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Neville Warren

MSc, DipEd, MACE

PASCAL
PRESS

Copyright 2002 Neville Warren


ISBN 1 877085 12 X
Pascal Press
PO Box 250 Glebe NSW 2037
(02) 8585 4044
www.pascalpress.com.au
Publisher: Vivienne Petris Joannou
Editor: May McCool
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Cover by DiZign
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The total time allocated is approximately 22 hours. This includes 13 hours for the three
core topics, approximately 5 hours for the option topic (depending on the topic), three hours for
the exam and an hour to go through the answers. To revise in a month you will need to keep to
a schedule.

Generators
For example, you
The Motor Effect
might choose to
follow the following Electromag netic
Induction
timetable.
Space
Gravity
Space Launch and
Return
Future Space Travel
Special Relativity
Motors and

Electric Generators
Transformers
Electric Motors
From Ideas to
Implementation

Cathode Rays
Quantum Theory
Solid State Devices
Su percond uctivity

the following:
Medical Physics
Astrophysics
Quanta to Quarks

Do ONE option from

Sample Examination
(3 hours)
Check answers
(1 hour)

Check that you know the key points in each topic that you are studying. This
quick test should take only 10 minutes to complete. Check your answers by
referring to the bottom of the page. This is important feedback for you.

If you got any of the test questions wrong, you can quickly find an
explanation and more information on this question by going to the same
number in this section. You should also read the other key points for this topic
to help you revise thoroughly.

These are exam-style questions that you should be able to answer in order
to prepare for the exam. In this section you apply your knowledge. Make
sure you have fully revised your work in the Key Points section. Complete
answers are found at the back of the book. Hints to some questions are
provided in case you need extra help with them. They are found at the bottom
of the page.
Marks are allocated for each question. Always check the marks and use them
as a guide for how much to write in your answer.

When you have completed all sections you are ready to complete the exam
paper. Set aside the required time and try to do it under exam style
conditions - this way you will benefit most from it.

Complete answers are provided for each question.


Mark your paper to see how well you have done.
Tips for the HSC exam can be found on the inside back cover.
A suggested time is given for each section. Try to follow it.
A week-by-week time plan for the month is given on the contents page to help you
plan your study timetable.

A force F acts between two masses separated by a distance d. If the masses are both
doubled and their separation is halved, the new force is now:
F

2F

4F

16F

Surrounding any object with mass is a _ _ _ _ field.


The gravitational field strength of a mass m placed a distance r from the mass is g. If
the distance from the mass is halved, the new gravitational field strength is:
g/4

g/2

2g

4g

The acceleration due to gravity near the Earth's surface is approximately equal to
_ _ _ _ m.s-2.
_ _ _ _ is the force on an object due to a gravitational field.
The acceleration due to gravity on Mars is 3.8 m.s-2. The weight of a 10 kg mass on
Mars is:
38 m.s- 2
38 N
0.38 N
10 N
The mass of an object on Earth is 5 kg. Its mass on Mars (where the acceleration due to
gravity is 3.8 m.s-2) is:
5 kg
5N
19 kg
19 N
When a force is applied to a mass and the mass moves through a distance, we have
done
on the mass. If this force is used to move the mass vertically, we have
increased the mass's _ _ __
The gravitational potential energy has its zero value at _ _ __
The gravitational potential energy Ep of an object of mass m placed a distance r from
the Earth (mass ME) is given by:
Ep =_G

Il?r).u<3:].od Il?uonl?:].!J\I?J6 '>lJOM

I?

:].46!<3M

8'6

mME

P
h!u!:J.u! 1\6J<3U<3
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Every mass exerts a force of attraction on every other mass in the universe in accordance
with Newton's law of universal gravitation. This states 'the force, F, between two
masses m, and m2 whose centres are separated by a distance r is proportional to the
product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of their separation'.
Mathematically F = G m1m2

r2

A gravitational field surrounds the Earth. This field exerts an attractive force on
objects on it and around it.
The gravitational field strength, 9, of a mass m at a distance r from the mass is
given by: 9

= Gm. On
r2

Earth 9 is equal to -9.8 N.kg-'.

The gravitational field strength is numerically equivalent to the acceleration due to


gravity. On Earth, this is equal to -9.8 m.s-2.

Weight is the force on an object due to a gravitational field.


The weight Wof a mass m on a planet where the acceleration due to gravity is 9 is
given by W= mg
The mass of an object is independent of its location. Its weight, however, depends on
where it is placed. For example a 10 kg mass has a weight of 98 N on the Earth but only
38 N on Mars (where 9 = 3.8 m.s-2). Its mass, however, is 10 kg on both planets.
As we lift an object from the ground to a height above the ground we do work on it.
This work is stored in the object as gravitational potential energy.
The gravitational potential energy is a measure of the work done in moving an
object from infinity (that is, a very large distance away) to a point in the field. At
infinity, the gravitational potential energy is defined to be zero.
The gravitational potential energy of an object of mass m placed a distance rfrom the
Earth (mass ME) is given by Ep

= -G mME The

negative sign comes about because of


r
where we define the zero of potential energy to be.
CHECKLIST - Can you:
1. Calculate the force between two masses using Newton's law of universal gravitation?
2. Define weight?

3. Determine the weight force for a body on Earth and on other planets?
4. Describe an experiment to determine the acceleration due to gravity?
5. Define gravitational potential energy?

Four planets alpha, beta, gamma and delta are shown in the figure below.
alpha

Radius r
Mass M

beta

Radius r
Mass 2M

gamma

delta

Radius 2r
Mass M

Radius 2r
Mass 2M

The planet with the largest acceleration due to gravity is:


alpha
beta
gamma
delta
The weight of a body on Earth is 2000 N. What is its weight on Mercury
(where g = 3.4 m.s-2)?
The gravitational potential energy of a mass near the Earth is negative. This means:
no work needs to be done to move the mass to infinity
no work needs to be done to move the mass from infinity
the gravitational potential energy at infinity is zero
the gravitational potential energy at infinity is positive.
What is the gravitational potential energy of a 1000 kg satellite in low Earth orbit
300 km above the Earth's surface? (The radius of the Earth is 6380 km and its mass is
5.983 x 1024 kg)
As part of your course you determined a value for the acceleration due to gravity.
Clearly explain how you did this and account for any variation from the accepted
value of 9.8 m.s-2.

A _ _ _ _ is any object moving only under the influence of gravity.


_____ motion can be best analysed by breaking it into two components. The
horizontal component is motion with constant
. The vertical component is
motion with constant _ _ __
Two objects are released from the same height.
Object A falls straight down and object 8 follows a
curved path as shown in the figure. It is true that:
~" ObjectB
A hits the ground before 8
Object A
8 hits the ground before A
A hits the ground first only if it is heavier than 8
A and 8 hit the ground at the same time.
Falling masses
The equations linking the horizontal displacement x, the horizontal component of
velocity vx ' the time t, the acceleration due to gravity ag and the vertical displacement
11y, are given by x =
and 11y =
. The path followed by a projectile
has the shape of a _ _ __

(Jf!&i

The minimum velocity required for an object to leave the gravitational pull of a planet
is called its
velocity. This is
of the mass of the object leaving the
planet.
Newton was the first to propose the idea of artificial _ _ __
The
acceleration of an object moving in a circular path with constant speed
is directed towards the
of the circle.
Astronauts in spacecraft and patrons of fun park roller coasters both experience
significant _ _ __
As a rocket is launched, fuel is burned and the resulting
are expelled
downwards. Conservation of
results in the rocket moving up. As the fuel is
consumed, the acceleration
. Rockets fired into space are fired in a/an
_____ direction to take advantage of the Earth's _ _ __
The orbit of a satellite with a period of 24 hours is called a
orbit.
Low Earth orbit satellites travel faster than satellites further from the Earth. True or
false? _ _ __
The movement of spacecraft through the solar system is aided by using 'gravity-assist
effect.
trajectories', also called the
Safe re-entry of spacecraft to Earth is restricted to a narrow _ _ _ __
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A projectile is any object moving under the influence of gravity only. Examples include
a golf ball after it has been hit, artillery shells fired from guns, 'dumb bombs' dropped
by warplanes '"
::

Projectile motion is composed of two independent


motions: a horizontal component with constant velocity
and a vertical component with constant acceleration.

The independence of the two components of projectile


motion is easily illustrated as shown in the figure on the
right. The two objects fall at the same rate and hit the
ground at the same time regardless of the horizontal
motion.
The horizontal motion is described by D.x
motion is described by .6.y

= uxt; the vertical

The independence of motions

= ~age. The curved path followed by a projectile is called its

trajectory. This curve is a parabola.


The escape velocity is the velocity needed for an object to escape from the Earth (or
other planet or moon). It depends on the radius and mass of the planet and the
gravitational constant according to

vescape

= ~2GME .
RE

It follows that as the mass ofthe

planet increases, the escape velocity increases; similarly as the


radius decreases, the escape velocity increases. It is
independent of the mass of the object trying to escape.
Newton first proposed the idea of artificial satellites. He
reasoned that if a cannon was fired horizontally from a high
mountain, a speed could be reached where the shell would
go into orbit around the Earth.

The motion of an object in a circular path of radius r with


Artificial satellites
constant speed v is called uniform circular motion. For an
object moving with uniform circular motion, the centripetal acceleration a c is directed
2

towards the centre of the circle and is given by ac

=~. For a satellite orbiting the


r

Earth, the centripetal force is supplied by the gravitational attraction of the Earth to
the satellite.

g-forces are measured in units ofthe Earth's gravitational


acceleration, g. They arise whenever there are
accelerations, such as in rocket launches and roller-coaster
rides. Humans can withstand accelerations up to -10g
when the acceleration is directed parallel to a line drawn
between the person's front and back. Early astronauts
experienced these forces as they reclined in specially
moulded chairs. In today's Space Shuttle the g-forces are
limited to -3W.

mg

Roller coaster ride

Consider a roller coaster ride as shown. As the rider moves through a bottom curve,
the reaction force of the seat up on the rider must supply the necessary centripetal
force, that is:
mv 2
N-mg=-R
mv 2

N=mg+-R

The g-forces are found from the 'normal force' divided by the weight. That is:

9 felt by rider =

~
mg

mv 2

mg+-_
R
mg
v2

=1+-

gR

It can be seen that the g-forces increase as the speed increases and/or the radius of the
curve decreases.
Rockets are placed into Earth orbit by launching the spacecraft vertically and then
tilting the trajectory parallel to the Earth's surface when the correct orbital speed is
reached. By tilting in the easterly direction scientists can take advantage of the Earth's
rotation (from west to east).
A geostationary orbit is one in which the satellite has a period of 24 hours. If the
orbit is in the equatorial plane, the satellite appears to stay above the same point on
the Earth. Satellites placed in geostationary orbits allow communication signals to be
'bounced' around the world.

r:

G~

=
. For a constant
T
4n
mass it follows that as the radius decreases, the period must also decrease. Consequently
the speed must increase so satellites in low Earth orbits travel faster than satellites
further out in space.
Kepler's laws describe the motion of satellites according to

'Gravity-assist' trajectories (also called the 'slingshot' effect) are used to send
space probes to distant planets. A space probe approaching a planet picks up some of
the planet's angular momentum resulting in a speeding up of the spacecraft relative
to the Sun.
Outgoing velocity
spacecraft.

Velocity of Venus
relative to the Sun.

Outgoing velocity
of spacecraft relative
~ ~~ to Venus.

Outboun~
velocity relative
to the Sun.
Velocity of Venus
relative to the Sun.<III<!III(IIII---Venus
The incoming speed
and the outgoing speed
are the same relative to
Venus (but direction
is changed).

Venus
Venus moves around
the Sun. The spacecraft
gains most of Venus s
velocity through gravitat" nal
attraction.

Incoming velocity
of spacecraft.

Incoming velocity
of spacecraft relative
to the Sun.

Gravity-assist trajectories

Safe re-entry to Earth is limited to a small 'window'. This ensures that the spacecraft
does not 'bounce' off into space if it comes in too shallow and the g-forces are not too
high for the astronauts if it comes in too steep. It also means that the heat from
re-entry is not too high. The Space Shuttle uses a variety of materials capable of
withstanding the tremendous temperatures, as high as 1300C. The 'allowed' angle of
re-entry is -6.2 1 relative to the Earth's horizon.
Re-entry
corridor

5.20

7.20

Re-entry 'window'
CHECKLIST - Can you:
1. Analyse and solve problems of projectile motion in terms of its horizontal and vertical components?
2. Explain the concept of escape velocity and discuss the factors that affect it?
3. Analyse the forces involved in uniform circular motion?
4. Compare g-forces on astronauts and roller coaster riders?
5. Analyse the acceleration of a rocket during launch?
6. Compare low Earth orbits with a geostationary orbit?
7. Describe the slingshot effect used to assist space probes?
8. Relate Newton's laws to the motion of satellites.
9. Discuss issues associated with safe re-entry of spacecraft to Earth including the optimum angle for
re-entry and the consequences of not achieving this?
10. Describe the contributions of Tsiolkovsky, Oberth, Goddard, Esnault-Pelterie, O'Neill or von Braun to
space exploration?

A projectile is fired with an initial speed of 500 m.s-1 at an angle of 30 to the ground.
Find:
the maximum height reached by the projectile
the time to reach the maximum height
the distance travelled horizontally.

The escape velocities for Earth and Mercury are shown in the table below.
Planet
Escape
velocity

Earth

Mercury

11.2 km.s- 1

4.3 km.s-l

What is meant by escape velocity?


What factors affect the escape velocity?

The period of revolution of the Martian moon Demos is 1.09 x 105 s. What is the radius
of its orbit given that the mass of Mars is 7.1 x 1023 kg?

Describe the changes that occur in a rocket/s acceleration as it is launched into space.
Be sure to explain the causes of the accelerations and the causes of any changes.

Astronauts in the Space Shuttle experience forces up to 3Wwhere W is the weight of


the astronaut. Explain how it is possible for riders in a roller coaster to experience
similar forces.

Current rockets work by ejecting _____ formed by the combustion of a _ _ __


and oxygen. Conservation of
means that the rocket will move in the
opposite direction to the exhaust _ _ _ __
Scientists have been able to manufacture spacecraft that are able to travel at hundreds
of thousands of kilometres per hour. True or false? _ _ _ __
The relatively _ _ _ _ speeds of spacecraft mean that travel times to distant planets
would be very _ _ __
The engines of spacecraft are operating all the time. True or false? _ _ _ __
Three factors that affect communication between the Earth and distant space probes
are
and _ _ _ __
_ _ _ _ radiation travels at the ultimate speed of 3.0 x 108 m.s-1.
The reduction in strength of microwave signals as they travel through space from
distant sources is a result of a/an
square law. This weakening of strength is
referred to as __________
Sunspots are relatively _ _ _ _ areas on the surface of the Sun. They have magnetic
fields thousands of times
than the Earth/s magnetic field.
The solar wind
a stream of
a stream of
a stream of
a stream of

consists of:
positive particles
negative particles
positive and negative particles
neutral particles.

The Van Allen radiation belts are two belts of energetic _ _ _ _ particles. They can
be disrupted by intense
activity. The resulting
storms can affect
communication on Earth.
Communication with satellites or other spacecraft relies on electromagnetic radiation
in the
region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Rockets operate by expelling gases formed by combustion of the fuel and oxygen.
These are ejected at very high velocities. Conservation of momentum ensures that
the rocket travels in the opposite direction to the exhaust gases.
Scientists are not yet able to produce speeds of spacecraft more than a few tens of
thousands of kilometres per hour. For example, the 1969 Mariner 6 space probe to
Mars took 157 days to travel 92,800,000 km, an average speed of -25,000 km.h- 1.
The relatively slow speeds of spacecraft mean that travel times to even the closest
planets are long. A round trip to Mars for example, would take up to two years and
eight months. Currently, extended manned space travel is not feasible.
The engines of spacecraft are designed for manoeuvring the spacecraft, to bring it
into orbit around a planet (or moon), and in the most extreme situation, of leaving
the planet (or moon). At all other times they are turned off.

Distance, the Van Allen radiation belts and sunspots affect communication
between the Earth and distant space probes.
Even though electromagnetic radiation travels at the enormous speed of 3.0 x 108 ms1,
nevertheless the time for a signal to travel from distant objects is not insignificant,
especially for very distant objects. For example, it takes 4 years for light to travel to us
from our nearest star (other than the Sun).
The intensity of the electromagnetic radiation decreases as the square of the distance
from the source (an inverse square law). This loss of signal strength is referred to as
space loss. The dimensions of space are so vast that the electromagnetic energy able
to be detected from distant objects (be they emissions from a spacecraft with a relatively
low power transmitter or those from a star), are tiny.

Sunspots are relatively cool areas on the surface of the Sun with strong local magnetic
field strengths some thousands of times stronger than the Earth's magnetic field.
Sunspots vary in activity. In an eleven-year cycle, the number of sunspots varies from a
minimum up to a maximum and back to a minimum.
Sunspots are also associated with the solar wind. This wind consists of a stream of
charged particles, mostly protons and electrons that flow out from the Sun in all
directions at a speed of -400 km.s-1. The number of these particles increases following
increases in sunspot activity. The solar wind affects the Earth's magnetic field and this
in turn affects radio communication.

The Van Allen radiation belts are two belts of energetic charged particles, mainly
electrons and protons, lying at right angles to the equator of the Earth.
Solar wind particles (as well as particles from interactions between the Earth's upper
atmosphere and energetic cosmic rays) become trapped in the Van Allen radiation
belts. Intense solar activity can disrupt the belts. This in turn is associated with auroras
and magnetic storms which can lead to interference of short wave radio
communication, errors in communication satellites and even failure of electrical
transmission lines.

Inner
belt

Van Allen radiation belts

Communication with satellites and other spacecraft relies on electromagnetic


radiation in the radio frequency part of the electromagnetic spectrum. In particular,
microwaves in the frequency range 1000 MHz to 300,000 MHz are the major carriers
of data between earthbound stations and between Earth stations and satellites and
space probes.

CHECKLIST - Can you:


1. Explain how space travel is limited by the current maximum speed of spacecraft?
2. Describe the factors affecting reliable satellite communication?

What is the most significant problem making extended space travel not feasible at the
present time? Clearly explain your answer.

Communication with space probes to distant planets such as Mars is not instantaneous
but is always delayed. Explain why this delay occurs.
(The distance to Mars is -8 x 107 km.)

The Van Allen radiation belts surround the Earth.


What are these belts?
How do these belts affect communication between Earth and orbiting satellites?

Sunspots can affect the Earth's communication systems. Describe how this occurs.

The medium hypothesised to transmit light was:


ether
air
anaesthetic
The Michelson-Morley experiment was an attempt to measure:
the speed of the ether
the speed of the Earth through the ether
the speed of light.
An example of an inertial frame of reference is:
a car accelerating from a set of traffic lights
a car travelling in a straight line with constant speed
a car travelling around a corner with constant speed.
Einstein hypothesised that the speed of light:
is 3.0 x 108 m.s- 1
is constant
The laws of physics are the same for all inertial observers. This is the principle of
The current standard of length, the metre, is measured in terms of _ _ __
Because space and time are interdependent we speak of four-dimensional _ _ __
Two events occur at the same time for a particular observer. To an observer in a different
inertial frame of reference, they occur at different times. This is called the lack of
A metre rule, 2 cm wide, moves at a speed of e/2 relative to a stationary observer.
What is the length of the rule as measured by that observer?
What is the width of the rule?
A clock moves at a speed of e/2 relative to a stationary observer. If 1 hour passes for an
observer travelling with the clock, how much time passes for the stationary observer?
Twins A and B are separated at birth. A is sent into space and B remains on Earth. A
eventually returns to Earth. A is now:
younger than B
older than B
the same age as B
Relativity 'allows' for travel into the past. True or false? _ _ _ __

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The ether (also aether) is the medium proposed prior to Einstein to transmit
electromagnetic radiation. Its beginnings go back to the ancient Greeks but the idea
was also used by Hooke in 1667 and Huygens in 1678 both of whom proposed that
luminous objects set up vibrations that were transmitted through the ether like sound
waves through air (compression waves). The ether was supposed to permeate all matter
as evidenced by the transmission of light through transparent materials.
The Michelson-Morley experiment
was an attempt to detect the motion of
the Earth through the ether. It used
apparatus similar to that in the diagram.
The presence of the ether would mean
that light travelling with and against the
ether would take a different time to the
light travelling across the ether. This
difference should be detected by a
change in the interference fringes formed
when the light rays are recombined. The
result was totally unexpected. It showed
that the speed of the Earth relative to the
ether could not be detected.

Light
source

)go

Ether wind

Michelson-Morley experiment

A frame of reference is a coordinate


system with respect to which we take measurements. An inertial frame of reference
is one moving with constant velocity (or is at rest). A non-inertial frame of reference
is one that is accelerating.
As a result of his work on how the laws of electromagnetism should behave in different
frames of reference, Einstein proposed that the speed of light is constant and is
independent of the speed of the source or observer. He was unaware of the null
result of the Michelson-Morley experiment when he made his hypothesis - it simply
provided evidence for his theory.
The principle of special relativity is that the laws of physics are the same for all
inertial observers. This means that it is impossible to detect motion in an inertial frame
simply by doing an experiment in that frame.
The unit of length, the metre is the defined as the distance travelled by light in a
vacuum in the fraction 1/299 792 458 of a second. It follows that distance is therefore
defined in terms of time.

For the speed of light to remain constant it means that space and time are relative; we
speak of four-dimensional space-time.
Two or more events that are simultaneous for one observer are not necessarily
simultaneous for observers in different inertial frames of reference. This is called the
lack of simultaneity. This can be illustrated by one of Einstein's famous 'thought
experiments'.
The length of a moving rod appears to contract in the direction of motion relative

= IO~1- V 2

to a stationary observer; I

The width is unaffected. For an observer moving

with the rod, no length (or width) change occurs.

g.

Time in a moving frame appears to be slower relative to a stationary observer. This is

time dilation; t

For an observer moving with the clock, no change occurs.

1-(2

The twin paradox refers to where imaginary twins are born at the same time and
one is sent into space while the other remains on Earth. According to special relativity
the twin left behind would 'see' the twin sent into space age less. Similarly, the twin in
space would 'see' the twin on Earth age slower. This is the paradox: both say the other
ages slower. The paradox is resolved when it is noted that the twin sent into space
must undergo accelerations to turn around and come back to Earth. He is therefore in
a non-inertial frame of reference and special relativity does not apply. (General relativity,
which deals with non-inertial frames of reference, indicates that the twin who
ventures into space ages less than the one who stays behind.)
Relativity 'allows' for travel into the future but not into the past. Because an astronaut
who leaves the Earth ages slower than his/her contemporaries left on Earth, the
astronaut will return to Earth in say 100 years of 'Earth time' but maybe only 60 years
of 'astronaut time' (depends on the speed of travel). Thus he returns to the Earth's
future.

CHECKLIST - Can you:


1. Explain the features of the ether?
2. Describe the Michelson-Morley experiment and explain the implications of the findings?
3. Explain the meaning of an inertial frame of reference?
4. Explain the significance of the constancy of the speed of light c?
5. Explain qualitatively and quantitatively the consequences of special relativity including lack of
simultaneity, equivalence of mass and energy, length contraction and time dilation?
6. Discuss the implications of special relativity for space travel?

Describe, with the aid of a diagram, how Michelson and Morley attempted to measure
the speed of the Earth through the ether and the results they obtained.

Einstein first stated the basic premise of special relativity. He said that the speed of
light is constant and is independent of the speed of the source of light or of the
observer. Using this and Einstein's 'thought experiment' of a simple 'light clock' in a
moving train, explain why time dilation occurs.
Muons are unstable short-lived subatomic particles that can be created in the upper
atmosphere when cosmic rays collide with air molecules. They have a lifetime of 2.2 ~s
(in their reference frame). If they travel at 0.999c, what is their lifetime relative to an
observer on Earth?
The speed of light c is constant and is equal to 3.0 x 108 m.s-1. Clearly explain why an
object travelling at a speed less than c cannot be accelerated to c.
Explain how special relativity makes it possible for an astronaut to travel 'into the
future'. Why is this unlikely to occur?

Moving charges in a magnetic field experience a _ _ _ __


The doughnut shaped region around the Earth where moving charges are trapped is
called the
radiation belts.
A conductor of length 50 cm is placed at right angles to a magnetic field of strength
10 T. If the conductor carries a current of 2.5 A, calculate the force acting on the
conductor.
What is the direction of the force acting on the conductors in the diagrams?

e '0

II

II

Current

etc

I~

X magnetic field into page


e field out of the page

A 'current balance' can be used to determine the factors affecting the force on a
current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field. Which graph below best shows the
relationship between the currents and the conductor separation?

The turning effect of a force is called its _ _ _ __

11d

A single current-carrying coil of wire is placed in


a magnetic field, What is the torque on the coil
at the instant shown and in which direction will
it rotate?

,.B_ _--,...._ _-;C

Axis

Plane of coil
is parallel to
magnetic field
of 0.2 T

Length of AB and CD
Length of BC = 2 cm

=4 cm

Electric motors convert _____ energy into _____ energy,


DC electric motors consist of four essential components, They are _ _ _ __
_____ and _ _ _ __
The direction of the current in a simple DC motor is reversed each half cycle by a
_____ ring
, Current is brought to (and from) this device by carbon

The field structure of a simple DC electric motor can be provided either by _ _ _ __


magnets or current-carrying _ _ _ __
The motor effect is put to good use in devices such as moving _____ meters and

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Moving charges in a magnetic field experience a force. These moving charges


interact via their associated magnetic field.
The doughnut shaped Van Allen radiation belts trap charged particles from space.
In doing so they protect life on Earth from this dangerous radiation.
A current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field experiences a force given by F =BIl sin 9.
This is the motor effect. From the equation it can be seen that the force depends
upon: the magnetic induction (B), the current in the conductor W, the length of the
conductor (l) and the angle between the field and the conductor (9). When the
conductor is parallel to the field (9 = 0) the force is zero and is a maximum when the
conductor is perpendicular to the field.
I

The right-hand palm rule allows the direction of the magnetic


force to be determined. This states that: If the fingers of the
right hand point in the direction of the magnetic field (B)
and the thumb points in the direction of the conventional
current (1) then the palm points in the direction of the
B
force (F) as shown.
Two parallel current-carrying conductors exert forces on
each other. The force F per unit length L between two wires
carrying current I, and 12 respectively separated by a distance d
in a vacuum is given by

~ =k 1112 . When the currents are


L

Right-hand palm rule

in the same direction, the

wires attract; when the currents are in opposite directions the wires repel.

Torque is the turning effect of a force and is given by't = Fp where F is the force and p
is the perpendicular distance from the axis to the line of action of the force.
A current-carrying coil in a magnetic field experiences a torque given by't = nB1A cos 9.
This is put to practical use in electric motors.

Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy.


DC electric motors consist of an armature (the coi!), field structure (the magnets),
commutator and brushes. Current flowing through the armature interacts with the

magnetic field to produce a torque causing the armature to rotate. In the diagram
below, the armature would begin to rotate in a clockwise direction (viewed from the
commutator end).
Armature

Split ring
commutator

,.~~+
Carbon brush

Simple DC electric motor

A split-ring commutator reverses the direction of the current in the armature sides
each half cycle. This allows the armature to continually rotate in the same direction by
ensuring that the current always flows in the same direction around the armature.
(Without it, the armature would simply come to rest with its plane perpendicular to
the plane of the magnetic field.) Carbon brushes take current to and from the armature.
The field structure can be produced by permanent magnets or by current-carrying
coils (electromagnets). The latter are generally stronger and so a larger torque is
possible. In real motors, the 'pole pieces' that make up the field structure are generally
curved. This ensures a steady torque as the armature always lies parallel to the field
and so 't = nBIA where n is the number of turns (coils), B is the magnetic induction, I is
the current in the armature and A is the area of the coil.
Practical examples ofthe motor effect include moving coil meters and loudspeakers.
Current flowing in the meter or loudspeaker interacts with the magnetic field causing
movement of the meter pointer or loudspeaker diaphragm. The moving coil meter is
the basis of the ammeter and voltmeter.

CHECKLIST - Can you:


1. List the factors affecting the magnitude of the force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic
field?
2. Solve problems using F BII sin
3. Describe an experiment to demonstrate the motor effect?

4. Use the equation

==k 11c/2

5. Explain the rotation of a current-carrying coil in a magnetic field and use the equation 7: nB1A cos
6. Describe the principle of operation of a simple DC electric motor and the purpose of the armature,
field structure, split-ring commutator and brushes?
7. Explain how the motor effect is used in moving coil meters and loudspeakers?

A charge moves in a magnetic field as shown.


The direction of the initial force on the charge
is:
up the page
down the page
into the page
out of the page.

+Q

Two parallel current-carrying wires are separated by a distance d and exert a force per
unit length of F newtons per metre. If the current in one of the wires is tripled and the
separation doubled, the new force is:
3FI8
9FI8
3FI4
3FI2
A rectangular currentcarrying coil ABCD is placed in a
magnetic field as shown. The side
which experiences a force down the
page is:
AB
BC
c CD
No side experiences any force
since the coil is parallel to the
field.

Current
,

~
/

----;<---'~

-~,~

/3"/
-

'->

Magnetic
field is perpendicular
to the plane of
the page. Coil is
parallel to the
field.

Axis

A rectangular coil, 5 cm x 3 cm, of 1500 turns is placed in a magnetic field of intensity


0.8 T. A current of 0.1 A flows in the coil.
What is the relationship between the coil and the field when the torque is a
maximum?
What is the maximum torque on the coil?
What is the torque when the coil is set at 45 to the magnetic field?
A moving coil meter is shown. Briefly describe the
principle of operation of the meter.

scale

Radial
magnetic field

Soft iron
core
Fine wire
spring

The discoverer of the generation of an electric current by a magnet moving near a


conductor was Michael _ _ __
When the man in 1 above used a magnet and a coil of wire, he found a current was
induced as long as there was
between the coil and the magnet.
Electromagnetic induction involves the conversion of _ _ _ _ energy into
_ _ _ _ energy.
Magnetic flux is a measure of
the number of lines of force per unit area
the number of lines of force per unit volume
the number of lines of force.
Another name for magnetic flux is magnetic induction. True or false? _ _ __
Faraday's law states that the induced emf is proportional to the rate of change of
Lenz's law is a consequence of the
conservation of charge
conservation of energy.

conservation of momentum

The direction of the induced current in the diagram is:


down the page
up the page
out of the page
into the page
The induced emf in an electric motor:
is called the forward emf
opposes the supply emf
is only present as the motor first starts.

Field out of page

To prevent an electric motor burning out when it is first turned on a _ _ __


resistance is placed in series with the motor.
Changing magnetic fields induce circular
material.

currents in bulk conducting

The currents in Q11 above can be used in induction _ _ _ _ and in electromagenetic

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Michael Faraday is credited with the discovery of the generation of an electric current
in a conductor by a moving magnet.
Coil

Faraday found that when a magnet is pushed


into a coil of many turns connected to a
sensitive current-measuring device (a
galvanometer) a current is produced as long
as the magnet is moving relative to the
coil. If there is no movement between the coil
and magnet, no current is produced. When the
magnet is withdrawn from the coil, current is
again produced but it flows in the opposite
direction to that when the magnet is inserted.

Magnet

Galvanometer

Magnet moving towards


a conducting coil

Electromagnetic induction involves the conversion of mechanical


energy into electrical energy.

Magnetic flux is a measure of the number of lines of force emerging


from a given area as shown in the diagram on the right.

Magnetic flux density is synonymous with magnetic induction.


The greater the density of flux lines (also called 'lines of force'), the
greater the magnetic field.

Magnetic flux

Faraday's law states that the induced emf is proportional to the rate of change of
magnetic flux. That is, the faster the magnetic flux through the circuit changes, the
greater will be the emf induced. This can be made to happen by moving the magnet
(or coil) faster, and/or increasing the magnetic induction and/or by having more coils.

Lenz's law states that the induced emfis in such a direction that the current it produces
opposes its production. This is a consequence of the law of conservation of energy.
If the emf (and its associated current) aided the production instead of opposing it we
could create an infinite amount of energy from a finite amount of work - we would
effectively get 'something for nothing'. This would violate energy conservation.

The direction of the induced current can be found


by the right-hand palm rule.
When a motor is operating it involves relative
motion between a conductor and magnetic
field and so it produces a back emf. This
opposes the supply emf and limits the
current flowing in the motor. This in turn
limits the speed of the motor - the motor is
self-regulating.

Thumb points in
direction of induced
current

Fingers
point in
direction .*-;~===7
of magnetic
field

l -?
_

Palm points in
When an electric motor is starting, the back emf
direction of
will be small and so the current in the coil from
opposing force
the supply will be large. (Remember that the back
emf opposes the supply voltage.) To keep the
Right-hand palm rule
current within manageable limits to prevent it
burning out the motor, a starting resistance is
placed in series with the coil. As the coil speeds up (and hence the back emf increases)
the starting resistance can be decreased and eventually removed.

Circular eddy currents are induced in bulk conductors in the presence of changing
magnetic flux. These eddy currents obey Lenz's law. They also represent a waste of
energy as they cause heating of the conductor.
Eddy currents are put to good use in induction cookers and in electromagnetic
braking. AC flowing in coils placed below a glass-ceramic cook top induces eddy
currents in the metal pans placed on top, heating the pan and its contents. In certain
modern trains, electromagnets are brought near to the moving metal wheels inducing
eddy currents in the wheels. These currents flow in a direction to oppose their cause in
agreement with Lenz's law. This provides a retarding force on the wheels that stops
the wheels (and hence the train). Braking is very smooth since the force is greatest
when the wheels are turning fastest and gets less as the speed of the wheels gets less.

CHECKLIST - Can you:


1. Describe Faraday's discovery of electromagnetic induction?
2. Define magnetic flux, magnetic flux density and magnetic induction?
3. Qualitatively and quantitatively describe Faraday's law?
4. Explain the cause of Lenz's law and relate this to back emf, eddy currents and electromagnetic
braking?

Below is a schematic diagram of a simple experiment to illustrate electromagnetic


induction, similar to one that you could do at school. Explain what is required for a
current to be induced and give three ways in which the induced current can be made
larger (assuming you had access to additional equipment). Explain your reasoning.
Coil

Magnet

Galvanometer

A physics teacher was overheard telling a class that 'Lenz's law is simply a consequence
of energy conservation'.
What is Lenz's law?
How does this law relate to energy conservation.
Many electric motors, especially large ones, have a starting resistance.
Clearly explain why this is needed.
A student set up an experiment similar to that in the diagram below.
Explain the student's observations.

Aluminium disk spins freely on its axle


Solid disk stops spinning when magnetic
field brought close to disk

A disk with slits continues to spin for much


longer than a solid disk in the presence of
a magnetic field

Generators use the principle of _____ induction to convert _____ energy


into
energy.
AC generators have four essential features. These are:
______________ and ______________
DC generators also have the four essential features of AC generators but they also
have a
. This is used to convert
into _____
Generators work by moving a conducting coil
to a magnetic field. As the
coil rotates, the magnetic
through the coil varies and so a/an
is
induced between the ends of the coil.
Maximum emf is produced when the coil passes through the horizontal plane. True or
false? _ _ __
In what direction is the emf induced in the generator (Lenz's law)? _ _ _ __
Real generators differ from the simplified idealised models discussed in class. Three
ways in which they differ are:
___________________________________ and

The biggest loss of energy from where it is generated in the 'power station' to the
consumer occurs in the
where some of the electrical energy is
converted into _ _ _ __
Electricity has impacted on society in a number of ways including:
_________________________________ and

High voltage power lines are said to be associated with increased risk of certain
_ _ _ _ . There is currently
evidence about these alleged health risks.

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Electric generators use the principle of electromagnetic induction to convert


mechanical energy into electrical energy (the reverse of electric motors). The
mechanical energy can be supplied by steam derived from water heated by the
combustion of fossil fuels or the heat from nuclear reactors, by the kinetic energy of
falling water (hydroelectricity) or wind generators.
Generators consist of an armature, field
structure, slip rings and brushes as in

Field magnets

the diagram.
In addition to the structures in 2 above,
DC generators also have a commutator
whose role is to convert AC into DC.
Generators work by moving a coil
relative to a magnetic field. Consider the
simplified diagram of an AC generator. As
the coil is made to rotate, the magnetic
Carbon brushes
flux through the coil varies, from a
held in place by
springs
minimum when the coil is parallel to the
AC generator
field, to a maximum when the coil is
perpendicular to the field. As a result, an emf is induced between the ends of the
coil and current can flow in an external circuit.
Faraday's law says that the emf is
proportional to the rate of change
of magnetic flux through the circuit.
Hence the emf varies from a
maximum as it passes through the
horizontal plane (the rate of change is
greatest here) to a minimum as it
passes through the vertical plane.
In agreement with Lenz's law, the emf
is induced in such a direction that its
associated current flows in a direction
so that its magnetic field opposes
the cause of the induced emf.

Time

AC generator output

Real generators differ from the simplified model used above. In general, real
generators use electromagnets to produce the magnetic field rather than permanent

magnets; have hundreds of coils wound around a soft iron core; have the armature as
the stator (the non-moving part) in AC generators - it is the rotor in DC generators;
have three pairs of electromagnets place at 1200 to each other (producing three-phase
power).
Some energy is lost in transmission from the power station to where it is used. This
can occur because of friction in the rotor bearings; heat generated by currents in
the transmission cables and energy losses in the generator's iron core.

Electricity has profoundly affected society. The discovery of how to generate large
amounts of electricity and transport it to distant sites led to electricity becoming the
primary source of industrial and domestic energy. This exacerbated some of the
problems of the industrial revolution - the shift of the population from the country to
city slums, longer working hours ... as well as the associated current environmental
issues of global warming and acid rain.
Controversy exists about the alleged harmful affects of living close to power lines. A
number of scientific investigations have been done on the relationship between the
occurrence of certain cancers and the proximity of living near high voltage power
lines. The results are conflicting or inconclusive: some investigations show a
statistically valid association; others do not. The jury is still out.

CHECKLIST - Can you:


1. Identify the main components of a generator?
2. Compare a generator with a motor?
3. Describe the principle of operation of AC and DC generators?
4. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of AC and DC generators?
5. Explain how energy is lost as it is transmitted from the generator to the consumer?
6. Describe the effect of electricity on society and the environment?

The device that changes the direction of the current in a DC generator is the:
armature
brush
commutator
slip rings
In a simple AC generator, a coil of wire is placed between the poles of two magnets
and is rotated in an anticlockwise direction as shown. Sketch the expected output on
the axes provided at the positions indicated by the numbers 1-5. Repeat on the second
set of axes for a DC generator.

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5;:>
2

~
3

0
5;:>
4

~
5
OJ
OJ

OJ
OJ

.l!l

.l!l

Time

Time

The first continuous current-generating device was invented


by Michael Faraday and was called Faraday's disk dynamo.
It consisted of a copper disk that could be rotated
between the poles of a strong magnet. Copper brushes
carried current away. Briefly explain how this works.
Copper
brushes

Clearly describe the effects of the development of AC


and DC generators on society and the environment.

Transformers are used to


electrical energy from one circuit to another.
They can also be used to change the AC _ _ __
Transformers consist of three essential features, a _____ coil, a _____ coil
and a soft
core.
_____ voltages in the
coil induce changing voltages in the _ _ _ __
coil by the process of mutual induction.
Transformers operate on

only.

In a step-down transformer:
the current in the secondary is less than the current in the primary
the voltage in the secondary is greater than the voltage in the primary
the voltage in the secondary is less than the voltage in the primary.
In a step-up transformer there are more coils in the primary than in the secondary.
True or false? _ _ _ __
In an ideal transformer, the power in the secondary is same/different from the power
in the secondary?_ _ _ __
In a step-up transformer, compared to the secondary, the voltage and current in the
primary are respectively:
bigger and bigger
bigger and smaller
smaller and bigger
A transformer has a primary of 1000 turns and is used to step-up the voltage from
12 V to 240 V.
How many turns are needed in the secondary? (Assume 100% efficiency.)
What current flows in the primary if the secondary is operating at 12 W?
To minimise energy losses in transmission, electricity is transmitted at voltages as high
as
V.
Transformers in electricity
_____ are used to reduce the voltages to
suitable amounts for homes and industry.
Many household appliances contain _ _ __
Energy losses due to eddy currents are minimised in transformers by having the soft
iron core _ _ __
Transformers and generators have had a _ _ _ _ impact on our lives.
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Transformers are devices for transferring electrical energy from one circuit to another.
They also allow AC voltages to be easily changed in magnitude.
Transformers consist of two coils the primary and the secondary both of which are
wrapped around the same soft iron core. The primary coil has alternating voltages
supplied to it. The secondary has alternating voltages induced in it.

Changing AC voltages in the primary sets up a changing magnetic flux in the soft
iron core. This sets up a changing magnetic field in the secondary coil and so an emfis
induced in it. The process is called mutual induction.
Transformers operate on AC only and not DC. This is because a changing magnetic
field is required for electromagnetic induction to occur.
A step-up transformer increases the voltage in the secondary coil compared to the
primary coil. Conversely, in a step-down transformer the secondary voltage is less
than the primary voltage.
A step-up transformer has more coils in the secondary than in the primary. In a
step-down transformer, the secondary has fewer coils than the primary.
The conservation of energy necessitates that in an ideal transformer, the power in
the primary circuit is equal to the power in the secondary circuit. Since P = VI it follows
that as voltage increases, the current decreases.
It follows that in a step-up transformer, the voltage in the secondary is larger than
the voltage in the primary but the current in the secondary is less than the current
in the primary.
In an ideal transformer (100% efficient) the voltage, current and number of turns
(coils) are related by

VP

v = L = -IS
5

ns

Power is transmitted at extremely high voltages, as high as 500 kV (500 000 V).
This is done to reduce the current and so lessen the energy losses in the transmission
lines where the heating effect in the wires is proportional to the square of the current.
Transformers in sub-stations are used to change the voltage (and current) to values
suitable for use in industry and households by stepping the voltage down. This is
generally to 240 V for household use and 415 V for industriallcommercial use.

Many home electrical appliances such as TVs and computers require voltages other
than the 240 V supplied to homes. Transformers are able to change the voltage to
the required amount.
Transformers limit eddy currents in their core by having the core made of individual
sheets (laminates) electrically insulated from each other. This lessens energy losses
due to heating of the iron core.
The invention of transformers (along with generators) meant that electricity could be
easily distributed around the country and so electricity became the energy source of
the industrialised world. This has had significant impact on the way we live. No
longer are we restricted to daylight hours for work. We can now communicate almost
instantaneously via radio, TV, mobile phones (the batteries of which require charging),
etc. Greenhouse gas emission from fossil-burning fuels is a significant environmental
issue. Imagine your life without electricity.

CHECKLIST - Can you:


1. Explain the use and principle of operation of transformers?
2. Compare step-up and step-down transformers?
3. Solve problems using Vp
Vs

=:2.e.. =~
ns

Ip

4. Relate voltage and current changes to energy conservation?


5. Explain the role of transformers in electricity sub-stations and in the home?
6. Describe how transformers have impacted on society?

A transformer can be used:


to increase voltage
to decrease current
both a and b
to increase power.

A schematic diagram of an electric transformer is shown.

Output
voltage

Primary
coil

Secondary
coil

What is the purpose of transformers?


Clearly explain how a transformer works, describing the role of each of the labelled
components.
If the primary has 1000 turns and the secondary has 250 turns, what is the secondary
voltage if the primary voltage is 240 V? (Assume 100% efficiency.)

Eddy currents can be a problem in power generation. Discuss how these eddy currents
arise and how they can be minimised to lessen their impact.

The transfer of electrical energy from electric power stations to the consumer is not
100% efficient. Briefly discuss the energy losses involved and how they are kept as low
as possible.

AC electric motors have a _____ and a _ _ _ __

AC motors, unlike DC motors do not require a _ _ _ __

The most common type of AC motor is the _____ motor.

These motors work on the principle that a _____ magnetic field will exert a
_____ on a stationary coil.

A rotating magnetic field can be relatively easily produced by using _ _ __

A field like that above will _____ a current in the coil. Interaction of the two
fields results in the coil being
around.

AC induction motors are widely used because of their ________ design,


relatively
cost and their _ _ _ _ _ __

The electric motor used in small appliances such as food processors and electric power
saws is most likely to be:
a single-phase AC induction motor
a three-phase AC induction motor
a DC motor
an AC synchronous motor.

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AC electric motors have two essential features - a rotor (the moving part) and the
stator (the stationary part). Some also have slip rings to bring electricity to and from
the motor.
AC electric motors have the advantage over DC motors in that they do not require a
commutator (the AC automatically reverses 50 times per second). Commutators have
problems associated with sparking, ozone production from the sparking and energy
loss in the brushes. In addition there are problems with the wearing of the brushes.
The most common type of AC motor is the induction motor.
AC induction motors work on the principle that a rotating magnetic field will exert
a torque on a stationary coil.

AC can relatively easily produce a rotating magnetic field.


AC induction motors work by having the stator produce a rotating magnetic field.
This induces (hence induction motor) an electric current in the rotor by the process of
electromagnetic induction. This current produces a second magnetic field. The two
magnetic fields interact with the rotating field dragging the rotor around.
AC induction motors are cheap, efficient and simple to manufacture which
accounts for their wide use. In particular they are used for low power 1 kW)
applications in homes.

95% of all electric motors are single-phase induction motors. These represent the
majority of motors in the home. Industry tends to use three-phase induction motors
since they can have larger power ratings.

CHECKLIST - Can you:


1. Describe the main features of an AC electric motor?
2. Describe the principle of operation of AC induction motors?
3. Relate the power rating of AC motors to their uses?
4. Explain the advantages of AC induction motors?

In an AC induction motor:
current is induced in the rotor
current is induced the stator
current is supplied to the rotor from an external source
a commutator converts AC to DC.

AC induction motors have the advantage over DC motors that:


they don't require a commutator
they are simple to design
they are relatively cheap
all of the above.

Many power tools and appliances used in the home have relatively
low power -0.5-1 kW. Explain why these are most likely AC induction
motors.

Briefly describe the principle of operation of an AC induction motor.

The German Geissler invented a


pump efficient enough to reduce the
pressure in a glass tube to a small fraction of normal air pressure. By placing metal
_ _ _ _ in these tubes it was possible to get
to flow through the tubes.
As the pressure is reduced in these
tubes, different
were produced that depended on the gas pressure.

patterns

At a low pressure of -0.01 kPa a green glow appears in the end of the glass tube
opposite the negative electrode, the _ _ __
This glow was found by Crookes to be caused by
from the negative electrode.
Charged particles can be affected by:
electric fields
magnetic fields

emanating

both electric and magnetic fields.

Various cathode ray tubes and certain properties of cathode rays are shown. Draw a
line that correctly links the tube with the property.
Cathode ray tube
Property
Maltese cross
rays carry energy and momentum
magnet brought near
rays travel in straight lines
fluorescent screen
i rays are deflected by magnetic fields
paddle wheel
The nature of cathode rays, _ _ _ _ or

, was long debated.

A parallel plate capacitor is a useful device because it provides a _ _ _ _ electric


field, the intensity of which is calculated from the equation _ _ __
A charge of 3.2 x 10-19 C moves at right angles to a magnetic field of 0.1 T at a speed of
2.0 x 107 m.s-1. What is the magnitude of the force acting on the charge?
J.J. Thomson successfully measured the _ _ _ _ to -,-_ _ _ ratio for cathode
rays.

A cathode ray tube has three main components _ _ _ _ __


Cathode ray tubes are found in _ _ __

_ _ _--,-__ and

_ _ _ _ and _ _ __

The cathode ray _ _ _ _ is a useful experimental measuring device.


The _ _ _ _ nature of electrons is used in electron _ _ __
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In 1855 the German glassblower Heinrich Geissler invented a vacuum pump that was
efficient enough to reduce the pressure inside a strong glass tube to 0.01 % of normal
air pressure. In 1862 Julius Plucker found that by placing metal electrodes in the ends
of one of Geissler's tubes and joining the electrodes to a high voltage source he could
get electricity to flow through the tube.
Plucker showed that as the pressure is reduced in the discharge tube, a series of
changes progressively takes place. Gas discharge tubes produce different striation
patterns determined by the gas pressure.

+
Negative
glow
Crookes'
dark space

Positive
column

Anode
glow

Faraday's
dark space

Discharge tube

At a pressure of -0.01 kPa a green glow appears in the glass tube behind the anode
and opposite the negative electrode (cathode).
In 1875 Crookes deduced that the green glow was caused by cathode rays that
travelled from the cathode.

Cathode ray tubes allow the manipulation of moving charged particles by electric
and magnetic fields.
Cathode ray tubes come in a
range of types including Maltese
cross and a paddle wheel. From
these tubes we can deduce
various properties of the cathode
rays (see diagrams). The Maltese
cross tube shows they travel in
straight lines; the tubes with a
fluorescent screen show they are
deflected by magnetic and
electric fields and the paddle
wheel tube shows they carry
energy and momentum.

Maltese cross

Different types of cathode ray tubes

The nature of cathode rays - whether they are a wave or a particle - was long
debated. In 1887 J.J. Thomson determined their nature as being particles. Some years
later his son G.P. Thomson showed cathode rays to be waves!
Surrounding any charge is an electric field. Of special interest is that a uniform electric
field exists between two parallel plates, the strength of which is found from E = V/d.
A charge moving in a magnetic field experiences a force given by F = qvB sin
charge enters the field at 90 it moves in the arc of a circle.
In 1897, Thomson successfully measured the

e. If the

Site of evacuation

charge to mass ratio (q/m) for cathode


rays. He used apparatus similar to that
in the diagram. By suitably
arranging the strength of the
electric and magnetic fields it was
possible to derive an expression for
q/m. Thomson found that all
cathode rays had the same
q/m ratio equal to 1.76 x 10 11 C.kg- 1
A cathode ray tube (CRT) has an

Collimator

+
Coil to produce

gun

magnetic field

Thomson's apparatus to measure qlm ratio

electron gun, a deflecting


system and a fluorescent screen. The
electron gun provides a beam of
electrons, the deflecting system controls
the electron beam and is made of two
pairs of parallel plate capacitors in the
and Y- planes respectively. The
fluorescent screen indicates the position
of the electron beam, giving off light
when impacted by an electron.

/
Fluorescent
screen

Spot of
light

Accelerating
anodes
V-plates

X-plates

x-

CRTs are used in a wide range of devices


including cathode ray oscilloscopes,
electron microscopes and television

sets.

Filament
Grid

Electron
gun

Deflection
system

Fluorescent
screen

A cathode ray tube

The cathode ray oscilloscope is used to 'view' electrical signals or waveforms. Its
invention has had a significant impact on experimental physics.

Electron microscopes use the wave nature of electrons to magnify tiny objects.
Magnets focus the electrons.
CHECKLIST - Can you:
1. Explain how cathode rays tubes are used to control charged particles?
2. Explain the cause of the uncertainty in the nature of cathode rays?
3. Calculate the uniform electric field of a parallel plate capacitor using E = Vld?
4. Correctly use the equation F =qvB sin e?
5. Describe Thomson's experiment to determine the charge to mass ratio for electrons?
6. Explain the role of the various components of a cathode ray tube?
7. Outline some uses of cathode ray tubes?
8. Explain the principle of operation of photocopiers and lightning rods?

Cathode
/

The diagram is a representation of apparatus


commonly used in school science laboratories
to investigate the effect of pressure on the
electric discharge through a gas. The
pressure in the leftmost tube is -1 kPa
and that on the right is -0.01 kPa.
What is observed in the leftmost tube
when connected to the high voltage
supply?
What is observed in the rightmost
tube when connected to the high
voltage supply?

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High voltage
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Two pieces of apparatus illustrated below are used to demonstrate various properties
of cathode rays.
Maltese cross
!

Paddle wheel

Tube 1

Tube 2

What property is demonstrated in tube 1? Explain your reasoning.


What property is demonstrated in tube 2? Explain your reasoning.
In 1897 J.J. Thomson used apparatus
similar to that shown in the diagram.
What was the purpose of the
experiment?
Explain (using equations where
possible) the role of the electric and
magnetic fields.

Site of evacuation
---Electrodes
,

Electron

gun
Photocopiers and lightning rods both use
the electrical discharge from a sharp point
in their operation. Briefly describe how
this is used in a photocopier or lightning rod.

Coil to produce
magnetic field

Fluorescent
screen

Hertz measured the speed of radio waves and found it to be the same as the speed of
light. True or false? _ _ __
While investigating the generation of radio waves, Hertz discovered the _ _ _ __
effect.
Electromagnetic waves are produced by:
electrons orbiting the nucleus
charges moving with constant speed in conductors
charges oscillating in conductors.
A black body is a perfect _ _ _ _ and a perfect _ _ _ _ of radiation.
The black body radiation curves could/could not be explained by classical physics?

Planck proposed that the emission and absorption of energy by a black body is
_____ . This means it comes in
amounts.
This photoelectric effect is the emission of _____ from materials under suitable
conditions.
When light is shone on a particular metal no electrons are emitted. This is probably
because:
the light frequency is too low
the light intensity is too low
the time the light was shining on the metal was too short.
In his analysis of the photoelectric effect, Einstein proposed that light energy is
concentrated in
whose energy is given by _ _ _ __
The photoelectric effect is used in _____ , solar _____ and

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In 1887 Hertz first demonstrated the production of electromagnetic waves (he


actually produced what we now refer to as radio waves). He successfully measured the
speed of these waves and found them to be travelling at the same speed as light. He
thus deduced that light is a transverse electromagnetic wave.
Hertz discovered the photoelectric effect while investigating the generation of
electromagnetic (radio) waves but failed to investigate it further.

Electromagnetic waves are produced by charges oscillating in conductors (for


example, radio antennae). The oscillation of electrons can be produced by connecting
the aerial to an alternating current source.
Black bodies are perfect emitters and
absorbers of radiation.
Black body radiation curves, which
relate the maximum frequency of
emission to the temperature of the black
body, are unable to be explained by
classical physics (the physics of Newton
and Maxwell).
In an attempt to explain the black body
radiation curves, Max Planck proposed
in 1900 that emission and absorption

of electromagnetic radiation for a


black body is quantised. This means

200

400

600

800

1000

A(nm)

Black body radiation curves

that the energy is not continuous but is


in discrete amounts. These amounts are
given by E = hf where E is energy, h is Planck's constant (6.626 x 10-34 J.s) and f is the
frequency of the light.
The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons from substances when irradiated
with light (that is, electromagnetic radiation).
There was major conflict between the results of experiments on the photoelectric
effect and classical physics. For example, the experimental results indicated that
emission was frequency dependent, that is, below a certain frequency no electrons
were emitted regardless of the light intensity. Classical physics predicted no frequency
dependence.

In 1905 Einstein explained the photoelectric effect and in doing so proved the particle
nature of light. He proposed that energy is concentrated in 'bundles' called photons
with energy given by the Planck relationship E = hf.
The photoelectric effect is put to use in:
breathalysers - a device used by police to measure the blood alcohol content of
drivers suspected of driving 'under the influence'; colour changes initiated by the
alcohol are measured by photosensitive devices in the analyser
solar cells - these employ the semiconductor silicon and are used to convert
solar energy directly into electrical energy
photocells - photoelectric cells in which the electrons of an electric current are
produced by the photoelectric effect; they are used in devices such as electric 'eyes',
radiation detectors and light meters.

CHECKLIST - Can you:


1. Describe Hertz's experiments on electromagnetic radiation and his discovery of the photoelectric
effect?
2. Describe the generation of radio waves?
3. Discuss Planck's hypothesis on the quantisation of energy?
4. Describe Einstein's contribution to our understanding of the photoelectric effect?
5. Solve problems using E = hf and c = fA

Heinrich Hertz is credited with discovering the photoelectric effect.


What was Hertz investigating when he made the discovery?
What did he do that led to the discovery of the photoelectric effect?
Briefly describe how electromagnetic waves are generated.
Planck proposed the quantisation of energy to help explain:
the black body radiation curves
the photoelectric effect
the generation of electromagnetic waves
su percond uctivity.
A graph of the maximum kinetic energy of photoelectrons as a function of wavelength
for a metal X is shown.

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What is the significance of the point where the line cuts the frequency axis?
Light of frequency 1.6 x 10 15 Hz is shone on metal X. Describe what happens.

The de Broglie model of the atom pictures the electrons as:


moving in definite orbits around the nucleus
moving as matter waves around the nucleus.
When two or more atoms are brought near to each other, the energy levels _ _ __
The band model of matter has two bands, the _ _ _ _ band and the _ _ __
band.
In metals, the two bands _ _ __
If an electron jumps from the lower or _ _ _ _ band to the higher or _ _ __
band, it leaves a
behind.
Electric current is carried by both _ _ _ _ and _ _ __
Conductors have more/less free electrons than semiconductors? _ _ __
When a Group III or Group V atom is substituted for an atom of germanium or silicon,
we say the material has been _ _ __
_ _ _ _ a semiconductor alters its electrical properties.
In p-type semiconductors,
are the majority carriers. In n-type semiconductors,
_ _ _ _ are the majority carriers.
_ _ _ _ was the first semiconductor commercially used because it was easily purified.
_ _ _ _ is now the preferred semiconductor because of its _ _ __
When a metal is heated:
electrons are emitted by photoemission
electrons are emitted by thermionic emission
holes are emitted by thermionic emission.
Solid state devices can be made bigger/smaller than thermionic devices? _ _ __
_ _ _ _ have had a major impact on society.
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de Broglie's model of the atom pictures atoms as having the electrons moving as
matter waves around the nucleus, rather than as discrete particles proposed in the
Bohr model of the atom.
Isolated atoms have discrete energy levels. When two or more atoms come together,
the energy levels split. As a result, electrons can be shared between atoms. For a
finite amount of matter containing billions of atoms, the individual energy levels form
a continuum resulting in energy bands.
~~~ Conduction band

Forbidden energy gap

~~~ Valence band


Isolated atom

Energy bands

Two close atoms

Formation of energy bands

The energy bands are the valence band and the conduction band, separated by
the forbidden energy gap.
Conductors, semiconductors and
insulators differ in their band structure
as shown in the diagram on the right.
In some circumstances it is possible for
an electron to jump from the valence
band to the conduction band leaving a
(positive) hole behind. Holes represent
the absence of electrons in a nearly full
band.

Forbidden
energy gap

Conductor

Semiconductor

Insulator

Band structure

Both holes (positive charge) and electrons (negative charge) can carry electric
current.
Conductors, semiconductors and insulators differ in the number of free electrons
that can move between atoms. Conductors have many, semiconductors have a few
and insulators have almost no free electrons.
When a Group III or Group V atom is substituted for a Group IV atom of germanium
or silicon we say the material has been doped.
Doping a semiconductor alters its electrical properties. The electrical conduction
can be improved significantly because it provides additional charge carriers.

In p-type semiconductors, a Group III atom is substituted so holes are the majority
carriers (and electrons are the minority carriers).

p-type semiconductor

In n-type semiconductors, a Group V atom is substituted and so electrons are the


majority carriers (and holes are the minority carriers).
Pentavalent
atom

n-type semiconductor

8
Germanium was the first semiconductor material because of its relative ease of
purification.

Silicon is now the preferred semiconductor material. It is more abundant and hence
cheaper, and it retains its semi-conducting properties at higher temperatures than
germanium.
Thermionic emission is the spontaneous emission of electrons from solids when
heated to high temperatures. Thermionic valves rely on this effect for their operation.
They include the diode, triode and pentode, the latter two being used as amplifiers in
old-style (and bulky) radios, televisions, etc.
Solid-state devices have all but replaced thermionic devices. This is because solid
state devices can be made much smaller (miniaturised), use less power and react faster.
Transistors have had a significant impact on society. They have led to the computer
driven 'information age' that has revolutionised communication.
CHECKLIST - Can you:
1. Describe de Broglie's model of the atom?
2. Describe the band structure of conductors, semiconductors and insulators?
3. Explain the concept of a hole?
4. Explain how doping can affect the conductivity of a semiconductor?
5. Describe the difference between p- and n- type semiconductors?
6. Explain why germanium was the original semiconductor of choice but has now been replaced by
silicon?
7. Compare solid state devices with thermionic devices?
8. Discuss the impact of transistors on society?

Following is a diagrammatic representation of energy bands in conductors,


semiconductors and insulators.
Forbidden
energy gap

Conductor

Semiconductor

Insulator

Why does matter form energy bands?


What is the significance of the absence of a forbidden energy gap
in metals?

Germanium was originally the preferred semiconductor material. It has since been
superseded by silicon. Explain why germanium was previously used but now silicon is
preferred.

Doping can markedly change the conductivity of semiconductors.


What is meant by doping?
Explain how doping silicon with a Group III element produces holes
as the majority carriers.

Thermionic devices have all but been replaced by solid state devices.
What are thermionic devices?
What are solid state devices?
Give three reasons why solid state devices have superseded
thermionic devices.

The father and son team of the Braggs investigated the structure of matter by
bombarding it with:
electrons
neutrons
light
X-rays.
Metals were shown by the Braggs to have a __________ structure.
Metals tend to have _ _ _ __ _____ or _____ electrons in their outer
shell.
The current model of a metal pictures it as having:
a lattice of positive ions surrounded by a sea of neutrons
a lattice of positive ions surrounded by a sea of electrons
a lattice of electrons surrounded by a sea of protons.
Electricity conduction in metals results from the _____ of a large number of
_____ through the lattice.
The drift velocity depends on _ _ _ __ _____ and _ _ _ __
Heat is generated during conduction because the lattice _____ the electrons.
As temperature increases, _____ to conduction increases.
_____ allow electrons to flow unimpeded.
Superconductors have zero resistance:
at all temperatures
below a certain temperature
above a certain temperature
A magnet floating above a superconductor material illustrates the
Electrons pass unimpeded through a superconductor in

effect.
pairs.

One current use of superconductivity is in magnetic _____ imaging.


_____ trains use magnetic levitation.

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Sir William Bragg and his son Sir Lawrence Bragg investigated the internal structure of
crystals by using X-rays to form diffraction patterns. They were able to show that
crystals had atoms arranged in a regular pattern and were also able to determine the
interatomic spacing. X-ray crystallography is an important investigative technique
into the structure of materials.
By using X-ray crystallography scientists were able to show that metals possess a

crystal lattice structure.


Metals tend to have one, two or three electrons in
their outer shell. These electrons are only loosely held
by the atoms and hence are able to move.
The electron sea model of metals pictures them as
having a lattice of positive ions surrounded by a 'sea'
of electrons.

Electricity conduction in metals results from


the drift of a large number of electrons through
the lattice. This drift results when a potential
difference is applied between the ends of the
metal conductor and is superimposed on the
otherwise random wanderings of the electrons.
The drift velocity of the electrons in a
conductor is related to the density of electrons,
the cross-sectional area of the conductor and
the charge on the carriers. For example, the
larger the area, the greater the drift velocity as
there are more gaps for the electrons to move
through.

ion

electron

Electron sea model of a metal

drift direction

low
potential
(-)

electric field

high
potential
(+)

Electron drift in conductors

Heat is generated as the lattice impedes the electrons. In fact it is imperfections in


the lattice and the presence of impurity atoms that restricts the movement. This
restriction of the flow of electrons is what gives a conductor its resistance.
The higher the temperature of a metal conductor, the higher the resistance. This is
because impurity ions in the lattice vibrate more and so the probability of hitting
the conduction electrons increases.
It follows that if resistance increases with temperature then as temperature decreases,
so too should the resistance. A class of material exists - superconductors that allow
electrons to flow unimpeded. The resistance is effectively zero.

The temperature at which material become superconducting


is called the transition temperature. This temperature has
steadily risen from 4.2 K for mercury (the first material to be
found to be a superconductor) to current high-temperature
superconductors with a transition temperature as high as
134 K.
Superconductors have the ability to prevent penetration of a
magnetic field. This is called the Meissner effect and is
illustrated by a magnet floating above a superconductor. It is
also used in Maglev trains.
The BCS model of superconductivity is a
quantum-mechanical effect where two
electrons pair up - a Cooper pair - and
move unimpeded by the lattice. As the
temperature increases above the transition
temperature, the Cooper pairs break apart
and the superconductivity ceases.

Superconductors have many advantages


but are still limited in their use.
Current uses include:

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Transition temperature
of supercoductors

Lattice distortion

Cooper pairs form when two electrons become 'locked


together' and travel through the lattice.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)


Cooper pairs
where they produce intense magnetic
fields for use in medical diagnosis
SQUIDS (superconducting quantum interference devices) that can measure minute
differences in the Earth's magnetic field
Maglev trains that rely on the levitation, achievable with powerful magnets to
reduce friction, resulting in high speed travel.
Proposed uses include:
in electricity transmission where eliminating the resistance of transmission
(power) lines would save enormous amounts of energy
in generators and motors where the magnetic fields could be very intense even
for small magnets.
electronic switches using the Josephson effect in computers for high speed
processing.
Experimental Maglev trains exist in Germany and Japan. Both rely on magnetic
levitation to lift the train's wheels off the track so reducing the friction. Linear motors
give the train its propulsion.

CHECKLIST - Can you:


1. Describe x-ray crystallography as first done by the Braggs?
2. Describe the crystal structure of metals?
3. Describe the factors affecting drift velocity?
4. Explain the BCS theory of superconductivity whereby superconductors allow free movement of
electrons?
5. Identify current and proposed uses of superconductors?

Materials become superconducting:


above a critical frequency
below a critical frequency
above a critical temperature
below a critical temperature.

The crystalline structure of certain materials was first demonstrated by:


X-ray diffraction
neutron diffraction
the photoelectric effect
the Meissner effect.

The current uses of superconductors is limited because:


they are too expensive to make
the materials used are extremely rare
there is no need for them
they require extremely low temperatures to operate.

One of the current uses of superconductors is in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)


machines. These are medical diagnostic machines used to provide extremely good
'pictures' of a patient's internal tissues/organs. Explain what the superconductor is
used for in this device.

The BCS theory of superconductors is a quantum-mechanical explanation of


superconductivity. Briefly describe the theory.

Ultrasound is sound with frequencies greater than _____ Hz.


Special devices called _____ produce ultrasound. These convert one form of energy
into another.
_____ crystals are used to produce ultrasound by connecting them to suitable AC
frequencies.
Muscle has a density of 1.07 x 103 kg.m-3 and sound travels through it at 1540 m.s-1.
What is the acoustic impedance of muscle?
Three different tissues have the acoustic
impedances shown in the table. The greatest
reflection will be between which two tissues?
_____ and _ _ _ __
_____ is the use of ultrasound in medical
applications.

Tissue

Acoustic impedance
(x 106 kg.m-2.s-1)

bone
fat
soft tissue

7.8
1.38
1.70

Ultrasound imaging is a non- _____ method of 'seeing' into the human body.
Ultrasound imaging modes (modalities) include: _ _ __

_____ and

In
scans a single transducer scans along a _____ in the body. The
resulting echoes are plotted as a
of time.
In
scans an array of transducers scans a _____ in the body. The resulting
echoes are plotted as varying
of the signal.
In a
scan a fan-shaped image is formed. This is familiar to us as a scan of a
_____ in a mother's womb.
The Doppler effect is the
change in frequency when there is _ _ _ __
motion between a source of sound and an observer.
Doppler _____ is commonly used to examine blood flow and heart functioning.
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Ultrasound is sound (that is, a longitudinal mechanical wave) with frequencies greater
than 20,000 Hz (20 kHz) which is the upper limit of human hearing.
Special transducers (devices that convert one form of energy into another) produce
ultrasound.
The most common ultrasound transducers are piezoelectric crystals such as lead
zirconate titanate. These convert an oscillating potential difference into mechanical
oscillations and vice versa. By applying appropriate AC frequencies to a suitable crystal,
ultrasound can be produced as the crystal oscillates at the AC frequency.
The acoustic impedance (Z) is a measure of how easy it is to transmit sound through
a medium. It depends on the speed of the wave in the medium (v) and the density (p)
of the medium Z pv

Different media have different acoustic


impedances and so reflect sound differently
(see table). The greater the difference in
acoustic impedance between two materials,
the greater will be the reflection from the
interface of those two materials.

Ultrasonography is the use of ultrasound in


medical (and industrial) applications. It can be
active (for example, breaking up gall stones)
or passive (for example in scanning).

Material
air
fat
water
brain
blood
kidney
liver
muscle
lens of eye
bone (average)
skull-bone

Z (x 106 kg.m-2 .s-1 )

0.0004
1.38
1.54
1.68
1.61
1.62
1.65
1.70
1.84
6.5
7.8

Ultrasound imaging is a non-invasive method (no surgical procedure is required)


that uses ultrasound to 'see inside' the human body. A transducer is held against the
skin with a coupling gel and an ultrasound pulse is emitted. The pulse reflects offthe
different tissue interfaces and the internal structures can be mapped.
Imaging modes include A-, B-, sector and phase scans and each has its advantages.
In A-scans (amplitude scans) a single transducer scans along a line in the body and the
reflected echoes are plotted as a function of time. Rarely used, this scan does have
advantages for detailed measurements ofthe eye. It works much like sonar as a 'depth
finder'.
In B-scans (brightness scans) an array of transducers scans a plane in the body. The
brightness of the signals caused by the echoes is determined by the amount of reflection.

Organ or
other structure

Sector scan
8-scan

Dots have different brightness


related to signal strength. The greater
the signal strength the brighter (whiter)
the dot. The weaker the strength, the
darker the dot.

A- and 8-scans

In a sector scan the beam is made to sweep over the required part of the patient and
a fan-shaped scan is produced. The results are shown on a television monitor as a 'real
time' image. This is the common scan seen of a foetus in the womb as in the scan
above.
The Doppler effect is the apparent change in frequency when there is relative motion
between a source of sound and the observer. When the source and observer approach
each other the frequency increases; when they are moving apart, the frequency
decreases.

Doppler echocardiography is commonly used to examine blood flow and the


condition of the heart. If the blood flows towards the transducer the frequency
increases. Similarly if it flows away from the transducer, the frequency decreases. By
using 'false colour' an easily identified picture of the blood flow can be made in real
time.
CHECKLIST - Can you:
1. Describe what ultrasound is and how it is produced by piezoelectric transducers?
2. Define acoustic impedance and calculate its value for a range of materials?
3. Explain how ultrasound and different acoustic impedances of materials are used in ultrasound scans?

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5. Describe the different scan types: A-, 8- and sector scans and explain where they are best used?
6. Describe the Doppler effect and how it can be used to monitor blood flow through the heart?

PZT (lead zirconate titanate) is a piezoelectric crystal commonly used as a transducer


to generate ultrasound.
What is a piezoelectric crystal?
How is this crystal used to produce ultrasound?
The frequencies commonly used in medical ultrasound lie in the range 1 MHz to 15 MHz.
Suggest why these frequencies are suitable for medical imaging.

The speed of sound in blood is 1570 m.s-1 and blood has an acoustic impedance of
1.61 x 10 6 kg.m,2. s-1
What is meant by the acoustic impedance of blood?
What is the density of blood?
The following table gives the acoustic impedances of some different media. Use this
to explain why ultrasound is not good at imaging the lungs (which consist essentially
of sacs of air covered by muscle and surrounded by the rib cage).
Tissue

Acoustic: impedance
(x 106 kg.m-2 .s-')

air

0.0004

bone

7.8

fat

1.38

muscle

1.70

Using the table above, calculate the ratio of the reflected intensity of sound to the
intensity of the incident sound from a fat/muscle interface.

X-rays are high frequency _____ waves produced when _ _ _ _ are rapidly
decelerated.
X-ray tubes have three essential features: _______

_______ and

It is more difficult for hard X-rays to penetrate matter than soft X-rays. True or false?

The higher the density of a material, the more/less X-ray energy it absorbs? _ _ __
A standard X-ray image or
is made by passing X-rays through a patient and
allowing the transmitted rays to fall on a photographic film. An image forms as the
result of
shades of black/white/grey on the film.
Conventional X-rays are good/poor at distinguishing between different soft tissues.

tomography (CAT) uses X-rays and _ _ _ _ to make


Computerised
detailed images of a patient's internal organs.
CAT is better/worse at soft tissue differentiation than an ordinary X-ray? _ _ __
In a CAT scan the patient is placed inside a circular scanner called a
. X-rays
are fired at different
through the patient enabling a 'slice' of the patient
to be displayed on a _ _ __
CAT is morelless sensitive than conventional X-rays. _ _ _ __
A tube used to look inside the body is called a/an _ _ __
An image in an optic fibre _ _ _ _ is transmitted by a _ _ _ _ bundle.
Two important uses of the device in 12 above are _____ internal organs and
obtaining
samples for investigation.
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X-rays are extremely high frequency electromagnetic waves. They are produced in
an evacuated chamber by bombarding a tungsten target with electrons.

X-ray tubes consist of a negative


cathode, a high accelerating
potential difference (25 kV - 250
kV) and a positive anode with a
high temperature-resistant
tungsten target. Electrons
accelerated from the cathode
strike the target and are rapidly
decelerated. Their kinetic energy is
converted into X-rays (1 %) and
heat (99%).

Tungsten target
Lead shielding

~~~:Oil
Vacuum

Cathode filament

x- rays
+
Very high

The wavelength (and hence


potential
difference
frequency) of the X-rays can be
controlled by the accelerating
Modern X-ray tube
potential. Hard X-rays have short
wavelengths (-0.01 nm); soft Xrays have longer wavelengths (-1 nm). Soft X-rays
have less penetration than hard X-rays.
X-rays can be used to 'see inside' the human
body. Different materials such as bone and muscle
absorb X-rays differently. The higher the density,
the greater the absorption.
A radiograph is made by passing X-rays through the
patient and allowing the transmitted X-rays to fall
on a photographic film. The different shadows from
clear (high absorption) to opaque (minimal
absorption) produce the image as in the radiograph.
Conventional radiographs cannot distinguish
between soft tissues very readily.

Computerised axial tomography (CAT or CT) is a


method that uses X-rays and computers to make a
detailed picture of the inside of the human body.

Radiograph

CAT improves the clarity of soft tissue


differentiation. In a simple radiograph there
are 32 shades of grey; in CT there are 256
shades of grey.
To produce an image the patient lies ona table
that can be moved into a circular scanner or
gantry as in the photograph. X-rays from the
gantry are fired through the patient and are
detected by special detectors. By firing the
X-rays from different angles a 2D 'slice' of the
patient can be built up. This is displayed on a
television monitor. A series of slices can also
be produced to 'reconstruct' an entire organ
in 3D.

Patient having a CAT scan

CAT is more sensitive than conventional X-rays and is ideal for detecting cancerous
tumours, blood vessel blockages, fractures etc
An endoscope is a tube that uses optical fibres to look inside the body. The fibre optic
endoscope uses tens of thousands of optic fibres that use the principle of total internal
reflection to allow the endoscopist to literally 'see round corners'.
A coherent bundle is made by placing the fibres in the same relative position at both
ends of the cable. This allows an image to be transmitted without distortion.
Endoscopes assist in observing internal organs and in obtaining tissue samples
for biopsy. In the latter, miniature surgical instruments in the endoscope casing allow
tiny samples to be removed for analysis.

CHECKLIST - Can you:


1. Describe the nature and production of X-rays?
2. Distinguish between 'hard' and 'soft' X-rays?
3. Describe how a CAT scan is produced?
4. Explain the advantages of CAT over simple X-rays and ultrasound?
5. Explain how an endoscope works including incoherent and coherent bundles of fibres?
6. Explain the uses of an endoscope?

Wilhelm Roentgen first discovered X-rays in 1895.


What are X-rays?
How are they produced?
What is the difference between 'hard' and 'soft' X-rays?
To the right is a radiograph of a compound fracture of the
shaft of the humerus (the upper arm bone). Briefly describe
how such a radiograph can be produced.

Below is a CT scan of a cancer patient's liver showing secondary


malignant cancers (metastases) as dark areas.
What is a CT scan (also known as a CAT scan)?
Explain how such a scan can be made.
What is the advantage of CAT over conventional
X-rays like the radiograph in Question 2?

Optic fibre endoscopes are used to examine the interior of a patient's body. These
utilise the principle of total internal reflection and bundles of optical fibres.
Explain the phenomenon of total internal reflection and how the fibres are made
to ensure this occurs.
The fibre bundles can be coherent and incoherent. Distinguish between these and
explain their uses in the endoscope.

Alpha, beta and _ _ _ _ rays are among the products of _ _ _ _ decay.


The order of penetration ability from the least penetrating to the most penetrating is:
~~y

t~a

~~~

Radioisotopes are used in scanning because chemically they are


to their
non-radioactive equivalents and so enter into
chemical processes.
Medical radioisotopes are usually administered by
but in some
cases by
. The presence of radioactive particles is detected by _ _ _ __
cameras.
The time for half the given mass of an element to decay into a new element is called
its
. This can vary from
of seconds to _ _ _ __
of years.
A commonly used medical radioisotope is _ _ _ __
_____-99m is the most commonly used radioisotope because it has a _ _ _ __
half-life and is a pure
emitter.
A PET scan uses _____ emitting radioisotopes.
When a positron meets an electron, a process called pair _____ occurs and the
positron and electron are converted into two __________
is a natural chemical substance labelled with a radioactive element for
A
use in PET scans.
In a PET scan a
atom from a radiopharmaceutical releases a _ _ _ __
which interacts with an electron from the organ being investigated. The subsequent
_____ rays are detected by special
. The location ofthe initial positron
and the number of rays can be detected, and from this an image of the organ is
formed.

PET has the advantage over ultrasound and other imaging forms in that it can show
organ
as well as structure.
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le)!:j.na)ewJe4do!pe.J

Radioactivity is the spontaneous breakdown of an element into a new element by


the emission of alpha (a), beta (p) and/or gamma (y) rays.
The table illustrates the properties of these radiations.
Type of
radiation

Nature and
charge

Approximate
mass

Ionising
effect

Absorbed by

Deflection in
electric or
magnetic field

alpha

helium nucleus,
double positive
charge

4 x proton
mass

strong

sheet of paper

very small

beta

electron, negative
positron, positive

1/1800 proton
mass

weak

5 mm aluminium

large

gamma

electromagnetic
wave, neutral

zero mass

very
weak

never fully absorbed,


intensity halved by
25 mm lead

zero

Radioisotopes - radioactive isotopes - can be used for body scanning. Chemically


they are identical with their stable (non-radioactive) element and so take part in the
normal metabolic processes of the body.
In isotope scanning, a radioisotope is introduced into the patient by intravenous
injection or by inhalation. Special cameras - gamma cameras - allow the path and
concentration of the radioisotope to be monitored. Abnormalities can thus be
identified.
Radioisotopes vary in their half-life (the time for half the given mass to decay into a
new element). These can vary from fractions of seconds to millions of years. It is
important that medical radioisotopes have half-lives as short as possible so they do
not cause (unnecessary) damage to the patient.
Commonly used medical radioisotopes include 1-131 (thyroid), Sr-85 (bone), Tc-99m
(bone, thyroid, spleen, liver, etc.) and Th-201 (heart).

Tc-99m (technetium-99m) is the most commonly used medical radioisotope because


it has a short half-life (6 hours) and is a pure gamma emitter.

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a non-invasive technique that uses positronemitting radioisotopes attached to biological chemicals (radiopharmaceuticals) to image
the internal organs and tissues.

Pair annihilation occurs when a positron meets an electron. The proton and electron
disappear and their mass-energy is converted into two gamma rays according to
+~e + _~e -7 2y. These gamma rays travel with the same speed in opposite directions.
They can be used to determine the characteristics of the organ or tissue.

A radiopharmaceutical is a modified biological substance that is labelled with a


radioisotope. 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) is similar to natural glucose but is
labelled with the radioisotope fluorine-18. The rate of usage of FDG indicates the
metabolic activity of an organ or part of an organ.
In a PET scan the patient is given a radiopharmaceutical. This is incorporated in the
relevant organ and releases positrons that interact with electrons from the organ being
investigated. The gamma rays are detected by special crystals situated in a doughnut
shaped gantry into which the patient is placed. Since the gamma rays travel in opposite
directions it is possible to determine both the location (where they were produced) as
well as their number. Further computer analysis produces a visual representation of
the organ.
PET is useful for determining the function as well as the structure of the organ
being investigated. It is able to show the rate of uptake of a radiopharmaceutical and
from this the functioning of the organ can be determined. PET is primarily used to
investigate the brain including detection of tumours and strokes, for measuring blood
flow and other neurological conditions such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

CHECKLIST - Can you:


1. Describe the properties of radioisotopes including their half-life?
2. Give example of medical radioisotopes?
3. Describe how medical radioisotopes are used?
4. Describe how positron emission tomography is done using positrons and pair annihilation?

It is found that 2~~U is the beginning of a long sequence of radioactive decays, each of
which changes the nucleus involved to that of another element. Some of the steps in
this decay series are shown following. Fill in the spaces denoted by'?'.
238 U -7
92

2~6Th

iPa
23~U

234rh
90

23~U

-7

?
.

~Pa + _~e

-7

-7

~Th

+ _~e
+ iHe

The table shows the half-lives for various radioisotopes. Which would be least useful
for examination of a patient? Explain your reasoning.
Radioisotope

Half-life

(-11

20.3 min

(0-60

5.3 years

Tc-99m

6 hours

Ga-67

72 hours

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a successful medical imaging technique.


What is a positron?
Where do these positrons come from?
Clearly explain how a PET scan is done.
What advantages does PET have over other imaging techniques?
The National Medical Cyclotron is situated in Camperdown, Sydney near the Royal
Price Alfred Hospital. The two facilities are connected with a $500,000 pneumatic rapid
transfer system. Explain why they are placed in close proximity.

A charged particle such as an electron or proton acts like a tiny _ _ _ _ loop.


A fundamental property of elementary particles, such as mass and charge is its
A nucleus has a _ _ _ _ determined by its _ _ __
A proton has a net spin of _ _ __
A top spinning about one axis will also revolve around a second axis. This is the
phenomenon of _ _ __
When placed in an external magnetic field, nuclei with spin:
tend to align themselves parallel to the magnetic field
tend to align themselves at right angles to the magnetic field.
The Larmor frequency is:
the frequency of the applied magnetic field
the frequency of the precession of the nuclei
independent of the strength of the field.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses _ _ _ _ frequency energy and strong
magnetic fields.
frequency waves are directed at the body and are adjusted
In an MRI scan
until
occurs. At this frequency the RF energy is absorbed. When the RF is
turned off the energy is
and is detected by special receiving coils.
The properties of the tissue determine the signal
and
. Since
different tissues have different
densities, an image can be produced by a
computer.
MRI is the number one imaging technique for studying the human _ _ _ _ and
central
system.
Different scanning techniques all have their _ _ _ _ and _ _ __

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Protons, electrons, certain atoms and molecules act as tiny current loops; that is
they act as tiny magnets. This effect is related to the spin of the charge as shown in
the diagram.
N
N

Straight current-carrying wire

Current loop

Spinning charge

Magnetic fields associated with electric currents

Spin, like mass and charge, is a fundamental property of all elementary particles. It
comes in multiples of 1/2 and can be + or -. Spin is a measure of the intrinsic angular
momentum of an elementary particle.
Groups of particles also have a spin as a result of the spin of their individual particles.
A nucleus, for example, has a spin determined by the spin of the nucleons that
make it up.
For even mass number nuclei, the spin is an integer; for odd mass number nuclei
the spin is a half integer

(~, ~

I ).

All nuclei with an even number of protons and

neutrons have zero spin in their ground state. A proton has a net spin of 1/2.
When set spinning about one axis - the axis of symmetry
- a top will also rotate around a second axis. This change
in the direction of the original axis of rotation is called
precession.
Nuclei with spin tend to align themselves in an
external magnetic field and precess about the field
direction.
The precession rate - the Larmor frequency - is
proportional to the applied field.

Spinning top. As it spins around its


axis it also traces out a cone about
a vertical axis.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive technique used to produce


images of tissues inside the body using radio-frequency energy and strong magnetic
fields.
In a MRI scan the patient is placed inside a powerful cylindrical magnet. The intense
magnetic field forces nuclei in some of the atoms in the tissue being scanned (notably
hydrogen) to 'line up'. Some of the atoms do not line up exactly with the field; rather
they precess around it. Pulses of radio-frequency electromagnetic waves are then
directed at the body and, if their frequency equals that of the nuclei - the Larmor
frequency - resonance occurs. At resonance the nuclei absorb the radio wave's energy.
When the radio wave is 'turned off' the nuclei return to their original orientation in
the field releasing the absorbed energy as weak radio signals of the same frequency
as the incident wave. A receiving coil detects this energy. Before the atoms have
re-aligned, the field is changed from a constant field to a variable field - a gradient.
Different atoms re-align to different strength fields giving out radio frequencies of
slightly different frequency. Each frequency corresponds to a particular field strength
and the latter can be localised to a particular location in the patient's body.
The strength and duration of the signals is dependent on the properties of the
tissue from which they are emerging. The higher the spin density, the greater the
concentration of hydrogen nuclei in the site being imaged. Hydrogen has its greatest
density in body fluids. Next comes soft tissue followed by cartilage and membranes.
Bones show no MRI signal. A computer decodes the signals into a visual image in a
similar manner as for (T and PET scans.
MRI images are able to accurately differentiate between normal and diseased tissues
and provide the most detailed anatomical information. MRI is the number one choice
for studying the brain and central nervous system.
Different scanning techniques have different advantages and disadvantages.

CHECKLIST - Can you:


1. Explain the meaning of spin and how this leads to protons, electrons and some nuclei acting as tiny
magnets?
2. Describe the effect of applying a strong magnetic field to nuclei with spin?
3. Discuss precession and the relationship between the composition of the nuclei, the strength of the
magnetic field and the Larmor frequency?
4. Discuss the effect of directing radio waves at precessing nuclei?
5. Explain how an image is formed as a result of the relaxation of the nuclei?

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relies on the spin of nuclei for its operation.
What is meant by the 'spin of nuclei'?
What is the significance of the fact that the hydrogen nucleus (proton)
has the largest 'magnetic moment'?

Below is an MRI scan of a human head containing a healthy brain. Explain clearly how
such a scan is made.

Magnetic resonance imaging is especially useful for imaging the brain and central
nervous system. Why is this so much better than (T scans?

Explain four advantages of MRI?

The electromagnetic spectrum ranges from the high frequency


rays to
the low frequency
waves. The Earth's atmosphere selectively _ __
certain frequencies from the spectrum.
Ground-based astronomy is restricted to which region/s of the electromagnetic
spectrum?
visible
visible, radio and some infrared
visible and radio.
The light-gathering power of a telescope is a measure of its _ _ _ _ _ _ . This
of the lens or mirror.
depends on the
The ability of a telescope to distinguish between two close objects is a measure of its
_ _ _ _ . This depends on the
of the electromagnetic radiation used
of the lens or mirror. It is measured in seconds of _ _ __
and the
The atmospheric effect that distorts the image of a distant light source is called
____ . This is a result of variations in the Earth's atmosphere's
index.
Two techniques used to improve a telescope's sensitivity and resolution are _ _ __
optics and _ _ _ _ _ __
_ _ _ _ _ optics samples the light from a distant source in real time and data is fed
back to a _____ mirror that can be adjusted to minimise the image distortion.
Interferometry is a technique that uses the phenomenon of _____________ of
electromagnetic radiation to study stellar objects. The device which consists of _ __
or more telescopes is called an _ _ _ _ __
of the lens or mirror; the
The sensitivity of a telescope depends on the
resolution depends on the
of the lens or mirror. Using interferometry
can
the resolution.
Lightweight mirrors, thin mirrors, replica mirrors and active optics are all examples of
_ _ _ generation telescopes.
Active optics compensates for:
distortions in the atmosphere
background light.

imperfections in the mirror

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The electromagnetic spectrum ranges from the high frequency (small wavelength)
gamma rays through to the low frequency radio waves. These waves are selectively
absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere. For example, ultraviolet and X-radiation are
absorbed by the upper atmosphere and much of the infrared is reflected by water
vapour and gases.
10-12

10- 11

10-10 10-9

10-8

10-7

10-6

10-5

10-4

10-3

10-2

10-1

100

10

102

103

104 (m)

increasing wavelength

microwave

visible
(violet, blue, green, yellow, orange, red)
increasing frequency

The electromagnetic spectrum

Ground-based astronomy is restricted to the visible and radio-wave regions of the


electromagnetic spectrum with some narrow windows in the near infrared. For the
other wavelengths we need to get above the atmosphere - we do this using telescopes
like the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and space probes.
The sensitivity of a telescope is a measure of its light-gathering power. This depends
on the telescope's lens or mirror area (which depends on its diameter). The greater the
area, the better the sensitivity.
The resolution of a telescope is a measure of its ability to distinguish between two
very close objects. This is determined by the wavelength of the electromagnetic
radiation used (the smaller the better) and the diameter of the lens or mirror. Bigger
is better for telescopes! The resolution of a telescope is measured in seconds of arc
(arc seconds) where there are 3600 seconds of arc in one degree.
The theoretical resolution of a telescope is rarely reached because of the phenomenon
of seeing. This is the distortion of the image of a distant light source by the Earth's
atmosphere. Seeing results from variations in the Earth's refractive index which
cause a spot of light to 'wiggle' about randomly, distorting the image.

The sensitivity and resolution of a telescope can be improved by using the techniques
of adaptive optics and interferometry.
Adaptive optics is a technique that involves measuring and compensating in real time
for the atmospheric effects. By sampling the incident light up to 1000 times per
second and measuring the amount of atmospheric distortion with a wavefront sensor
it is possible to feed this information back to a wavefront correction device such as a
'flexible mirror' to effectively 'straighten out' the light. For it to work, adaptive
optics requires a bright reference star to detect the distortion. Alternatively laser
light is reflected off sodium atoms in the upper atmosphere.

Interferometry is a technique that uses interference of electromagnetic radiation to


study objects. The arrangement of telescopes is called an interferometer. Light from
a star enters two telescopes and is made to interfere. The type of interference fringes
seen - constructive or destructive - depends on the different distances travelled to
the two telescopes. This information can be used to construct an image.
The resolution of a telescope depends on the diameter of the lens or mirror but
not the area (the sensitivity depends on the area). By constructing an interferometer
with two separate telescopes the resolution can be enhanced. Interferometry is
widely used with radio telescopes.

New generation telescopes use a variety of techniques including lightweight mirrors,


spin casting, liquid mirrors, thin mirrors, replica mirrors and active optics. These all
have the benefits of reduced cost relative to the quality of the mirror. lightweight
mirrors can be made by 'digging out' some of the mirror's back or by casting mirrors
with a honeycomb back. By spinning the molten glass as it solidifies - spin castinga depression forms in the middle which can be ground to the required shape. Thin
mirrors can be made by producing -1 mm thick glass on a honeycomb composite
backing structure.

Active optics compensates for imperfections in the actual mirror. The mirror is made
up of many individual pieces, each of which can be controlled by actuators in a manner
similar to adaptive optics. The difference is that the sampling is much less frequent for
active optics.

CHECKLIST - Can you:


1. Describe the types and properties of the electromagnetic spectrum?
2. Define the meaning of the sensitivity and resolution of telescopes?
3. Explain the problems associated with ground-based astronomy as a result of the selective absorption
of certain wavelengths by the Earth's atmosphere?
4. Describe how adaptive optics and interferometry can be used to improve resolution and sensitivity of
telescopes?
5. Describe the techniques used in some new generation telescopes?

The two 10m diameter Keck telescopes are the largest reflecting telescopes in the
world. They are situated at an altitude of 4,200 m on a mountaintop at Mauna Kea in
Hawaii.
What quality/qualities is/are enhanced by having such a large diameter collecting
dish? Explain your answer.
What advantage(s) is achieved by placing the telescope at such a high altitude?
Explain your answer.
The 10 m mirror is made of 36 separate 1.8 m long hexagonal mirrors -7 cm thick
and pre-stressed into the desired shape. What is the reason for this type of
construction?

In 2000 the second Keck telescope was put into operation to be used in conjunction
with the first (which was originally commissioned in 1992) as an interferometer.
What is an interferometer?
What important property of telescopes is improved when it is connected as an
interferometer? Explain your answer.

New generation telescopes have been designed over recent years to improve the
effectiveness of telescopes. Clearly describe TWO such innovations explaining carefully
what advantage they have.

Astrometry is the careful measurement of the position of celestial objects. This can be
used to determine its
from us.
The apparent movement of an object against a background when viewed from different
positions is termed
. This happens to stars when viewed from Earth at the
extremes of its orbit around the Sun.
The distance to the nearest stars can be determined by __________ . This is
limited by the size of its baseline which is the diameter of the Earth's
around
the Sun.
Astronomical distances are usually measured by astronomers in:
parsecs
light years
both a and b
arc seconds
The nearest star to us (other than the Sun) is Alpha Centauri. It has a parallax of
0.753 arc seconds. How far away from us is Alpha Centauri?
The speed of light is 3.0 x 108 m.s-1. How many metres are there in one light-year?
Trigonometric parallax is useful for determining the distance to:
all the stars
the few hundred nearest stars
the few thousand nearest stars.
There are __ light-years in one parsec.
The astrometric satellite Hipparcos measured the
of some 100,000 stars with
an accuracy more than 100 times better than previous measurements. It was able to
do this by getting above the Earth's _ _ _ _ __
The data from Hipparcos led to a new estimate of the _ _ _ of the universe.

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Astrometry is the measurement of the positions, motions and magnitudes of the


stars. This allows the distance to the object to be determined when combined with
other information.

Parallax is the apparent change in position of an object against a background when


viewed from different positions. When the Earth rotates around the Sun the place
where we view stars from continually changes. We can use this to determine the distance
to these stars.
Trigonometric parallax is the method
used to determine the distance to the
nearest stars. By measuring the angle of
para \lax (p) in the diagram we can
determine the distance by simple
trigonometry. Its range is limited by the size
of the baseline which is set by the diameter
of the Earth's orbit around the Sun.

Earth

EOarth

to Star

~---+------~P--7 ~
Sun

Ne~
star

Background
stars
If p = 1 arc second, the distance to the nearby star is 1 parsec

The distances to the stars are measured in parsecs and light-years.

One parsec is the distance at which the radius of the Earth's orbit subtends an angle
of one second of arc. If the parallax of a star (p) is measured in seconds of arc, then the
distance (d) in parsecs is given by d

=~
p

One light-year is the distance travelled by light in one year. It is equal to -9.5

x 1015 m.

There are 3.26 light-years in one parsec.


The errors inherent in measuring the very small values of parallax means that
trigonometric parallax is only useful for the approximately 100 nearest stars only.
The astrometric satellite Hipparcos has improved the measurement of the parallax of
about one million stars by eliminating problems created by the Earth's atmosphere.
As a result of Hipparcos' measurements which showed certain stars, and therefore the
galaxies in which they reside, to be -10% further away than previously thought, the
age of the universe has been recalculated as -12 billion years.
CHECKLIST - Can you:
1. Define the terms parallax, parsec and light-year?
2. Solve problems using the equation d

=~

P
3. Describe how trigonometric parallax works and its limitations.
4. Describe the results obtained by the astrometric satellite Hipparcos.

Below is a diagram of the principle behind trigonometric parallax.


Earth

Sun

Ne~
star

Background
stars
If P

=1 arc second, the distance to the nearby star is 1 parsec

Explain the meaning of parallax.


Clearly explain how this method can be used to determine the distance
to nearby stars?
What limits the accuracy of this method? Explain your answer.

The star 40-Eridani has a parallax of 0.2 seconds of arc.


How far away is 40-Eridani?

The astrometric satellite Hipparcos improved the accuracy of trigonometric


parallax of some 100,000 stars by -100 times.
How was Hipparcos able to improve the accuracy?
What did Hipparcos discover in its more accurate readings?
What implications does this have for our view of the universe?
Explain.

All of what we know about stellar objects comes to us as the object's _____ in
the form of
radiation.
Spectra can be _____ or _____ . They are viewed by devices called
Emission spectra can be continuous, _____ or _ _ _ __
wavelengths are present. They are produced by
In a continuous spectrum,
solids, liquids and low-density gases when excited. True or false _ _ _ __
Line emission spectra consist of:
bright lines on a continuous spectrum
dark lines on a continuous spectrum

bright lines on a dark background


dark lines on a bright background.

Line emission spectra are produced when:


an electron is excited to a higher energy level
an electron falls from a higher energy level.
Absorption spectra are produced when:
a continuous spectrum is passed through a hot gas
a continuous spectrum is passed through a cool gas.
A spectroscope can spread light using a _____ or a __________
Stellar objects can be classified according to their spectra as _ _ _ __
_____,' galaxies or q _ _ _ __
Spectral _____ range from 0 to _____ with _____ being the hottest
and
the coolest.
Stellar spectra allow a range of characteristics to be determined including the star's
and density.
structure,
composition, velocity,
_____ and so their temperatures can be
Stars approximate to
determined from the dominant _____ in the spectra.
The radius of a star can be determined by application of the Stefan-_____ Iaw.
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The spectra of stellar objects allow us to determine a lot of information about the
object such as its surface temperature and chemical composition. This spectrum is in
the form of electromagnetic radiation (visible l infrared l ultravioletl radio l etc).
Spectra can be either emission or absorption spectra and are detected and measured
by devices called spectroscopes.
Emission spectra can be either continuous, line or band.
In a continuous spectruml all wavelengths are present. Solids l liquids and very dense
gases produce these spectra.
When an element is excited by
heating it to incandescencel or by
passing an electrical discharge
through itl the element emits light
of definite wavelengths onlYI
giving a line emission spectrum
when viewed through a
spectroscope. (The lines are images
of the slit of the spectroscope.) The
arrangement of these lines is unique
to the particular element allowing
its presence in any sample to be
identified. Low-density monatomic
gases and vapours at high
temperatures produce line spectra.
Molecules tend to emit band spectra
rather than individual lines.
Line emission spectra are
produced when an electron l
excited to a higher energy
level by heat or electricitYI
falls back to a lower energy
level emitting a photon of
light given by the Planck
relationship !1E = hf. This
photon corresponds to a
particular frequency or
wavelength (colour).

Collimating

lJ,
\
Discharge
tube containing
gas whose spectra
is being investigated

Emission spectra
composed of
bright lines on a
dark background

Formation of line emission spectrum

Electron in
higher energy
state
--~~----~O~-----
Emitted
photon
Incoming
photon
I

-'IIIIIIIII!IIIr-])o

Glass
prism

Electron
in ground
state

-4/1~!~j\r->

L':.E= hf

Electron raised to 4th energy


level can drop back in 5
different ways

Line emission spectrum

n=5
n=4
n=3
n 2

n=1

Collimating
Just as an element is capable of
Glass
slit
emitting certain frequencies of light,
so too it is capable of absorbing these
same frequencies, giving an
absorption spectrum. When a
continuous spectrum of light is shone
onto a cool gas, certain frequencies
Absorption spectra
correspond to energy differences in
composed of
dark lines on a
the gas that will raise an electron to a
bright background
higher energy level, and so those
frequencies are removed from the
Formation of absorption spectrum
continuous spectrum leaving dark
lines against a continuous
background. The absorption lines correspond to the emission lines of the elements,
so allowing the elements present to be identified.

A spectroscope is a device for visually observing spectra. A spectrograph photographs


or records the spectra. (The photographic image is called a spectrogram.) Spectroscopes
can be either prism or diffraction types, both of which spread the light out into its
spectrum.
Slit

Prism

Light source

pri~le

Reflection
grating

source

Diffraction spectroscope

Prism spectroscope

Spectroscopes

Stellar objects can be classified according to their spectra as stars, emission nebulae,
galaxies or quasars. Stellar spectra are absorption spectra, emission nebulae spectra
are mainly hydrogen emission spectra (with some other elements), galaxies emit spectra
across the range of the electromagnetic spectrum and are red-shifted, and quasar
spectra are strongly red-shifted.
Stars can be further classified by their spectra into different spectral classes
according to characteristics such as surface temperature. These classes are referred
to as 0, S, A, F, G, K, M. Within each class there are 10 subdivisions (AO, A 1, ... , A9).
These classifications are determined by the strength of the hydrogen absorption
lines. 0 stars are blue and hottest; M stars are red and cooler.

Stellar spectra allow astronomers to determine characteristics such as the star's


structure, chemical composition, velocity, temperature and density.
A star approximates to a black body
and so there is a link between a star's
colour and its temperature as shown in
the graph. The hotter the star, the
shorter the dominant wavelength
emitted.

24000 K

~~j
>.

:\
\

e>
Stefan-Boltzmann's law can be used
\
c r\
to deduce a star's composition and
W
6DOO ,K
radius. This law states that the total
I
amount of energy emitted by a hot
/
~
!'"
body per unit surface area per unit
/I /
>~r_ "
/i'~ 'POOil{ l'~'~rtime is proportional to the fourth
,..
200
400
600
800
1000
A(nm)
power of its absolute temperature, that
is = (J'P. But assuming the star to be
Black body radiation curves
a sphere, the luminosity is given by
L = 4nW(J'T4 where R is the radius of the
star's photosphere. All quantities other than R can be measured thereby allowing R
to be calculated.
-"~"-".

Q)

"

,~.,

.., ..,

CHECKLIST - Can you:


1. Explain the production of emission and absorption spectra and compare them with a black body
spectrum?
2. Explain the operation of a spectroscope?
3. Describe the different types of spectra from stars, emission nebulae, galaxies and quasars?
4. Explain how stellar spectra can be used to classify stars?
5. Describe the information that can be deduced from spectra?
6. Explain the use of the Stefan-Boltzmann law to determine stellar radii?
7. Determine the temperature of a star from its black body radiation curves?

All we know about celestial objects comes to us in the form of the object's spectrum.
What is meant by the term 'spectrum'?
What are the two basic spectral types?
State three pieces of information that astronomers can deduce from a stellar object's
spectrum.
The diagram is a representation of the formation of a particular type of spectrum.
Collimating
slit

Glass

Spectra composed of
dark lines on a bright
background

What type of spectrum is it?


Clearly explain how this spectrum forms.
Explain clearly how this of type of spectrum helps us discover
information about stellar objects?
The spectral class of some stars is shown in the table.
Star

Spectral class

Aldebaran

K5

Betelgeuse

M2

Deneb

A2

Hadar

B1

Which star is the hottest? Justify your answer.


What is the likely colour of Betelgeuse? Justify your answer.
Clearly explain how the Stefan-Boltzmann law can be used to calculate the radius of a
star. Equations may be useful in your explanation.

The measurement of the brightness of stars is:


spectroscopy
astrometry
photometry.
The luminosity of a star depends on the _____ and the surface _____ of the
star.
In addition to the factors in 2 above, the brightness of a star also depends on its
_____ from us.
A star alpha has a magnitude of -1 and another star beta has a magnitude of +1. How
much brighter is alpha than beta?
A star's brightness is determined by its _____ and _____ magnitudes.
The absolute magnitude is the brightness a star would have if it were placed _ __
pa rsecs from us.
Two identical stars alpha and beta exist with alpha twice as far away as beta. What is
the ratio of the apparent magnitudes of alpha to beta?
The star Arcturus has an apparent magnitude of 0.00 and an absolute magnitude of
-0.3. How far away is Arcturus?
Spectroscopic parallax:
uses parallax to determine distances to stars
does not use parallax to determine distances to stars.
The
of a star is a measure of its magnitude measured separately
through blue and yellow filters. This value is
for blue stars and _ _ __
for
stars.
_____ tubes are used to measure low light intensities more effectively than
_____ plates in photometry.

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Photometry is the measurement of the brightness of stars and other celestial objects.
These measurements allow information about a star's temperature, composition, age,
etc. to be determined.
Luminosity (L) is a measure of the rate at which a star emits radiant energy, that is, it

is a measure of the total power emitted by a star. This depends upon the size of the
star and its surface temperature.
The brightness (I) of a star is a measure of the intensity of radiation arriving at the
Earth from that star. This is determined by three factors, the star's size (radius), surface
temperature, and distance from us.
Brightness is given in terms of magnitude where a first-magnitude star is defined to
be 100 times brighter than a sixth-magnitude star. It follows from this definition that
the brighter the star, the smaller the magnitude and a difference of one magnitude
always corresponds to the same brightness ratio, that is, ~hoo = 2.512.
The brightness of a star determines its absolute and apparent magnitude.
The absolute magnitude (M) is defined as the brightness the star would have if it
were a standard distance from us - this distance is 10 parsecs. This allows astronomers
to compare stars in terms of characteristics such as their size and temperature. For two
stars with absolute magnitudes MA and MB and apparent brightness IA and 18 respectively,

MB-MA)

we have IA = 100(- s IB

The apparent magnitude (m) of a celestial body is its magnitude as measured by an


observer (usually on the Earth). For two stars with apparent magnitudes m A and m8
respectively and intensities IA and 18 we have:
m B -mA

=2.5log1O~' This is equivalent to


IB

IA =2.S(mB -m A )
IB

The magnitude of a star can be used to deduce the distance to the star. For a star
with an apparent magnitude m at a distance d and absolute magnitude M at a distance
of 10 parsecs it is found that m - M

= 510g 10 -

10

m - M is called the distance modulus.

Spectroscopic parallax uses stellar spectra to determine distances (it does not actually
use parallax). Astronomers determine its spectral class and luminosity from its observed
spectrum and place it on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to determine its absolute
magnitude. By comparing this with its apparent magnitude, the distance can be
calculated.
The colour index of a star is the difference between the magnitude measured using
a blue filter and the magnitude using a yellow filter that is, CI = B - V. Blue stars have
a negative colour index, red stars a positive colour index.
Photometry relies on photomultiplier tubes and photographic plates.
Photomultiplier tubes convert weak light into easily measurable electric currents. They
provide faster measurements of magnitude than photographic plates which rely on
visual comparisons of the star images.

CHECKLIST - Can you:


1. Define absolute and apparent magnitude and how these can be used to determine the distance to
celestial objects?
2. Solve problems using the formulae m - M

= 510910 ~

and

~ = 2.5(ma- mA)?

'8

10
3. Describe the principles behind spectroscopic parallax?
4. Define colour index and explain how it is used?
5. Compare the use of photomultiplier tubes and photographic plates in photometry?

The apparent magnitudes of some celestial objects are shown in the table.
Object

Apparent magnitude

Moon

-12.6

Sirius (brightest star)

-1.4

Vega

Venus (max)

-4.4

What is meant by the term 'apparent magnitude'?


Which celestial object in the table appears brightest to us?
Explain your answer.
Compare the brightness of Venus with that of Sirius.
Show your working.
The absolute and apparent magnitudes of various stars are shown in the table.
Star

Apparent magnitude

Absolute magnitude

Spica

+1.00

-2.4

Castor

+1.59

+1.0

Pollux

+1.16

+1.0

What is the significance of the fact that Castor and Pollux have the same absolute
magnitudes but different apparent magnitudes?
Explain your reasoning.
Which star has the greatest luminosity? Explain your answer.
How far away is Castor?
The spectral class of some stars is shown in the table.
Which star has the most positive colour index?
Explain your reasoning.
Spectroscopic parallax is a method used to determine
the distance to certain stars. Clearly explain how this
is done.

Star

Spectral class

Aldebaran

K5

Betelgeuse

M2

Deneb

A2

Hadar

B1

Binary or multiple stars make up a significant proportion of all stars known. True or
false? _ _ __
Binary (or multiple) stars can be eithervisual, _ _ _ _ , spectroscopic or _____
binaries.
In a visual binary, _____ stars are visible through a telescope orbiting in ellipses
around a common
of mass.
In an
binary, the motion of one star leads to variations in the _____
of the light from the
star.
Spectroscopic binary stars are recognised by their periodic doubling of the _____
lines as the stars periodically
and
from the Earth.
In
binaries only one of the pair is visible. The presence of the other is
deduced from its
on the orbit of the visible component.
Two stars in a binary pair orbit their common centre of mass with a period of 3 years.
They have an average separation of 3 astronomical units. What is their mass in units of
solar mass?
Stars whose brightness changes either regularly or irregularly are called _ _ __
stars.
Cepheids are _____ yellow stars whose brightness varies with a regular pattern.
The first Cepheid to be investigated and to have its _ _ _ _ curve plotted was

0-_ _ __

For Cepheids, as the period of the light variations increases:


the brightness increases
the brightness decreases
the brightness is unaffected.

e
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:).ue!6Jadns
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Binary stars consist of two stars orbiting about their common centre of mass and
obeying the law of universal gravitation. About half of all known stars are binary or
multiple stars.
Binary stars can be visual, eclipsing, spectroscopic or astrometric binaries.
Visual binary stars have orbits around a common centre of mass which can be directly
observed as ellipses traced out against the background stars. Both stars are visible.
In eclipsing binary stars one of the pair eclipses (moves in front of) the other at
regular intervals leading to variations in the brightness of the light from the eclipsed
star as in the diagram.
Duller star

U~~ I~

1\I
i

I
~ I

i
-

Brighter star
eclipses
\
duller star
,
(secondary
\,
eclipse)
DUII::tar

Duller star
eclipses brighter
star
(primary eclipse)

eclipses brighter
star
(primary eCIiPse~
Time

Eclipsing binary stars

Time

Light curve for total eclipse


(flat bottom)

Light curve for partial eclipse


(V shape)

In spectroscopic binaries the Doppler shift in their spectral lines is used to determine
their presence. This is characterised by a periodic doubling of lines as the stars recede
and approach the observer at regular intervals as in the diagram.
Red

Violet

Red shift
<1(--

~--D~

[]JI[

---.,..

Blue shift

Spectroscopic binary stars and their spectra

In astrometric binaries only one of the pair is visible. The presence of the other is
deduced from perturbations in the orbit of the visible star.
Binary stars can be used to determine stellar masses using the formula

m,+m 2

4n2r 3
=

GT

Variable stars are stars whose brightness varies either periodically or non-periodocally.
They can be intrinsic variables or extrinsic variables such as eclipsing binaries.

Cepheids are supergiant yellow stars (of which


approximately 1000 are known) which vary in
brightness with an amplitude of about one
magnitude and with absolutely regular periods.

Q)

-0

.a
'c

CJ)

8-Cephei was the first Cepheid to be


investigated and its light curve is shown in
the diagram. The brightness varies as the star
undergoes alternating contraction and
expansion.

<1J

E
Q)

"5

@ -2.2

.0

5.0
Time (days)

A definite relationship exists between the


period and the luminosity of a Cepheid. The
longer the period, the greater the luminosity.
This period-luminosity relationship of
Cepheid variables can be used to deduce the
distance to distant galaxies. By observing the
period, the absolute magnitude can be
deduced. Comparison with the apparent
magnitude allows the distance to be
calculated.

Light curve fo Cepheid variable

-6
Q)

]l
'c

-4

Type I classical
Cepheids

CJ)

<1J

2:::l -2

Type II Cepheids
- W Virginus stars

RR Lyrae stars

10

50 100

Period (days) on a log scale

Period-luminosity relationship

CHECKLIST - Can you:


1. Classify binary stars according to their means of detection as visual, eclipsing, spectroscopic or
astrometric?
2. Describe how binary stars can be used to determine solar masses?
4n2r 3
3. Solve problems using m 1 +m 2 = GT 2 ?
4. Describe the different types of variable stars as intrinsic or extrinsic and periodic or non-periodic?
5. Explain how the period-luminosity law for Cepheids can be used to determine stellar distances?

Binary stars come in a number of different forms. Clearly distinguish between visual
binary stars and spectroscopic binaries.

The diagram is of a particular type of binary star


combination.
What type of binary star is it? Explain your
reasoning.
Clearly describe what is happening at the
regions marked X, Y and Z in the diagram.

(J)
(J)

Ql

c:

:E

Ol

&i

Time

Two stars in a spectroscopic binary have a period of 1.5 years and a separation of 5 AU
(1 astronomical unit = 1.5 x 10 11 m). Calculate the combined mass of the star system in
kilograms.

Back in 1912 Henrietta Leavitt, an


American astronomer measured the
period of Cepheid variable stars in the
Small Magellanic Cloud. Her results
when plotted gave a graph similar to
that in the diagram.
What is a Cepheid variable?
Given that 8-Cephei has a period of
-5.4 days and an average absolute
magnitude of -3.5, determine the
distance to the Small Magellanic
Cloud. Explain your reasoning.

12
Ql

:ac 14
Ol

<1J

E 16
C
~

<1J

8: 18

20
-0.5

0.5

1.0

1.5

log P

P is period in days

Period-luminosity curve

By examining star clusters astronomers can determine the _____ of stars.


Clusters can be either _____ or _ _ _ __
_____ clusters are young clusters containing stars with relatively high percentages
of metals.
_____ clusters are old clusters. They contain evolved stars like _____ giants
and white _ _ _ __
A Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is a plot of absolute magnitude or _ _ _ _ on the
vertical axis against temperature or
class or
index on the
horizontal axis. It can be used to examine the
of stars.
Compared to lower mass stars, larger mass stars:
evolve slower
evolve faster
evolve at the same rate.
The birth of a star begins in a rarefied gas and dust cloud with a chance _ _ _ __
that causes gas to attract more particles. Heat is generated by the conversion of
_ _ _ _ potential energy. The
star first appears on the top right-hand
of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram but slowly works its way to the _ _ __
sequence. Where it joins this is determined by the star's
A main sequence star burns _____ to form
in its core in either the
__________ chain or the
cycle. The more massive the star, the
_____ it consumes its fuel.
A star of -1 solar mass evolves into a _ _ _ __ _ ____ when it comes to the
end of its hydrogen burning phase.
For a star of -1 solar mass, the next stage (after red-giant) in its life cycle is as a:
white dwarf
neutron star
black hole
For stars of -8 solar masses, elements up to

can be synthesised in the core.

Iron core collapse leads to a core with a diameter of -20 km to form a

star.

hole may result if the core mass exceeds -3 solar masses in which case the
A
contraction proceeds until the density becomes so high that even
cannot escape.
On a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, the lower the cut-off point the older/younger the
cluster. _ _ _ __
JaplO
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uo.qnau
UOJI
e
luel6 paJ Jalse:l- 'uoq.leJ 'UOlO.ld-uOlOJd
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Stars are born, mature and eventually die. By examining closely linked groups of stars
known as clusters, astronomers can determine the evolution of stars.
Clusters can be either open (galactic) or globular.

Open (galactic) dusters consist of loose irregular aggregations of stars. There are a
few hundred to a few thousand stars in each cluster. They are young clusters.
Globular dusters are tightly packed collections of hundreds of thousands or even
millions of stars. They are old clusters containing evolved stars such as white dwarfs
and red giants. Unlike open clusters, globular clusters contain little or no gas and dust
that are the precursors of new stars.
The evolution of stars can be tracked on a Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram. This
is a graph that plots two stellar properties on its axes. These properties include
luminosity (and absolute magnitude) versus temperature (and stellar class or colour
index).

-0.5

+ 0.5

+1

index)

-10~------~--------~I--------~I--~

Supergiants

Irregular

variabl~

-5
CD

.3

(f)

Giants

'0

.~
ro

1000

Main seq

2:1

100000
c
10000 :::J

(Jet)

100
10

.~

0(9

-6 +5

1
0.1

(/)

.0

<t:

0.01

+10
White dwarfs
I
I

+15

50000 25000 11000

0.001
I

7500

6000

5000

CD

:5
.9
CD

co

1:-

'iii
0

'E
:::J
--I

(Spectral class)

3500 (Temperature K)

Hertzsprung-Russell diagram

The way in which stars evolve is determined by their mass. The greater the mass, the
faster they evolve.
The birth of a star is literally clouded in mystery. Stars form from local condensations
of cold, extremely rarefied gases and dust globules called proto-galaxies. A chance
disturbance can cause gas to aggregate; this attracts even more gas. Conversion of
gravitational potential energy into heat raises the temperature of the gas cloud.

The temperature can rise sufficiently to cause the cloud to emit a faint red glow. The
protostar now appears on the H-R diagram in the top right-hand corner. Further
contraction results in high enough temperatures for nuclear fusion to commence. The
star eventually joins the main sequence - exactly where is determined by the mass.
A main sequence star is one in which hydrogen is 'burnt' to form helium in its core.
There are two possible reactions - the proton-proton chain (in cooler stars) and the
carbon cycle (in hotter stars). Stars spend the vast majority of their lifetime on the
main sequence. The more massive the star, however, the faster it consumes its supply
of hydrogen.
When a star of -1 solar mass reaches the end of its hydrogen burning phase it evolves
into a red giant. These are large diameter, very luminous stars with a relatively cool
surface emitting light in the red section of the visible spectrum.
For stars with mass -1 solar mass, helium burning is the last step in the nuclear reactions.
The star ejects up to one-fifth of the original mass as a planetary nebula. The remaining
mass collapses into a white dwarf. These are low mass, high-density very faint stars
with no nuclear reactions proceeding.
For stars of initial mass greater than 8 solar masses, nuclear fusion reactions continue
beyond helium burning. The helium core burns to form carbon and oxygen. These too
can fuse to form neon, magnesium, silicon and sulfur; the silicon and sulfur can unite
to form nickel and iron.
When the iron-core mass approaches 1.4 solar masses (the Chandrasekhar limit) the
iron core collapses to a diameter of -20 km and the star blows itself apart as a
supernova. It is during this time that elements above iron are synthesised.
The remaining core may form a neutron star of incredible density, or for stars whose
core exceeds 3 solar masses, the collapse continues, forming a black hole only a few
kilometres across. At these densities light itself cannot escape.
The H-R diagrams for open and globular clusters differ in their appearance. For a
globular cluster there is a definite 'turn off' point where the star leaves the main
sequence to become a red giant. These plots allow the age of a cluster to be deduced
- the lower the turn off point the older the cluster.

CHECKLIST - Can you:


1. Describe the evolution of stars from their birth to their death?
2. Distinguish between the types of nuclear reactions in main sequence and post main sequence stars?
3. Describe the synthesis of elements in stars?
4. Describe how the age of a cluster can be determined from its Hertzsprung-Russell diagram?
5. Explain the meaning of planetary nebulae, supernovae, white dwarfs, neutron stars/pulsars and black
holes in relation to stellar evolution?

The diagram is a representation of a


Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for an
open cluster.
What is an 'open cluster'?
What nuclear processes are going on
in the region marked Y?
Clearly describe three characteristics
of the types of stellar objects found
in region X.

Temperature (degrees K)

10000

30000

6000

3000

-10
-5

0
y

+5

The known elements are all made in stars


in the process of nucleosynthesis. Describe
how the elements up to and including iron
are made in stars and how the elements
beyond iron are created.

+10

+15
0

Clearly describe the evolution of a massive star (greater than 8 solar masses) from its
birth to its death.
The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for
a range of clusters is shown in the
diagram.
What is the significance of the
lines leaving the main line and
going diagonally up to the right?
Which cluster is the oldest?
Explain your answer.

I'
NGC
2~102

'8r 581
~

-6

.z

'c
Cl)

-4

E -2

co
5l

+2

-:>

--------------

\(

1l

'''',Que

ML 1

! / M n1
~

+4

r,

+6

r--

+8
0

+.4

f--

.----

[SUI

-,

"
- .4

'''-

"

:::l

r-t;m:i81

,~

Q)

+.8

B-V

----_.- ,_..__.-

"+1.2

+1.6

+2.0

In Rutherford's scattering experiment, alpha particles were fired at a sheet of gold


foil. These alpha particles:
all passed through with little or no deflection
were all deflected through large angles
mostly passed through with little deflection but some had large deflections.
The Rutherford model of the atom pictures the atom as comprising a dense positive
surrounded by orbiting
with most of the atom being
core or
_ _ _ _ space.
The Rutherford model was unable to explain what prevented the orbiting electrons
from falling into the
and producing a
spectrum as classical physics
predicted.
Line emission spectra:
are unique to each element
consist of dark lines on a continuous coloured background
both a and b.
The alpha line in the hydrogen spectrum is produced when an electron falls from n = 3
to n = 2. What is the wavelength of this line?
Planck hypothesised that energy is
that is, it comes in lumps or photons.
What is the energy of the photon emitted in 5 above?
Bohr postulated that:
electrons can exist in stationary states
photons are emitted when the atom absorbs energy and the electron moves to a
higher orbit
both a and b.
Bohr's postulates enabled him to explain the _ _ _ _ of atoms and the _ _ __
spectrum of hydrogen.
Bohr's model was unable to explain some aspects of spectra including the spectra of
larger atoms, the relative
of the spectral lines, the existence of _ _ __
spectral lines and the
effect.

'pasr).uenb

uewaaz 'aU!}JadAlj 'A:I.!SUalU!


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Aldwa 'SuoJpala 'snapnu )

r 6~-OL

x O'E

:S.U3MSUtf

In 1911 Geiger and Marsden conducted


what became known as the Rutherford
scattering experiment. Alpha particles
were fired at a sheet of thin gold foil.
Most of the alpha particles passed
through with only small deflections as
expected on the model of the atom
current at that time but about 1 in 8000
were deflected through angles greater
than 90 0

Gold
foil

Collimator

a - particles

~I

Rutherford's scattering experiment

As a result of the scattering experiment, the


Rutherford model of the atom was proposed
that pictured the atom with a dense positive
nucleus (accounting for the large deflection of
some particles) surrounded by electrons. Most of
the atom is empty space (accounting for the lack
of deflection of most particles).
The Rutherford model, however, left many
questions unanswered such as what is the nucleus
made of? what stops the electrons being attracted
into the positive nucleus giving rise to a continuous
spectrum and at the same time causing the atom to
collapse? how electrons are arranged around the
nucleus?
As far back as 1752 it had been shown that when
an element is excited ,it emits light of definite
wavelengths giving rise to a line emission
spectrum when viewed through a spectroscope
(see diagram), rather than a continuous spectrum
of colours as seen when light is passed through a
triangular prism. Different gases give rise to
different spectra - the spectrum is unique to the
element. Of particular interest was the line
emission spectrum of hydrogen.

The Rutherford model of the atom

E
c

<D
LD
<D

<D

co

..q-

Hydrogen emission spectrum

1885 Johann Balmer found an empirical formula which gave the wavelengths of the
emission lines for hydrogen. Written in its modern form Balmer's formula can be

written as

~ =R H (~-~)

where RH is the Rydberg constant (1.097 x 107 m- 1).

A,
2
n
Additional series were subsequently found which fitted the more general equation

1 (1 1)

A, =R H --2 - - 2
nf

where n f

= 1, 2,

3, 4, ... and nj

=n

+ 1, n f + 2, n f + 3, ... The line

ni

emission spectrum of hydrogen was central to the

Bohr's model.

In an attempt to explain the radiation curves of black bodies which could not be
explained by classical physics, Planck postulated that energy came in 'lumps' or quanta
given by E = hf. After successfully explaining black body radiation, the next triumph of
the quantum theory was in explaining atomic spectra.
In 1913, to account for discrepancies in the

Rutherford model of the atom and to explain


line emission spectra, Neils Bohr made a
number of postulates. He postulated that:
electrons could revolve in certain energy
states (levels) without radiating energy; when
an electron falls from a higher energy level to
a lower energy state it emits energy given
by the Planck relationship t:.E = hf (see
diagram); angular momentum (mvr) is
quantised and can only take values of nh
2rc

n = infinity
I

I
I

iI

,11

I~U

n=6
n=5
n=4
n=3
n=2

n=1
Energy levels of the hydrogen atom

Bohr was successful in explaining the stability


of atoms and the existence of line emission spectra by these postulates. Using them he
was able to derive the formula for the emission lines of hydrogen.
For all its successes Bohr's model was unable to explain a number of things including:
it was an ad hoc mixture of classical and quantum physics; it only worked for atoms
with one electron such as hydrogen; it could not explain the relative intensities of
the emission lines; it could not explain the presence of hyperfine spectral lines and
it could not explain the Zeeman effect - the splitting of spectral lines in a magnetic
field. A new model was required.

CHECKLIST - Can you:


1. Describe the Rutherford model of the atom?
2. Explain the significance of the hydrogen spectrum to Bohr's atomic model?
3. Discuss Planck's contribution to the Bohr model of the atom?
4. State Bohr's postulates and discuss how these led to a mathematical model of the spectral lines of
hydrogen?
. -=R - 2 - - 2
5. Use t h e equation
H
/L
nf
nj
6. Discuss the limitations of the Bohr model for hydrogen?

1 (1 1)

The diagram represents the apparatus used by Geiger and Marsden in the famous
Rutherford scattering experiment. Clearly describe the results of the experiment and
Rutherford's interpretation of these results.
Gold
foil

Collimator

ex - particles

~I

The violet line in the Balmer spectrum of hydrogen results from the transition of an
electron from the 6th energy level to the 2nd energy level.
What is the wavelength of the violet line?
What is the energy of the photon corresponding to this colour?

Bohr made a number of postulates about the structure of the atom. State TWO of
these postulates and clearly explain what characteristic they were attempting to explain.

Bohr's model was successful in explaining some observations of the spectra of hydrogen
but was unable to explain other spectral characteristics. State THREE phenomena that
it was unable to explain.

Light exhibits wave characteristics like _ _ _ _ and particle characteristics like the
_ _ _ _ effect. Light has a wave-particle _ _ __
In 1924 de Broglie postulated that matter exhibits this same _ _ __

What is the wavelength of an electron of mass 9.1 x 10-31 kg travelling at 2.0 x 106 m.s-1 ?
Davisson and Germer successfully demonstrated electron _ _ _ _ by bombarding
matter with electrons. This provided evidence for their
nature.
In 1928 G.P. Thomson obtained a diffraction pattern by:
passing electrons through thin metal foil
passing alpha particles through thin metal foil.
de Broglie's matter waves helped explain:
the line emission spectra of hydrogen
the stability of atoms.
Werner Heisenberg put forward the
mathematical model for
mechanics.

principle as well as introducing a

Pauli's exclusion principle helps explain:


the regularity in the periodic table
the line emission spectra of hydrogen.
Pauli predicted the existence of the:
neutron
neutrino
quark
nuclear fission.

x g'

q e wnluenb JAlU!elJ,DUn q e al\eM Juo!peJ:I-:J.!P w s-OL


Al!lenp ap!:j.Jed-al\eM Al!lenp J)!.Ipalao:j.OLjd J(UO!peJ:I-:J.!p) a)uaJa:J.JalU! :s.laMSUlf

Light exhibits both wave properties, for example interference and particle properties,
for example the photoelectric effect. Light is said to exhibit a wave-particle duality.
In 1924 the Frenchman Louis de Broglie postulated that all matter has this same
wave-particle duality. That is, matter exhibits some characteristics of particles such as
mass and momentum and some of properties of waves such as interference and
diffraction.
de Broglie's matter waves have a wavelength given by
A,

=~ =!!.- where h is Planck's constant, m is mass and v is velocity.

p mv
For electrons moving at -10 6 m.s- 1 this wavelength is _10- 15 m, comparable to interatomic spacing in crystals. This means it is possible to demonstrate the wave nature
of matter by observing wave phenomena such as
interference and diffraction.

Ii c=:J
I
Beam of I
!

In a series of experiments commencing in 1923 the


Americans Davisson and Germer successfully
demonstrated electron diffraction by
bombarding a metal crystal with electrons (see
diagram) - the electrons were exhibiting wave
characteristics.
In 1928 G.P. Thomson (whose father J.J. Thomson
had earlier proven the particle nature of electrons)
passed a beam of electrons through a thin metal
foil and obtained a diffraction pattern (see
diagram) similar to that obtained by passing light
through certain materials. This provided additional
evidence for the wave nature of electrons.
In his model of the atom, Bohr had been unable to
explain why electrons could revolve around the
nucleus without radiating continuous energy and
collapsing (his first postulate). He knew they did
because matter existed. Matter waves could explain
the stability
these electron stationary states.
If an integral number of electron waves fitted into
the circumference of the orbit as in the diagram, a

electronsj
'f!I

Detector

Nickel crystal

Electron diffraction

Electron diffraction pattern


from thin metal foil

stationary wave would be set up and no energy would be


lost. (This can be shown also to lead directly to Bohr's
third postulate but now there was a physical basis for it.
For example if the radius of the orbit is rand n is an
integer then nA= 21[r and since A =

~=~
p

mv

by combining

nh
nh
.
t hese equations we get - - =21[r =:> mvr = -

mv

21[

Three wavelengths

Werner Heisenberg made important contributions to


fit into the third
energy level
quantum theory, in particular his uncertainty principle.
Electron
stationary waves
This states that for an elementary particle like an electron,
the more precisely the position is determined, the less
precisely the momentum at that moment is known (and vice versa). This effectively
means that quantum mechanics is non-deterministic. (Classical physics said that if
you know the position and momentum of an object at some time, then it is possible to
predict its position and momentum any time later deterministic physics). Heisenberg
also introduced a mathematical model for quantum mechanics.
In 1924 Wolfgang Pauli put forward the exclusion principle. This says that no two
electrons can occupy the same quantum state of an atom. This principle explains the
regularity in the periodic table of elements.
Pauli also predicted the existence of the neutrino.
CHECKLIST - Can you:
1. Describe de Broglie's proposal of the wave-particle duality of matter?
2. Solve problems using JL =hlmv?
3. Describe how Davisson and Germer confirmed de Broglie's proposal?
4. Use de Broglie's hypothesis to explain the stability of electron orbits?
5. Describe the contributions of Heisenberg and Pauli to the development of the atomic theory?

In 1924 Louis de Broglie proposed the wave-particle duality of matter.


What is meant by wave-particle duality?
Upon what basis did de Broglie have to make this proposal?

A moving electron of mass 9.1 x 10-31 kg has an associated matter


wavelength of 8.0 x 10-10 m. What is the speed of the electron?

Davisson and Germer provided evidence for de Broglie's suggestion of


the wave nature of electrons. Describe the experiment and how it
gave this evidence.

Bohr was unable to explain the stability of electrons in their orbits around
the nucleus of an atom. Explain how de Broglie's hypothesis provided
an explanation.

A good microscope needs good


and good
power. The latter is
dependent on the wavelength. The shorter the wavelength, the better the _ _ __
power.
Electron microscopes use the _ _ _ _ nature of electrons. These electrons are
focussed by
lenses. Their
wavelength means they can distinguish
smaller objects.
Electron microscopes work like _ _ _ _ microscopes except they use _ _ __
waves and
lenses instead of glass lenses.
waves instead of
The two basic types are _____ electron microscopes and _____ electron
microscopes.
Electron microscopes can be used to view:
live specimens only
dead specimens only
either live or dead specimens.
A TEM is analogous to a _ _ _ _ light microscope.
In a TEM the electrons are transmitted through a thin specimen where they are absorbed
_ _ _ _ . The transmitted beam is focussed by a
lens and are detected
on a
screen or a
plate. They are able to create a _ _ __
dimensional image.
A SEM is analogous to a _____ light microscope.
SEMs work by having a beam of electrons focussed onto a spot on the specimen where
they emit
electrons which control another beam creating an image.
To work, SEMs need to be coated with a _____ . They can produce _ _ __
dimensional images.

aaJ4:). '(JopnpuQ) le:).aw


AJepuQ)as 6u!pal:J.aJ OM:). ')!4deJ6o:).04d 'J04ds04d
')!:).au6ew 'AI:).uaJaH!p UO!ss!wsueJ:). q 6u!uue)s 'UO!ss!wsueJ:). )!:).au6ew ':).46!1 '(Janew)
uOJpala ':).46!1 :).J04s ')!:).au6ew 'al\eM 6u!l\losaJ '6u!l\loSaJ 'uo!:).e)!:J.!u6ew :SJaMSUtf

With the unaided eye the smallest object we can focus on is -0.1 mm. A good optical
microscope can magnify this by -1500 times. Magnification alone is not enough,
we also need to distinguish between two close objects - that is to resolve them - and
this is dependent on the wavelength used. The smaller the wavelength the better the
resolution.
Electron microscopes utilise the wave nature of electrons to provide enormous
magnifications and improved resolution. A beam of high-speed electrons is produced
and magnetic lenses are used to focus the beam. Their high speed means that they
have a small wavelength and hence good resolving power (-1000 times better than
light microscopes).
Electron microscopes work in an analogous way to light microscopes except they
use electrons instead of light and magnetic lenses instead of glass.
Electron microscopes come in two basic forms - transmission electron microscopes
(TEM) and scanning electron microscopes (SEM).
Because air will deflect electrons, the interior of electron microscopes is a high vacuum.
This means that no live specimens can be observed.
A TEM is analogous to a transmission light microscope (except it uses electron
waves instead of light waves).
In a TEM, electrons are transmitted through a very thin specimen (less than 100 nm
thick) and the different materials in the specimen absorb the electrons differently.
The transmitted electrons are focussed by a magnetic lens and are detected by a
phosphor screen or a photographic plate. They produce two-dimensional images.
A SEM is analogous to a reflecting light microscope.
In a SEM an electron beam is directed onto a spot on the specimen and secondary
electrons are emitted. The secondary electrons control another beam inside a video
screen creating an image.
SEMs require that the sample be coated with metal (a conductor) prior to viewing.
They produce three-dimensional images.
CHECKLIST - Can you:
1. Explain the application of the wave nature of electrons in electron microscopes?
2. Describe the principle of operation of electron microscopes?
3. Explain the high resolving power of electron microscopes?

Briefly describe the principle of operation of a transmission


light microscope.

What are the advantages of an electron microscope over a light microscope?


Explain your answer.

When bombarding beryllium with alpha particles in 1930, the Germans Bothe and
Becker found:
gamma rays were emitted
an unknown penetrating radiation was emitted.
In 1932 James Chadwick applied the laws of conservation of
and _ _ __
to this radiation and proved it to be composed of particles with a mass similar to that
of a
and with
charge. These particles were _ _ __
What is the composition of the nucleus of the element 2~~U?
The spontaneous breakdown of an element into another element is called _ _ __
This can be natural or
. The conversion of one element into another is
called _ _ __
Complete the following nuclear equation 1jN + iHe

-7

;0 + 1H

To create new isotopes, Fermi and his co-workers bombarded elements with:
alpha particles
electrons
protons
neutrons
Fermi was first to notice the splitting of the nucleus. True or false? _ _ _ __
The creation of multiple neutrons in nuclear fission leads to the possibility of producing
a
reaction.
Pauli proposed the existence of the neutrino to explain:
a discrepancy between the mass-energy before and after alpha decay
a discrepancy between the mass-energy before and after beta decay
the mass defect.
Nucleons are held together with the short-range _____ force.
The mass of an atom is greater than the sum of the masses of its parts. True or false?
The stability of an atom is determined by its:
binding energy
An atom bomb is an example of an

Jeapnu
SUOJ:).nau

q
917~

U!eLp

aSle:J.

'suo:).oJd l6

O~l

binding energy per nucleon


chain reaction.

paIlOJ:).uo)un
q
aSle:J.
Uo!:).e:).nwsueJ:). '(pa)npu!) lep!:J.!:).Je '1\:).!I\!peo!peJ

SUOJ:).nau 'leJ:).nau 'uo:).oJd 'wn:).uawow '1\6Jaua

:SJaMSUV

In 1930, the Germans Bothe and Becker discovered that bombarding beryllium with
alpha particles produced a very penetrating type of radiation. At first it was thought
that this may be gamma radiation but subsequent investigation showed this to be
incorrect.
In 1932, the Englishman James Chadwick
suggested that this radiation might be the
neutral neutrons postulated previously by
?
Rutherford to explain certain properties of
the nucleus. Subsequently Chadwick
Detector
discovered the neutron by using the
Radioactive Beryllium
Paraffin
source in
block
apparatus shown in the diagram. The
lead block
radiation from the beryllium underwent
Neutron discovery
collisions with the proton-rich paraffin and
the protons were subsequently detected. By
application of the laws of conservation of
energy and momentum Chadwick was able to prove the existence of the neutron.
A nucleus consists of positive protons and neutral neutrons. The protons and neutrons

are collectively called nucleons. Elements are symbolised as X where A is the mass
number (the sum of the protons and neutrons) and Z is the atomic number (the
number of protons).

Radioactivity is the spontaneous breakdown of an element into a new element by


the emission of alpha and/or beta and/or gamma radiation. This can be natural or
artificial. Transmutation, the conversion of one element into another, occurs in natural
radioactivity and can also be induced. In alpha decay we have
and in beta decay we have
anti neutrino or

tX

---7 Z

tX

---7 Z

~ Y + Je +

tX

---7

~=iY + jHe

v where v is a particle called an

Y + +~e + v where v is a neutrino.

The first artificial transmutation was achieved by Rutherford in 1919 when he


bombarded nitrogen gas with alpha particles to produce oxygen according to the
equation 1jN + iHe -7 1~O + ~H
Between 1934 and 1938, the Italian Fermi and co-workers bombarded many of the
known elements with neutrons and created new isotopes, many of which were
radioactive. When bombarding uranium-238 Fermi believed they had created the first
transuranic element with atomic number 93.

The Germans Hahn and Strassman repeated Fermi's experiments and discovered
evidence ofthe presence ofthe element 1:iBa after bombarding uranium-235.ln 1939
the Austrians Meitner and Frisch stated that the neutron had split the uranium-235
nucleus into two halves - the process of nuclear fission. The reaction they investigated
was

235U
92

In ~ 141
56 Ba

92
36 Kr

+ 301n + energy

The presence of more than one neutron in the products of the fission reaction meant
that a chain reaction might be possible. Fermi was the first to demonstrate a nuclear
chain reaction from nuclear fission in 1942.
In 1930 Wolfgang Pauli proposed the existence of a particle with properties unlike
anything known at the time. It would have no electric charge, no mass, and no magnetic
properties and would have almost no interaction with matter. It would, however, have
energy, linear momentum and angular momentum. Fermi labelled it the neutrino'little neutral one' in his native Italian. When investigating beta decay, Pauli found
that when the masses before and after were measured, and the difference in mass
was converted to energy according to Einstein's E=mc2 , a discrepancy arose. On average
one-third of the energy that should be associated with the electron disappeared - and
nothing could be found to make up the deficit. Pauli suggested that the energy that
appeared to be 'lost' was carried away by the neutrino. Without Pauli's postulated
particle, the well-established laws of conservation of energy, mass and angular
momentum would have to be abandoned - an idea that did not sit well with Pauli.
Nucleons (protons and neutrons) are held together by the strong nuclear force. This
is an extremely strong. short-range force that acts equally between proton-proton,
proton-neutron and neutron-neutron.
It can be shown that the mass of the atom is less than the sum of the masses of its
components (protons, neutrons and electrons)! This difference is called the mass
defect.
Mass defect is converted into
binding energy according to
2
E = mc Th is is the energy
required to separate an atom into
its individual components. The
binding energy per nucleon
(BElA) is a measure of the stability
of a nucleus. The higher the BElA
the more stable the nucleus. A
graph of BElA is shown.

20

40 60

80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240


Mass number

Binding energy per nucleon versus mass number

Chain reactions can be


or uncontrolled depending on how many neutrons
are available for the next fission (see diagram). An atom bomb is an uncontrolled
reaction; a nuclear reactor is controlled.

=====~n

----iI>n

o =====fn
o

=====fn

Controlled nuclear reaction

Uncontrolled nuclear reaction

Uranium atom

fission products

n neutron

Nuclear fission reactions

CHECKLIST - Can you:


1. Describe Chadwick's discovery of the neutron using conservation laws?
2. Define transmutation and explain how it occurs in natural radioactivity?
3. Describe Fermi's observation of a nuclear chain reaction?
4. Discuss Pauli's experimental evidence that led to the prediction of the existence of the neutrino?
5. Compare the gravitational and electrostatic forces in the nucleus and explain the need for the strong
nuclear force?
6. Define mass defect and binding energy and calculate their values in nuclear reactions?
7. Compare a controlled nuclear fission reaction with an uncontrolled reaction?

The diagram is a representation of Chadwicks' experiment that led to the discovery of


the neutron. Clearly explain the significance of the paraffin block and how Chadwick
proved the existence of the neutron.

?
Radioactive Beryllium
source in
lead block

Paraffin
block

Between 1934 and 1938 Enrico Fermi and his co-workers bombarded many of the
elements with neutrons.
What was formed as a result of this bombardment?
Complete the following equations for one of the reactions that Fermi

.investigate
.
d 29CU
65
1
+ on

?7C u t h en ?7C u

0
307 Zn + -1e

What type of decay does the resulting copper nucleus undergo?

In 1930 Pauli hypothesised the existence of the neutrino.


a State THREE properties of neutrinos.
b Explain why Pauli made this prediction.

Calculate the mass defect and binding energy for a nucleus of ljN given
the following rest masses
proton = 1.007276 u, neutron = 1.008665 u, nitrogen-7 = 14.00307 u.

Atomic bombs are examples of uncontrolled nuclear reactions; nuclear reactors are
controlled (we hope!). Distinguish between these two types.

Nuclear fission reactors release energy at a _____ rate. The heat is used to boil
water to produce
to turn turbines to drive
to produce electricity.
Thermal reactors are the most common type of reactor. True or false? _ _ _ __
In addition to a core of fuel, reactors have a _ _ _ __
and
shields.

_ ____ rods, coolant

Most reactors use _____ uranium where the proportion of U-_____ is


increased to improve the
of a fission occurring.
_____ slow down the neutrons to thermal energies. Examples include heavy water,
_____ and beryllium. The control rods control the
of the chain
reaction.
The coolant absorbs:
neutrons

heat

gamma rays.

Radioisotopes are _____ isotopes that find use in industry and medicine as
radioactive
used to follow particular chemical,
and physical
pathways.
In medicine they can be used in isotopic
and in radiotherapy (radiation
different isotopes and this can be detected with
therapy). Different organs
_____ cameras. For example, 1is used to detect thyroid problems.
_____ scattering is a useful technique to investigate the internal structure of
bulk matter. The
penetrate more easily than charged particles.
_____ activation analysis is a method used where stable elements are made
radioactive by bombarding with
and detecting the characteristic energies
of the em itted
rays.
The
Project was the name given to the development of the _ _ __
bomb in World War II.

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ewwe6 'SUOJ:j.nau 'uoJ:j.nau
SUOJ:j.nau 'UOJ:j.nau
LE L 'ewwe6 'qJosqe '6u!uue)s
le)!6oI0!q 'sJa)eJ:j.aA!peO!peJ q
a:j.eJ 'a:j.!4deJ6 'SJo:j.Rlapow (fi:j.!l!qeqoJd) a)ue4) 'S<::
'pa4)!Jua UO!:j.e!peJ 'IOJ:j.uO) 'Jo:j.eJapow anJ:j. slo:j.eJaua6 'wea:j.s 'paIlOJ:j.uO) :SJaMSUtf

Nuclear fission reactors (see diagram)


release energy at a controlled rate and
use the heat from the reactions to boil
water to make steam to drive turbines to
drive generators to produce electricity.
Reactors can be either thermal reactors
or fast reactors. In thermal reactors the
neutrons have energies comparable to
gas molecules at normal room
temperatures. Most reactors are of this
type. In fast reactors the neutrons have
higher energies.

Reactor core
with control rods

Coolant

Condenser
Pump

Heat exchanger

Nuclear power station

Thermal reactors have a core of fuel, moderator, control rods, coolant and

radiation shields.
Most therma I reactors use enriched uranium as the fuel where the proportion of
U-235 is increased to improve the probability of fission occurring. (U-235 is fissionable
with slow (thermal) neutrons more readily than U-238.) A critical mass is required
for fission to occur.

Moderators slow down neutrons to thermal energies which prove better at initiating
fission reactions. They include ordinary water, heavy water, graphite and beryllium;
materials that do not readily absorb neutrons. The control rods on the other hand
work by absorbing neutrons and in this manner control the speed of the reaction.
Materials used include cadmium and boron.
The coolant absorbs the heat from the reaction and is used to generate steam to
drive the turbines that drive the generators. Radiation shields protect the walls of
the reactor and the reactor personnel from exposure.

Radioisotopes (radioactive isotopes) find extensive uses in industry and medicine.


By attaching radioisotopes to various materials it is possible to trace their movement
and storage in chemical, biological or physical systems. Industrially these radioactive
tracers can be used to do a range of jobs from measuring wear in machinery to
controlling the thickness of metals or plastic during manufacture.
Medically the isotopes can be used in isotopic tracing/scanning and radiation
therapy. In isotopic tracing/scanning a patient is given a specific radioisotope. Different

organs take up this isotope in different amounts and this can be detected by gamma
cameras. For example, I-131 is used to detect abnormalities in the thyroid and
technetium-99m to detect abnormalities in the bone and lungs. These have short halflives. In radiotherapy radioisotopes like Co-60 are used in cancer treatment with the
emitted gamma rays being used to kill cancerous cells.
Neutron scattering is an effective way to probe inside bulk matter. Because it has no
charge, the neutron can penetrate more easily than charged particles and interact
with matter by being scattered - diffracted. Unlike X-rays that scatter well off high
atomic mass atoms with lots of electrons, neutrons scatter off low mass atoms including
hydrogen (proton) which makes them ideal in determining the structure of solids
containing hydrogen bonds which includes all organic and many inorganic molecules.
In neutron activation analysis (NAA) certain stable elements are made radioactive
by bombarding them with neutrons. These radioactive elements then decay and the
emitted particles have energies that allow them to be readily detected. For example,
stable sodium atoms can be activated by neutron capture: HNa + 6n ~ ~1Na + y.
The 24Na nucleus then decays to give sodium, y-rays, electrons and neutrinos. The
electrons have a characteristic spread of energies and the y-rays have specific energies.
Sodium can thus be detected by the presence of lines at these energies in the gamma
ray spectrum of the irradiated material. NAA is particularly useful in the analysis of
the rare earth elements, uranium, barium, thorium and hafnium.
The Manhattan Project was the code name for the development of the atomic bomb
during WWII. The discovery by German scientists of nuclear fission in 1938 prompted
a number of physicists including Einstein to encourage the American President Franklin
D. Roosevelt to push for the development of the atomic bomb before the Germans
could develop one. Led by Robert J. Oppenheimer the project - the costliest ever to
that time - successfully developed the U-235 bomb which was dropped on Hiroshima
and the Pu-239 bomb dropped on Nagasaki leading to the surrender of the Japanese.

CHECKLIST - Can you:


1. Describe the operation of a nuclear fission reactor?
2. Describe some applications of radioisotopes in industry and medicine?
3. Explain the advantages of neutron scattering to investigate the structure of matter?
4. Assess the significance of the Manhattan Project?

Nuclear fission reactors are used to produce heat from a controlled nuclear reaction.
Most reactors are thermal reactors that use enriched uranium as the fuel. They also
have a moderator and control rods as well as a coolant and radiation shields.
What is a thermal reactor?
What is enriched uranium and why is it used?
Describe the function of the moderator and control rods and
explain how they achieve their task.

Radioisotopes are extensively used in industry and in medical applications.


Explain what radioisotopes are?
Describe how these can be made artificially?
Describe one industrial and one medical use of radioisotopes.

Neutron scattering is an effective way of investigating the structure of bulk matter.


What property do neutrons have that enable them to penetrate matter
more easily than protons?
What advantage does neutron scattering have over X-ray diffraction for
investigating matter? Explain your answer.

The Manhattan Project was the code name for the World War II production of the
atomic bomb. Discuss the significance of its success and the consequences for society.

The stability of a nucleus is determined by the value of the _ _ _ __


per nucleon. To disrupt a stable nucleus physicists use particle _ _ _ __
Two examples of the devices mentioned in 1 above are: _____ and _ _ _ __
The
model of matter attempts to explain the interaction of subatomic
. It has two main components:
particles with the exception ofthose involving
the
theory and quantum _ _ _ __
This model divides matter into three families __________ and _ _ _ __
The three families can be further classified as _____ particles or force-_ _ _ __
particles.
Fundamental particles with charges that are fractions of the electronic charge are:
gluons
muons
quarks.
Hadrons are particles composed of two or more
combinations are called
and three

Protons and neutrons are examples of


_____ nuclear force.
Mesons are made from a quark and:
one other quark
two other quarks

. Two _ _ _ __
combinations are called

. These interact through the

an antiquark

Leptons are massive subatomic particles. True or false? _ _ _ __


Bosons are:
gauge particles

matter particles

a type of quark

High energy physics is strongly lined with _____ which seeks to explain the
structure and existence of the _ _ _ __
aSJaA!Un 'A6oloWSQ)
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) 6uOJlS 'SUOAJeq SUOAJeq ')penb 'suosaw ')j.Jenb 's)j.Jenb ) Jap.Je) '.Janew
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aSle:J.

The stability of a nucleus is determined by the value of the binding energy per
nucleon. The larger this value the more stable the nucleus. To investigate the nuclear
force and the nature of the fundamental particles, the nucleus needs to be disrupted.
To do this energy must be put into the nucleus. Physicists use particle accelerators to
probe inside atoms.
Particle accelerators include Van de Graaff generators, cyclotrons, betatrons,
synchrotrons and linear accelerators.
The standard model of matter is a
theory that attempts to describe all
interactions of subatomic particles
(excluding gravity). This model has two
components: the electroweak theory
which describes interactions through
the electromagnetic and weak nuclear
force; and quantum chromodynamics
which is the theory of the strong
nuclear force.
This model divides matter into three
families - quarks, leptons and

bosons.
These three families can be
further classified as matter
particles (quarks and leptons) or
force-carrier particles (bosons)
as in the diagram.

MATTER

Leptons
Gauge particles
e.g. photon, gluon

e.g. electron,
neutrino, muon

Hadrons
(composite particles
made up of quarks)

Baryons
(3 quark composite
e.g. proton, neutron)

Mesons
I (quark and antiquark
composite e.g. pion)

A classification scheme for matter

Quarks are fundamental particles with charges -ie and}e . There are six varieties
(flavours) of quarks grouped into three pairs: up/down, charm/strange or top/
bottom as in the table.

strange

Symbol
u
d
s

charm

muon-neutrino

vp

bottom

tau

top

tau-neutrino

V;

Quark (q)
up
down

lepton (I)

Symbol

electron

e-

electron-neutrino

V.

muon

If

Quarks do not exist in isolation but are always combined with other particles. Hadrons
are composite particles made of quarks. Hadrons are divided into baryons (three
quark combinations) and mesons (two quark combinations).
Baryons include protons and neutrons. Protons are made of two up quarks and one
down quark. Neutrons are made of one up and two down quarks. Baryons interact
through the strong nuclear force.
Mesons are combinations of a quark and an antiquark. Mesons are unstable and
decay in millionths of seconds.
leptons are particles with little or no mass. They do not experience the strong force.
Rather they interact through the weak force (and charged leptons also interact through
the electromagnetic force).
The four fundamental forces - gravity, electromagnetic, strong nuclear and weak
nuclear - are carried by force-carrier particles - bosons (also called gauge particles).
They are gravity by the graviton (this is still to be discovered), electromagnetic by the
photon, strong nuclear by the gluon (this keeps quarks together) and weak nuclear
by the weakon (weak boson).
Cosmology seeks to explain the universe's structure and existence; it requires quantum
mechanics to do this. During the first 10-35 seconds after the Big Bang, temperatures
were so high that three of the fundamental forces of nature (the strong nuclear, weak
nuclear and electromagnetic) were combined into one force. Study of high-energy
physics may lead physicists to an understanding of the moment of creation!

CHECKLIST - Can you:


1. Explain the need for particle accelerators?
2. Describe the main features of the standard model of matter?
3. Explain the link between cosmology and high-energy particle physics?

Particle accelerators are devices vital to the study of high-energy physics.


What are particle accelerators?
Clearly explain why they are required by physicists?

Briefly describe the standard model of matter.

High-energy particle physics and cosmology are closely related.


Explain why this is so.

The examination is divided into two sections, Section I and Section II.
SECTION I
Total marks 75
This section has two parts, Part A and Part B.
Part A
Total marks 15
All questions are compulsory. Each question is worth one mark.
Questions are mUltiple-choice. Select ONE letter from the alternatives A, B, Cor D.
Answer on the multiple choice answer sheet provided.
Allow approximately 30 minutes for this part.
Part B

Total marks 60
All questions are compulsory.
Questions have a range of marks. (The number of questions may vary each year but
will continue to be worth 60 marks.)
Questions are extended response. The mark value is indicated alongside each
question. There may be a number of parts to a question while others require a more
integrated answer.
Answer in the Part B answer book.
Allow approximately 1 hour 45 minutes for this section.
SECTION II
Total marks (25)
Attempt ONE question only.
The question is divided into parts with the mark value indicated alongside each part.
Answer in the writing book provided.
Allow approximately 45 minutes for this section.
The Physics Formulae Sheet and Physics Data Sheet provided with the HSC examination
have been reproduced on pages 150-151. The Periodic Table of Elements appears on the
inside front cover.

Total marks 15. Questions 1-15. All mUltiple choice.

Select the alternative A, B, Cor D that best answers the question.


The gravitational potential energy of a satellite in orbit above the Earth/s surface is:
negative because it has escaped from the Earth/s gravity
positive because it is above the Earth
negative because it is defined to be zero at infinity
positive because it is defined to be zero at infinity.
A plane flying horizontally with constant speed drops a food package to a group of
bush walkers isolated by floodwaters. The plane continues to fly horizontally after the
package is dropped. Relative to the plane and neglecting air resistance, the package
lands:
directly below the plane
directly below the point of release
in front of the plane
behind the plane.
Multistage rockets are used to place satellites in orbit because:
it is easier to manufacture rockets in separate stages
the reduction in mass as each stage is jettisoned increases the acceleration of the
rocket
the reduction in mass as each stage is jettisoned decreases the acceleration of the
rocket
the reduction in mass as each stage is jettisoned increases the thrust of the engines.
Communication with distant spacecraft is affected by:
the distance to the spacecraft
the Van Allen radiation belts
sunspot activity
all of the above.
The Michelson-Morley experiment attempted to:
measure the speed of light
measure the speed of the Earth through the ether
show that the speed of light is constant and is independent of the motion of the
source or the observer
disprove the existence of the ether.

Two parallel current-carrying wires are separated by a distance d and exert a force per
unit length of F newtons per metre. If the separation between the wires if reduced to
d/2, the force per unit length is now:
4F

2F
F/2
FI4

The south pole of a magnet is brought towards


a circular metal ring that hangs freely from a
vertical string as shown.
Looking towards the ring:
current is induced in a clockwise direction
and the ring is attracted to the magnet
current is induced in a clockwise direction
and the ring is repelled by the magnet
current is induced in an anticlockwise
direction and the ring is attracted to the
magnet
current is induced in a anticlockwise
direction and the ring is repelled by the
magnet.

Permanent magnet
being moved towards
the ring

Aluminium or
copper ring

In a step-down transformer:
the voltage in the secondary is less than the voltage in the primary
the voltage in the secondary is greater than the voltage in the primary
the power in the secondary is greater than the power in the primary
the current in the secondary is less than the current in the primary.
Electric power is transmitted at high voltages (as high as 500 kV) because:
it is easier to generate electricity at higher voltages than at lower voltages
the electricity gets to its destination faster at higher voltages
the higher voltages mean lower currents and so lower energy losses in the
transmission wires
higher voltages create smaller eddy currents in the transformer cores resulting in
lower energy losses.
The electric motor used in small appliances in the home is most likely to be:
a single phase AC induction motor
a three phase AC induction motor
a DC commutator motor
an AC synchronous motor.

This question refers to the diagram.


The apparatus shown is used to demonstrate that cathode
rays:
are electrons
carry energy and momentum
cause glass to emit X-rays
travel in straight lines.

Maltese pross

Electrodes

The threshold frequency for copper is 1.1 x 10 15 Hz. When ultraviolet light of frequency
3.2 x 10 15 Hz is shone on the same copper plate, the maximum kinetic energy of the
emitted electrons is:
1.39 x 10-18 J
7.26 X 10-19 J
2.11 X 10-18 J
zero, since no electrons would be emitted.
Doping of semiconductors with a group III element:
results in conduction by electrons only
results in conduction by holes only
causes the conductivity to increase
causes the conductivity to decrease.
Silicon rather than germanium is the preferred semiconductor in electronics because:
it is easier to make smaller devices with silicon than germanium
silicon is more abundant than germanium
germanium is harder and so it is more difficult to work with than silicon
germanium has a lower 'leakage current' than silicon.
The Maglev experimental train relies for its operation on:
the photoelectric effect
the Doppler effect
the Zeeman effect
the Meissner effect.

Total Marks 60. Questions 16-27.

Show all relevant working in questions involving calculations.


The following data may be required to answer some of the following questions.
Mass of Earth = 5.983 x 1024 kg
Radius of Earth = 6.38 x 103 km
G = 6.67 X 10-11 N.m2.kg-2
A fully equipped astronaut weighed 1200 N on Earth. What would an identical astronaut
weigh on Mars where the acceleration due to gravity is 3.8 m.s2?
It is a remarkable indication of scientific achievement every time a manned spacecraft
successfully blasts off into orbit. It is an even more remarkable feat to bring the
astronauts safely back to Earth. Clearly describe the major issues affecting a safe
re-entry of the spacecraft and what is done to ensure the success of the re-entry.

A stone is projected horizontally out to sea from the edge of a cliff 100 m high. Given
that the stone is thrown with an initial speed of 10m.s1 and neglecting air resistance
find:
the time the stone takes to hit the water.
the distance from the cliff base at which the stone hits the water.
International communications depend on the use of satellites placed in a geostationary
orbit. This orbit lies at a distance of 42,300 km from the centre of the Earth.
What is a geostationary orbit?
What orbital speed must the satellite have if it to remain in orbit?
Calculate the acceleration due to gravity at this distance from Earth?
A spaceship passes you at a speed of 0.95c.
To a member of the spaceship's crew, its length is 100 m.
What length would you determine it to be?
If you observed the spacecraft for one hour, how much
time would a crew member determine to have passed?
What are the implications for manned space flight from
your answer to part b above? Explain your reasoning.

A schematic diagram of a simple DC motor is shown.

Armature

Split ring
commutator

Carbon brush

Clearly explain how this simple motor works.


State TWO ways in which the motor could be improved.
A schematic diagram a simple AC generator is shown.
Field magnets

~'\

Carbon brushes
held in place by
springs

Clearly explain how this generator works.


Sketch the output voltage for this generator, clearly explaining
any characteristics.
How could this output be converted into DC output? Explain your answer.
Eddy currents find uses in induction cookers and eddy current braking.
What are eddy currents?
Describe how these currents are used in induction cookers
and in eddy current braking.

Transformers are used to boost the voltage generated from the power station from
11 000 V AC to as high as 500000 V AC for distribution to towns and cities.
Explain how a transformer works.
Transformers are found in many home appliances.
What function do they serve?
AC induction motors are widely used in the home.
Briefly describe how these motors operate.
State TWO reasons for the widespread use of these motors.
In 1897 J.J. Thomson used apparatus
similar to that in the diagram to
determine the charge to mass ratio
for cathode rays.
By suitably adjusting the strength of
the electric and magnetic fields,
Thomson was able to determine the
speed of the electrons that reached
the screen.
Explain how this was done?

Site of evacuation
Stream of

~F~=th~O~d;~;~=~ay~s,-~~~~~
I

:
Electron
gun

Collimator

+
Coil to produce
magnetic field

Fluorescent
screen

Given that the parallel plates were separated by 0.01 m and had a
voltage of 200 V across them and the magnetic field strength was
0.001 T determine the speed of the electrons.
What force acts on the electrons due to the magnetic field?
A schematic diagram of a cathode ray
tube (CRT) is shown.
What is the purpose of the
electron gun?
Name a scientific device that uses
CRTs.
In what fundamental way would
the CRT in a television differ from
the one in the diagram?

Accelerating

Filament

Grid
Electron
gun

Deflection
system

Fluorescent
screen

Solar cells are essential in providing electricity in satellites as well as in


remote areas. They depend on doped semiconductor material and the
photoelectric effect for their operation. Explain how solar cells work.
In 1915 Sir William Bragg and his son Lawrence were jointly awarded the
Nobel Prize for Physics.
What did they do to deserve this award?
Describe how they conducted their experiments and what they found.
The Dutch physicist Heike Onnes discovered the phenomenon of
superconductivity in 1911.
What is superconductivity?
Describe what happens to the resistance of a superconductor as the
temperature is lowered clearly noting any point of interest.
Describe one current or potential use of superconductivity.
What is preventing the greater use of superconductors?

Total marks 25. Attempt ONE question from Questions 31-33. Allow about 45 minutes
for this section.

Show all relevant working in questions involving calculations.


Question 31 - Medical Physics
Question 32 - Astrophysics
Question 33 - Quanta to Quarks

Ultrasound is a medical technique used for imaging organs in a patient.


State FOUR advantages in using ultrasound for imaging.
Explain why a coupling medium is placed between the ultrasound
transducer and the patient's skin during an ultrasound examination.
Doppler echocardiography is an important diagnostic procedure.
It relies for its operation on the Doppler effect.
What is the Doppler effect? Explain.
Explain how echocardiography works?
The acoustic impedance of fat and kidney are 1.38 x 106 kg.m- 2 .s-1
and 1.62 x 106 kg.m-2 .s-1 respectively.
What is meant by acoustic impedance?
What is the ratio of the reflected to incident intensity for a
fat/kidney interface?
What does this tell you about the ability of ultrasound to
distinguish between fat and kidney? Explain your answer.
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a non-invasive medical imaging
technique. It relies for its operation on electron-positron annihilation.
Explain the meaning of 'electron-positron annihilation'.
Clearly describe where the two components - electron and positron
- originate.
What is the advantage of PET over other types of scans?
Three commonly encountered medical conditions are bone fractures,
monitoring of foetal development and stroke. Describe an imaging
technique useful for each of these conditions, explaining clearly
why you have chosen that particular method.

Ground based astronomy has a number of serious disadvantages.


Describe ONE of these disadvantages and explain how astronomers
attempt to overcome the problem.
Astronomers are continually asking for funding for bigger and bigger
telescopes. What advantages do bigger telescopes have over their
smaller counterparts? Explain you answer.
The star Canopus has an apparent magnitude (m) of -0.9 and an
absolute magnitude (M) of -7.4. Why do these two magnitudes differ?
Explain your answer.
The spectra of stars can be used to classify them. Describe how such
a classification scheme works.
The distance to some stars can be determined by the method of
spectroscopic parallax. Explain how this is done.
The table below shows some stars and some of their characteristics.
Star

Absolute visual magnitude

Spectral class

0.00

-0.3

K2

+0.41

-5.6

M2

Hadar

+0.63

-5.2

B1

Sirius

-1.51

+1.4

A1

Vega

+0.04

+0.5

AO

Arcturus
Betelgeuse

Apparent visual magnitude

Use this table to answer the following questions.


Which star is the hottest? Justify your answer.
What is the colour of Arcturus? Explain your answer.
Which star is the faintest when viewed from Earth?
Justify your answer.
How far away is Hadar?
Sirius, the brightest star in the sky, is an example of an astrometric binary.
What is an astrometric binary?
State the names of ONE other type of binary star systems and
explain how it is recognised.
A teacher was overheard to say that 'the evolution of a star depends
on its mass'. Discuss this statement.

For simple gases such as hydrogen, the frequency of any spectral line is
simply the sum or difference of the frequencies of other spectral lines
of the same gas. Use Bohr's model to account for this observation.
A hydrogen atom is excited causing its electron to jump from the
ground state to the n = 3 state.
What is meant by the 'ground state'?
How much energy is required for this transition?
In 1924 Louis de Broglie made a postulate (proposal) that was to
revolutionise our understanding of matter.
What was de Broglie's postulate?
Describe an experiment that provided evidence for this proposal.
The German Werner Heisenberg and the Austrian Wolfgang Pauli
made significant contributions to our understanding of the atom.
Describe the contributions of each of these physicists.
Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) is a radioisotope widely used in medical
diagnosis. It has a half-life of 6 h.
What is a radioisotope?
What is the advantage of Tc-99m having a relatively
short half-life? Explain your answer.
The purpose of a fission reactor is to produce heat energy from
nuclear fission in a controlled manner. Important components
in such reactors include the fuel, the moderator, the control
rods and radiation shielding. Briefly describe the purpose
of each of these components.
The standard model of matter classifies matter as 'matter particles'
or 'force-carrier particles'. The 'matter particles' can be further
divided into two families.
What are these two families?
Give an example of a particle which belongs in each family
in i above.
Give an example of a 'force-carrier particle' and the interaction
that it mediates.

Gm
r2

b The acceleration due to gravity on a planet of mass m and radius r is given by: 9 = - . For alpha
GM
g=-2-'

for

beta

G(2M)
GM
g=--=2--,

r2

r2

for gamma

GM
GM
1 GM
g=--=-=--

(2r)2

4r2

4 r2

and for delta

G(2M) 2GM 1 GM
g=--=--=-(2r)2
4r2
2 r2
693.9 N The mass on Earth is found from m = W = 2000 = 204.1 kg. Since mass is constant then the weight
9
9.8
on Mercury is found from W = mg = 204.1 x 3.4 = 693.9 N
c To remove a mass from near the Earth would require work to be done on it (to overcome the
gravitational force of attraction between the two masses). That is, energy would need to be supplied.
Adding a positive energy to a negative energy allows the final energy to be zero. By definition, the
gravitational potential energy at infinity is zero.
The gravitational potential energy is given by Ep

= -G mME

where r is the distance between centres.

Su bSt 't
I Ut'mg we h ave Ep --

mME G- -

24

667 x 10- 11 x 1000x5.983x10 -- -597


. x 10 10 J
3
(6380 + 300) x 10

-.

There is a whole range of experiments that could be done to determine g. Whichever method you used,
your answer should include the following points:
the actual equipment you used, for example pendulum, falling mass, data logger ...
how you conducted the experiment including taking multiple readings where appropriate
the analysis of the data to determine a value for g, for example, if you used a pendulum you would
have solved the equation T = 27r{g where Tis the period ofthe motion, I is the length of the pendulum
and 9 is the acceleration due to gravity
the potential sources of error.

As suggested in the hint, these problems are best solved by splitting them up into their two component
motions - horizontally with constant velocity and vertically with constant acceleration.
For the vertical motion we have:

uy

= 500 cos 30 = 433 m.s-\

Vy

= 0 (at maximum height) so

substituting into the equation for accelerated motion we have: v y =

2
UY

+ 2ag L3.Y

0= (500 cos 30)2 + 2( -9.8)L3.y


433 2
L3.y = - - = 9566.3 m
19.6

Note that the acceleration due to gravity is negative. This is because it acts in the opposite direction to
the initial motion. The initial motion is generally considered to be the positive direction.
.
. f oun df rom:
T h e time
to reac h t h'IS h'
elg htiS

Vy

= U y + agt => t = Vy-U y = 0-500cos30 = 44.2 s


ag

-9.8

The distance travelled horizontally is found from the horizontal component of the motion which is
constant velocity. The time of flight is twice the time to reach the maximum height so:
ill< =U x t = 500 sin 30 x88.4 = 22100 m
The escape velocity is the minimum velocity required for an object to leave the gravitational pull of a
planet (or moon).
Escape velocity depends on the universal gravitational constant (G) and the mass and the radius of the
planet (or moon). (The actual relationship is ve = )2GME but is not required by the syllabus.)

RE

Asthe hint suggested, this problem is solved by substituting the data into the equation for Kepler's law:

r:

= GM2
4n

)3 (6 67x10-4nx7 1x1023 x(1.09x10 2)3 =2.43x107m


Rearrangingtofindrweget:r= ( 4n2XT2 = '
1

GM

11

'

The rocket is propelled by the emission of gases formed from the combustion of the fuel and oxygen. The
engines produce a reasonably constant thrust and consequently the rocket accelerates in accordance with
Newton's second law, F = mao The combined mass of the rocket and fuel decreases as the fuel is burned
and the gases are ejected. Since the acceleration of the rocket is inversely proportional to the mass (a = Flm),
the acceleration increases. Jettisoning of various stages in a multistage rocket also leads to increased
acceleration.
Roller coaster rides are subject to g-forces like those experienced by astronauts when they travel through
vertical loops. Consider a rider at the bottom of a loop (that we will consider to be the arc of a circle).
Because he travels in a circle, he requires a centripetal force. This is supplied by the force of the seat
2

= mv

=> N

= W + mv

. The g-force is given by the ratio NIW. Depending on the speed v and the

radius R it is possible for the g-forces to be similar to those felt by astronauts.

Extended space travel is not currently feasible due to the relatively slow speeds of rockets attainable by
present technology. It would take several years to travel to even our nearest planetary neighbours. This
would require significant amounts of food, water and oxygen. The large payloads would require larger
rockets for launch with associated costs. Weightlessness has associated health implications as evidenced
by the condition of astronauts and cosmonauts when they return to Earth after extended stays on the
orbiting space stations. In addition the psychological problems inherent in extended isolation from other
people and family have to be considered.
The maximum speed in the universe is the speed of light. Although fast (3 x 108 m.s-1) it still takes time for
the signals to travel to and from Mars. The time to travel to Mars is given by:
t

8x10 10

3 X 108

=- =

= 267 s = 4 min 27 s

The Van Allen radiation belts are two belts of energetic charged particles surrounding the Earth. They
trap charged particles emitted from the Sun.
Intense solar activity can disrupt the belts and radiation emitted by the charges (synchrotron radiation)
can disrupt the communications between Earth and orbiting satellites.
The solar wind is associated with sunspot activity. When sunspot activity is highest, the charged particles in
the solar wind increase and this affects the Earth's magnetic field which in turn affects radio communication.

Consider the diagram opposite representing the apparatus


used by Michelson and Morley. The half-silvered mirror splits
the light into two coherent beams - one beam travels across
the ether and the other beam travels with and against the
ether. The times to do this can be shown to be different and
when the beams are recombined an interference pattern
forms. By rotating the whole apparatus through 90 the beams
can be interchanged and so a change in the interference
pattern should occur. No change was observed. This meant
that the motion of the Earth through the ether could not be
detected.
Consider the diagram of an 'Einstein light clock'. Assume that
a pulse of light travels from the bottom mirror and is reflected
by the top mirror and travels back to the first mirror. Let this
be one unit of time (say a 'tick'). Relative to an observer
travelling with the clock, the light beam moves straight up
and down. Relative to an observer who sees the light clock
moving past them, the light follows a zigzag path. This path
is longer than the straight up and down path. Since both
agree on the speed of light being constant, then the stationary
observer must conclude that the time in the moving train is
going slower since time = distance/speed.

Half-silvered
mirror

Elherwind

Michelson-Morley experiment

so by substituting the

relevant data we get: t

2.2

~1- (0.99ge i

= 49.2 J.1s

Einstein 'light clock'

e2

To accelerate a mass requires that we provide it with energy. But according to special relativity, energy
and mass are related by E = me2 The increasing energy leads to an increase in mass. According to Newton,
as mass increases the acceleration decreases. The faster the mass is moving, the less will be the acceleration
until the point is reached when the mass effectively becomes infinite and so no acceleration is possible.
Thus the speed of e cannot be reached.
According to special relativity, time in a moving frame of reference (for example a rocket ship) goes
slower than time in a stationary frame relative to an observer in the stationary frame. To an observer in
the moving frame (the rocket ship), time goes 'normally'. For example, if one year passes in the rocket ship
relative to a crewmember in the ship, more time will pass for an observer on Earth (2.3 years at 0.ge). If the

rocket returns to Earth it will return to the Earth's future. It is unlikely that this will occur because
governments would be unwilling to spend enormous sums of money on something they would not live to
see. Also astronauts would be unlikely to travel knowing their friends and relations would be dead on
their return.

a Application of the right hand palm rule has the palm pointing up the page. (The particle will actually
follow the arc of a circle when it is in the field.)
d

The force per unit length between two parallel current-carrying conductors is given by:

~ =k
I

1,12 . If
d

one of the currents is tripled and the separation is doubled, the new force F' is given by:

F =k 1,312 xl="i xk 1,12 xl="i F


2d
2
d
2
a Application of the right hand palm rule for current flowing from A to B shows that the side AB
experiences a downwards force.
Torque is a maximum when the plane of the coil is parallel the plane of the magnetic field.
Maximum torque is given by: r=nB1A =1500xO.8xO.1x5x10-2 x3x10-2 =0.18N.m
Note that the area of the coil is simply the length x breadth (as it is a rectangular shape) and the
lengths have to be converted to metres.
When the coil is set at 45 to the field, the torque is given by:
r =nB1A cosS = 1500 xO.8 xO.1 x5 x 10-2 x3 x10-2 cos 45 = 1.8 x10-' N.m xcos 45 =0.127 N.m
As seen in the diagram, the moving coil meter consists of a current-carrying coil of wirf,! in a radial magnetic
field. The coil thus experiences a torque causing it to turn. A fine wire spring gets 'wound up' until it stops
the coil rotating - the bigger the current the more the coil twists and the further the pointer moves. The
radial field ensures that the torque is always constant (the plane of the coil is always parallel to the plane
of the field) allowing a linear scale for the meter.

For a current to be induced, there must be relative motion between the magnet and the coil. This means
that either the coil be moved and the magnet held stationary, or the magnet moved into a stationary coil
(or both can be moved). The induced current can be increased by ill moving the magnet (or coil) faster,
b using a stronger magnet, or c using a coil with more turns.
Lenz's law says that the direction of the induced emf is such that the current it induces sets up a
magnetic field in a direction to oppose the cause of the emf.
If the direction of the induced emf aided the generation of the emf we could produce an infinite
amount of energy from a finite amount of work. This would violate the law of conservation of energy
which basically states that energy can be transformed from one form into another but cannot be
created or destroyed.
Electric motors have an armature (a coil) and a magnetic field. As the armature rotates there is a change
of magnetic flux through it and so an emf is induced in the coil- it acts like a generator. The direction of
this back emf opposes the supply emf. The faster the armature spins, the greater the induced emf. At start
up, the back emf is small and so the current through the armature can be large enough to cause it to burn
out. By placing a starting resistance in series with the motor, the current can be kept within safe limits. As
the motor speeds up and the back emf increases, the starting resistance can be removed.

In part b the disk stops because eddy currents are induced in the disk since there is a change of flux
through the disk as it rotates. The direction of these eddy currents is such as to oppose the cause (Lenz's
law). By placing slits in the disk as in part c, the eddy currents are reduced in size and so there is less
opposition - the disk spins longer.

The split-ring commutator changes the direction of the current each half-cycle.

Time

Time
Commutator
reverses current

AC output

One complete
turn

DC output

As the disk is rotated, there is changing magnetic flux through the disk and so an emf is induced. Because
there is a complete circuit, current will flow. As long as the disk is rotated, current will be induced. You
could consider the disk to be made of a large number of straight conductors like the spokes of a wheel.
The movement ofthese 'spokes' between the poles of the magnet results in an emfbeing induced between
its ends.
There is a whole range of points that might be stated here. They could include the following:
Social implications
increased working hours (no longer determined by the hours of daylight)
movement of population to the cities from the country
easier communication
the coming of the information age
increased leisure time with time saving devices
more 'entertainment' (radio, movies, TV, DVD, CD ... )
Environmental issues include:
global warming because of combustion of fossil fuels pumping carbon dioxide into the atmosphere
acid rain
drowning of vast tracts of land for hydroelectric power stations
alleged increases in cancer for people living near high voltage power lines.

A step-up transformer steps up voltage but steps-down current (power is constant).


A transformer is used to transfer electrical energy between circuits and for changing the voltage (and
current).
Changing voltages applied to the primary circuit set up changing magnetic flux in the soft iron core
(the core concentrates the flux). By mutual induction, this changing flux induces a changing emf in the

secondary coil. By varying the number of coils in the primary and secondary, the voltage (and current)
can be changed.
The transformer equation is: V p
Vs
V
s

=~ x V =
np

=:!..e... =lL. Hence rearranging to find the secondary voltage we have:


ns

Ip

250 x 240 = 60 V
1000

Eddy currents are induced in bulk conducting material placed in changing magnetic flux. In a transformer,
these eddy currents would lead to heat being generated in the core, representing a waste of energy. This
is minimised by laminating the core, that is, making the core out of individual sheets of metal other than
one single piece.
Energy losses come about as a result of eddy current generation in the transformer core (see 3 above) and
heat generated in the power lines. The latter can be minimised by keeping the current as low as possible.
This means transmitting the energy at very high voltages (-500 kV). High voltage means low current in a
transformer.

The stator has the changing magnetic field produced in it - this induces current in the rotor.

d
Single-phase AC induction motors are widely used because they are simple in design, highly efficient (for
example they don't require a commutator or brushes - these parts tend to wear out) and they are relatively
cheap.
AC induction motors work on the principle that a rotating magnetic field in the stator will induce current
in the rotor which sets up a second magnetic field. The two fields interact and the rotating field 'drags'
the rotor around.

In this tube there are coloured streamers flowing between the anode and cathode and glows surround
the anode and cathode.
In this low pressure tube, no glow is visible in the gas in the tube but the glass at the end of the tube,
opposite the cathode, has a green glow.
Tube 1 (the Maltese cross) indicates that cathode rays travel from the cathode in straight lines as
shown by the formation of the shadow of the cross on the end of the glass discharge tube.
Tube 2 (the 'paddle wheel') indicates that the cathode rays carry energy and momentum as shown by
the movement of the wheel away from the cathode when it is turned on. The fact that something is
hitting the paddle wheel is also indicated by the glow on the tips.
The role of the Thomson experiment was to determine the nature of cathode rays. Thomson believed
them to be particles and reasoned that it should be possible to determine the ratio of their charge to
mass.
The uniform electric field (E) between the two parallel plates would produce a force (F) on the rays
given by F = qE

=q V

where q is the charge, Vis the voltage between the parallel plates and d is their

separation. The magnetic field would exert a force on the rays that would cause them to move in the

=>!L = v . By arranging the fields in such a way that the electric


R
m
BR
and magnetic forces were made equal, the rays would pass through the tube with no deflection, that
arc of a circle that is: qvB

is q =qvB

=> v =

~.
B

mv

All quantities could be determined and so the charge to mass ratio could be

calculated.
Lightning rods work by effectively discharging the highly charged cloud above the rod. Clouds tend to be
negative at their base and this induces a positive charge on the ground and buildings under the cloud.
Corona discharge, the flow of charge from a sharp point, lessens the charge able to build up on the
building, so preventing a possible sudden discharge in the form of lightning.
In a photocopier, a thin 'corona' wire sprays charge onto an aluminium drum coated with the metal
selenium. Selenium conducts electricity better in light than in the dark - it is photoconductive. An image
is projected onto the charged selenium surface. Where light hits the charge leaks away; and where no
light hits the charge remains. This creates a latent image. Positively charged toner is then attracted to the
negative charges on the drum's surface, forming a positive image. This is then transferred to a sheet of
paper and heat rollers fuse the toner to the paper.

Hertz was investigating the generation and properties of electromagnetic waves (previously
hypothesised by Maxwell).
Hertz's apparatus consisted of a high voltage induction coil and a detecting loop of metal. Sparks from
the induction coil produced sparks in the gap in the detector. By shining ultraviolet light onto the gap,
Hertz was able to demonstrate that the gap could be made wider and a spark would still jump across
the gap. Without the UV light, the spark could not be produced if the gap was made too big.
Electromagnetic waves are generated whenever charges are made to undergo accelerations. By connecting
an AC supply to an aerial- essentially a conductor - electrons could be made to oscillate up and down the
aerial. This would create a changing electric field, which would induce a changing magnetic field, which
would induce a changing electric field ... A self-propagating electromagnetic wave would be the result.
Blackbody radiation curves could not be explained by the physics of Maxwell and Newton - the
so-called classical physics. A whole new theory was needed. This was the quantum theory of Planck.
This is the critical (or threshold or cut-off) frequency, that is, the minimum frequency that would cause
electrons to be emitted from the metal.
Because 1.6 x 10 14 Hz is above the critical frequency, electrons would be emitted from the surface of
metal x.

When two or more atoms come close to each other interactions between the two or more nuclei and
the electrons lead to a split in the energy levels. With billions of atoms this leads to a continuum of
energy levels - an energy band.
No forbidden energy gap in metals means that the valency band and conduction band overlap. This
leads to large numbers of charge carriers being available for conduction, accounting for the high
electrical conductivity of metals.
Germanium was originally the semiconductor of choice because it could be purified more easily than silicon.
Purity is important in semiconductors. The discovery of how to purify silicon more easily, along with its wider
abundance and lower leakage current, means that silicon is the preferred semiconductor today.

Doping occurs when a Group III or Group V atom is substituted for a Group IV atom in silicon or
germanium.
When a Group III atom is substituted for a Group IV atom there is one less electron present than there
was previously. This missing electron is equivalent to a positive charge or 'hole'.
Thermionic devices are electronic devices that use thermionic emission to produce electrons. This is
where materials are heated to literally 'boil' electrons off them. These electrons can then be used in
devices such as diodes, triodes and pentodes.
Solid state devices are electronic devices that use doped semiconductors to manipulate charges (electrons
and holes).
Solid state devices have all but eliminated thermionic devices because they can be made smaller, are
less demanding on power, react faster and require no 'start-up' time.

Materials only become superconducting below a certain temperature. This transition temperature is
different for different materials.
a Freidrich and Knipping first demonstrated the regular arrangement of atoms in crystals using X-ray
diffraction. The father and son team of W. and L. Bragg did extensive work on crystals using X-ray diffraction.
d The so-called high temperature superconductors still require temperatures of -134 K. These are very
difficult to produce, especially on a large scale.
MRI requires intense magnetic fields. These are best produced by using electromagnets, consisting of
superconducting coils in which large currents can flow with little resistance and so little energy loss.

The BCS theory of superconductivity states that as an electron moves through a crystal lattice it causes the
lattice to become distorted. This distortion leads to an increased positive charge density which causes a
second electron to be attracted to the first electron forming a 'Cooper pair'. This pair of electrons can pass
unimpeded through the lattice so there is no resistance.

A piezoelectric crystal is one that will vibrate when connected to a high frequency AC supply. Conversely
if the crystal is made to vibrate it will produce an alternating potential between its two faces.
A high frequency AC supply is connected between the two faces of the crystal and this causes the
crystal to vibrate at the same frequency. This sets up longitudinal waves in the air - ultrasound.
The frequencies used are a compromise between the ability to 'see' small objects - this requires small
wavelengths (high frequencies) and the absorption and scattering of the ultrasound by the tissues (which
is also increased for high frequencies).
The acoustic impedance of a medium is a measure of how easy it is for sound to be transmitted through
the medium.
Z =pv

=>p=~= 1.61x106
v

=1025.5kg.m-3

1570

The greater the difference in acoustic impedance between two materials means that more energy is
reflected at the interface and little energy is transmitted. Transmitted energy is critical in forming the
echoes from various interfaces to allow a scan to be produced. The large difference between air and
muscle results in almost all the ultrasound being reflected from the interface and so no image can form.

.L
/0

[z -zt
2

[Z2+Z1t

[(1.70

1.38)X10

[(1.70+1.38)X10 6

t.
t

This means that 1.08% is reflected and the rest is transmitted.

X-rays are high frequency electromagnetic waves.


X-rays are produced when high-speed electrons are rapidly decelerated by allowing a beam of electrons
to hit a target (such as tungsten).
Hard X-rays have higher frequencies and penetrate matter further than soft X-rays.
Radiographs like that shown in the question are formed by allowing X-rays to pass through the area of
the patient to be investigated and allowing the transmitted X-rays to fall on a photographic plate. The
different absorption of the X-rays by different tissues means that various shadows are formed on the
plate. This is a negative image - where most of the X-rays are absorbed, the plate is clearest, where least
is absorbed the shadows are darkest.
A CT or CAT scan is an acronym for a computerised (axial) tomography scan. This non-invasive technique
uses X-rays and computers to produce an image of internal organs.
The patient is placed on a table that can slide into a circular scanning machine or gantry. X-rays are
fired radially through the patient from different angles. Detectors on the opposite side to where the
X-ray is fired measure the degree of absorption of the X-rays. This information is relayed to computers
that generate an image of a 'slice' of the patient. By moving the patient along the axis of the gantry,
a three-dimensional image of an organ can be formed.
Whereas a simple radiograph has 32 shades of grey to form shadows, a CT scan can have 256 shades
allowing for greater discrimination between different tissues.
When light travels from a less dense medium into a more dense medium an angle is reached (critical
angle) beyond which the light is totally internally reflected. This means no light can leave the less
dense material. Optical fibres consist of extremely thin glass fibres in a sheath of a more dense material.
The light can be bounced along the tube even when the fibre is bent.
In a coherent bundle, each fibre is kept in the same relative position at both ends of the bundle. This
ensures that an image can be transmitted without distortion. In an incoherent bundle, the fibres are
arranged randomly. They can transmit light to illuminate the tissue/structure that is to be viewed. The
coherent bundle transmits the image back to the doctor.

iHe, 239~Pa, 239~Pa, 2~iu, 2~iu, 2~~Th


Co-60 would be the least useful because it has a long half-life. This means that it would continue to
bombard the patient with radiation for many years increasing the likelihood of causing cancers by
destroying/modifying cells in the patient.
A positron is a positive electron: +~e
Positrons come from radioactive atoms attached to various biological chemicals - radiopharmaceuticals
- that are given to the patient.
The patient is first given a positron emitting radiopharmaceutical such as FDG (like glucose) by
intravenous injection (or by inhalation for some radiopharmaceuticals). The patient is then placed on
a table that is placed in the circular PET scanner. Positrons emitted by the radiopharmaceutical interact
with electrons from the patient's organ being investigated and pair annihilation occurs. The two gamma

rays produced travel in opposite directions with the same energy and are detected by a ring of crystal
detectors. Computers determine the location where the gamma rays were produced and also their
intensity. Further computer analysis enables a 'slice' of the organ to be displayed on a video monitor.
By taking a number of adjacent slices, a three-dimensional image can be produced.
PET has the advantage that it shows the functioning of an organ as well as its structure. For example,
the functioning of the brain can be seen by the uptake of FDG (a radiopharmaceutical chemically
identical to glucose).
The cyclotron is used to produce short half-life radioisotopes for use in medical imaging (and in
radiotherapy). The short half-lives mean that the radioisotopes need to get to their destination as soon as
possible before their radioactivity falls to levels too low to be of use. This requires the cyclotron and
hospital to be placed close together.

Spin is a fundamental property of elementary particles. It comes in multiples of 1/2 and can be positive
or negative. It is a measure of a charge's angular momentum.
Tissues contain lots of hydrogen nuclei (protons) and it is the magnetic moment of nuclei that is measured
in MRI. The fact that the magnetic moment of a proton is large makes it useful for scanning.
The patient is placed on a table that is moved into the centre a powerful circular magnet. The field of this
magnet is some 30,000 times more intense than the Earth's magnetic field. This causes the protons to
attempt to align in the intense field. The protons actually precess about the field. Pulses of radio-frequency
electromagnetic radiation are then directed at the organ being investigated and if their frequency equals
the Larmor frequency, resonance occurs and energy is absorbed. The radio waves are then turned off and
the atoms relax and re-emit the radio-frequency energy. Special receiving coils detect this. By suitably
arranging the main field and three other weaker fields, it is possible to pin-point the location where the
RF energy is emitted. Since the strength and duration of the emitted signals is dependent on proton
density which is determined by the tissue type, an image of the tissues can be produced by computers.
This is the most sensitive scanning technique.
Although CT scans are better than normal radiographs for differentiating between different tissue types,
nevertheless MRI is better still. In addition, MRI effectively 'sees through' bone as if it is not there making
imaging of the brain and central nervous system easier.
MRI has the following advantages: no ionising radiation used, provides the clearest pictures, can be used
to image of whole range of tissues and organs, best for the brain and central nervous system, can show
function as well as structure (with functional MRI).

The two qualities affected by diameter are sensitivity and resolution. Sensitivity is a measure of the
light gathering power - the larger the area (which depends on the diameter) of the collecting dish the
more sensitive the telescope. Resolution is the ability to distinguish two very close objects. Again, the
larger the diameter (the area is not important) the better the resolution.
At such a high altitude the telescopes are above much of the Earth's atmosphere (and its pollution)
and so the problem of 'seeing' is reduced. This is the effect of variations in the refractive index of the
Earth's atmosphere that makes a spot of light 'wiggle about' causing the image to be unclear. It also
gets the telescope away from background light from cities.
The individual plates to the mirror allow for modifying the shape ofthe mirror to overcome imperfections
(active optics) and to allow the telescope to compensate for 'seeing' using the principle of adaptive
optics. In this, the light from a star is sampled and the amount of atmospheric distortion is measured.
Corrections can then be sent to the flexible mirror to compensate for this distortion.

An interferometer consists of at least two separate telescopes whose signals are made to interfere.
From the interference - either constructive or destructive - an image can be created.
The resolution of the telescope can be improved by this technique. The resolution is determined by the
diameter of the collecting dish (not the area). This can be increased by separating the two (or more)
telescopes. Their separation then becomes the effective diameter. For example, the two Kecktelescopes
are placed 85 m apart and act as one telescope with an 85 m diameter!
Your answer could include any two of the following:
Adaptive optics (see 1c above)
Thin mirrors - glass only -1 mm thick is attached to a honeycomb composite backing structure. This
decreases the weight and construction cost of the mirror compared to older mirrors.
Replica mirrors - by using an existing mirror as a template it is possible to make a mirror with the
correct shape without having to regrind it thus saving money. A graphite reinforced composite material
is applied to the mirror and after curing a thin reflecting surface is added.
Active optics - similar to adaptive optics but used to compensate for imperfections in the shape of the
mirror, allowing it to be made larger (with improved sensitivity and resolution).
Liquid mirrors- rotating liquid mercury forms a parabolic mirror as it rotates. Capable of high performance.

Parallax is the apparent change in position of an object against a background when viewed from
different positions.
A star's position against the background stars can be viewed from different positions in the Earth's
orbit around the Sun. The angle subtended at the star from the two extreme points is twice the parallax.
A right angle triangle is obtained of which we know one side (the radius of the Earth's orbit) and one
angle. This allows us to determine the distance to the star.
The longer the baseline, the larger the parallax. Too small a parallax angle and it cannot be accurately
measured. The baseline is limited by the diameter of the Earth's orbit around the Sun.

Distance and parallax are related by: d = -. Substituting we have: d = -

= - 1 = 5 parsecs.
0.2

By getting above the atmosphere, Hipparcos was able to eliminate problems associated with distortions
due to the changing refractive index of the atmosphere - the problem of 'seeing'.
Hipparcos discovered that galaxies were actually further away than originally believed.
Because the age of the universe is related to the expansion of the universe, the more accurate
measurements enabled a more accurate determination of the age. It was calculated to be -12 billion
years old.

A spectrum is the range of wavelengths (frequencies) of electromagnetic radiation coming from a


source such as a star.
Emission and absorption.
Any three of: temperature, structure, chemical composition, rotational velocity, luminosity, density ...
An absorption spectrum.
As a continuous spectrum passes through a cooler gas, some of the frequencies correspond to the
energy required to excite an electron in the gas to a higher energy state. This effectively removes that
wavelength (colour) from the spectrum so we end up with a series of dark lines on a continuous
background of colours (if it is in the visible portion of the spectrum).
The absorption lines are identical to the emission lines of various elements. By comparing the dark

lines with known emission lines it is possible to infer the presence of particular elements in the outer
layers of the star's 'atmosphere'. The width of the lines allows us to infer the density and the fact that
an absorption spectrum exists at all tells us about the structure of the star with a core surrounded by a
cooler outer layer.
Hadar is the hottest star as it is a B1 star. The hottest stars are 0 followed by B then A ...
Betelgeuse is probably red in colour as it is a cool star as indicated by its spectral class as an M star.
The Stefan-Boltzmann law states that the energy emitted by a hot body per unit area per unit time is
proportional to the fourth power of the temperature that is E = aT

4 .

If a star is considered as a sphere of

radius R, the luminosity is given by L = 4nR 2aT 4 . Luminosity and temperature can be determined from
the spectrum and so the radius can be calculated.

The apparent magnitude is the brightness of a star when viewed from Earth.
The moon appears brightest to us because it has the most negative magnitude. (The lower the number,
the brighter the object.)
I
I

Venus

= 2.5(m Sirius-m Venus) = 2.5(-1.4--4.4) = 2.5 3 . Venus is 15.625 times brighter than Sirius.

Sirius

Castor and Pollux are different distances from us which is why their apparent magnitudes are different
even though their absolute magnitudes are the same.
Spica has the greatest luminosity as it has the smallest absolute magnitude.

d
d
0.59
d
m-M=510g-; 1.59 1.00=510g- => --=Iog- => d =13.1parsecs
10
10
5
10
Betelgeuse. Positive colour indices correspond to red stars. The reddest star is Betelgeuse as it is an M2
star.
Spectroscopic parallax has nothing to do with parallax! From its spectral class and luminosity the position
of the star on a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram can be determined. From the diagram the absolute magnitude
can be estimated. This, along with the apparent magnitude that can be measured by photometry allows
the distance to be calculated.

a In a visual binary star both components are visible orbiting around their common centre of mass. In a
spectroscopic binary the two components cannot be resolved as individual stars by telescopes but their
presence is indicated by the Doppler shift of their spectral lines leading to a periodic doubling of the lines.
This is an eclipsing binary as indicated by the type of periodic variation in the light intensity.
At X and Z the brighter star is being eclipsed by the duller star. That is, the duller star is moving in front
of the brighter star. At Y the brighter star is eclipsing the duller star.
2

The equation relating mass to the motion of a binary is m 1 +m 2 = 4n r

GT

where mass is in kg, radius is in

metres and period is in years.


Substituting into this equation we get m 1 +m 2

4n 2 ( 7.5 x 10 11)3
-----'----:-:--~
11
2

6.67 X10-

x1.5

=1.11 xl

047 k

A Cepheid variable is a supergiant yellow intrinsically variable star whose brightness varies by about
one magnitude and with a regular period.
From the period-luminosity graph we estimate the absolute magnitude. Now log105.4 = 0.73 so apparent
magnitude is -16. We then substitute into the distance formula:
m -M

=510g~
10

=>

16-(-3.5)=510g~
10

=> d =3.2x104 parsecs

An open cluster is an irregular loose aggregation of a few hundred to a few thousand stars. They are
clusters of young stars.
Y is in the main sequence and so hydrogen is being fused into helium by the proton-proton chain or by
the carbon cycle depending on their temperature.
Region X is where red giants are found. These are large diameter very luminous stars. They have
relatively cool surface temperature (-3000 K) which gives them a reddish colour. They 'burn' helium
into carbon.
In main sequence stars hydrogen fuses into helium in its core. When the helium core reaches -12% ofthe
star's mass it collapses and the increasing temperature causes the outer envelope to expand and cool to
form a red giant. In the red giant helium fuses to form carbon in the triple alpha process. For stars of initial
mass greater than -8 solar masses, the helium core fuses to form carbon and oxygen. When the helium is
used up the carbon and oxygen combine to form neon, magnesium, sulfur and silicon. Later the silicon
and sulfur form nickel and iron. Elements beyond iron are made by neutron capture during the cataclysmic
explosion of a supernova.
A star commences its life in a cloud of extremely rarefied gas and dust. Some chance occurrence causes
some aggregation of mass that leads to further attraction of mass. Gravitational potential energy is
converted into heat and a protostar forms. Depending on its mass it may take tens of millions of years to
reach the main sequence of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram where its temperature is now high enough
to cause the fusion of hydrogen into helium. Hydrogen burning continues for perhaps millions of years
with a helium core forming. When this core reaches -12% of the mass of the star, the core contracts and
the increased temperature causes the outer layers of the star to expand and cool forming a red giant. For
stars of mass greater than -8 solar masses helium fusion now occurs forming carbon and oxygen. Further
fusion takes place with the elements up to and including iron being synthesised. When the iron core mass
approaches 1.4 solar masses the core collapses to a diameter of -20 km forming a neutron star and the
outer layers are blown away in a violent supernova explosion. During this time the elements above iron
are produced by neutron capture. If the collapsing core exceeds 3 solar masses the contraction continues
until the core has a diameter of a few km - a black hole forms.
This is the 'turn-off' point where the star leaves the main sequence to form a red giant.
Cluster M67 is the oldest cluster as it has the lowest turn-off point. This means that the older hotter
stars (0, B and A) have evolved off the main sequence. This takes millions of years so the cluster must
be old for it to have occurred.

Most of the alpha particles passed through the foil with only small deflections. About 1 in 8000 however,
were deflected through angles greater than 90. Rutherford interpreted these results and concluded that
the only way for the heavy alpha particles to be deflected as they were, was if all of the positive charge of
the atom and most of its mass was concentrated in a tiny core. He concluded also that the electrons would
be around this nucleus and that most of the atom was empty space (allowing most alphas to pass through).

~=RH
(~-~)=1.097X107
X(~-~)=2.44X106
-1
/\,
n
n;
2
6

=:}

/\'=410nm

E =hf =h

~=6.626x10-34 x
/\,

3.0x108 =4.85x10-19 J
410x10-9

Any two of the following: a Electrons can rotate in stationary states (energy states) without radiating
energy. This was used to explain the stability of atoms. b When an electron falls from a higher energy
state to a lower energy state the energy is quantised according to the Planck relationship t,E hf. This was
used to explain the line emission spectrum of hydrogen. c Angular momentum (mvr) is restricted to values

of

~. This was used to explain the existence of discrete energy levels.


2n

Bohr's model was unable to explain: why some aspects of classical physics worked and others did not; why
it only worked for the lightest atom, hydrogen; the relative intensities of the emission lines; the presence
of hyperfine spectral lines and the Zeeman effect - the splitting of spectral lines in a magnetic field.

The wave-particle duality is the recognition that matter exhibits some properties which we say are
wave-like and others that we say are particle-like.
Light had been demonstrated to have wave characteristics as had been shown by the fact that it
exhibited the properties of interference and diffraction. It had also been shown to exhibit the
photoelectric effect which could only be explained by assuming light was a particle. If this was true for
light, de Broglie hypothesised it might also be true for other things that had previously only been
considered to be particles such as electrons.
34
/\, =~ =~ =:} v =~ =
6.626x10=9.10x105 m.s-1
1
p mv
/\'m
8x10- 0x9.1x10-31
Davisson and Germer fired a beam of electrons at a metallic crystal and looked at the intensity of the
reflected electrons. They found the reflections to be consistent with diffraction patterns - the electrons
were showing a wave characteristic.
de Broglie's hypothesis was that matter such as electrons showed wave characteristics and had a wavelength.
If an integral number of wavelengths fitted exactly into the electron orbit, the wave would form a standing
wave in which the energy was transformed between potential energy and kinetic energy but was not lost.
This accounted for the stability of the atom.

Electron microscopes work in an analogous way to a light microscope except they use electron waves
instead of light waves. The interior of the microscope is a vacuum which means only dead specimens can
be examined. Magnetic lenses direct the electrons on to a very thin specimen and the different structures
in the specimen absorb the electrons by different amounts. The electrons fall on a phosphor screen forming
an image after focussing by a series of magnetic lenses.
The two most important qualities of any microscope are its magnification and its resolving power that is,
its ability to distinguish small objects. The resolving power is limited by the wavelength used - the shorter
the wavelength the better the resolution. Electron microscopes use shorter wavelength electron waves
than the wavelength used by light microscopes giving -1000 times better resolution.

Chadwick believed that the penetrating radiation emitted from the beryllium after irradiation with alpha
particles was the particle postulated by Rutherford to account for discrepancies in the mass of the nucleus.
This particle was postulated to be neutral and so its detection was difficult. The paraffin block was rich in
protons (lots of hydrogen atoms present) and collisions between the neutrons and protons caused the
protons to be ejected and these could be detected because of their positive charge. By applying the laws
of conservation of energy and momentum to these collisions, Chadwick was able to prove the existence of
the neutron.
Isotopes were formed, many of which were radioactive.

~~Cu +

6n

-7

~~Cu then

~~Cu

-7

~~Zn +

_?e

Beta decay.
Any THREE of the following: neutrinos have no electric charge, no mass and no magnetic properties
and would have hardly any interaction with matter. They would have energy, and momentum (linear
and angular).
During investigation of beta decay it was found that there was a discrepancy with the mass-defect of
the emitted electron compared to the masses of the products and reactant (allowing for the massenergy relationship). Up to one-third of the energy that should have been associated with the electron
was missing and nothing else could be found to account for the loss throwing the well established
laws of conservation of mass, energy and momentum into chaos. Pauli's belief in these conservation
laws led him to postulate that the neutrino was carrying away the missing energy. (The neutrino was
not discovered until 26 years later.)
The nucleus 1jN has 7 protons and seven neutrons. Mass defect is the difference between the sum of the
masses of its nucleons and the mass of the nucleus, that is:
11m = [(7 x 1.007276) + (7 x 1.008665) -14.00307] = 0.108517 u
The binding energy can be found from the Einstein relationship E =mc2 and the fact that 1 u =931 MeV.
Binding energy = 101 MeV
In a controlled fission reaction only one neutron from each fission is available to split another nucleus special materials in control rods absorb the extra neutrons. The result is a controlled rate of energy release.
In uncontrolled reactions, each of the multiple neutrons released from the fission of one nucleus is allowed
to hit another nucleus. The result is a rapid release of energy.

A thermal reactor is one which uses neutrons travelling at a speed comparable to the speed of gas
molecules at room temperature.
Enriched uranium is uranium in which the proportion of U-235 has been increased. U-235 is more
readily fissionable with slow (thermal) neutrons than the more prevalent U-238.
The moderator slows the neutrons down by colliding with the neutrons and absorbing some of their
energy without absorbing the neutron itself. Moderator materials include ordinary and heavy water,
graphite and beryllium. The control rods on the other hand absorb some of the neutrons without
undergoing fission. By controlling the number of neutrons the rate of the fission reactions can be
controlled. Control rods generally contain boron or cadmium.
Radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes that decay by releasing alpha, beta and/or gamma radiation.
Radioisotopes can be artificially created by bombarding non-radioactive isotopes with neutrons.
One industrial application of radioisotopes is in measuring wear in machinery. By placing radioisotopes

in the working parts of machines and measuring the radioactivity in the lubricating oil engineers can
estimate the amount of wear. In medicine, radioisotopes can be used in isotopic scanning. The patient
is given a radioisotope similar to an element used by the body, for example 1-131. This is taken up by
specific organs (in this case the thyroid), and the distribution and abundance of the isotope can be
detected by gamma cameras and any abnormalities can be found.
Neutrons are neutral - they have no charge.
Neutrons have a wave-matter duality and so have a wavelength. Accordingly, they scatter - diffract - off
matter. Whereas X-rays scatter best off high atomic mass atoms with lots of electrons, neutrons will
scatter off hydrogen nuclei (protons) in hydrogen bonds found in all organic and most inorganic molecules.
This makes the neutron scattering study of living material more effective than if using X-rays.
The Manhattan Project was the costliest engineering and scientific endeavour in its day. The successful
production of the atomic bomb brought an end to the war against Japan in 1945. With it however, it also
brought the start of the arms race and the Cold War. Rather than concentrating on eliminating disease
and hunger in the world, massive amounts of money went into the manufacture of weapons of mass
destruction. For decades the world lay in the grip of uncertainty with the threat of nuclear war always in
the air. Some would argue that the MAD (mutually assured destruction) principle actually kept the world
in relative peace, at least on a world scale. Others would argue that it cost the world the chance to
eliminate war forever. Whatever view is held, it can be argued that the Manhattan Project had a significant
impact on society.

Particle accelerators are devices used to accelerate subatomic particles to high speeds and hence high
energies.
The stability of the nucleus of atoms is determined by the value of the binding energy per nucleon.
The higher this value, the more stable the nucleus. To break the nucleus up into its parts requires high
energies - energies that can be produced only in particle accelerators. Because of the relationship
between mass and energy given by E me2 it follows that the high mass exotic particles can only be
observed after being 'created' in high-energy accelerators. Also the high energy means high speed
and hence short de Broglie wavelength. This provides better resolution adding fine detail to
observations. It follows that physicists require particle accelerators to investigate the structure of matter.
The standard model of matter is a theory that attempts to describe all interactions of subatomic particles
(except those due to gravity). Its success lies in its ability to use a small number of particles and interactions
to explain the existence of hundreds of particles and their interactions. The standard model has two main
components to explain these forces: the electroweak theory which describes interactions through the
electromagnetic and weak forces; and quantum chromodynamics which is the theory of the strong force.
Physicists currently view matter as being grouped into three families - quarks, leptons and bosons. The
standard model explains interactions in terms of these families, which it further classifies as matter particles
- these are fundamental particles (that is, they have no known smaller parts) and are the quarks and
leptons; and the force-carrier particles. Each type of fundamental force is caused by the exchange of
force-carrier particles (also called messenger or exchange particles). These are the fundamental (or gauge)
bosons. They include photons and gluons.
Cosmology is the study of the origin and evolution of the universe. Scientists believe that the universe
began in the Big Bang some 15 billion years ago. From the 'cosmic egg' all matter formed. The laws of
high-energy physics determine the ways in which this matter formed. Particles such as quarks 'sprang' into
existence and these combined to make other particles. What happened in the first seconds and minutes
after the Big Bang is speculative but relies on what is known about high-energy physics. Cosmology and
high-energy physics are hence intimately joined.

E
P

=_ GMm
r

a This is an example of projectile motion. The horizontal motion ofthe food package is constant velocity
(with the velocity equal to that of the plane).

b
d
b

From Newton's second law, as mass decreases, acceleration increases.

b The force between two parallel current carrying wires is given by


1112

hence F =k d / xl=2xk

/2

I I

_1_2

f.- = k~
I

xl=2F

d From Lenz's law the current will be induced in a direction so that its magnetic field will oppose the
cause of the current that is, the end closest to the magnet will act as a south pole causing repulsion. The
right hand grip rule shows the current to flow anticlockwise.

a A step-down transformer decreases voltage and increases current in the secondary relative to the
primary. Power is constant.

c in a transformer, as voltage increases current decreases. The heating effect in conductors is proportional
to the square of the current. Reducing the current reduces the heating losses.

a Most home appliances with motors have single phase induction motors. Three phase is used in industry.
d The shadow on the glass indicates the rays travel in straight lines.

Ekmax =hf -=hf -hfo =h(t -fo)=6.626x10-34(3.2-1.1)x1015 =1.39x1018 J

The purpose behind doping is to increase the conductivity of semiconductors.

b
d

The Meissner effect is the exclusion of a magnetic field by a superconductor.

1200
.
1200
Mass of astronaut = - - kg therefore weight on Mars = - - x 3.8 = 465.3 N
9.8
9.8
The safe re-entry of astronauts to Earth from space is restricted to a narrow 'window' in the Earth's
atmosphere. The size of this window is determined by the need to prevent the spacecraft overheating and
the need to keep the g-forces within safe limits. if the spacecraft attempts to enter the Earth's atmosphere
at too shallow an angle it may 'bounce' off back into space (like a stone skipping across water). if it is too
steep, the g-forces would be large enough to kill the occupants and the temperature generated would be
too high for the spacecraft to withstand - it would burn up like a meteorite. it is found that an angle of
6.21 below the horizontal is the optimum to ensure safe re-entry. Special heat shields dissipate the
intense heat produced even at this angle.

The time to hit the water is determined by the vertical motion which is constant acceleration.
Hence ~y

1
=-a
yt 2 =>
2

12~y
~2X100
t = / - - = - - - =4.52s
~ ay
9.8

The horizontal motion is constant velocity so the distance is given by: x = v xt = 10 x 4.52 = 45.2 m
A geostationary orbit is one with a period of 24 h in the plane of the equator.
In one revolution with period T, the satellite travels a distance of 2rr:R where R is the radius of the orbit
.

2nR

2nx42300x10

=3.08x10 m.s-1
24x60x60
The acceleration due to gravity is equal to the centripetal acceleration at that height so

sospeedlsglvenbyv = - - =
T

v2

a =-

(3.08x10

2
)
3

= 0.22 m.s-

42300 x 10

The stationary observer would determine a length contraction in the rod so we have:
I

=/o~1_V2

(2

=100 11_(0. 95c

=31.2m

(2

Because of time dilation the observer in the spacecraft would measure a time less than the stationary
observer that is: t =

gO2

[-;2

1-~

:=}

to =t~1--;T-2 =1x~1(

2i

(0.95c

=0.312h=18mm43s

(2

It can be seen that the spaceship's crew ages less than their counterparts on Earth. This means it may
be possible for the crew to reach distant planets in a 'reasonable' time from their reference frame
although it would be much more time in the Earth's frame of reference. In this way travel to distant
planets is theoretically possible (even if in reality it is not really feasible).
Electric motors utilise the motor effect - that is, a current-carrying conductor experiences a force in a
magnetic field - to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. Current is fed into the armature
via the carbon brushes and this current sets up a magnetic field in the armature that interacts with the
field of the permanent magnets or electromagnets. Application of the right-hand palm rule shows
that the two sides of the armature experience forces in opposite directions (because the current flows
in opposite directions). As a result the armature experiences a torque causing it to rotate (in an
anticlockwise direction for the diagram shown). When the armature is in the vertical plane the split
ring commutator reverses the direction of the current to ensure that a continuous rotation occurs.
Any two of the following: use stronger magnetic fields; have more turns in the armature; use more
current; have the pole pieces curved to produce a radial magnetic field; have more coils at angles to
each other ...
A generator converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. By rotating the armature (coil) in the
magnetic field we create a changing magnetic flux in
the armature. By Faraday's law, an emf is induced in the
coil and a current flows if there is a complete circuit.
Carbon brushes, in contact with slip rings, take this
current away. As the coil is rotated the rate of change of
Time
flux varies - it is biggest as the coil moves through the
horizontal plane and least when it moves through the
vertical plane. The direction of the current also changes
as the coil rotates producing an AC voltage.
The output voltage is shown in the diagram. Below it is
the orientation of the coil at various times in the cycle.
A split ring commutator would change the direction of
2
3
4
5
the current each half cycle and convert the AC to DC.

Eddy currents are circular currents induced in bulk conducting material situated in the presence of a
changing magnetic flux.
In an induction heater, coils are placed under a ceramic cook top and alternating currents in the coils
induce currents in the metal cookware placed above them. These eddy currents flowing in the metal
heat it and its contents, cooking the food. In electromagnetic braking, a metal sheet or wheel is brought
near to a strong magnet (either permanent or produced by current-carrying coils). Induced eddy currents
flow in a direction to oppose their cause (Lenz's law) and this brings the wheel to rest. This braking is
used in some modern trains and in some fun-park rides.
A transformer consists of two conducting coils - a primary coil and a secondary coil- wrapped around
the same soft iron core. Alternating voltages connected to the primary coil cause a changing magnetic
flux in the iron core. This changing flux induces a changing emfin the secondary coil. By having different
number of turns in the primary and secondary the voltage can be changed. If the secondary has more
turns than the primary, the voltage in the secondary is bigger than the voltage in the primary a step-up transformer.
The voltage supplied to homes is 240 V. Many home appliances require smaller voltages (or larger in
some cases such as in televisions) to operate. Transformers inside the various appliances produce the
required voltages.
In an AC induction motor, a rotating magnetic field is set up in the stator which induces currents in the
rotor (by electromagnetic induction). These currents produce a magnetic field that interacts with the
stator's field. The result is that the stator's magnetic field 'drags' the rotor around.
Any two of the following: they are cheap, reliable, efficient.
Thomson arranged the electric and magnetic fields in such a way that the deflections cancelled each
other, allowing the electrons to travel straight through. That is Felectric = Fmagnetic' When the forces are
balanced q =qvB

=> v = - . Thomson could measure and B and so he could calculate v.


B

The electric field can be found from

=V

so v

=~ =

20,%

0.01

d
B
0.001
The force on the electron due to the magnetic field is given by

= 2 x 107 m.s-1

F =qvB =1.602x10-19 x2.0x107 xO.001=3.2x10-15 N


The electron gun produces the beam of electrons and accelerates them towards the fluorescent screen.
Cathode ray oscilloscope.
TVs use magnetic fields to control the path of the electron beam.
Solar cells come in several forms but they essentially consist of two different conducting materials in
contact with each other - these can be a metal and a semiconductor or two oppositely doped
semiconductors. Consider a simple p-n junction. Electrons initially drift from the n-type material (where
they are the majority charge carriers) into the p-type material, and holes diffuse from the p-type into the
n-type. The result is that the n-type material near the junction is positive (electrons have been lost) and
the p-type is negative (electrons have been gained). An electric field is set up that opposes further diffusion
of charge carriers. However, light falling on the semiconductor creates electron-hole pairs by means of the
photoelectric effect. The free electrons are attracted to the n-type and travel through an external circuit
and the holes move to the p-type - an electric current is the result. The current depends on the rate of
creation of the electron-hole pairs which in turn depends on the light intensity. In this way, solar cells
convert light energy into electrical energy.
The Braggs used X-rays to investigate the structure of crystals. They were able to determine the
arrangement of atoms and their interatomic spacing.
They bombarded crystals with X-rays and detected the scattered X-rays. They found that the atoms

were arranged in a regular pattern in the crystal and they discovered a relationship that allowed them
to determine the spacing or the wavelength (depending on which one was already known).
Superconductivity is the elimination of electrical resistance in certain materials at very low temperatures.
As the temperature of a conductor such as a metal is reduced the resistance decreases in a non-linear
manner. At a very low temperature called the transition temperature, the resistance ceases altogether.
This temperature varies from material to material. For mercury, the first superconductorto be discovered,
this temperature is -4.2 K.
Anyone of the following: Present day uses include 1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machines
where superconducting coils produce the intense magnetic fields required in MRI scanning - these
coils allow currents to flow with little energy loss. 2. Magnetic levitation - superconductors produce
the intense magnetic fields used to lift experimental Maglevtrains offthe tracks to reduce friction.
3. SQUIDS - Superconducting quantum interference devices use the Josephson effect to detect minute
magnetic field variations.
Future uses include: 1 Superfast computers using superconducting switches; Electricity transmission - if
superconducting materials can be used to transmit electricity, energy losses could be significantly reduced.
The very low temperatures required are preventing their widespread use today.

Ultrasound is: non-invasive, relatively cheap, portable, has no side effects, does not use radiation.
The acoustic impedance of air and skin are vastly different. This would result in almost all the
ultrasound being reflected from the air/skin interface. Since ultrasound imaging requires energy to
be transmitted through the patient's skin a coupling medium is used.
The Doppler effect is the apparent change in frequency when there is relative motion between a
source of sound (or any wave) and an observer.
ii In Doppler echocardiography, ultrasound is reflected off moving blood cells and/or moving heart
valves. The resulting frequency change indicates the speed of the blood flow which tells the doctor
about the functioning of the circulatory system, particularly the heart.
The acoustic impedance is a measure of the ease with which a material transmits ultrasound.

6
Ir
[Z2-Z,]2 [(1.62-1.38)X10
-=
=
=0.0064
1 2 2
6
o
[Z2+Z']
[(1.62+1.38)x10 ]
The small amount of reflection (0.64%) means that the fat and kidney will be difficult to differentiate
between.
Electron-positron annihilation occurs when an electron collides with a positron and their massenergy is converted into two gamma rays that travel in opposite directions; +~e + _~e ~ 2y
The electrons come from tissue in the patient; the positron comes from a radiopharmaceutical. A
radiopharmaceutical is a bio-molecule commonly used by the human body which has a positron
emitting radioactive atom substituted for a normal atom. This is given tothe patient and is selectively
taken up by the organs in the body that is being scanned.
PET has the advantage that it shows organ function as well as organ structure.
The most appropriate imaging techniques for the particular medical condition are: fractures - simple
radiograph; foetal development - ultrasound; stroke - magnetic resonance imaging. A simple radiograph
will uncover a bone fracture easily and relatively cheaply. Ultrasound has no ionising radiation and no
known side effects - characteristics essential in ensuring the safety of a developing foetus. MRI is the
scanning technique of choice for the brain and central nervous system because of its ability to easily
distinguish between white and grey matter in the brain and spinal cord.

Anyone ofthe following: 1. Selective absorption of various components of the electromagnetic spectrum
by the atmosphere. This can be overcome by placing the telescopes in orbit (for example, the Hubble
Space Telescope) 2. The problem of 'seeing' -the effect of looking through great depths of atmosphere
causing distortion of the image. This can be minimised by: placing the telescope in orbit; situating the
telescopes on high mountaintops; using adaptive optics. 3. Poor resolution -the inabilityto distinguish
between two close objects. This can be improved by using an interferometer.
Bigger telescopes have better light-gathering power (sensitivity) because of the larger area of the dish
and better resolving power (resolution) because of the larger diameter.
Apparent magnitude is the magnitude as viewed from Earth. Absolute magnitude is the magnitude
the star would have if it were placed 10 pc from Earth. The fact that the magnitudes are different
simply reflects the fact that Canopus is not 10 pc from us.
Spectra can be classified according to criteria such as temperature. This in turn determines the strength
of the hydrogen absorption lines and the presence or absence of other spectral lines. For example,
stars with strong helium ion lines are spectral class 0; the darkest hydrogen absorption lines belong to
spectral class A; stars with prominent titanium oxide lines are spectral class M. Other classes have
different spectral lines.
In spectroscopic parallax, the spectral class and luminosity can be used to estimate the absolute
magnitude. From the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram the apparent magnitude can be estimated.
Substitution into the appropriate distance formula allows the distance to be calculated.
Hadar is hottest as it is a B1 star and the scale goes 0, B, A, ... , M with 0 the hottest followed by B,
A, ...
Arcturus is orange as it belongs to the K2 spectral class.
iii Hadar is the faintest star because it has the largest apparent magnitude (as magnitude increases,
brightness decreases).

=> loglO=0.63-(-5.2) => loglO=1.166 => d =147pc


lO
An astrometric binary is one where only one star is visible. The existence of the other star in deduced
from its effect on the orbit of the visible star.
Anyone of the following: Visual binary - both stars are visible orbiting around their common
centre of mass; spectroscopic binary - recognised by the periodic doubling of the spectral lines;
eclipsing binary - recognised by the periodic variation in the light intensity as one star eclipses the
other.
The more massive a star the faster it evolves. The greater the mass, the faster the protostar reaches
temperatures high enough to initiate nuclear fusion reactions and the further to the upper left-hand
side it joins the main sequence ofthe Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. It may take a star of -1 solar mass
millions of years to reach the main sequence but only a few hundred thousand years for a star of -10
solar masses. Bigger mass stars use their fuel at a faster rate than smaller mass stars - the increased rate
is greater than the increase in fuel supply. This occurs because the large star needs to burn its fuel
faster to counteract the larger gravitational pull. Consequently the star spends less time on the main
sequence than lower mass stars and evolves faster into red giants, neutron stars, black holes ...
m -M =510g

The Bohr model of the atom has the electrons revolving in discrete energy levels around the nucleus.
When an electron falls from a higher energy level to a lower energy level it gives-off a photon with
energy given by E = hf. For example, the transition between the third energy level to the first energy
level can be done in three ways: directly from n = 3 to n =1 or from n 3 to n = 2 and then n = 2 to
n = 1. It follows that the frequency from level 3 to 1 is the sum of the frequencies from level 3 to 2 and
level 2 to 1.

The ground state is the lowest energy level, corresponding to n = 1.


The required energy is given by E =hf =h

~ . The wavelength is found from the Balmer equation

.2.A =R (~---;-)=
1.097 X107 X(~-~)=9.75 x106 m-1
n
n
1 3
H

50 E =h -i=hC X=6.626X10-34 x3.0x108 x9.75x106 =1.94x10-18 J


de Broglie postulated that matter existed as both waves and as particles -the wave-particle duality.
Davisson and Germer bombarded a nickel crystal with electrons. The electrons scattered off the
crystal in a manner consistent with the electrons being diffracted - the electrons were acting as
waves.
Heisenberg is remembered for introducing a mathematical theory of quantum mechanics using matrices.
This was found to be equivalent to the model proposed by 5chr6dinger. Heisenberg also proposed the
uncertainty principle that said that the more we know about an elementary particle's position, the less
we know about its subsequent history this was the end of deterministic physics. Pauli is remembered
for the formulation of the exclusion principle that explained the periodicity of the elements. He also
predicted the existence of the neutrino.
A radioisotope is a radioactive isotope.
The relatively short half-life means that it lasts long enough to do its job in scanning but short
enough that it does not cause damage to the surrounding tissues.
The fuel is generally of enriched uranium containing a greater proportion of U-235 than found in
natural uranium. The U-235 undergoes fission when bombarded with thermal neutrons, releasing
energy along with additional neutrons that can be used to continue the reaction. The moderator
slows down the neutrons to thermal energies, as they are more likely to cause fission than the faster
neutrons. The control rods absorb excess neutrons to control the reaction rate. Too many neutrons
and an uncontrolled chain reaction will occur. The radiation shielding protects the personnel from the
radiation and the reactor walls from damage.
Quarks and leptons.
Combinations of quarks make up protons, neutrons and mesons. Leptons include electrons, neutrinos
and muons.
Anyone of the following: photon - mediates the electromagnetic force; gluon - mediates the
strong nuclear force; weakon - mediates the weak nuclear force; graviton (not yet detected)
hypothesised to mediate the gravitational force.

F =BII sinS

( = fA

.
1
Intenslty o c 2

sin i

V1

~=kI1I2
l
d
r=Fd

-=--

r=nBIA cosS

E=~
q

R=~

=-G m 1m2
(

VI

Energy = VIt

av

ilv

v - u

ilt

=-=--

"LF

ma

Ek

2 mv

1--

mv

(2

ilp = Ft
F = qvB

F =

Gm 1m 2

( 2

(3

=~
d

E = hf

GM

sinS

4n- 2

T2

4n-2( 3
m 1+m2=-GT 2

M =m -5109

(10)

Z =pv
Ir

-=

Ia

[Z 2 -Z
[Z 2 +Z

It

~=RH(_1 __
1 )

n/ n/

d=~
p

A=~
mv

Numerical values of several constants


Charge on the electron, qe

-1.602 x 10-19 C

Mass of the electron, me

9.109

Mass of neutron, mn

1.675 x 10-27 kg

Mass of proton, mp

1.673 x 10-27 kg

Speed of sound in air

340 m.s-1

Earth's gravitational acceleration, 9

9.8 m.s-2

Speed of light (in vacuum),

3.00 x 108 m.s-1

Magnetic force constant

(k = ~ )

10-31 kg

2 x 10-7 N.A-2

Universal gravitational constant, G

6.67 x 10-11 N.m2.kg-2

Mass of Earth

5.983 x 1024 kg

Planck's constant

6.626 x 10-34 J.s

Rydberg's constant, RH

1.097 x 107 m-1

Atomic mass unit,

1.661 X 10-27 kg
931.5 MeV/c2

10-19 J

1 eV

1.602

Density of water, p

1.00 x 103 kg.m-3

Specific heat capacity of water

4.18 x 103 J.kg-1.K-'

A
A-scan 54

absorption spectra 77-78


AC electric motors 35
AC generators 27-28
AC voltages 31-32
acceleration 2-6
acoustic impedance 54-55
adaptive optics 71
alpha rays 62, 105
angular momentum 66, 95
anodes 38-39, 58
astrometric binaries 87
astrometry 74
atomic models 46-50, 94-95
atomic number 105
B

8-scan 54
Balmer formula 94-95
band structure 46
BCS model of superconductors 51
beta rays 62, 105
binary stars 86
binding energy 106, 114
black body radiation 42, 79
black hole 91
Bohr model 95-99
bosons 114-115
brightness of stars 82, 86-87

electricity 27-32
conduction in metals 50
electromagnetic induction 23-28
electromagnetic radiation 10-11,
42-43, 58-59
electromagnetic spectrum 70,
77-79
electron(s} 42-43, 102
atoms 46-51, 94-98
electron diffraction 98
electron microscopes 39, 102
emf24-31

emission of electrons 42-43


emission spectra 77, 94-95
endoscope 59
energy, conservation 23, 31,
105-106
energy levels atoms 46,77-78,95
energy, binding 106
escape velocity 5
ether 14
evolution of stars 90-91
F

Faraday's law 23-27


fibre optics 59
force(s} 2, 6, 19-20
charge in magneticfield 19, 39
force-carrier particles 114-115
frame of reference 14-15
frequencies 77-78

cathodes 38-39, 58
cathode rays 38-39
centripetal acceleration 5-6
Cepheid variables 87
chain reactions 106-107
charge to mass ratio 39
charges moving 19, 39
clusters of stars 90-91
colours of stars 83,90-91
communication with satellites
10-11
commutators 19-20, 27
computerised axial tomography
CAT 58
conduction electricity 19, 46-47
conservation of energy 23,31,
105-106
conservation of momentum 10,
105-106
Cooper pair 51
crystal structure 50
current 19-20, 31

o
DC electric motors 19-20
diffraction pattern 98
distance to galaxies 83, 87
doping semiconductors 46-47
Doppler effect 55, 86
drift velocity 50
E

Einstein 14-15,43
electric field 39
electric generators 27-28
electric motors 19-20

g 2-7
galaxies 87
gamma rays 62-63, 105
generators 27-28
geostationary orbit 6
germanium 46-47
gravitational potential energy 2, 90
gravity 2-7
H

half-life 62
Hertzsprung-Russell diagram 83,
90-91
Hipparcos 74

holes, conduction 46-47


hydrogen in stars 91
spectrum 94-95

induction cookers 24
induction motor 35
inertial frame of reference 14-15
insulators 46
interference 71, 98
inverse square law 10
isotopes 62-63, 105-110
K, L

Kepler's laws 6
length contraction 15
Lenz's law 23-24leptons 114-115
light 14,43
light-years 74
line emission spectra 77, 94-95
luminosity of stars 82, 87-91

M
Maglev train 51

magnetic fields 19-32, 39, 66-67


superconductors 51
magnetic flux/induction 23-32
magnetic lenses 102
magnetic resonance imaging
MRI 51, 66-67
magnitude of stars 82-83, 90-91
main sequence stars 90-91
Manhattan Project 111
mass defect 106
mass number 105
matter particles 114-115
Meissner effect 51
metals structure 50
Michelson-Morley experiment 14
momentum 66, 95
conservation 10, 105-106
motor effect 19-20
N

n-type semiconductors 47
neutrino 99, 105-106
neutron star 91
neutrons 66, 105-107, 111, 115
Newton's law of gravity 2, 86
nuclear fission 106-110
nuclear force 106, 114-115
nuclear reactions in stars 91
nucleons 105,114
nucleus 94, 105

right-hand palm rule 19-24


rockets 5-10
Rutherford model 94
S

satellites 5-6, 74
sector scan 54-55
semiconductors 46-47
sensitivity of telescope 70-71
silicon 46-47
simultaneity 15
solid state devices 46-47
spacecraft 5-11
special relativity 14-15
spectroscopic parallax 83
spectra 94-95
stars 77-79, 86
spin of particles 66
standard model of matter 114-115
stars
brightness 82-91
classes 78, 90
clusters 90-91
colours 83, 90-91
evolution 90-91
spectroscopy 77-79, 83
Stefan-Boltzmann law 79
stellar see stars
sunspots 10
superconductors 50-51
supernova 91
T

O,P
optics of telescopes 70-71
p-type semiconductors 47
pair annihilation 63
parailiax 74, 83
parsecs 74
particle accelerators 114
period-luminosity relationship 87
phase scan 54
photoelectric effect 42-43, 98
photometry of stars 82-83
photons 43, 77-79, 115
piezoelectric crystals 54-55
Planck equation 42-43, 77, 95
positron emission tomography
PET 63
potential energy 2
power 31-32
power lines 28-32
projectile motion 5
protons 66, 105, 115
protostar 91

Q, R
quantum theory 42-43, 95
quarks 114-115
radioactivity 61-62, 105-107
radioisotopes 62-63, 110
re-entry of spacecraft 7
red giants 90-91
red-shifted spectra 78
reference frame 14-15
relativity, special 14-15
resistance in superconductors
50-51
resolution of telescope 70-71

telescopes 70-71
television 39
temperature of stars 79, 90-91
thermionic emission 47
time dilation 15
torque 19-20, 35
trajectories 5-7
transformers 31-32
transistors 47
transition temperature 51
transmutation 105
trigonometric parallax 74
twin paradox 15
U

ultrasound 54-55
uncertaintiy principle 99
uranium 106-110
V

valence band 46
Van Allen radiation belts 10-11, 19
variable stars 87
velocity 5-6, 14
voltage 27, 31-32
W,X,Z

wave nature electrons 39


wave particle duality 98
wavelength 70, 77-79
weight 2
white dwarfs 90-91
work 2
X-rays 58-59
X-ray crystallography 50-51
2eeman effect 95

When doing an examination the following process should be used:


1 Read the question twice 2 Underline key words' :3 Work out what the question is after 4 Plan, then
write your answer 5 Read through your answer and check for errors and/or omissions.
The examination is worth 100 marks and you have three hours (180 minutes) to complete it. It follows that
each mark is 'worth' 1.8 minutes (1 min 48 s) of your time. Keep this in mind as you do different questions
with a range of marks. For example you should spend about 18 minutes on a 10 mark question but only about
9 minutes on a 5 mark question. Some flexibility is OK but remember that if you use too much time on one
question it will affect the amount of time you have to complete the remaining questions.
You are allowed 5 minutes reading time, in addition to the 3 hours to complete the exam. During this time
you are not allowed to write but should skim through the paper to find the 'easier' questions. These should
be done before the harder questions. Success with these easier questions will set you up for a good result and
give you the confidence to attack the harder questions.

Multiple Choice - Section I Part A of the paper is multiple choice. Multiple choice questions have four
alternatives to choose from: A, B, Cor D. These include the correct answer and three distractors. These distractors
are chosen to divert you from the correct answer by providing plausible answers or answers that contain
common mistakes or misconceptions by students. Often one of two of the distractors can be eliminated easily
but the other two may appear to be possible. This is where your deeper knowledge and understanding is
required. If you cannot separate them, go with your 'gut feeling'. Do not leave the answer blank. Practise
with this style of question makes 'perfect'.
Extended Response Questions - Section I Part B of the paper is composed of extended response (also
called free response) questions. They contain a range of marks and relate to the Core topics: Space; Motors
and Generators and From Ideas to Implementation. Some of the questions are in parts such as (a), (b), (c) .. ,
and some ofthese may be further divided into additional parts (a) (i), (a) (i0 ... The marks give an indication of
how much information you need to provide. The more marks there are, the more points or arguments you
need to write. For example a two mark question may require two points; a three mark question may require
three points. Key words give an indication of the difficulty of the question. Questions that commence with
'State' are generally easier than those that begin with 'Justify' or 'Evaluate'. Some questions ask for a more
integrated approach. These are the ones that are not divided into parts but ask you to justify, compare and
contrast, discuss ... Choose the most appropriate form of response. It does not have to be in prose; tables,
diagrams and flowcharts may be suitable. For quantitative questions, that is, those requiring a mathematical
calculation, it is important that you show your working. You may receive marks for a partly correct answer.
Add units to all numerical answers (if applicable).
Option Topics -In Section II, answer questions from ONE option only. Like the extended response question
in Section I Part B, questions will have parts that correspond to different areas of the topic content. Some of
these may be further divided or require a more integrated approach. Remember to read the question twice,
underline the key words, plan your response and then write your answer. Read your answer and look for
mistakes and/or omissions. As for Part B, for quantitative questions, it is important that you show your working.
Attempt all questions. You do not get penalised for incorrect answers but you cannot get a mark for a blank
space!
Exam Reports - Using the board's website,
you can obtain copies of Physics
Examination Reports. From these you can find the common mistakes and misunderstandings of students.
Learn from these!
, There are a number of key words that may be obtained from the Science Syllabus Support Document on the
Board of Studies website at

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