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You are on page 1of 14

MACHINE

The different parts of the dc machine magnetic circuit / pole are yoke, pole, air gap, armature

teeth and armature core. Therefore, the ampere

ampere-turns

turns /pole to establish the required flux in the

magnetic circuit is the sum of the ampere

ampere-turns required for different

fferent parts mentioned above.

That is,

AT / pole = ATy + ATp+ ATg + ATt + ATc

1. Yoke, 2. Pole, 3. Air gap, 4. Armature teeth, 5. Armature core, 6. Leakage flux

ab: Mean length of the flux path corresponding to one pole

GNA: Geometrical neutrall axis

Note:

1. Leakage factor or Leakage coefficient LC.

All the flux produced by the pole p will not pass through the desired path i.e., air gap. Some

of the flux produced by the pole will be leaking away from the air gap. The flux that passes

through the air gap and cut by the armature conductors is the useful flux and that flux that

leaks away from the desired path is the leakage flux 1 .

Thus

As leakage flux is generally around (15 to 25) % of ,

p = + (0.15 to 0.25)

= LC x

where LC is the Leakage factor or Leakage coefficient and lies between (1.15 to 1.25).

2. Magnitude of flux in different parts of the magnetic circuit

a) Flux in the yoke y = ( LC) /2

b) Flux in the pole p = LC

c) Flux in the air gap =

d) Flux in the armature teeth =

e) Flux in the armature core = / 2

3. Reluctance of the air gap

Reluctance of the air gap S =

l

a r

0

lg

( L)

where

lg = Length of air gap

= Width (pole arc) over which the flux is passing in the air gap

L = Axial length of the armature core

L = Air gap area / pole over which the flux is passing in the air gap

Because of the chamfering of the pole, the length of aair

ir gap under the pole varies from lg at the

'

center of the pole to l g >lg at the pole tip. The length of air gap to be considered for the

calculation of air gap reluctance is neither lg nor l 'g , but has to be a value in between lg and l 'g

.The length of air gap at the tips is generally 1.5 to 2 times the air gap length under the center

of the pole.

Because of the fringing of flux, the width over which the flux passes through the air gap is not

but it is more than that.

The effect of variation in air gap length and fringing of flux can be ignored as the former

appears in the numerator and the latter in the denominator of the expression for the

reluctance.

While calculating the reluctance of the air gap, effect of the presence of slots and ducts on the

armature must also be considered.

Effect of slots on the reluctance of the air gap

Consider a smooth surface armature (SSA) i.e. having no slots and ducts. Over a slot pitch s ,

reluctance of the air gap in the presence of smooth surface armature

lg

SSSA =

S L

------- (1)

0

Over the same slot pitch consider a slot and tooth. Because of the crowding effect, the flux

instead passing only over the tooth width bt, passes over some portion of the slot also. Thus the

width over which the flux is passing is equal to (bt + bs s ) where s is called the Carters

fringing coefficient for slots. It is less than 1.0 and depends on the ratio of slot opening to air

gap length and can be obtained from the Carters fringing coefficient curve.

The

lg

SAWS =

------- (2)

(b t + bs s ) L

0

in

the

presence

of

armat

armature

with

slots

Dividing 2 by 1,

SAWS

SSSA

lg / (b t + bs s ) L 0

lg / s L 0

SAWS =

=

SAWS =

s SSSA

(b t + bs s )

s SSSA

after adding and subtracting bsin the denominator

b t + b s s + b s b s

s SSSA

s - bs (1 - s )

= K gs SSSA

whereKgs is called the Carters gap expansion coefficient for slots and is greater than 1.0.

It is clear from the above expression that the effect of the slots is to increase the reluctance of

the air gap by a factor Kgs as compared to the reluctance of the air ggap

ap in the presence of a

smooth surface armature.

Effect of ventilating ducts on the reluctance of the air gap

Consider a smooth surface armature (SSA) i.e. armature having no slots and ducts. Reluctance

of the air gap, in the presence of a smooth surface armature

SSSA =

lg

DL 0

--------- (3)

Reluctance of the air gap in the presence of the armature with ducts (AWD)

lg

SAWD =

--------- (4)

D [L - n v b v ( l - v )] 0

where v is the carters fringing coefficient for ducts. It is less than 1.0 and depends on the

ratio opening of the duct to air gap length and is obtained from the Carters fringing coefficient

curve.

Dividing 4 by 3,

lg / D [ L - n v b v (1 - v ) ] 0

SAWD

SSSA

SAWD =

L SSSA

= K gv SSSA

L - n v b v (1- v )

lg / D L 0

whereKgv is called the Carters gap expansion coefficient for ducts and is greater than 1.0.

Thus the effect of ducts is to increase the reluctance of the air gap by a factor Kgv as compared

to the reluctance of the air gap in the presence oof a smooth surface armature.

Combined effect of slots and ducts on the reluctance of the air gap

The presence of slots and ducts increases the reluctance of the air gap by factors Kgs and Kgv

respectively. Together they increase the reluctance by a factor Kg called the Carters gap

expansion coefficient (or extension coefficient or contraction coefficient). Thus

K g = K gs K gv =

s

s - b os ( 1 - s )

L

L - n v b v ( 1 - v )

where

bos = opening of the slot

= width of the slot bs for open type of slot

<bs for semi-closed slots

= zero for closed slots

s or (1 - s ) = Carters fringing coefficient for slots and depends on the ratio bos / lg and can

be obtained from the carters fringing coefficient curve.

v or (1 - v ) = Carters fringing coefficient for ducts and depends on the ratio bv / lg and can

be obtained from the carters fringing coefficient curve.

Calculation of ampere-turns

turns per pole for the magnetic circuit of a DC machine

The total ampere turns / pole required for the magnetic circuit of a DC machine to establish

flux ,

AT / pole = Sum of the ampere turns required to over come the reluctance of the yoke,

pole, air gap, armature teeth and armature core

= ATy + ATp+ ATg + ATt + ATc

a) ampere turns for the yoke / pole ATy :

LC / 2

Flux density in the yoke By =

tesla

Ay

Let atybe the ampere turns per metre, obtained from the magnetization curve corresponding to

the yoke material, at By.

NOTE:

Ly = Axial length of the yoke

D = Diameter of the armature

dy = Depth of the yoke

lg = Length of air gap

Ay = Cross-sectional

sectional area of yoke = dyLy

hp = Height of the pole

bp = Width of the pole

Dy = Mean diameter of the yoke = (D + 2lg + 2hp + dy)

fg = Pole pitch at mean diameter of the yoke = Dy / P

Mean length of the flux path in the yoke

ly = abc = abcde / 2

= (fg 2fb + 2ab) /2

2 bp

2 dy

Dy

=

/2

4

2

P

Dy

=

P

bp

2

- dy / 2

Total ampere-turns

turns for the yoke / pole ATy = atyly

b) ampere turns for the pole ATp :

Flux density in the pole Bp =

LC

tesla

Ap

Let atpbe the ampere turns per metre, obtained from the magnetization curve corresponding to

the pole material, at Bp.

Note:

Lp = Axial length of the pole

Lpi = Net iron length of the pole

hp = Height of the pole including

pole shoe height

Lpi = KiLp

Ap = Cross-sectional area of the pole

= bpLpi in case of square or

rectangular laminated poles

= d i2 /4 in case of circular poles

Total ampere turns for the pole / pole ATp = atphp

c) ampere turns for the air gap / pole ATg :

Since flux = mmf or AT / reluctance, ampere turns for the air gap per pole

ATg = x reluctance.

Though the reluctance of the air gap under a pole is

lg

L0

, it is to be multiplied by the

Carters gap expansion coefficient Kg = KgsKgv in order to account the effect of slots and

ducts. Therefore,

ATg =

lg K g

L

=

0

lg K g B g

4 x 1 0 -7

whereBgis the maximum value of the flux density in the air gap along the center line of the

pole.

That is,

B av

P

=

=

D

L

L

DL

P

a v e r a g e v a lu e o f t h e f l u x d e n s i t y B a v

=

f i e l d f o r m f a c t o r K a n d i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l t o p o llee e n c lloo s u r e

f

Bg =

Flux density in the armature tooth (in case of a parallel sided slot and tapered tooth) at 1/3

height from the root of the tooth

t1/3

t 1/3

S /P

where bt 1/3 = width of the tooth at 1/3 height from the root of the tooth

= (D - 4 / 3 h t ) - b s

S

Let attbe the ampere turns per metre, obtained from the magnetization curve corresponding to

the armature core material,, at Bt 1/3.

Mean length of the flux path in the tooth = height of the tooth ht

Total ampere turns for the armature teeth / pole ATt = att ht

e) ampere turns for the armature core / pole ATc :

Flux density in the armature core Bc = / 2 tesla

Ac

Let atcbe the ampere turns per metre, obtained from the magnetization curve corresponding to

the armature core material, at Bc.

Note:

dc = Depth of the armature core

Ac = Cross-sectional

sectional area of the armature core = dc Li

Mean length of the flux path in the armature core

lc =

PQ R

=

2

(D - 2 h t - d c )

2P

Total ampere turns for the armature core / pole ATc = atc lc

Thus the total ampere-turns

turns required for the magnetic circuit of the DC machine

AT / pole = ATy + ATp+ ATg + ATt + ATc

For a parallel sided slot, the tooth is tapered and therefore the flux density at each and every

section of the tooth will be different. The flux density is least at the air gap surface of the tooth

where the flux enters the tooth and maximum at the root of the tooth where the tooth section is

minimum. Since the variation of flux density in the tooth is non

non-linear

ear because of saturation of

iron, the calculation of ampere turns becomes difficult.

Different methods available for the calculation of ATt are

1. Graphical method

2. Simpsons method and

3. Bt 1/3 method

Graphical method

In this method the tooth iss divided into a number of equal parts and flux density at each tooth

section is calculated. Corresponding to each flux density, At / m is obtained from the

magnetization curve. Assuming linearity between the sections considered, ATt is calculated.

bt1, bt2, bt3 etc., are the tooth width at different sections 1, 2, 3 etc.

Flux density at section l, Bt1 =

b

t1

S /P

Let the ampere turns / metre, obtained from the magnetization curve is H1 or at1 at Bt1.

b

t2

S / P

Let the ampere turns / metre, obtained from the magnetization curve is H2 or at2 at Bt2.

Flux density at section 3, Bt3 =

b

L S /P

t3 i

Let the ampere turns / metre, obtained from the magnetization curve is H3 or at3 at Bt3.

Similarly let H4 be the ampere turns / metre at Bt4 etc.

Total ampere turns for the teeth / pole

10

ATt =

H1 + H 2

2

ht

n

+ H 2 + H 3 ht +

2

H3 + H4

2

h t etc.,

n

Simpsons method

In this method the tooth is divided into two equal parts. The flux density at each section is

calculated and the corresponding ampere turns / metre are obtained from the magnetization

curve.

Note:bt1, bt2, bt3 are the width of the too

at section 1.

S /P

b t1 L i

at section 2.

b t2 L i S /P

b t3 L i S /P

at section 3.

1

Hav =

( H1 + 4H2 + H3)

6

Total ampere turns for the armature teeth / pole ATt = Hav ht

Bt 1/3 method

In this method, ATt is obtained considering the flux density at 1/3 height from the root of the

tooth.

Flux density in the tooth at 1/3 height from the root of the tooth

B t 1 /3 =

b t 1 /3 L i

S /P

11

Let attbe the ampere turns per metre, obtained from the magnetization curve corresponding to

the armature core material, at Bt 1/3.

Total ampere turns for the teeth / pole ATt = att ht .

[Note: In all the above three methods, the effect of saturation of iron is neglected. In other

words all the flux under a slot pitch is assumed to be passing through the tooth only].

Real and Apparent Flux densities

When the iron is not saturated, reluctance of the iron will be less and all the flux

f

s over a slot

pitch will be passing through the tooth only. However, when the iron gets saturated, reluctance

of the iron increases considerably and the flux over the slot pitch divides itself to take both slot

and tooth paths.

Thus the flux density =

iro n area o f th e to o th A i

in the tooth, but it is an apparent flux density. The real flux density Brealwill, however,

be equal to

f lu x i n tthh e t o o t h o r ir o n p a tthh i

n e t i r o n a r e a o f th

th e to o th A i

density Bapp.

12

Total area over the slot pitch s L = area of iron Ai + area of non-magnetic

magnetic path An

i + n

An

= Breal + Bn K

Ai

Ai

Ai

Ai

An

Ai

where Bn = 0 r H = 0 H is the flux density in the non-magnetic

magnetic path and K is a constant

equal to An / Ai . The magnetizing force H is the ampere turns / metre to establish Breal or Bn.

Bapp =

= Breal +

An

A + An

L

)= i

then K = (Ks 1).

= s

Ai

Ai

b t Li

Thus Bapp = Breal + 0 H (Ks 1) and is an equation of straight line.

If the slot factor Ks = 1 + K = (1 +

[Note: Since the actual value of flux passing through the slot or tooth is not known, Bn and Breal

and therefore the AT / m i.e. H to establish Bn or Breal are also not known. Hence the equation

Bapp = Breal + 0 H (Ks 1) has two unknow

unknowns Breal and H. Thus the equation cannot be solved.

However the values of Breal and H can be found by plotting the above equation on the

magnetization curve. The intersection point of the magnetization curve and the straight line

provides the values of Breal and H.]

The co-ordinates,

ordinates, of the intersection point of magnetization curve and straight line provides the

values of Breal and H.

Therefore the total ampere-turns

turns for the armature teeth / pole ATt = H ht .

13

Since the OCC is a plot of emf induced and AT, ampere

ampere-turns

turns for different assumed voltages or

flux are found out by calculating ATy ,ATp , ATg, ATt and ATc. Accuracy of the curve

increases as the number of voltages considered increases.

Information that can be obtained from the open circuit characteristic is,

1) The value of critical field resistance.

2) shunt and series field ampere

ampere-turns

3) Effect of armature

re reaction in conjunction with the internal characteristic.

******************

14

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