly Oriented PVC Pipe (PVCO).................................375

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© Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association, 2001


Handbook of PVC Pipe

Table of Contents (cont.)

Chapter X, Construction .......................................................................383


Receiving, Storage and Handling .............................................384
PVC Pipe Joint Assembly.........................................................389
Casings......................................................................................393
Sliplining Applications .............................................................397
PVC Pressure Pipe Installation. ................................................398
PVC Non-Pressure Pipe............................................................427

Published Design Guides and Recommendations.................................471


PVC Pipe Dimensions...........................................................................475
Unit Conversion Tables ........................................................................505
Index ...................................................................................................513

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© Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association, 2001