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ECE633 Signals and Systems I, Fall 2009 Homework 2 Solutions

From: Linear Systems and Signals, 2nd ed. B. P. Lathi, Oxford University Press, 2005.
1.1-2 Find the energies of the signals illustrated in Fig. P1.1-2. Comment on the effect on energy
of sign change, time shifting, or doubling of the signal. What is the effect on the energy if
the signal is multiplied by k?

t3
1
(a) Ex = t dt =
=
0
30 3
1

(b) Ex1 =

( t )

(c) Ex 2 = ( t )
1

t3
dt = t dt =
1
3
0

1 1
= 0 =
3 3
1

t3
1
dt = t dt =
=
0
30 3
1

(d) Ex 3 = ( t 1) dt =
2

(e) Ex 4 = ( 2t )
1

t3 2
( t 2t + 1) dt = 3 t + t = 13 1 + 1 = 13

0
2

t3
4
dt = 4
=
30 3

Neither sign change nor time shifting effect the energy of a signal. However, multiplying a signal
by some factor k results in the energy being multiplied by k2.

ECE633 Signals and Systems I, Fall 2009 Homework 2 Solutions

1.1-6 Figure P1.1-6 shows a periodic 50% duty cycle dc-offset sawtooth wave x ( t ) with peak
amplitude A. Determine the energy and power of x ( t ) .

Determine the power over one period ( 0 t < T ) , half of which is zero
2

1 T /2 A
4 A2
Px =
t dt = 3
T 0 T / 2
T

t3
4 A2 ( T / 2 )
A2
=
3 = T3
3
6
0
T /2

Ex =

A2
=
6

ECE633 Signals and Systems I, Fall 2009 Homework 2 Solutions

1.2-1 For the signal x ( t ) depicted in Figure P1.2-1, sketch the signals
(a) x ( t )

(c) x ( 3t )

(b) x ( t + 6 )

(d) x ( t / 2 )

ECE633 Signals and Systems I, Fall 2009 Homework 2 Solutions

1.2-5 Define 2 x ( 3t + 1) = t ( u ( t 1) u ( t + 1) ) , where u ( t ) is the unit step function.


(a) Plot 2 x ( 3t + 1) over a suitable range of t.

(b) Plot x ( t ) over a suitable range of t.

ECE633 Signals and Systems I, Fall 2009 Homework 2 Solutions


1.3-3 Given x1 ( t ) = cos ( t ) , x2 ( t ) = sin ( t ) , and x3 ( t ) = x1 ( t ) + x2 ( t ) .
(a) Determine the fundamental periods T1 and T2 of signals x1 ( t ) and x2 ( t ) .
(b) Show that x3 ( t ) is not periodic, which requires T3 = k1T1 = k2T2 for some integers k1
and k2 .

(c) Determine the powers Px1 , Px2 , and Px3 of the signals x1 ( t ) , x2 ( t ) , and x3 ( t ) .
(a) 1 = 2 f1 =

2 = 2 f 2 =

(b)

2
=1
T1

T1 = 2

2
=
T2

T2 = 2

k2 T1 2
= =
= integer
k1 T2
2

1
(c) Px1 =
2
Px1 =

1
4

1
cos ( t ) dt =
4
2

1
1 + cos ( 2t ) dt =
4

t + 2 sin ( 2t )
0

1
1

1
2 + 2 sin ( 4 ) 0 + 2 sin ( 0 ) = 2

Px1 =

1
2

Px 2 =

1
2

1 2
1 2
1
1

Px 2 = sin 2 ( t ) dt = 1 cos ( 2 t ) dt = t
sin ( 2 t )
2 0
4 0
4 2
0
Px 2 =

1
1
1

1
sin ( 4 ) 0
sin ( 0 ) =
2

4
2
2

2

1
Px 3 = lim
T 2T

cos ( t ) + sin ( t ) dt
T

1
Px 3 = lim
T 2T

cos 2 ( t ) + 2 cos ( t ) sin ( t ) + sin 2 ( t ) dt

1
Px 3 = Px1 + Px 2 + lim
T T

cos ( t ) sin ( t ) dt
T

1
Px 3 = Px1 + Px 2 + lim
T 2T

1 1
sin ( t + t ) + sin ( t t ) dt = + + 0 = 1
2 2

Px 3 = 1

ECE633 Signals and Systems I, Fall 2009 Homework 2 Solutions

1.3-5 The signal shown in Fig. P1.3-5 is defined as


t
0.5 + 0.5cos 2 t
( )

x (t ) =
3 t
0

0 t <1
1 t < 2
2t <3
otherwise

The energy of x ( t ) is E 1.0417 .


(a) What is the energy of
y1 ( t ) = (1/ 3) x ( 2t ) ?
(b) A periodic signal y2 ( t ) is defined as
0t <4
x ( t )
y2 ( t ) =
y2 ( t + 4 ) t
What is the power of y2 ( t ) ?

(c) What is the power of y3 ( t ) = (1/ 3) y2 ( 2t ) ?


(a) The time dimension is compressed by a factor of 2, and the amplitude is reduced to 1/3 of its
former value. Since energy uses the square of the amplitude,
2

E 1.0417
1 1
E y1 = E x = x
0.0579
18
18
3 2

(b) This repeats x ( t ) every 4 seconds. Thus,


Py 2 =

Ex 1.0417

0.2604
4
4

(c) Stretching a signal also stretches its period. Thus, only the amplitude effects the power.
Because of squaring
Py 3 =

Py 2
9

Ex 1.0417

0.0289
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ECE633 Signals and Systems I, Fall 2009 Homework 2 Solutions

1.4-2 Express each of the signals in Fig. P1.4-2 by a single expression valid for all t.

(a) x1 ( t ) = ( 4t + 4 ) u ( t + 1) u ( t ) + ( 2t + 4 ) u ( t ) u ( t 2 )

x1 ( t ) = 4 ( t + 1) u ( t + 1) 6tu ( t ) + 2 ( t 2 ) u ( t 2 )
(b) x2 ( t ) = t 2 u ( t ) u ( t 2 ) + ( 2t 8 ) u ( t 2 ) u ( t 4 )
x2 ( t ) = t 2u ( t ) ( t 2 2t + 8 ) u ( t 2 ) 2 ( t 4 ) u ( t 4 )

x2 ( t ) = t 2u ( t ) t 2 4t + 4 + [ 2t 4] + 8 u ( t 2 ) 2 ( t 4 ) u ( t 4 )
x2 ( t ) = t 2u ( t ) ( t 2 ) u ( t 2 ) 2 ( t 2 ) u ( t 2 ) 8u ( t 2 ) 2 ( t 4 ) u ( t 4 )
2

ECE633 Signals and Systems I, Fall 2009 Homework 2 Solutions

1.4-3 Simplify the following expressions:


sin t
(a) 2
(t )
t +2
j + 2
(b) 2
( )
+9

sin 2 ( t 2 )

1 t
(d)
( )

t2 + 4

1
(e)
( + 3)
j + 2

sin k
(f)
( )

[Hint: Use Eq. (1.23). For part (f) use LHpitals rule.]

(c) e t cos ( 3t 60 ) ( t )

sin t
sin 0
(a) 2
(t ) = 2
(t ) = 0
t +2
0 +2
2
j + 2
j0 + 2
(b) 2
( ) = 2
( ) = ( )
9
+9
0 +9
1
(c) e t cos ( 3t 60 ) ( t ) = e 0 cos ( 0 60 ) ( t ) = cos ( 60 ) ( t ) = ( t )
2

sin 2 ( t 2 )
sin 2 (1 2 )
sin 2
1

(d)
(1 t ) =
(1 t ) = (1 t ) = (1 t )
2
2

1+ 4
t +4
1 +4
5

1
1
(e)
( + 3) =
( + 3)
j + 2
2 j3
sin k
sin k
k cos k
(f)
( ) = lim

( ) = lim

( ) = k ( )

0
1

ECE633 Signals and Systems I, Fall 2009 Homework 2 Solutions

1.5-1 Find and sketch the odd and the even components of the following:
(a) u ( t )
(e) cos (0t + )
(b) tu ( t )

(f) sin (0t ) u ( t )

(c) sin (0t )

(g) cos (0t ) u ( t )

(d) cos (0t )


(a) xe ( t ) = 0.5 u ( t ) + u ( t ) = 0.5

xo ( t ) = 0.5 u ( t ) u ( t )

(b) xe ( t ) = 0.5t u ( t ) u ( t ) = 0.5 t

xo ( t ) = 0.5t u ( t ) + u ( t ) = 0.5t

ECE633 Signals and Systems I, Fall 2009 Homework 2 Solutions


(c) xe ( t ) = 0

xo ( t ) = sin (0t )

(d) xe ( t ) = cos (0t )

xo ( t ) = 0

(e) cos (0t + ) = cos (0t ) cos ( ) sin (0t ) sin ( )

xe ( t ) = cos ( ) cos (0t )

xo ( t ) = sin ( ) sin (0t )

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ECE633 Signals and Systems I, Fall 2009 Homework 2 Solutions

(f) xe ( t ) = 0.5 sin (0t ) u ( t ) + sin ( 0t ) u ( t ) = 0.5 sin (0t ) u ( t ) sin (0t ) u ( t )
xo ( t ) = 0.5 sin (0t ) u ( t ) sin ( 0t ) u ( t ) = 0.5sin (0t ) u ( t ) + u ( t ) = 0.5sin (0t )

(g) xe ( t ) = 0.5 cos (0t ) u ( t ) + cos ( 0t ) u ( t ) = 0.5cos (0t ) u ( t ) + u ( t ) = 0.5 cos (0t )
xo ( t ) = 0.5 cos (0t ) u ( t ) cos ( 0t ) u ( t ) = 0.5 cos (0t ) u ( t ) cos (0t ) u ( t )

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ECE633 Signals and Systems I, Fall 2009 Homework 2 Solutions

1.5-11 Figure P1.5-11 plots a complex signal w ( t ) in the complex plane over the time range

( 0 t 1) .

The time t = 0 corresponds with the origin, while the time t = 1 corresponds

with the point ( 2,1) .

(a) In the complex plane, plot w ( t ) over ( 1 t 1) if:


(i) w ( t ) is an even signal.
(ii) w ( t ) is an odd signal.
(iii) w ( t ) is a conjugate symmetric signal. [Hint: See Prob. 1.5-9.]
(iv) w ( t ) is a conjugate antisymmetric signal. [Hint: See Prob. 1.5-10.]
(b) In the complex plane, plot as much of w ( 3t ) as possible.
(a) (i) w ( t ) = w ( t ) , (ii) w ( t ) = w ( t ) , (iii) w ( t ) = w* ( t ) , (iv) w ( t ) = w* ( t )

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ECE633 Signals and Systems I, Fall 2009 Homework 2 Solutions


(b) The answer looks like Figure P1.5-11, but the signal arrives at (2,1) when t = 1/ 3 .

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