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Chapter # 4 : Periodicity Of Elements

Q#1 : Explain the Dobereiners Rule of Triad & Newlandss Law of Octave.
Ans : Law Of Triad :
Dobereiner arranged elements in sets of three elements called triads on basis of similar chemical
behavior & observed that ;
Statement :
Central atom of each set of triad had an atomic mass almost equal to the arithmetic mean of the
atomic masses of other two elements.
Example :
Lithium (7) , Sodium (23) , Potassium (39) forms a triad. Then according to Dobereiner the mass of
Sodium could also be calculated as :
Mass Of Na = 39 + 7 = 46 = 23
2
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Newlands Law of Octave :
Newland put forward his law in 1863 which states that ;
If elements are arranged in the order of increasing atomic masses , the eighth element starting from a
given one has similar properties as first one i.e. its properties are a kind of repetition of the first , like
the eighth note in an octave of music.
Example :
After arranging elements in order of eight Newland found that Na & Li has similar properties also Mg &
Be are found similar.
Q#2 : Define Periodicity also define Lother Meyers Classification.
Ans : Periodicity :
Periodicity of elements is define as the recurrence of chemical & physical properties of elements at
regular intervals.
Lother Meyers Classification :
In 1869 Lother Meyer arranged elements in nine vertical columns or groups & laid down the emphasis
on their physical properties. He also calculated the atomic volumes of elements & plotted a graph
between increasing atomic volumes & atomic masses. From the graph he concluded that the elements
with similar properties occupy similar positions in graph.
Example :
The highly reactive alkali metals occupy the peaks of graph showing they possess largest atomic
volumes.
Q#3 : Explain the Mendeleevs Law of classification of elements also describe advantages &
Ans : Mendeleeves Law of Classification :
Mendeleeve in 1869 arrange elements in order of increasing atomic masses. He placed chemically
similar elements vertically beneath each other & concluded that :
The physical & chemical properties of elements are a periodic function of their atomic weights.
Advantages Of Mendeleeves Periodic Table (Salient features):
Systematic Study Of Elements :
It helped in the systematic study of elements.

Concept Of Periodicity :
It forcefully proved the concept of periodicity. Prediction Of New Elements : Prediction of new elements
Correction Of Atomic Masses :
Mendeleeves periodic table helped in correcting many doubtful atomic masses.
Disadvantages Of Mendeleeves Periodic Table (Drawbacks):
Wrong Placement Of Some Elements :
He placed certain elements of higher atomic masses before elements of lower atomic masses.
No Space For Isotopes :
It does not provide space for isotopes of elements.
Dissimilar Grouping of Some Elements :
Some elements were wrongly placed in dissimilar groups like alkali metals placed with coinage metals.
No Idea Of Atomic Structure :
It failed to give the idea of atomic structure.
Q#4 : Explain the Modern Periodic Law , also define salient features of modern periodic table
Ans : Modern Periodic Law :
Based on the concept of atomic number Bohr , Werner & Bury proposed the modern periodic law as ;
The physical & chemical properties of all elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers.
It is also known as Bohrs Long Form Of Periodic Table.
Salient features of the Modern Periodic Table :
Groups :
The vertical columns are called groups. In periodic table there are basically eight groups which are
further subdivided into Sub group A & B & so total 16 groups. Sub group A represents Main or
Representative elements while Sub group B represents Transition elements. The group number
indicates the total number of electrons in valency shell of that element.
Periods :
The horizontal columns are called periods. In periodic table there are seven periods. The physical &
chemical properties of elements change from metallic to non metallic along a period.
Q#5 : Define Representative Elements & Transition Elements.
Ans : Representative Elements :
The elements of Sub Group A are called Main Or representative Elements. The properties of these
elements are represented by their valency electrons.
Transition Elements :
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

The elements of Sub Group B are called Transition Elements.

In these elements besides the valence shell the penultimate shell is also incomplete.
These elements show their characteristic colours in compounds.
There are two types of transition elements.
a) Outer Transition or d - block Elements
b) Inner Transition or f - block Elements.

Q#6 : Define Metals , Non Metals & Metalloids.

Metals
1. They are electropositive
elements.
2. Their oxides are basic.
3. They tend to lose electrons &
form positive ions.
4. They are lustrous , malleable &
ductile except Hg which is the
only liquid metal.
5. Elements of group IA , IIA , some
elements of IIIA VIA & all
transition elements are metals.
6. They are good conductors of
heat & electricity.

Non - Metals

Mettaloids

1. They are electronegative

1. They exhibit metallic as well as
elements.
non-metallic characters.
2. Their oxides are acidic.
2. Their oxides are amphoteric (
3. They tend to gain electrons &
basic as well as acidic ) in
form negative ions.
nature.
4. They are not lustrous , malleable 3. They are concentrated between
& ductile.
the metals & the nonmetals in
5. Majority of elements of p-block
the periodic table.
are non metals.
6. They are bad conductors of heat
& electricity.

Q#7 : Define the following : Atomic Radii , Ionization Energy , Electron Affinity , Electronegativity.
An atom does not have strictly defined boundaries so it is impossible to determine the exact radius of
an atom but theoretically it is defined as half the distance between the two adjacent nuclei of two
similar atoms in touch with each other.
Unit :
It is measured in Angstrom. 1A0 = 10-8 cm.
Trend in Group :
It increases from top to bottom due to increase in number of shells.
Trend in Period :
It decreases from left to right due to increase in nuclear charge.
(2) Ionization Energy :
The minimum amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron from the valence
shell of a gaseous atom or ion in ground state to form a positive ion (cation) is called first ionization
energy or ionization potential.
Unit :
It is measured in K.Jole / Mole or (ev) electron volt per atom. It depends upon the atomic size & nuclear
charge.
Trend in Group :
It decreases from top to bottom due to increase in number of shells.
Trend in Period :
It increases from left to right due to decrease in atomic size & increase in nuclear charge.
(3) Electron Affinity :
The energy change that occurs when an electron is gained by an atom in the gaseous state is called
Electron Affinity. Electron Affinity for the addition of first electron is negative but for further addition of
electrons it is positive.

Unit :
It is measured in K.Jole / Mole or (ev) electron volt per atom. It depends upon the atomic size & nuclear
charge.
Trend in Group :
It decreases from top to bottom due to increase in number of shells in atom which decreases its force of
attraction.
Trend in Period :
It increases from left to right in a period due to increase in nuclear charge.
(4) Electronegativity :
The relative tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract the shared pair of electron towards itself is
called Electronegativity.
Unit :
It is denoted by a number & has no unit.
Trend in Group :
It decreases from top to bottom due to increase in number of shells in atom which decreases its force of
attraction.
Trend in Period :
It increases from left to right in a period due to increase in nuclear charge.
Q#8 : Which property of atom determines the type of bond they form & their properties.
Ans : Reason :
The difference in electronegativities of two combining atoms decides the nature of bond that is formed
between them & affects the properties of molecules.
Chapter No 4 Test Questions :
Q#1 : Explain the Dobereiners Rule of Triad & Newlandss Law of Octave.
Q#2 : Define Periodicity also define Lother Meyers Classification.
Q#3 : Explain the Mendeleevs Law of classification of elements also describe advantages &