This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Uploaded by ingeniou

0.0 (0)

----------------------------

EXPERIMENT

29

Date __

High-Pass and Low-Pass Passive Filters

Objectives:

1. Plot the gain and phase response of an R-C low-pass filter.

2. Determine the cutoff frequency of an R-C low-pass filter.

3. Determine how the value ofR and C affects the cutoff frequency of an R-C low-pass filter.

4. Plot the gain and phase response of an R-C high-pass filter.

5. Determine the cutoff frequency of an R-C high-pass filter.

6. Determine how the value of Rand C affects the cutoff frequency of an R -C high-pass filter.

Materials:

One function generator

I One dual-trace oscilloscope Capacitors - .02 IlF, .04 IlF Resistors -- 1 ill, 2 kQ

Theory:

A filter is a circuit that passes a specific range of frequencies while rejecting other frequencies.

A passive filter consists of passive circuit elements, such as capacitors, inductors, and resistors. The most common way to describe the frequency response of a filter is to plot the filter voltage gain (V jV in) in dB as a function of frequency (f). The frequency at which the output power gain drops to 50% of the maximum value is called the cutoff frequency (fe). When the output power gain drops 50%, the voltage gain drops 3 dB (0.707 ofthe maximum value). When the filter dB voltage gain is plotted as a function of frequency on a semi log graph using straigl1t lines to approximate the actual frequency response, it is called a Bode plot. A Bode plot is an ideal plot of filter frequency response because it assumes that the voltage gain remains constant until the cutoff frequency is reached. The filter network voltage gain in dB is calculated from the actual voltage gain (A) using the equation

AdS = 20 log A

where A = V jV in

251

252

Part IV Alternating Current (AC) Circuits

There are four basic types of filters, low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, and band-stop. A low-pass filter is designed to pass all frequencies below the cutoff frequency and reject all frequencies above the cutoff frequency. A high-pass filter is designed to pass all frequencies above the cutoff frequency and reject all frequencies below the cutoff frequency. A band-pass filter passes all frequencies within a band of frequencies and rejects all other frequencies outside the band. A band-stop filter rejects all frequencies within a band of frequencies and passes all other frequencies outside the band. A band-stop filter is often referred to as a notch filter. In this experiment, you will study low-pass and high-pass filters.

A low-pass R-C filter is shown in Figure 29-1. At frequencies well below the cutoff frequency, the capacitive reactance of capacitor C is much higher than the resistance of resistor R, causing the output voltage to be practically equal to the input voltage (A = 1) and constant with variations in frequency. At frequencies well above the cutoff frequency, the capacitive reactance of capacitor C is much lower than the resistance of resistor R, causing the output voltage to decrease 20 dB per decade increase in frequency. At the cutoff frequency, the capacitive reactance of capacitor C is equal to the resistance of resistor R, causing the output voltage to be 0.707 times the input voltage (-3 dB). The expected cutoff frequency (fc) of the low-pass filter in Figure 29-1, based on the circuit component values, can be calculated from

Solving for fc produces the equation

f _ 1

c - 21tRC

A high-pass R-C filter is shown in Figure 29-2. At frequencies well above the cutoff frequency, the capacitive reactance of capacitor C is much lower than the resistance of resistor R, causing the output voltage to be practically equal to the input voltage (A = 1) and constant with variations in frequency. At frequencies well below the cutoff frequency, the capacitive reactance of capacitor C is much higher than the resistance of resistor R, causing the output voltage to decrease 20 dB per decade decrease in frequency. At the cutoff frequency, the capacitive reactance of capacitor C is equal to the resistance of resistor R, causing the output voltage to be 0.707 times the input-voltage (-3 dB). The expected cutoff frequency (fc) of the high-pass filter in Figure 29-2, based on the circuit component values, can also be calculated from

f _ 1

c - 21tRC

Experiment 29 253

.~

When the frequency at the input of a low-pass filter increases above the cutoff frequency, the filter output voltage drops at a constant rate. When the frequency at the input of a high-pass filter decreases below the cutoff frequency, the filter output voltage also drops at a constant rate. The constant drop in filter output voltage per decade increase (xl0) or decrease (+10) in frequency is referred to as roll-off. An ideal lowpass or high-pass filter would have an instantaneous drop at the cutoff frequency (f-), with full signal level on one side of the cutoff frequency and no signal level on the other side of the cutoff frequency. Although the ideal is not achievable, actual filters roll off at -20 dB/decade per pole (R-C circuit). A twopole filter has two R-C circuits tuned to the same cutoff frequency and rolls off at -40 dB/decade. Each additional pole (R-C circuit) will cause the filter to roll off an additional-20 dB/decade. Therefore, an R-C filter with more poles (R-C circuits) more closely approaches an ideal filter. In a one-pole filter, as shown in Figures 29-1 and 29-2, the phase difference between the input and the output will change by 90 degrees over the frequency range and be 45 degrees at the cutoff frequency. In a two-pole filter, the phase difference will change by 180 degrees over the frequency range and be 90 degrees at the cutoff frequency.

Figure 29-1 Low-Pass R-C Filter

O.02uF C

Figure 29-2 High-Pass R-C Filter

254

Part IV Alternating Current (AC) Circuits

Procedure:

Low-Pass Filter

Step 1.

Pull down the File menu and open FIG29-1. Bring down the Bode plotter enlargement and make sure that the following settings are selected: Magnitude, Vertical (Log, F = 0 dB, I = -40 dB), Horizontal (Log, F = 1 MHz, 1= 100 Hz). You will plot the gain-frequency response in dB for the R-C low-pass filter as the frequency varies between 100 Hz and 1 MHz using the Bode plotter.

Note: If you are performing this experiment in a laboratory environment, you may not have a Bode plotter available. You will need to plot the frequency response curves by making measurements at different frequencies using an oscilloscope and plotting the curves on semilog graph paper.

Step 2.

Click the On-Off switch to run the simulation. "Pause" the simulation after the Bode plot is complete. Notice that the gain-frequency response curve in dB has been plotted between the frequencies of 100 Hz and 1 MHz by the Bode plotter. Sketch the curve plot in the space provided.

f Question: Is the frequency response curve plotted in Step 2 that of a low-pass filter? Explain.

Step 3.

Move the cursor to a flat part of the curve at a frequency of approximately 100 Hz. Record the voltage gain in dB on the curve plot.

Experiment 29

.. ~

255

Step 4.

Calculate the actual voltage gain (A) from the dB voltage gain (AdB) measured in Step 3.

Question: Was the voltage gain on the flat part of the gain-frequency response curve what you expected for the circuit in Figure 29-1? Explain why.

Step 5.

Move the cursor as close as possible to a point on the curve that is 3 dB down from the dB gain at 100 Hz. Record the frequency (cutoff frequency, fd on the curve plot.

Step 6.

Calculate the expected cutoff frequency (fd based on the circuit component values in Figure 29-1.

i~uestion: How did the calculated value for the cutoff frequency compare with the measured value "' recorded on the curve plot in Step 5?

Step 7.

Move the cursor to a point on the curve that is as close as possible to ten times fe. Record the dB gain and frequency (f2) on the curve plot in Step 2.

Question: How much did the dB gain decrease for a one-decade increase in frequency? Was it what you expected for a single pole (single R-C) low-pass filter?

256

Step 8.

Step 9.

Part IV Alternating Current (AC) Circuits

Click "Phase" on the Bode plotter to plot the phase curve. Make sure that the vertical axis initial value (I) is -90° and the final value (F) is 0°. Click the On-Off switch to run the simulation again. You are looking at the phase difference (8) between the filter input and output as a function of frequency. Sketch the curve plot in the space provided.

e

-"-~

f

Move the cursor to approximately 100 Hz and 1 MHz and record the phase (8) in degrees on the curve plot for each frequency. Next, move the cursor as close as possible on the curve to the cutoff frequency (fd. Record the frequency and phase on the curve plot.

Questions: Was the phase at the cutoff frequency (fd what you expected for a single pole (single R-C) low-pass filter?

Did the phase change with frequency? Is this expected for an R-C low-pass filter?

Step 10.

Step 11.

Change the value of resistor R to 2 kG in Figure 29-1. Click "Magnitude" on the Bode plotter. Click the On-Off switch to run the simulation. "Pause" the simulation after the Bode plot is complete. Measure the cutoff frequency (fd following the procedure in Step 5 and record your answer.

fc=

-------

Based on the new value of resistor R, calculate the new cutoff frequency (fd.

Experiment 29

tuestions: How did the calculated value of the new cutoff frequency compare with the value measured in Step 10?

257

What effect did changing the value of resistor R have on the cutoff frequency? Explain.

Step 12.

Change the value of capacitor C to 0.041lF in Figure 29-1. Click the On-Off switch to run the simulation. Measure the cutoff frequency (fe) following the procedure in Step 5 and record your answer.

fc= _

Step 13.

Based on the new value of resistor R and capacitor C, calculate the new cutoff frequency

(fd·

«(tuestions: How did the calculated value of the new cutoff frequency compare with the value measured in Step 12?

What effect did changing the value of capacitor C have on the cutoff frequency? Explain.

High-Pass Filter

Step 14.

Pull down the File menu and open FIG29-2. Bring down the Bode plotter enlargement and make sure that the following settings are selected: Magnitude, Vertical (Log, F = 0 dB, I = -40 dB), Horizontal (Log, F = 1 MHz, I = 100 Hz). You will plot the gain-frequency response in dB for an R-C high-pass filter as the frequency varies between 100 Hz and

1 MHz using the Bode plotter.

Note: If you are performing this experiment in a laboratory environment, you may not have a Bode plotter available. You will need to plot the frequency response curves by making measurements at different frequencies using an oscilloscope and plotting the curves on semilog

o graph paper.

~,,:y.'

258

Part IV Alternating Current (AC) Circuits

Step 15.

Click the On-Off switch to run the simulation. "Pause" the simulation after the Bode plot is complete. Notice that the gain-frequency response curve in dB has been plotted between the frequencies of 100 Hz and 1 MHz by the Bode plotter. Sketch the curve plot in the space provided.

. f

Question: Is the frequency response curve plotted in Step 15 that of a high-pass filter? Explain.

Step 16.

Move the cursor to a flat part of the curve at a frequency of approximately 1 MHz. Record the voltage gain in dB on the curve plot.

Step 17.

Calculate the actual voltage gain (A) from the dB voltage gain (AdB) measured in Step 16.

Question: Was the voltage gain on the flat part of the gain-frequency response curve what you expected for the circuit in Figure 29-2? Explain why.

Step 18.

Move the cursor as close as possible to a point on the curve that is 3 dB down from the dB gain at 1 MHz. Record the frequency (cutoff frequency, fd on the curve plot.

Experiment 29

r,

.. Step 19.

259

Calculate the expected cutoff frequency (fd based on the circuit component values in Figure 29-2.

Question: How did the calculated value of the cutoff frequency compare with the measured value recorded on the curve plot in Step 18?

Step 20.

Move the cursor to a point on the curve that is as close as possible to one-tenth fc. Record the dB gain and frequency (f2) on the curve plot in Step 15.

Question: How much did the dB gain decrease for a one-decade decrease in frequency? Was it what you expected for a single pole (single R-C) high-pass filter?

Step 21.

Step 22.

Click "Phase" on the Bode plotter to plot the phase curve. Make sure that the vertical axis initial value (I) is 0° and the final value (F) is 90°. Click the On-Off switch to run the simulation again. You are looking at the phase difference (8) between the filter input and output as a function of frequency. Sketch the curve plot in the space provided.

e

f

Move the cursor to approximately 100 Hz and 1 MHz and record the phase in degrees on the curve plot for each frequency. Next, move the cursor as close as possible on the curve to the cutoff frequency (fd. Record the frequency and phase on the curve plot.

260

Part IV Alternating Current (AC) Circuits

Questions: Was the phase at the cutoff frequency (fd what you expected for a single pole (single R-C) high-pass filter?

Did the phase change with frequency? Is this expected for an R-C high-pass filter?

Step 23.

Change the value of resistor R to 2 kQ in Figure 29-2. Click "Magnitude" on the Bode plotter. Click the On-Off switch to run the simulation. Measure the cutoff frequency (fc) following the procedure in Step 18 and record your answer.

fc= _

Step 24.

Based on the new value of resistor R, calculate the new cutoff frequency (fd.

Questions: How did the calculated value of the new cutoff frequency compare with the value measured in Step 23?

What effect did changing the value of resistor R have on the cutoff frequency? Explain.

Step 25.

Change the value of capacitor C to 0.04 IlF in Figure 29-2. Click the On-Off switch to run the simulation. Measure the cutoff frequency (fd following the procedure in Step 18 and record your answer.

fc= _

Step 26.

Based on the new value of resistor R and capacitor C, calculate the new cutoff frequency

(fd· .~

Questions: How did the calculated value of the new cutoff frequency compare with the value measured in Step 25?

Experiment 29 "'"

i('What effect did changing the value of capacitor C have on the cutoff frequency?

261

Explain.

Troubleshooting Problems

1. Pull down the File menu and open FIG29-3. Click the On-Off switch to run the simulation.

Based on the curve plots on the oscilloscope and the Bode plotter, determine the defective component and the defect (short or open).

Defective component _

Defect

-----

2. Pull down the File menu and open FIG29-4. Click the On-Off switch to run the simulation.

Based on the curve plots on the oscilloscope and the Bode plotter, determine the defective component and the defect (short or open).

Defective component _

Defect

-----

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulAre you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.