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A Brief Theory on IC Eng

Engine Testing and Performance


Important Performance Parameters of I.C.Engines:The important performance parameters of I.C.
engines are as follows:
(a) Power and Mechanical Efficiency.
(b) Mean Effective Pressure and Torque.
(c) Specific Output.
(d) Volumetric Efficiency.
(e) Fuel-air Ratio.
(f) Specific Fuel Consumption.
(g) Thermal Efficiency and Heat Balance.
(h) Exhaust Smoke and Other Emissions.
(i) Specific Weight.

Engine Testing and Performance


Indicated Power (IP) = Brake Power (BP) - Friction Power (FP)

INDICATE POWER
DEVELOPED INSIDE THE
ENGINE: IP

POWER AVAILABLE AT THE


END OF CRANK SHAFT: BP

FRICTION POWER: FP

Indicated Power
Power obtained at the cylinder. Obtained from the indicator diagram

where

Pi is the indicated mean effective pressure, in N/m

L is the stroke length, in m


A is the area of cross section of the piston, m 2,
N is the engine speed in rev/min,
[=N=N/2 for 4_S engine and N=N for 2-S engine]
n is the number of cylinders and

For 4-stroke engine-one cycle will be completed in two revolutions N=N/2


For 2-stroke engine-one cycle will be completed in one revolutions N=N

Mean Effective Pressure


The mean effective pressure is a quantity related to the operation of an
reciprocating engine and is a valuable measure of an engine's capacity to do
work that is independent of engine displacement
Indicated Mean Effective Pressure or imep (pi) - it may be defined as the
average pressure over a cycle in the combustion chamber of the engine.
Pi = (Net work of cycle)/Swept Volume in N/m2

= P mep = Pm = Pi

Let,

W= work per cycle in joule


P= power output in watt
pmep= mean effective pressure in pascal
Vd= displacement volume in cubic metre
nc= number of revolutions per cycle (for a 4-stroke enginenc= 2)
N= number of revolutions per second
T= torque in newton-metre

also

W=pmep*Vd

Since P=TN2

so

Mean Effective Pressure


is also obtained by engine indicator diagram as

Pm= Pmep = (s*a)/l = N/m2


Where:
a = actual Indicator diagram cm2
l = base width of the indicator diagram, cm
s = spring value or spring constant used for in indicator diagram,( N/m 2 )/cm

Brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) - Mean effective pressure calculated from brake
torque

Brake Power
MEASUREMENT OF B.P

1. Mechanical Dynamometer
I. Prony Brake
II. Rope Brake

BP = 2..N.T

/ 60

Watts

T = Torque = (W-S) De/2


W = Load on the Brake Drum in N
S = Spring Balance Reading in N
De = Effective Brake Drum Diameter = Drum Diameter(Db) + (2*Thickness of Rope)
BP can also be written as

BP = (W-S) (Db +d).N


(Db+d) is circumference of the brake drum

/ 60

in Watts

2. Hydraulic Dynamometer
B.P=WN/K Watts
W =Weight measured on the dynamometer, N
K=Dynamometer constant (60*1000/2*pi*R) and
N=RPM of the engine.

3. Electric Dynamometer
I.Eddy current Type Dynamometer
II.Swinging Field Dynamometer

Friction Power
Friction power includes the frictional losses and the pumping losses. During
suction and exhaust strokes the piston must move against a gaseous pressure
and power required to do this is called the pumping losses.
The friction loss is made up of the energy loss due to friction between the
piston and cylinder walls, piston rings and cylinder walls, and between the
crank shaft and camshaft and their bearings, as well as by the loss incurred
by driving the essential accessories, such as
water pump, ignition unit etc.

Following methods are used in the laboratory to measure friction

This method is also known as fuel rate extrapolation method. In this


method a graph of fuel consumption (vertical axis) versus brake power
(horizontal axis) is drawn and it is extrapolated on the negative axis of
brake power (see Fig).
The intercept of the negative axis is taken as the friction power of the engine at
that speed.
As shown in the figure, in most of the power range the relation between the fuel
consumption and brake power is linear when speed of the engine is held constant
and this permits extrapolation.
Hence the extrapolated negative intercept of the horizontal axis will be the work
representing the combined losses due to friction, pumping and as a whole is
termed as the frictional loss of the engine.
Further when the engine does not develop power, i.e. brake power = 0, it
consumes a certain amount of fuel. This energy in the fuel would have been spent
in overcoming the friction.
This method of measuring friction power will hold good only for a particular
speed and is applicable mainly for compression ignition engines.

The main draw back of this method is the long distance to be


extrapolated from data between 5 and 40 % load towards the zero line of the
fuel input.
The directional margin of error is rather wide because the graph is not
exactly linear.

From the Measurement of Indicated Power and


Brake Power:- This is an ideal method by which friction

power is obtained by computing the difference between the


indicated power and brake power. The indicated power is
obtained from an indicator diagram and brake power is
obtained by a brake dynamometer. This method requires
elaborate equipment to obtain accurate indicator diagrams at
high speeds.

This method can be used only for multi cylinder IC engines

The test consists of making, in turn, each cylinder of the engine inoperative and
noting the reduction in brake power developed.

In a petrol engine (gasoline engine), each cylinder is rendered inoperative by


shorting the spark plug of the cylinder to be made inoperative. In a Diesel
engine, a particular cylinder is made inoperative by cutting off the supply of fuel

It is assumed that pumping and friction are the same when the cylinder is
inoperative as well as during firing.

In this test, the engine is first run at the required speed and the brake power
is measured.
Next, one cylinder is cut off by short circuiting the spark plug if it is a petrol
engine or by cutting of the fuel supply if it is a diesel engine. Since one of the
cylinders is cut of from producing power, the speed of the engine will change.
The engine speed is brought to its original value by reducing the
load on the engine. This will ensure that the frictional power is the same.

Total indicated power when all the cylinders are working


n
= ip1 + ip2 + ip3 + ...+ ipn = ip j
j=1

n
We can write IPj = (BP)t + (FP)t ..(1)
j= 1
Where IPj is the indicated power produced by j th cylinder, n is the number of cylinders,
(BP)t is the total brake power when all the cylinders are producing power and (FP)t is the
total frictional power for the entire engine.

If the first cylinder is cut off, then it will not produce any power, but it will have
frictional losses. Then
n
we can write IPj = (BP)1 - (FP)t..(2)
j=2

where (BP)1 = total brake power when cylinder 1 is cut - off and (FP)t = Total frictional power.

Subtracting Eq. (2) from Eq. (1) we have the indicated power of the cut off cylinder. Thus

(IP)1 = (BP)t (BP)1 ..(3).


Similarly we can find the indicated power of all the cylinders, viz., ip2, ip3, ..ipk.
Then the total indicated power is calculated as

k
(IP)total = IPj .(4)
j=1
The frictional power of the engine is therefore given by

(FP)t = (IP)total (BP)t

MORSE TEST
Morse Test is applicable to multi-cylinder engines. The engine is run at desired speed
and output is noted. Then one of the cylinders is cut out by short circuiting spark
plug. Under this condition other cylinders motor this cut cylinder. The output is
measured by keeping speed constant to original value. The difference in output is
measure of the indicated power of cut-out cylinder. Thus for each cylinder indicated
power is obtained to find out total indicated power
Let,
BP = Brake Power when all cylinders are in working condition.
BP1 = Brake Power when first cylinder cut-off.
BP2 = Brake Power when second cylinder cut-off.
BP3 = Brake Power when third cylinder cut-off.
IP = Indicated Power of Engine
IP1 = Indicated Power of first cylinder
IP2 = Indicated Power of second cylinder
IP3 = Indicated Power of third cylinder
FP1, FP2, FP3 = Friction power of each cylinder

When, All cylinders in working condition,


IP = (IP1 + IP2 + IP3)
(i)
BP = (IP1 + IP2 + IP3) ( FP1+ FP2 + FP3 )
..(ii)
First Cylinder Cut-off,
BP1 = (IP2 + IP3) ( FP1+ FP2 + FP3 )
. (iii)
Where, ( FP1+ FP2 + FP3 ) in above both eqs.(ii)&(iii) remains almost
constant at constant speed. Subtracting Eq.(iii) from Eq.(ii), We get,
Indicated Power of first cylinder,

IP1 = (BP - BP1) .


(iv)
Similarly, Indicated Power of second cylinder
IP2 = (BP - BP2) ..
(v)
Indicated Power of third cylinder
IP3 = (BP - BP3) .
(vi)
Putting the values of IP1, IP2, IP3 in eq.(i),we get,
IP = (BP - BP1) + (BP - BP2) + (BP - BP3) .
(vii)
Frictional Power, FP = ( IP BP )
(viii)

Efficiencies

Efficiencies

Indicates air capacity of a 4 stroke engine.

vol

= Actual Air Admitted at intake condition / Theoretical Volume Available(Vs)

Volumetric efficiency of an engine is an indication of the measure of the


degree to which the engine fills its swept volume.
It is defined as the ratio of the mass of air inducted into the engine
cylinder during the suction stroke to the mass of the air corresponding
to the swept volume of the engine at atmospheric pressure and
temperature.
Alternatively, it can be defined as the ratio of the actual volume inhaled
during suction stroke measured at intake conditions to the swept volume
of the piston.

m
N
Vs i
2

2m

iVs N

m-- is the mass flow rate of fresh


mixture.
N-- is the engine speed in rev/unit
time.
Vs --is the piston displacement (swept

Also Vs = ApL = s = 2LN


L is the piston stroke and s is the linear piston speed (m/s). N

2m
s
Ap L a
2L

Specific Fuel Consumption

4m
a Ap s

s
2L

The power out put of an IC engine is measured by a rope brake dynamometer.


The diameter of brake pulley is 700 mm and rope diameter is 25 mm. The load
on the tight side of the rope is 50 kg and spring balance read 50N. The engine
is running at 900 rpm consumes fuel of calorific value of 44000 kJ/kg, at a rate
of 4 kg/hr. Calculate i. Brake specific fuel consumption, ii. Brake thermal
Efficiency
bsfc = mf(kg/hr)/BP(kW)
BP=(2NT) /60*1000= 2**(W-S) (Db+dr)/2
= (50*9.81-50)**(0.025+0.7)*900/ 60*1000 =15.05 kW
So, bsfc = 4 / 15.05 = 0.266 kg/kW hr

Brake thermal efficiency (bt) = BP kW/ mf (kg/sec)*CV (kJ/kg)


= 15.05/(4/3600)*44000 = 0.3878 = 38.78%

A 4 cylinder 4 stroke SI engine has a compression ratio of 8 and bore of 100mm,


with stroke equals to bore. The volumetric efficiency of each cylinder is 75%.
The engine speed is 4800 rpm with an air fuel ratio of 15. CV of fuel is 42NJ/kg,
mean effective pressure in the cylinder=10 bar and mechanical efficiency of the
engine = 80% determine Indicated thermal efficiency nd Brake Power
IP= pm L A N/60000
Pm=mep= 10*105 N/m2
So IP = [10*105 * (/4) 0.12* 0.1*(4800/2)*4]/60000 = 125.66kW
To find fuel consumption in kg/sec
Volumetric Efficiency = Actual Air consumed/ Theoretical Air consumed

Theoretical air = Vs* N = (/4) 0.12* 0.1*4800/2


= 1.884m3/min = 0.0314 m3/sec
= 0.1256 m3/sec for 4 cylinders

So, air consumed = 0.1256*0.75 = 0.094252 m3/sec

Air consumed in kg/s = 0.094252 m3/sec* 1.12 kg/sec = 0.1056 kg/s

Now to find mass of fuel consumed, use air fuel ratio as A/F= Air used/Fuel used

Therefore mass of fuel used = Air used/A:F = 0.1056/15 = 0.00704 kg/s

So Indicated Thermal Efficiency = IP/mf*CV = 125.66/0,00704*42*106 = 42.5%

Mechanical Efficiency= BP/IP

So, BP = IP*

= 125.66*0.8 = 100.53 Kw

A 4 cylinder 2 stroke petrol engine develop 30 kW at 2500 rpm. The


mean effective pressure on each piston is 8 bar and mechanical
efficiency is 80%. Calculate the diameter and stroke of each cylinder if
stroke to bore ratio is 1.5. Also evaluate the fuel consumption of the
engine, if brake thermal efficiency is 28%. The Calorific Value of the fuel
is 43900 kJ/kg.
m = BP/IP, so IP = 30/0.8 = 37.5kW
IP = pm l A N/ 60000
37.7 = [(/4)*D2 (1.5D) 2500 * 8*105*5]/60000
D3 = 0.0002387

D = 0.062 m

L = 0.62*1.5 = 93 mm

Fuel Consumption
Brake Thermal Efficiency (bt) = BP/mf*CV
0.28 = 30/mf*43900 so mf = 0.00244 kg/sec

A six cylinder 4-S, SI engine having a piston displacement of 700 cm3 per
cylinder developed 78kW at 3200 rpm and consumed 27 kg of petrol per hour.
The calorific value of Petrol is 44 MJ/kg. Estimate
i. The volumetric efficiency of the engine if the A:F is 12 and intake air is at 0.9
bar, 320C. ii. Find Brake Thermal Efficiency and iii. The Brake Torque.

i.Volumetric Efficiency = Actual Volume of Intake Air/Theoretical Air (Vs)


Mass of air = A:F * Mass of Fuel
= 12* 27 (kg/hr)=324 kg/hr
This should be converted to m3/hr based on inlet condition, use PV=mRT
i.e, Va = m R T/P = 324*287*305/0.9*105 = 315.126 m3/h
Now swept volume per hour = Piston displacement/cylinder*No. cylinder*N/2*60

Vs=700*10-6 * 6*3200/2*60 = 403.2m3/h

Now volumetric efficiency = Volume of Intake Air/ Swept Volume


Va/Vs= 325.126/403.2 = 0.781 = 78.1%

Brake Thermal Efficiency = BP/mf*CV = 78 kW/ (27/3600)*44*103 = 23.64%

The Brake Torque = T

BP = 2NT/60000 so T = BP*60000/2N =

0.2328kN

The following particulars are obtained in a trial on a 4-S gas engine


Duration of trial = 1 hour
Revolutions = 14000
Number of missed cycles = 500
Net Brake Load = 1470 N
MEP= 7.5 bar
Gas Consumption = 20000 liters
LCV of fuel at admit conditions = 21kJ/liters
Cylinder Diameters = 250 mm
Stroke = 400mm
Effective Brake Circumference = 4m
CR=6.5:1

Calculate
i.IP, ii. BP, iii. m .iv. it, v. Relative efficiency
Indicated Power = Pm*L*A*N/60000
Here N=14000 rev/1 hour = 14000/60 = 233.33 rpm
and for 4-S engine, it is 233.33/2= 116.665 rpm

But there are 500 misfire/hr=500/60=8.33 misfire per minute which


should not be considered for calculating Indicated Power
So, Number of working cycles= 116.665-8.33=108.33 working cycles/min
IP=[ 7.5*105 * (/4)*0.252*0.4*108.33]/60000 = 26.59 kW
Brake Power (BP) = 2N T/60000 where T= (W-S)* R effective = (W-S)* (D+d)/2
Here circumference = (D+d) = 4m
i.e. BP = N (W-S)* (D+d )/60000 = 3.14*1470*(14000/60)(4)/60000 = 22.86kW
Mechanical Efficiency = BP/IP = 22.86/26.59 = 85.9%
Indicated Thermal Efficiency = IP/mf*CV

Here mf = 20000/3600=5.55 lit/sec

So th =[26.59/5.55 lit/sec*21kJ/lit ] = 23%


Relative Efficiency = Thermal efficiency/Air Standard Efficiency

Air Standard Efficiency 1 [1/r -1] = 1- 1/ 6.5 1.4-1 = 52.7%

Relative Efficiency = 0.23/0.527 = 0.436 or 43.6%

During the test of 40 minutes on a single cylinder gas engine of


200 mm cylinder bore and 400 mm stroke, working on the fourstroke cycle and governed by hit and miss method of governing, the
following readings were taken:
Total number of revolutions = 9400
Total number of explosions = 4200
Area of indicator diagram = 550 mm2
Length of indicator diagram = 72 mm
Spring number = 0.8 bar/mm
Brake load = 540 N
Brake wheel diameter = 1.6 m
Brake rope diameter = 2 cm
Gas used = 8.5 m3
Calorific value of gas = 15900 kJ/m3
Calculate : (i) Indicated power,
and brake thermal efficiency

(ii) Brake power, and (iii) Indicated

Indicated power (I.P)


Indicated mean effective pressure
Pm = (Area of indicator diagram x spring number)/Length of the diagram
= (550 x 0.8)/72
= 6.11 bar
For IP calculations , Number of firing or explosions are considered, For 9400 rev,
there must have been 9400/2= 4700 firings but due to misfires there are only 4400
explosions in 40 min, that is 105 firings/min

I.P. = ( Pm. L A N x 10)/ 6 = (6.11 x105 x 0.4 x /4 x 0.22 x 105)/ 6oooo


Brake power B.P.

B.P.=(W-S) (Db + d)N/(60 x 1000)

= 13.4 kW

=540 x (1.6 + 0.02) x (9400/40)/(60 x 1000) = 10.76kW


Indicated thermal efficiency
th.(I) = I.P./(Vg x C) = 13.4 x (0.00354 x 15900) = 0.238 or 23.8%

Brake thermal efficiency

th.(B) = B.P./(Vg x C) = 10.76 x (0.00354 x 15900) = 0.191 or 19.1%

The following observations were recorded during the test on a 6cylinder, 4-stroke Diesel engine :
Bore = 125 mm
Stroke = 125 mm
Engine speed = 2400 r.p.m.
Load on a dynamometer = 490 N
Dynamometer constant = 16100
Air orifice diameter = 55 mm
Co-efficient of discharge = 0.66
Head causing flow through orifice = 310 mm of water
Barometer reading = 760 mm Hg
Ambient temperature = 25 C
Fuel consumption = 22.1 kg/h
Calorific value of fuel = 45100 kJ/kg
Per cent carbon in the fuel = 85%
Per cent hydrogen in the fuel = 15%
Pressure of air at the end of suction stroke = 1.013 bar
Temperature at the end of stroke = 25 C
Calculate :
Brake mean effective pressure, (ii) Specific fuel consumption, (iii) Brake thermal efficiency,
(iv) Volumetric efficiency, Percentage of excess air supplied.

Brake mean effective pressure, Pmb:


B.P. = (W x N)/CD = (490 x 2400)/16100 = 73 kW
Also B.P. = (n pmLAN x 10)/6
73 = (6 x pmb x 0.125 x /4 x 0.1252 x 2400 x x 10)/6
Pm = (76 x 6 x 4 x 2)/(6 x 0.125 x x 0.1252 x 2400 x 10) = 3.96 bar

Brake thermal efficiency, th.(B) :


th.(B) = B.P./(mf x C) = 73/(0.00614 x 45100) =0.2636 or 26.36%

Specific fuel consumption, b.s.f.c :


b.s.f.c = 22.1/73 = 0.3027 kg/kWh

Volumetric efficiency, vol :


Stroke volume of cylinder = /4 x D2 x L
= /4 x 0.1252 x 0.125 = 0.00153 m3

The volume of air passing through the orifice of the air box per minute is given by,
hw x w=ha x a
hw

ha = hw x w/a
w = density of water=1000kg/m3
hw=manometer reading

Now velocity Head of air through orifice ha =

g va2 or va = 2gha
[ m/s2 x m=m2/s2 = m/s]

But ha = hw x w/a so
Velocity of air va = 2gha = 2x9.81x hw x 1000/a m/sec
The volume flow rate of air (Qa) = cd x va

a0

The volume of air passing through the orifice of the air box per minute is given by,

Va = 2x9.81x hw x 1000/a

Cd

Ao = Area of cross section of orifice,


= /4 do 2 = /4 x (0.055)2 =0.00237 m2,
hw = Head causing flow through orifice in cm of water,
= 310/10 = 31 cm or 0.31m , and
a = Density of air at 1.013 bar and 25oC
= P/RT = (1.013 x 105)/(287 x (25 + 273)) = 1.18 kg/m3
Volume of air,
Qa = 0.00237 x 0.66(2x9.81x0.31x1000/1.18) = 6.73 m3/sec (x60) =6.73 m3/min
Actual volume of air per cylinder = 6.73/n = 6.73/6 = 1.12 m3/min
Air supplied per stroke per cylinder= 1.12/(2400/2) = 0.000933 m3
vol= Volume of air actually supplied / Volume of air theoretically required
= 0.000933/0.00153 =0.609 or 60.9%

(v)Percentage of excess air supplied :


Quantity of air required per kg of fuel for complete combustion
= 100/23[ C x 8/3 + H2 x 8/1 ]
Where C is the fraction of carbon and H 2 is the fraction of hydrogen
present in the fuel respectively.
=100/23[ 0.85 x 8/3 + 0.15 x 8/1 ] = 15.07 kg/kg of fuel
Actual quantity of air supplied per kg of fuel
= (Va x a x 60)/22.1 = (6.73 x 1.18 x 60)/22.1 = 21.56 kg
Percentage excess air = [(21.56 15.07)/15.07] x 100 = 43.06

Find the air-fuel ratio of a 4-stroke, 1 cylinder, air cooled engine with fuel
consumption time for 10 cc as 20.0 sec. and air consumption time for 0.1 m3 as
16.3 sec. The load is 16 kg at speed of 3000 rpm. Also find brake specific fuel
consumption in g/kWh and brake thermal efficiency. Assume the density of air as
1.175 kg/m3 and specific gravity of fuel to be 0.7. The lower heating value of fuel
is 44 MJ/kg and the dynamometer constant is 5000.

A two stroke two cylinder engine runs with speed of 3000 rpm and fuel
consumption of 5 litres/hr. The fuel has specific gravity of 0.7 and air-fuel ratio
is 19. The piston speed is 500 m/min and indicated mean effective pressure is 6
bar. The ambient conditions are 1.013 bar, 15C. The volumetric efficiency is 0.7
and mechanical efficiency is 0.8. Determine brake power output considering R
for gas = 0.287 kJ/kg K
Take piston speed, m/min = 2 LN where L is stroke (m) and N is rpm)
Let the bore of cylinder be D meter
Using piston speed, 500 = 2 L 3000
L = 0.0833 m

During trial of four strokes single cylinder engine the load on


dynamometer is found 20 kg at radius of 50 cm. The speed of rotation is
3000 rpm. The bore and stroke are 20 cm and 30 respectively. Fuel is
supplied at the rate of 0.15 kg/min. The calorific value of fuel may be
taken as 43 MJ/kg. After some time the fuel supply is cut and the engine is
rotated with motor which required 5 kW to maintain the same speed of
rotation of engine.

Determine

the

brake power,
indicated power,
mechanical efficiency,
brake thermal efficiency,
indicated thermal efficiency,
brake mean effective pressure,
indicated mean effective pressure.

After switching off fuel supply the capacity of motor required to run
engine will be the friction power required at this speed of engine
Friction power = 5 kW

A four stroke four cylinder diesel engine running at 600 rpm produces
250 kW of brake power. The cylinder dimensions are 30 cm bore and
25 cm stroke. Fuel consumption rate is 1 kg/min while air fuel ratio is
10. The average indicated mean effective pressure is 0.8 MPa.
Determine indicated power, mechanical efficiency, brake thermal
efficiency and volumetric efficiency of engine. The calorific value of
fuel is 43 MJ/kg. The ambient conditions are 1.013 bar, 27C.
Given, D = 0.3 m, L = 0.25 m, N = 300 rpm, mf = 1 kg/min, F/A = 20,
Pimep = 0.8 MPa, Brake power = 250 kW

Problems on Heat Balance Sheet


A heat balance sheet is an account of heat supplied and heat utilized in various
ways in the system. Necessary information concerning the performance of the
engine is obtained from the heat balance.

The heat balance is generally done on second basis or minute basis or hour
basis.

The heat supplied to the engine is only in the form of fuel-heat and that is given
by
Qs = mf X CV

Problems on Heat Balance Sheet


The various ways in which heat is used up in the system is given by
a. Heat equivalent of BP = kW = kJ/sec. = x60 kJ/min.
b. Heat carried away by cooling water = Cpw X mw (Two Twi) kJ/min.
c. Heat carried away by exhaust gases = mg Cpg (Tge Ta) (kJ/min.) or (kJ/sec)
d. A part of heat is lost by convection and radiation as well as due to the leakage
of gases. Part of the power developed inside the engine is also used to run the
accessories as lubricating pump, cam shaft and water circulating pump. These
cannot be measured precisely and so this is known as unaccounted losses.
This unaccounted heat energy is calculated by the different between heat
supplied Qs and the sum of (a) + (b) (c).
Heat input per minute
Heat supplied by the
combustion fuel

Total

kcal (kj)

Heat expenditure per minute

Qs

100%

(a) Heat in BP.


(b) Heat carried by jacket cooling
water
(c) Heat Carried by exhaust gases
(d) Heat unaccounted for = Qs (a
+ b + c)

Qs

100%

kcal
(kj)
-----

%
-----

100%

Problems on Heat Balance Sheet


The following observations were recorded in a test of one hour
duration on a single cylinder oil engine working on four stroke cycle.
Bore =300 mm
Stroke =450 mm
Fuel used = 8.8 kg
Calorific value of fuel = 41800 kJ/kg
Average speed =200 rpm
m.e.p = 5.8 bar
brake friction load = 1860 N
Quantity of cooling water = 650 kg
Temperature rise = 22oC
Diameter of brake wheel = 1.22 m
Calculate : (i) Mechanical efficiency, (ii) Brake thermal efficiency.
Draw the heat balance sheet.
Mechanical efficiency, mech :
Indicated power I.P.= (n pmiLAN)/60000
=( 1 x 5.8 x105 x 0.45 x /4 x 0.32 x 200 x x)/6
= 30.7 kW

Brake power, B.P. = ((W-S) DN)/(60 x1000)


= (1860 x x 1.22 x 200)/(60 x 1000) =23.76 kW

mech = B.P./I.P. = 23.76/30.7 = 0.773 or 77.3%


(ii) Brake thermal efficiency, thb :
th.(B) =B.P./(mf x C) = 23.76/((8.8/3600) x 41800) = 0.232 or 23.2 %

heat supplied =8.8 x 41800 =367840 kJ/h


(i) Heat equivalent of I.P. =I.P. x 3600 kJ/h = 30.7 x 3600 = 110520 kJ/h
(ii) Heat carried away by cooling water:
= mw x cpw x (tw2 - tw1) = 650 x 4.18 x 22 = 59774 kJ/h

Heat balance sheet (hourly basis)


Item

kJ

Percent

Heat supplied by fuel

367840

100

(i)Heat absorbed in I.P.


(ii)Heat taken away by cooling water

110520
59774

30.05
16.25

(iii)Heat carried by exhaust gases, radiation


etc.
(by difference)
Total

197546

53.70

367840

100

In a trial of single cylinder oil engine working on a dual cycle, the


following observations were made :
Compression ratio = 15
Oil consumption = 10.2 kg/h
Calorific value of fuel = 43890 kJ/kg
Air consumption = 3.8 kg/min
Speed =1900 rpm
Torque on the brake drum = 186 N-m
Quantity of cooling water used =
15.5kg/min
Temperature rise = 36oC
Exhaust gas temperature = 410oC
Room temperature = 20oC
Cpfor exhaust gases =1.17 kJ/kg K

Calculate : (i) Brake power, (ii) Brake specific fuel


consumption, (iii) Brake thermal efficiency. Draw
heat balance sheet on minute basis.

(i)Brake Power,B.P. :
B.P. = 2NT/(60 x 1000) = (2 x 1900 x 186)/(60 x 1000) =
(ii) Brake specific fuel consumption, b.s.f.c. :
b.s.f.c. =10.2/37 =0.2756
kg/kWh
(iii) Brake thermal efficiency
th.(B) =B.P./(mf x C) = 37/((10.2/3600) x 43890) = 0.2975 or 29.75 %

Heat supplied by fuel per minute = (10.2/60) x 43890 = 7461 kJ/min

37

(i)Heat equivalent of B.P. = B.P. x 60 = 37 x 60 = 2220 kJ/min


(ii) Heat carried away by cooling water = mw x cpw x (tw2 x tw1)
= 15.5 x 4.18 x 36 = 2332 kJ/min
(iii) Heat carried away by exhaust gases = mg x cpg x (tg tr)
= ((10.2/60)+3.80) x 1.17 x (410-20) = 1811 kJ/min

Item
Heat supplied by fuel
(i)Heat absorbed in B.P.
(ii)Heat taken away by cooling water
(iii)Heat carried by exhaust gases
(iv)Heat unaccounted for (by difference)
Total

kJ
7461
2220
2332
1811
1098
7461

Percent
100
29.8
31.2
24.3
14.7
100

During an experiment on four stroke single cylinder engine the


indicator diagram obtained has average height of 1 cm while indicator
constant is 25 kN/m2 per mm. The engine run at 300 rpm and the
swept volume is 1.5 104 cm3. The effective brake load upon
dynamometer is 60 kg while the effective brake drum radius is 50 cm.
The fuel consumption is 0.12 kg/min and the calorific value of fuel oil
is 42 MJ/kg. The engine is cooled by circulating water around it at the
rate of 6 kg/min.
The cooling water enters at 35 C and leaves at 70C. Exhaust gases
leaving have energy of 30 kJ/s with them. Take specific heat of water
as 4.18 kJ/kg K. Determine indicated power output, brake power
output and mechanical efficiency. Also draw the overall energy
balance in kJ/s
Indicated mean effective pressure = 10 25 = 250 kPa

During 15 minutes trial of an internal combustion engine of 2-stroke


single cylinder type the total 4 kg fuel is consumed while the engine is
run at 1500 rpm. Engine is cooled employing water being circulated at
15 kg/min with its inlet and exit temperatures as 27C and 50C. The
total air consumed is 150 kg and the exhaust temperature is 400C. The
atmospheric temperature is 27C. The mean specific heat of exhaust
gases may be taken as 1.25 kJ/kg K. The mechanical efficiency is 0.9.
Determine,
the brake power,
brake specific fuel consumption
and indicated thermal efficiency.
Also draw energy balance on per minute basis. Brake torque is 300 Nm
and the fuel calorific value is 42 MJ/kg.

During trial of a four cylinder four stroke petrol engine running at full
load it has speed of 1500 rpm and brake load of 250 N when all cylinders
are working. After some time each cylinder is cut one by one and then
again brought back to same speed of engine. The brake readings are
measured as 175 N, 180 N, 182 N and 170 N. The brake drum radius is 50
cm. The fuel consumption rate is 0.189 kg/min with the fuel whose
calorific value is 43 MJ/kg and A/F ratio of 12. Exhaust gas temperature is
found to be 600C. The cooling water flows at 18 kg/min and enters at
27C and leaves at 50C. The atmospheric air temperature is 27C. Take
specific heat of exhaust gas as 1.02 kJ/kg K.
Determine the brake power output of engine, its indicated power and
mechanical efficiency. Also draw a heat balance on per minute basis

During the trial of a single acting oil engine, cylinder diameter is 20 cm,
stroke 28 cm, working on two stroke cycle and firing every cycle, the
following observations were made:
Duration of trial :1 hour
Total fuel used :4.22 kg
Calorific value :44670 kJ/kg
Proportion of hydrogen in fuel : 15%
Total number of revolutions : 21000
Mean effective pressure : 2.74 bar
Net brake load applied to a drum of 100 cm diameter : 600 N
Total mass of cooling water circulated : 495 kg
Total mass of cooling water : inlet 13C, outlet 38C
Air used : 135 kg
Temperature of air in test room : 20C
Temperature of exhaust gases : 370C
Assume Cp, gases = 1.005 kJ/kg K,
Cp, steam at atmospheric pressure = 2.093 kJ/kg K
Calculate thermal efficiency and draw up the heat balance.