You are on page 1of 5

Chapter # 3 : Atomic Structure

Q#1 : What are the main postulates of Daltons Atomic Theory.


Ans : Dalton Atomic Theory :
(1) Composition :
All elements are made up of small indivisible & indestructible particles called atoms.
(2) Identicalness :
All atoms of a given element are identical in all respects , having same size , mass & chemical
properties. But the atoms of one element differ from the atoms of other elements.
(3) Formation of compounds :
Compounds are formed when atoms or more than one element combine in a simple whole number
ratio.
(4) Chemical Change :
A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms but atoms themselves are not changed this means
that atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions.
Q#2 : What are the main postulates of Modern Atomic Theory.
Ans : Modern Atomic Theory :
(1) Composition :
According to modern atomic theory , atom is a complex organization composed of even smaller
particles called sub atomic particles e.g. electrons , protons & neutrons.
(2) Identicalness :
Daltons view that all atoms of an element have the same mass is modified in the light of discovery of
isotopes.
(3) Ratio of atoms :
According to modern theory the ratio between atoms of various elements in many organic compounds
is not simple.
Q#3 : Describe the experiment which lead to the Discovery of electrons.
Ans : Discovery Of Electrons:
In 1897 , British physicist J.J.Thomson performed an
experiment called discharge tube experiment to discover
electrons.
Experiment :
(1) Discharge tube consists of a glass tube fitted with two
metal electrodes connected to a high voltage
source & a vacuum pump.
(2) When the tube is evacuated & a current of high potential is passed between the electrodes streaks
of bluish light extending from negative electrode (cathode) move towards positive electrode (anode).
(3) The rays cause the wall at the opposite end of the tube to glow where they strike.
Conclusion :
(1) The rays were deflected towards the positive plate in electric & magnetic field.
(2) The name electron was given to these negatively charged particles.
(3) Electrons were obtained irrespective of the nature of cathode or the gas in the tube.
(4) This proved that electrons are the constituent particle of all matter.

Q#4 : Explain the experiment for the discovery of protons.


Ans : Discovery Of Protons :
In 1886 German physicist Goldstein performed a similar
experiment like JJ.Thomsons discharge tube experiment with
a slight modification to prove the existence of protons. He
used a perforated cathode & passed a high voltage current.
Experiment :
(1) When a high voltage of about 10,000 volts is applied to a
discharge tube having a perforated cathode and containing air at very low pressure of about .001 mm
of mercury, a faint red glow is observed behind the cathode.
(2) These rays are formed at the anode and when these rays strike the walls of the discharge tube they
produce a faint red light. Since they are formed at the anode (positive electrode) they are known as
anode rays or positive rays.
Conclusion :
(1) Rays bearing positive charge travel from anode to cathode.
(2) The charge on this positively charged particle was equal to the charge of electron , the negatively
charge particle. The name proton was given to this positively charged particle.
Q#5 : Explain the properties of cathode rays.
Ans : Properties of Cathode Rays :
(1) Path :
They cast shadow of objects placed in their path towards the anode proving that they travel in straight
lines.
(2) Material Particles :
They cause a light paddle wheel to rotate (revolve) showing that they are material particles.
(3) Glow :
These rays although invisible cause some material to glow.
(4) Deflection :
They are deflected towards the positive plate in an electric field showing that they are negatively
charged particles.
(5) Charge to Mass Ratio :
The charge / mass (e/m) ratio of cathode particles is 1.75 x 108 c/g. it is same for all electrons
regardless of any gas in the tube.
(6) Kinetic Energy :
They produce mechanical pressure indicating they possess kinetic energy.
Q#6 : Explain the properties of (positive) anode rays.
Ans : Properties of Positive(Anode) Rays :
(1) Path :
These rays also travel in straight lines from anode to cathode.
(2) Material Particles :
They cause a light paddle wheel to rotate (revolve) showing that they are material particles.
(3) Glow :
These rays although invisible cause some material to glow.

(4) Deflection :
These rays are deflected towards the negative plate when passed through an electric field showing that
these rays carry a positive charge.
(5) Charge to Mass Ratio :
The charge / mass (e/m) ratio of positive particles is much smaller than that of electrons & it varies with
the nature of gas in the tube.
(6) Kinetic Energy :
They produce mechanical pressure indicating they possess kinetic energy.
Q#7 : Explain the properties of electrons , protons & neutrons.
Properties Of Electrons

Properties Of Protons

Properties Of Neutrons

1. Electrons are negatively charged


particles.

1. Protons are positively charged


particles.

1. Neutrons are neutral


particles.

2. Its electric charge is equal to


1.602 x 10-19 coulombs.

2. Its electric charge is also equal


to 1.602 x 10-19 coulombs.

2. It has no electric charge.

3. Its mass is negligible & equal to


9.109 x 10-31 kg.

3. It is 1836 times heavier then


electron & weighs 1.672 x 10-27kg.

3. Its mass is almost equal to


proton & weighs 1.76 x 10-27
kg.

Q#8 : Define Radioactivity.


Ans : Radioactivity :
Radioactivity is the spontaneous disintegration of nucleus of an atom in which invisible radiations are
emitted from the nucleus of atoms. The substances which emit such kind of radiations are known as
radioactive elements & the phenomenon is termed as radioactivity.
Q#9 : Give the characteristics of Alpha , Beta & Gamma rays.
Characteristics of Alpha Rays
(1) Composition :
They are comprised of
positively charged particles.
(2) Speed :
Their speed is about 1/10 th of
the speed of light.
(3) Penetration :
They cannot pass through a
thick metal foil because of
their heavy mass.
(4) Deflection :

Characteristics of Beta Rays


(1) Composition :
They are comprised of
negatively charged particles.
(2) Speed :
They travel with the speed of
light.
(3) Penetration :
They could pass through a few
millimeters thick metal sheet
because of more penetrating
power.

They are deflected towards the (4) Deflection :


negative pole.
They are deflected towards the
(5) Ionization :
positive pole.
They can ionize air or gas.
(5) Ionization :
They can ionize air or gas.

Characteristics of Gamma Rays


(1) Composition :
They are comprised of neutral
particles.
(2) Speed :
They travel with the speed of
light.
(3) Penetration :
They possesses the highest
penetrating power as
compare to alpha or beta
rays.
(4) Deflection :
They do not deflect in any
electric field. Hence they carry
no charge.
(5) Ionization :
They can ionize air or gas.

Q#10 : Explain Rutherfords Gold Foil Experiment. Also explain his proposed Atomic Structure.
Ans : Rutherfords Gold Foil Experiment :
In 1911 Rutherford performed a
gold foil experiment to explain
atomic structure.
Experiment :
In his gold foil experiment,
Rutherford bombarded a beam of
alpha particles on an ultrathin
gold foil and then detected the
scattered alpha particles in zinc
sulfide (ZnS) screen.
Observation :
1. Most of the particles pass
through the foil without any deflection.
2. Some of the alpha particles deflect at small angle & few at large angles.
3. Very few even bounce back (1 in 20,000).
Conclusion (Rutherfords Atomic Model) :
1. Most of the atoms mass and its entire positive charge are confined in a small core, called nucleus.
The nucleus is comprised of protons and neutrons.
2. Most of the volume of an atom is empty space.
3. The number of negatively charged electrons dispersed outside the nucleus in energy levels or shells
are same as number of positively charge particles in the nucleus. It explains the overall electrical
neutrality of an atom.
Q#11 : Explain briefly the defects in Rutherfords Atomic Model.
Ans : Defects In Rutherfords Atomic Model :
1. It fails to explain that since electron is revolving around the nucleus constantly it should lose energy
& ultimately falls into nucleus.
2. If the revolving electrons emit energy continuously then there would be a continuous spectrum but
instead we get line spectrum.
Q#12 : Explain Bohrs Atomic Model.
Ans : Bohrs Atomic Model :
1. Bohr proposed that electrons move only in certain energy level & does not radiate energy
continuously. Hence will not fall in nucleus.
2. Atoms radiate energy as light in discrete quantity called quanta.
3. Atoms only radiate energy when change their energy level. This energy is directly proportional to the
frequency of radiation. E = E2 E1 = hv

Q#13 : Explain Atomic Number , Mass Number , Isotopes , Electronic Configuration & Orbits.
Ans : Atomic Number :
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is called the atomic number. It is denoted by (z) &
written as subscript on the left side of symbol. In a neutral atom it also indicates number of electrons
because they are equal to protons.
Example :

Mass Number :
The sum of the number of protons & neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called the mass number. It is
denoted by A & written as superscript on the left h& side of symbol.
Example :

Isotopes :
Atoms of an element having same atomic number but different mass numbers are called isotopes.
Example :
Isotopes of hydrogen are protium , deuterium & tritium.
Electronic Configuration :
An electron configuration is a shorthand description of how electrons are arranged around the nucleus of
an atom. It predicts chemical behavior. We can predict whether two elements will react or not, and if they
react, we can also predict what kind of reaction we are likely to have, as well as how strong the reaction
will be.
Orbits :
According to Bohrs theory electrons move in a specific circular path called the orbits , shell or energy
level. Orbits are designated as K,L,M,N,O,P.
Chapter No 3 Test Questions :
Q#1 : What are the main postulates of Daltons Atomic Theory.
Q#2 : What are the main postulates of Modern Atomic Theory.
Q#3 : Describe the experiment which lead to the Discovery of electrons.
Q#4 : Explain the experiment for the discovery of protons.
Q#5 : Explain the properties of cathode rays.
Q#6 : Explain the properties of (positive) anode rays.
Q#7 : Explain the properties of electrons , protons & neutrons.
Q#8 : Define Radioactivity.
Q#9 : Give the characteristics of Alpha , Beta & Gamma rays.
Q#10 : Explain Rutherfords Gold Foil Experiment. Also explain his proposed Atomic Structure.
Q#12 : Explain Bohrs Atomic Model.
Q#13 : Explain Atomic Number , Mass Number , Isotopes , Electronic Configuration & Orbits.
Activity:
1. Make a chart showing different formulas used in this chapter.
2. Solve objectives and MCQs in book.
3. Solve book exercise questions.