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Part 1

Learning Outcomes
To explain the role of both parents for parenthood.
To list factors that can harm the unborn child.
To identify the basic needs of children at the
different stages of life- from baby to infant,
toddler, pre-school child.
To suggest ways how parents can help in the
development of the physical and intellectual needs.

Caring for a child does not start from the day when
the child is born. The child can grow, move and have
feelings from a long way back when the baby is still
in the mothers womb. Development is a means of
growing, not just physically but also intellectually,
emotionally and socially.

Planning and Preparing

for a family
A couple that plan to marry should discuss their
plans for a family before they get married. They
may seek professional advice from example a doctor
or a marriage counsellor.

What should a couple consider

before starting a family?


Factors to consider before

starting a family

Do we want children?
Are we mature enough to accept the responsibility?
Will the husband or wife make a good father or mother?
Have we got a job?
Could we lose one income and still support the family?
Have we got suitable accommodation/somewhere to live?
Are we healthy?

Help me Plan a
Successful and
happy marriage!

Role of Parents
Pregnancy can be a time of love and growth where the two
parents can spend time together to plan for the coming
baby. The role of the two parents is very important and
support shall be given throughout all the nine months of

What roles do BOTH parents

have during pregnancy??

The Fathers Role...

The expectant father has to help his partner to stay healthy and
must show respect at all times. This can be done in many ways,
Help her quit smoking and avoid drinking alcohol
Help her by sharing household responsibilities
Read about pregnancy so he would know the changes she is
going through, thus understand her better
Attend pre-natal classes and pregnancy visits to the doctor
Encourage regular gently walks and exercise

Responsibilities DURING
Hospital Visits

Good Exercise

No Smoking

Good Eating

No medicine

Good care of

A pregnant woman must eat a healthy

balanced diet which is not too rich in salt,
sugar and fat and based more on fruit,
vegetables, meat and calcium rich foods.
Plenty of exercise and fresh air keeps the
pregnant woman healthy, fit and relaxed.
Exercise helps to avoid going too much fat
and will also make birth less painful.
Rest in pregnancy is important because of all the extra
work the mothers body is doing. Sleep is also vital and
most pregnant woman need more sleep than usual,
especially during the first 3 months of pregnancy.

Responsibilities AFTER pregnancy

Parents have important roles in parenthood and these
Keep their baby safe and protected.
Have a good child-parent relationship, such as respect
and discipline.
Teach their child how to behave nicely.
Find time for their child, even if both parents work.
Help the child grow up and be independent.
Teach their child to control their negative feelings.
Learn how to share things.
Teach what is right and wrong.

Why should a woman

be healthy even
before conception?

What is Preconception Care?

Preconception care aims to identify
reversible risks to a womans health or
pregnancy outcome, emphasizing those factors
which must be acted on before conception or
early in pregnancy to have maximal impact.

The mothers Role...

A woman must be healthy before conception:

A sensible diet is important for general good

health, plenty of fresh air & exercise, and sufficient
Weight is imporant, excess weight puts strain on
the heart, legs and feet.
indegestion etc should be treated before pregnancy
as any drugs can harm the baby.
Women with more serious illnesses like diabetes or
heart problems should consult the doctor before
becoming pregnant.
Before pregnancy a women should have a thorough
dental check.

Womens nutrition before pregnancy
affects both the development of the
foetus and growth of the infant after

Can you identify some harmful

substances which should be
avoided during pregnancy?

True or False
Activity Sheet!

Drugs: Any form of drug can harm the baby

especially during the first three months. Drugs
should not be taken unless specifically prescrbed by
the doctor.
Alcohol: A lot of alcohol in pregnancy is now known
to be harmful to the unborn baby, possibly leading
to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.
Smoking: Extremely harmful to the unborn baby.
A pregnant woman who smokes is more likely to have
a miscarriage.
X-Rays: Extremely dangerous and only done in
extreme circumstances. Precautions are taken.
Rubella: Pregnant women who are not vaccinated
against rubella and get the disease may give birth to
babies with certain defects, such as blindness and

Rubella is a viral infection that

spreads in airborne droplets when
people sneeze or cough. If a woman
gets rubella while pregnant, especially
in the first 3 months, serious
consequences may result; including
miscarriages, fetal deaths, still births
and congenital rubella syndrome.

Matching Activity about harmfu

substances during pregnancy

Nutrition During Pregnancy

It is highly important that the diet of pregnant woman is

healthy in order to produce a healthy body. Deficiency of one
food may be noticed only after the embryo stage. The nutrients
are carried from the mothers bloodstream through the
placenta and umbilical cord into the babys bloodstream.
Therefore, her diet has to provide sufficient nutrients for her
and her unborn baby.

The New Born Baby

From the earliest days a baby uses his senses to learn from
other people and from the things going on around him.
Babies have needs like anybody else. Some are for basic
survival while others are to improve the quality of life.


Humans have needs; some are for

basic survival and others to improve
quality of life. All children depend
completely on an adult to meet their
needs. To achieve and maintain
healthy growth and development,
the basic needs must be fulfilled.

What are s0me of the Basic

Needs of a young child?

Can you identify some

physical needs of a baby?

Physical needs of a Baby

Physical needs It is concerned with the health of the baby/young child
Cleanliness (gentle baby soap & no tears shampoo)
Disposable diapers (nappies)
Baby brush and comb set
Clothes to be kept warm
Pacifiers/ dummies
Bottles/bottle brush
Nappy changer and baby bath
A bed
Protection from danger
Colourful and stimulating/interesting toys.

Physical needs of a Young

Physical needs It is concerned with the health of the
baby/young child
Healthy food
Cleanliness (no tears shampoo)
Easy to drink cups
Papers and crayons to develop their motor skills
Toys and games, tricycles, balls
Educative TV like Barney and Friends

Other Types of Needs:

Intellectual needs- It is concerned with the

growth of the mind. Example play, book, games,
television, to be talked and to read to, schooling.

Emotional needs - It is concerned with the balance

of feelings. Example: love, attention, feeling wanted
and needed, security, stability and comfort.

Social needs - It is concerned with society in which

one lives. Example: company, community help, toilet
training, eating independently, learning to dress, general
manners and independence.

Intellectual Needs
Emotional Needs
Social Needs

Activity: Put the need under

their correct heading.

The needs of a young child:

Physical needs

Intellectual needs

This is Food,
with thecleanliness,
health of
from danger,
the baby/young

is concernedbook,
to be
the growth
of the
talked and to read to,

Emotional needs

Social needs

It is concerned
with the balance
and needed,
of feelings.

security, stability and




It is concerned
community help, toilet
with society
which one
lives. to
dress, general manners
and independence.


What does it mean?

Physical Needs

It concerns the body and the

childs health.

Intellectual Needs

Emotional Needs

Social Needs

It concerns the growth of the mind.

It concerns the balance

expression of feelings.


It concerns the society in which

one lives and the relationships
with people.

Each of the 4 needs depends upon each

other. For example, a hungry baby is too
upset to learn about its world. The baby

cries for food and cannot calm down until

the pain of hunger is removed. A well-fed
baby is relaxed and keen to learn.