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You are on page 1of 72

Important Performance Parameters of I.C.Engines:The important performance parameters of I.C.

engines are as follows:

(a) Power and Mechanical Efficiency.

(b) Mean Effective Pressure and Torque.

(c) Specific Output.

(d) Volumetric Efficiency.

(e) Fuel-air Ratio.

(f) Specific Fuel Consumption.

(g) Thermal Efficiency and Heat Balance.

(h) Exhaust Smoke and Other Emissions.

(i) Specific Weight.

Indicated Power (IP) = Brake Power (BP) - Friction Power (FP)

INDICATE POWER

DEVELOPED INSIDE THE

ENGINE: IP

END OF CRANK SHAFT: BP

FRICTION POWER: FP

Indicated Power

Power obtained at the cylinder. Obtained from the indicator diagram

where

A is the area of cross section of the piston, m 2,

N is the engine speed in rev/min,

[=N=N/2 for 4_S engine and N=N for 2-S engine]

n is the number of cylinders and

For 2-stroke engine-one cycle will be completed in one revolutions N=N

The mean effective pressure is a quantity related to the operation of an

reciprocating engine and is a valuable measure of an engine's capacity to do

work that is independent of engine displacement

Indicated Mean Effective Pressure or imep (pi) - it may be defined as the

average pressure over a cycle in the combustion chamber of the engine.

Pi = (Net work of cycle)/Swept Volume in N/m2

= P mep = Pm = Pi

Let,

P= power output in watt

pmep= mean effective pressure in pascal

Vd= displacement volume in cubic metre

nc= number of revolutions per cycle (for a 4-stroke enginenc= 2)

N= number of revolutions per second

T= torque in newton-metre

also

W=pmep*Vd

Since P=TN2

so

is also obtained by engine indicator diagram as

Where:

a = actual Indicator diagram cm2

l = base width of the indicator diagram, cm

s = spring value or spring constant used for in indicator diagram,( N/m 2 )/cm

Brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) - Mean effective pressure calculated from brake

torque

Brake Power

MEASUREMENT OF B.P

1. Mechanical Dynamometer

I. Prony Brake

II. Rope Brake

BP = 2..N.T

/ 60

Watts

W = Load on the Brake Drum in N

S = Spring Balance Reading in N

De = Effective Brake Drum Diameter = Drum Diameter(Db) + (2*Thickness of Rope)

BP can also be written as

(Db+d) is circumference of the brake drum

/ 60

in Watts

2. Hydraulic Dynamometer

B.P=WN/K Watts

W =Weight measured on the dynamometer, N

K=Dynamometer constant (60*1000/2*pi*R) and

N=RPM of the engine.

3. Electric Dynamometer

I.Eddy current Type Dynamometer

II.Swinging Field Dynamometer

Friction Power

Friction power includes the frictional losses and the pumping losses. During

suction and exhaust strokes the piston must move against a gaseous pressure

and power required to do this is called the pumping losses.

The friction loss is made up of the energy loss due to friction between the

piston and cylinder walls, piston rings and cylinder walls, and between the

crank shaft and camshaft and their bearings, as well as by the loss incurred

by driving the essential accessories, such as

water pump, ignition unit etc.

method a graph of fuel consumption (vertical axis) versus brake power

(horizontal axis) is drawn and it is extrapolated on the negative axis of

brake power (see Fig).

The intercept of the negative axis is taken as the friction power of the engine at

that speed.

As shown in the figure, in most of the power range the relation between the fuel

consumption and brake power is linear when speed of the engine is held constant

and this permits extrapolation.

Hence the extrapolated negative intercept of the horizontal axis will be the work

representing the combined losses due to friction, pumping and as a whole is

termed as the frictional loss of the engine.

Further when the engine does not develop power, i.e. brake power = 0, it

consumes a certain amount of fuel. This energy in the fuel would have been spent

in overcoming the friction.

This method of measuring friction power will hold good only for a particular

speed and is applicable mainly for compression ignition engines.

extrapolated from data between 5 and 40 % load towards the zero line of the

fuel input.

The directional margin of error is rather wide because the graph is not

exactly linear.

Brake Power:- This is an ideal method by which friction

indicated power and brake power. The indicated power is

obtained from an indicator diagram and brake power is

obtained by a brake dynamometer. This method requires

elaborate equipment to obtain accurate indicator diagrams at

high speeds.

The test consists of making, in turn, each cylinder of the engine inoperative and

noting the reduction in brake power developed.

shorting the spark plug of the cylinder to be made inoperative. In a Diesel

engine, a particular cylinder is made inoperative by cutting off the supply of fuel

It is assumed that pumping and friction are the same when the cylinder is

inoperative as well as during firing.

In this test, the engine is first run at the required speed and the brake power

is measured.

Next, one cylinder is cut off by short circuiting the spark plug if it is a petrol

engine or by cutting of the fuel supply if it is a diesel engine. Since one of the

cylinders is cut of from producing power, the speed of the engine will change.

The engine speed is brought to its original value by reducing the

load on the engine. This will ensure that the frictional power is the same.

n

= ip1 + ip2 + ip3 + ...+ ipn = ip j

j=1

n

We can write IPj = (BP)t + (FP)t ..(1)

j= 1

Where IPj is the indicated power produced by j th cylinder, n is the number of cylinders,

(BP)t is the total brake power when all the cylinders are producing power and (FP)t is the

total frictional power for the entire engine.

If the first cylinder is cut off, then it will not produce any power, but it will have

frictional losses. Then

n

we can write IPj = (BP)1 - (FP)t..(2)

j=2

where (BP)1 = total brake power when cylinder 1 is cut - off and (FP)t = Total frictional power.

Subtracting Eq. (2) from Eq. (1) we have the indicated power of the cut off cylinder. Thus

Similarly we can find the indicated power of all the cylinders, viz., ip2, ip3, ..ipk.

Then the total indicated power is calculated as

k

(IP)total = IPj .(4)

j=1

The frictional power of the engine is therefore given by

MORSE TEST

Morse Test is applicable to multi-cylinder engines. The engine is run at desired speed

and output is noted. Then one of the cylinders is cut out by short circuiting spark

plug. Under this condition other cylinders motor this cut cylinder. The output is

measured by keeping speed constant to original value. The difference in output is

measure of the indicated power of cut-out cylinder. Thus for each cylinder indicated

power is obtained to find out total indicated power

Let,

BP = Brake Power when all cylinders are in working condition.

BP1 = Brake Power when first cylinder cut-off.

BP2 = Brake Power when second cylinder cut-off.

BP3 = Brake Power when third cylinder cut-off.

IP = Indicated Power of Engine

IP1 = Indicated Power of first cylinder

IP2 = Indicated Power of second cylinder

IP3 = Indicated Power of third cylinder

FP1, FP2, FP3 = Friction power of each cylinder

IP = (IP1 + IP2 + IP3)

(i)

BP = (IP1 + IP2 + IP3) ( FP1+ FP2 + FP3 )

..(ii)

First Cylinder Cut-off,

BP1 = (IP2 + IP3) ( FP1+ FP2 + FP3 )

. (iii)

Where, ( FP1+ FP2 + FP3 ) in above both eqs.(ii)&(iii) remains almost

constant at constant speed. Subtracting Eq.(iii) from Eq.(ii), We get,

Indicated Power of first cylinder,

(iv)

Similarly, Indicated Power of second cylinder

IP2 = (BP - BP2) ..

(v)

Indicated Power of third cylinder

IP3 = (BP - BP3) .

(vi)

Putting the values of IP1, IP2, IP3 in eq.(i),we get,

IP = (BP - BP1) + (BP - BP2) + (BP - BP3) .

(vii)

Frictional Power, FP = ( IP BP )

(viii)

Efficiencies

Efficiencies

vol

degree to which the engine fills its swept volume.

It is defined as the ratio of the mass of air inducted into the engine

cylinder during the suction stroke to the mass of the air corresponding

to the swept volume of the engine at atmospheric pressure and

temperature.

Alternatively, it can be defined as the ratio of the actual volume inhaled

during suction stroke measured at intake conditions to the swept volume

of the piston.

m

N

Vs i

2

2m

iVs N

mixture.

N-- is the engine speed in rev/unit

time.

Vs --is the piston displacement (swept

L is the piston stroke and s is the linear piston speed (m/s). N

2m

s

Ap L a

2L

4m

a Ap s

s

2L

The diameter of brake pulley is 700 mm and rope diameter is 25 mm. The load

on the tight side of the rope is 50 kg and spring balance read 50N. The engine

is running at 900 rpm consumes fuel of calorific value of 44000 kJ/kg, at a rate

of 4 kg/hr. Calculate i. Brake specific fuel consumption, ii. Brake thermal

Efficiency

bsfc = mf(kg/hr)/BP(kW)

BP=(2NT) /60*1000= 2**(W-S) (Db+dr)/2

= (50*9.81-50)**(0.025+0.7)*900/ 60*1000 =15.05 kW

So, bsfc = 4 / 15.05 = 0.266 kg/kW hr

= 15.05/(4/3600)*44000 = 0.3878 = 38.78%

with stroke equals to bore. The volumetric efficiency of each cylinder is 75%.

The engine speed is 4800 rpm with an air fuel ratio of 15. CV of fuel is 42NJ/kg,

mean effective pressure in the cylinder=10 bar and mechanical efficiency of the

engine = 80% determine Indicated thermal efficiency nd Brake Power

IP= pm L A N/60000

Pm=mep= 10*105 N/m2

So IP = [10*105 * (/4) 0.12* 0.1*(4800/2)*4]/60000 = 125.66kW

To find fuel consumption in kg/sec

Volumetric Efficiency = Actual Air consumed/ Theoretical Air consumed

= 1.884m3/min = 0.0314 m3/sec

= 0.1256 m3/sec for 4 cylinders

Now to find mass of fuel consumed, use air fuel ratio as A/F= Air used/Fuel used

So, BP = IP*

= 125.66*0.8 = 100.53 Kw

mean effective pressure on each piston is 8 bar and mechanical

efficiency is 80%. Calculate the diameter and stroke of each cylinder if

stroke to bore ratio is 1.5. Also evaluate the fuel consumption of the

engine, if brake thermal efficiency is 28%. The Calorific Value of the fuel

is 43900 kJ/kg.

m = BP/IP, so IP = 30/0.8 = 37.5kW

IP = pm l A N/ 60000

37.7 = [(/4)*D2 (1.5D) 2500 * 8*105*5]/60000

D3 = 0.0002387

D = 0.062 m

L = 0.62*1.5 = 93 mm

Fuel Consumption

Brake Thermal Efficiency (bt) = BP/mf*CV

0.28 = 30/mf*43900 so mf = 0.00244 kg/sec

A six cylinder 4-S, SI engine having a piston displacement of 700 cm3 per

cylinder developed 78kW at 3200 rpm and consumed 27 kg of petrol per hour.

The calorific value of Petrol is 44 MJ/kg. Estimate

i. The volumetric efficiency of the engine if the A:F is 12 and intake air is at 0.9

bar, 320C. ii. Find Brake Thermal Efficiency and iii. The Brake Torque.

Mass of air = A:F * Mass of Fuel

= 12* 27 (kg/hr)=324 kg/hr

This should be converted to m3/hr based on inlet condition, use PV=mRT

i.e, Va = m R T/P = 324*287*305/0.9*105 = 315.126 m3/h

Now swept volume per hour = Piston displacement/cylinder*No. cylinder*N/2*60

Va/Vs= 325.126/403.2 = 0.781 = 78.1%

BP = 2NT/60000 so T = BP*60000/2N =

0.2328kN

Duration of trial = 1 hour

Revolutions = 14000

Number of missed cycles = 500

Net Brake Load = 1470 N

MEP= 7.5 bar

Gas Consumption = 20000 liters

LCV of fuel at admit conditions = 21kJ/liters

Cylinder Diameters = 250 mm

Stroke = 400mm

Effective Brake Circumference = 4m

CR=6.5:1

Calculate

i.IP, ii. BP, iii. m .iv. it, v. Relative efficiency

Indicated Power = Pm*L*A*N/60000

Here N=14000 rev/1 hour = 14000/60 = 233.33 rpm

and for 4-S engine, it is 233.33/2= 116.665 rpm

should not be considered for calculating Indicated Power

So, Number of working cycles= 116.665-8.33=108.33 working cycles/min

IP=[ 7.5*105 * (/4)*0.252*0.4*108.33]/60000 = 26.59 kW

Brake Power (BP) = 2N T/60000 where T= (W-S)* R effective = (W-S)* (D+d)/2

Here circumference = (D+d) = 4m

i.e. BP = N (W-S)* (D+d )/60000 = 3.14*1470*(14000/60)(4)/60000 = 22.86kW

Mechanical Efficiency = BP/IP = 22.86/26.59 = 85.9%

Indicated Thermal Efficiency = IP/mf*CV

Relative Efficiency = Thermal efficiency/Air Standard Efficiency

200 mm cylinder bore and 400 mm stroke, working on the fourstroke cycle and governed by hit and miss method of governing, the

following readings were taken:

Total number of revolutions = 9400

Total number of explosions = 4200

Area of indicator diagram = 550 mm2

Length of indicator diagram = 72 mm

Spring number = 0.8 bar/mm

Brake load = 540 N

Brake wheel diameter = 1.6 m

Brake rope diameter = 2 cm

Gas used = 8.5 m3

Calorific value of gas = 15900 kJ/m3

Calculate : (i) Indicated power,

and brake thermal efficiency

Indicated mean effective pressure

Pm = (Area of indicator diagram x spring number)/Length of the diagram

= (550 x 0.8)/72

= 6.11 bar

For IP calculations , Number of firing or explosions are considered, For 9400 rev,

there must have been 9400/2= 4700 firings but due to misfires there are only 4400

explosions in 40 min, that is 105 firings/min

Brake power B.P.

= 13.4 kW

Indicated thermal efficiency

th.(I) = I.P./(Vg x C) = 13.4 x (0.00354 x 15900) = 0.238 or 23.8%

The following observations were recorded during the test on a 6cylinder, 4-stroke Diesel engine :

Bore = 125 mm

Stroke = 125 mm

Engine speed = 2400 r.p.m.

Load on a dynamometer = 490 N

Dynamometer constant = 16100

Air orifice diameter = 55 mm

Co-efficient of discharge = 0.66

Head causing flow through orifice = 310 mm of water

Barometer reading = 760 mm Hg

Ambient temperature = 25 C

Fuel consumption = 22.1 kg/h

Calorific value of fuel = 45100 kJ/kg

Per cent carbon in the fuel = 85%

Per cent hydrogen in the fuel = 15%

Pressure of air at the end of suction stroke = 1.013 bar

Temperature at the end of stroke = 25 C

Calculate :

Brake mean effective pressure, (ii) Specific fuel consumption, (iii) Brake thermal efficiency,

(iv) Volumetric efficiency, Percentage of excess air supplied.

B.P. = (W x N)/CD = (490 x 2400)/16100 = 73 kW

Also B.P. = (n pmLAN x 10)/6

73 = (6 x pmb x 0.125 x /4 x 0.1252 x 2400 x x 10)/6

Pm = (76 x 6 x 4 x 2)/(6 x 0.125 x x 0.1252 x 2400 x 10) = 3.96 bar

th.(B) = B.P./(mf x C) = 73/(0.00614 x 45100) =0.2636 or 26.36%

b.s.f.c = 22.1/73 = 0.3027 kg/kWh

Stroke volume of cylinder = /4 x D2 x L

= /4 x 0.1252 x 0.125 = 0.00153 m3

The volume of air passing through the orifice of the air box per minute is given by,

hw x w=ha x a

hw

ha = hw x w/a

w = density of water=1000kg/m3

hw=manometer reading

g va2 or va = 2gha

[ m/s2 x m=m2/s2 = m/s]

But ha = hw x w/a so

Velocity of air va = 2gha = 2x9.81x hw x 1000/a m/sec

The volume flow rate of air (Qa) = cd x va

a0

The volume of air passing through the orifice of the air box per minute is given by,

Va = 2x9.81x hw x 1000/a

Cd

= /4 do 2 = /4 x (0.055)2 =0.00237 m2,

hw = Head causing flow through orifice in cm of water,

= 310/10 = 31 cm or 0.31m , and

a = Density of air at 1.013 bar and 25oC

= P/RT = (1.013 x 105)/(287 x (25 + 273)) = 1.18 kg/m3

Volume of air,

Qa = 0.00237 x 0.66(2x9.81x0.31x1000/1.18) = 6.73 m3/sec (x60) =6.73 m3/min

Actual volume of air per cylinder = 6.73/n = 6.73/6 = 1.12 m3/min

Air supplied per stroke per cylinder= 1.12/(2400/2) = 0.000933 m3

vol= Volume of air actually supplied / Volume of air theoretically required

= 0.000933/0.00153 =0.609 or 60.9%

Quantity of air required per kg of fuel for complete combustion

= 100/23[ C x 8/3 + H2 x 8/1 ]

Where C is the fraction of carbon and H 2 is the fraction of hydrogen

present in the fuel respectively.

=100/23[ 0.85 x 8/3 + 0.15 x 8/1 ] = 15.07 kg/kg of fuel

Actual quantity of air supplied per kg of fuel

= (Va x a x 60)/22.1 = (6.73 x 1.18 x 60)/22.1 = 21.56 kg

Percentage excess air = [(21.56 15.07)/15.07] x 100 = 43.06

Find the air-fuel ratio of a 4-stroke, 1 cylinder, air cooled engine with fuel

consumption time for 10 cc as 20.0 sec. and air consumption time for 0.1 m3 as

16.3 sec. The load is 16 kg at speed of 3000 rpm. Also find brake specific fuel

consumption in g/kWh and brake thermal efficiency. Assume the density of air as

1.175 kg/m3 and specific gravity of fuel to be 0.7. The lower heating value of fuel

is 44 MJ/kg and the dynamometer constant is 5000.

A two stroke two cylinder engine runs with speed of 3000 rpm and fuel

consumption of 5 litres/hr. The fuel has specific gravity of 0.7 and air-fuel ratio

is 19. The piston speed is 500 m/min and indicated mean effective pressure is 6

bar. The ambient conditions are 1.013 bar, 15C. The volumetric efficiency is 0.7

and mechanical efficiency is 0.8. Determine brake power output considering R

for gas = 0.287 kJ/kg K

Take piston speed, m/min = 2 LN where L is stroke (m) and N is rpm)

Let the bore of cylinder be D meter

Using piston speed, 500 = 2 L 3000

L = 0.0833 m

dynamometer is found 20 kg at radius of 50 cm. The speed of rotation is

3000 rpm. The bore and stroke are 20 cm and 30 respectively. Fuel is

supplied at the rate of 0.15 kg/min. The calorific value of fuel may be

taken as 43 MJ/kg. After some time the fuel supply is cut and the engine is

rotated with motor which required 5 kW to maintain the same speed of

rotation of engine.

Determine

the

brake power,

indicated power,

mechanical efficiency,

brake thermal efficiency,

indicated thermal efficiency,

brake mean effective pressure,

indicated mean effective pressure.

After switching off fuel supply the capacity of motor required to run

engine will be the friction power required at this speed of engine

Friction power = 5 kW

A four stroke four cylinder diesel engine running at 600 rpm produces

250 kW of brake power. The cylinder dimensions are 30 cm bore and

25 cm stroke. Fuel consumption rate is 1 kg/min while air fuel ratio is

10. The average indicated mean effective pressure is 0.8 MPa.

Determine indicated power, mechanical efficiency, brake thermal

efficiency and volumetric efficiency of engine. The calorific value of

fuel is 43 MJ/kg. The ambient conditions are 1.013 bar, 27C.

Given, D = 0.3 m, L = 0.25 m, N = 300 rpm, mf = 1 kg/min, F/A = 20,

Pimep = 0.8 MPa, Brake power = 250 kW

A heat balance sheet is an account of heat supplied and heat utilized in various

ways in the system. Necessary information concerning the performance of the

engine is obtained from the heat balance.

The heat balance is generally done on second basis or minute basis or hour

basis.

The heat supplied to the engine is only in the form of fuel-heat and that is given

by

Qs = mf X CV

The various ways in which heat is used up in the system is given by

a. Heat equivalent of BP = kW = kJ/sec. = x60 kJ/min.

b. Heat carried away by cooling water = Cpw X mw (Two Twi) kJ/min.

c. Heat carried away by exhaust gases = mg Cpg (Tge Ta) (kJ/min.) or (kJ/sec)

d. A part of heat is lost by convection and radiation as well as due to the leakage

of gases. Part of the power developed inside the engine is also used to run the

accessories as lubricating pump, cam shaft and water circulating pump. These

cannot be measured precisely and so this is known as unaccounted losses.

This unaccounted heat energy is calculated by the different between heat

supplied Qs and the sum of (a) + (b) (c).

Heat input per minute

Heat supplied by the

combustion fuel

Total

kcal (kj)

Qs

100%

(b) Heat carried by jacket cooling

water

(c) Heat Carried by exhaust gases

(d) Heat unaccounted for = Qs (a

+ b + c)

Qs

100%

kcal

(kj)

-----

%

-----

100%

The following observations were recorded in a test of one hour

duration on a single cylinder oil engine working on four stroke cycle.

Bore =300 mm

Stroke =450 mm

Fuel used = 8.8 kg

Calorific value of fuel = 41800 kJ/kg

Average speed =200 rpm

m.e.p = 5.8 bar

brake friction load = 1860 N

Quantity of cooling water = 650 kg

Temperature rise = 22oC

Diameter of brake wheel = 1.22 m

Calculate : (i) Mechanical efficiency, (ii) Brake thermal efficiency.

Draw the heat balance sheet.

Mechanical efficiency, mech :

Indicated power I.P.= (n pmiLAN)/60000

=( 1 x 5.8 x105 x 0.45 x /4 x 0.32 x 200 x x)/6

= 30.7 kW

= (1860 x x 1.22 x 200)/(60 x 1000) =23.76 kW

(ii) Brake thermal efficiency, thb :

th.(B) =B.P./(mf x C) = 23.76/((8.8/3600) x 41800) = 0.232 or 23.2 %

(i) Heat equivalent of I.P. =I.P. x 3600 kJ/h = 30.7 x 3600 = 110520 kJ/h

(ii) Heat carried away by cooling water:

= mw x cpw x (tw2 - tw1) = 650 x 4.18 x 22 = 59774 kJ/h

Item

kJ

Percent

367840

100

(ii)Heat taken away by cooling water

110520

59774

30.05

16.25

etc.

(by difference)

Total

197546

53.70

367840

100

following observations were made :

Compression ratio = 15

Oil consumption = 10.2 kg/h

Calorific value of fuel = 43890 kJ/kg

Air consumption = 3.8 kg/min

Speed =1900 rpm

Torque on the brake drum = 186 N-m

Quantity of cooling water used =

15.5kg/min

Temperature rise = 36oC

Exhaust gas temperature = 410oC

Room temperature = 20oC

Cpfor exhaust gases =1.17 kJ/kg K

consumption, (iii) Brake thermal efficiency. Draw

heat balance sheet on minute basis.

(i)Brake Power,B.P. :

B.P. = 2NT/(60 x 1000) = (2 x 1900 x 186)/(60 x 1000) =

(ii) Brake specific fuel consumption, b.s.f.c. :

b.s.f.c. =10.2/37 =0.2756

kg/kWh

(iii) Brake thermal efficiency

th.(B) =B.P./(mf x C) = 37/((10.2/3600) x 43890) = 0.2975 or 29.75 %

37

(ii) Heat carried away by cooling water = mw x cpw x (tw2 x tw1)

= 15.5 x 4.18 x 36 = 2332 kJ/min

(iii) Heat carried away by exhaust gases = mg x cpg x (tg tr)

= ((10.2/60)+3.80) x 1.17 x (410-20) = 1811 kJ/min

Item

Heat supplied by fuel

(i)Heat absorbed in B.P.

(ii)Heat taken away by cooling water

(iii)Heat carried by exhaust gases

(iv)Heat unaccounted for (by difference)

Total

kJ

7461

2220

2332

1811

1098

7461

Percent

100

29.8

31.2

24.3

14.7

100

indicator diagram obtained has average height of 1 cm while indicator

constant is 25 kN/m2 per mm. The engine run at 300 rpm and the

swept volume is 1.5 104 cm3. The effective brake load upon

dynamometer is 60 kg while the effective brake drum radius is 50 cm.

The fuel consumption is 0.12 kg/min and the calorific value of fuel oil

is 42 MJ/kg. The engine is cooled by circulating water around it at the

rate of 6 kg/min.

The cooling water enters at 35 C and leaves at 70C. Exhaust gases

leaving have energy of 30 kJ/s with them. Take specific heat of water

as 4.18 kJ/kg K. Determine indicated power output, brake power

output and mechanical efficiency. Also draw the overall energy

balance in kJ/s

Indicated mean effective pressure = 10 25 = 250 kPa

single cylinder type the total 4 kg fuel is consumed while the engine is

run at 1500 rpm. Engine is cooled employing water being circulated at

15 kg/min with its inlet and exit temperatures as 27C and 50C. The

total air consumed is 150 kg and the exhaust temperature is 400C. The

atmospheric temperature is 27C. The mean specific heat of exhaust

gases may be taken as 1.25 kJ/kg K. The mechanical efficiency is 0.9.

Determine,

the brake power,

brake specific fuel consumption

and indicated thermal efficiency.

Also draw energy balance on per minute basis. Brake torque is 300 Nm

and the fuel calorific value is 42 MJ/kg.

During trial of a four cylinder four stroke petrol engine running at full

load it has speed of 1500 rpm and brake load of 250 N when all cylinders

are working. After some time each cylinder is cut one by one and then

again brought back to same speed of engine. The brake readings are

measured as 175 N, 180 N, 182 N and 170 N. The brake drum radius is 50

cm. The fuel consumption rate is 0.189 kg/min with the fuel whose

calorific value is 43 MJ/kg and A/F ratio of 12. Exhaust gas temperature is

found to be 600C. The cooling water flows at 18 kg/min and enters at

27C and leaves at 50C. The atmospheric air temperature is 27C. Take

specific heat of exhaust gas as 1.02 kJ/kg K.

Determine the brake power output of engine, its indicated power and

mechanical efficiency. Also draw a heat balance on per minute basis

During the trial of a single acting oil engine, cylinder diameter is 20 cm,

stroke 28 cm, working on two stroke cycle and firing every cycle, the

following observations were made:

Duration of trial :1 hour

Total fuel used :4.22 kg

Calorific value :44670 kJ/kg

Proportion of hydrogen in fuel : 15%

Total number of revolutions : 21000

Mean effective pressure : 2.74 bar

Net brake load applied to a drum of 100 cm diameter : 600 N

Total mass of cooling water circulated : 495 kg

Total mass of cooling water : inlet 13C, outlet 38C

Air used : 135 kg

Temperature of air in test room : 20C

Temperature of exhaust gases : 370C

Assume Cp, gases = 1.005 kJ/kg K,

Cp, steam at atmospheric pressure = 2.093 kJ/kg K

Calculate thermal efficiency and draw up the heat balance.

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