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You are on page 1of 13

From: Linear Systems and Signals, 2nd ed. B. P. Lathi, Oxford University Press, 2005.

1.1-2 Find the energies of the signals illustrated in Fig. P1.1-2. Comment on the effect on energy

of sign change, time shifting, or doubling of the signal. What is the effect on the energy if

the signal is multiplied by k?

t3

1

(a) Ex = t dt =

=

0

30 3

1

(b) Ex1 =

( t )

(c) Ex 2 = ( t )

1

t3

dt = t dt =

1

3

0

1 1

= 0 =

3 3

1

t3

1

dt = t dt =

=

0

30 3

1

(d) Ex 3 = ( t 1) dt =

2

(e) Ex 4 = ( 2t )

1

t3 2

( t 2t + 1) dt = 3 t + t = 13 1 + 1 = 13

0

2

t3

4

dt = 4

=

30 3

Neither sign change nor time shifting effect the energy of a signal. However, multiplying a signal

by some factor k results in the energy being multiplied by k2.

1.1-6 Figure P1.1-6 shows a periodic 50% duty cycle dc-offset sawtooth wave x ( t ) with peak

amplitude A. Determine the energy and power of x ( t ) .

Determine the power over one period ( 0 t < T ) , half of which is zero

2

1 T /2 A

4 A2

Px =

t dt = 3

T 0 T / 2

T

t3

4 A2 ( T / 2 )

A2

=

3 = T3

3

6

0

T /2

Ex =

A2

=

6

1.2-1 For the signal x ( t ) depicted in Figure P1.2-1, sketch the signals

(a) x ( t )

(c) x ( 3t )

(b) x ( t + 6 )

(d) x ( t / 2 )

(a) Plot 2 x ( 3t + 1) over a suitable range of t.

1.3-3 Given x1 ( t ) = cos ( t ) , x2 ( t ) = sin ( t ) , and x3 ( t ) = x1 ( t ) + x2 ( t ) .

(a) Determine the fundamental periods T1 and T2 of signals x1 ( t ) and x2 ( t ) .

(b) Show that x3 ( t ) is not periodic, which requires T3 = k1T1 = k2T2 for some integers k1

and k2 .

(c) Determine the powers Px1 , Px2 , and Px3 of the signals x1 ( t ) , x2 ( t ) , and x3 ( t ) .

(a) 1 = 2 f1 =

2 = 2 f 2 =

(b)

2

=1

T1

T1 = 2

2

=

T2

T2 = 2

k2 T1 2

= =

= integer

k1 T2

2

1

(c) Px1 =

2

Px1 =

1

4

1

cos ( t ) dt =

4

2

1

1 + cos ( 2t ) dt =

4

t + 2 sin ( 2t )

0

1

1

1

2 + 2 sin ( 4 ) 0 + 2 sin ( 0 ) = 2

Px1 =

1

2

Px 2 =

1

2

1 2

1 2

1

1

Px 2 = sin 2 ( t ) dt = 1 cos ( 2 t ) dt = t

sin ( 2 t )

2 0

4 0

4 2

0

Px 2 =

1

1

1

1

sin ( 4 ) 0

sin ( 0 ) =

2

4

2

2

2

1

Px 3 = lim

T 2T

cos ( t ) + sin ( t ) dt

T

1

Px 3 = lim

T 2T

1

Px 3 = Px1 + Px 2 + lim

T T

cos ( t ) sin ( t ) dt

T

1

Px 3 = Px1 + Px 2 + lim

T 2T

1 1

sin ( t + t ) + sin ( t t ) dt = + + 0 = 1

2 2

Px 3 = 1

t

0.5 + 0.5cos 2 t

( )

x (t ) =

3 t

0

0 t <1

1 t < 2

2t <3

otherwise

(a) What is the energy of

y1 ( t ) = (1/ 3) x ( 2t ) ?

(b) A periodic signal y2 ( t ) is defined as

0t <4

x ( t )

y2 ( t ) =

y2 ( t + 4 ) t

What is the power of y2 ( t ) ?

(a) The time dimension is compressed by a factor of 2, and the amplitude is reduced to 1/3 of its

former value. Since energy uses the square of the amplitude,

2

E 1.0417

1 1

E y1 = E x = x

0.0579

18

18

3 2

Py 2 =

Ex 1.0417

0.2604

4

4

(c) Stretching a signal also stretches its period. Thus, only the amplitude effects the power.

Because of squaring

Py 3 =

Py 2

9

Ex 1.0417

0.0289

36

36

1.4-2 Express each of the signals in Fig. P1.4-2 by a single expression valid for all t.

(a) x1 ( t ) = ( 4t + 4 ) u ( t + 1) u ( t ) + ( 2t + 4 ) u ( t ) u ( t 2 )

x1 ( t ) = 4 ( t + 1) u ( t + 1) 6tu ( t ) + 2 ( t 2 ) u ( t 2 )

(b) x2 ( t ) = t 2 u ( t ) u ( t 2 ) + ( 2t 8 ) u ( t 2 ) u ( t 4 )

x2 ( t ) = t 2u ( t ) ( t 2 2t + 8 ) u ( t 2 ) 2 ( t 4 ) u ( t 4 )

x2 ( t ) = t 2u ( t ) t 2 4t + 4 + [ 2t 4] + 8 u ( t 2 ) 2 ( t 4 ) u ( t 4 )

x2 ( t ) = t 2u ( t ) ( t 2 ) u ( t 2 ) 2 ( t 2 ) u ( t 2 ) 8u ( t 2 ) 2 ( t 4 ) u ( t 4 )

2

sin t

(a) 2

(t )

t +2

j + 2

(b) 2

( )

+9

sin 2 ( t 2 )

1 t

(d)

( )

t2 + 4

1

(e)

( + 3)

j + 2

sin k

(f)

( )

[Hint: Use Eq. (1.23). For part (f) use LHpitals rule.]

(c) e t cos ( 3t 60 ) ( t )

sin t

sin 0

(a) 2

(t ) = 2

(t ) = 0

t +2

0 +2

2

j + 2

j0 + 2

(b) 2

( ) = 2

( ) = ( )

9

+9

0 +9

1

(c) e t cos ( 3t 60 ) ( t ) = e 0 cos ( 0 60 ) ( t ) = cos ( 60 ) ( t ) = ( t )

2

sin 2 ( t 2 )

sin 2 (1 2 )

sin 2

1

(d)

(1 t ) =

(1 t ) = (1 t ) = (1 t )

2

2

1+ 4

t +4

1 +4

5

1

1

(e)

( + 3) =

( + 3)

j + 2

2 j3

sin k

sin k

k cos k

(f)

( ) = lim

( ) = lim

( ) = k ( )

0

1

1.5-1 Find and sketch the odd and the even components of the following:

(a) u ( t )

(e) cos (0t + )

(b) tu ( t )

(a) xe ( t ) = 0.5 u ( t ) + u ( t ) = 0.5

xo ( t ) = 0.5 u ( t ) u ( t )

xo ( t ) = 0.5t u ( t ) + u ( t ) = 0.5t

(c) xe ( t ) = 0

xo ( t ) = sin (0t )

xo ( t ) = 0

10

(f) xe ( t ) = 0.5 sin (0t ) u ( t ) + sin ( 0t ) u ( t ) = 0.5 sin (0t ) u ( t ) sin (0t ) u ( t )

xo ( t ) = 0.5 sin (0t ) u ( t ) sin ( 0t ) u ( t ) = 0.5sin (0t ) u ( t ) + u ( t ) = 0.5sin (0t )

(g) xe ( t ) = 0.5 cos (0t ) u ( t ) + cos ( 0t ) u ( t ) = 0.5cos (0t ) u ( t ) + u ( t ) = 0.5 cos (0t )

xo ( t ) = 0.5 cos (0t ) u ( t ) cos ( 0t ) u ( t ) = 0.5 cos (0t ) u ( t ) cos (0t ) u ( t )

11

1.5-11 Figure P1.5-11 plots a complex signal w ( t ) in the complex plane over the time range

( 0 t 1) .

The time t = 0 corresponds with the origin, while the time t = 1 corresponds

(i) w ( t ) is an even signal.

(ii) w ( t ) is an odd signal.

(iii) w ( t ) is a conjugate symmetric signal. [Hint: See Prob. 1.5-9.]

(iv) w ( t ) is a conjugate antisymmetric signal. [Hint: See Prob. 1.5-10.]

(b) In the complex plane, plot as much of w ( 3t ) as possible.

(a) (i) w ( t ) = w ( t ) , (ii) w ( t ) = w ( t ) , (iii) w ( t ) = w* ( t ) , (iv) w ( t ) = w* ( t )

12

(b) The answer looks like Figure P1.5-11, but the signal arrives at (2,1) when t = 1/ 3 .

13

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