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Mughal Civilization

(1526-1857)
By: Noella Horo

The Area Ruled By Mughals

Mughal Dynasty

THE MUGHAL DYNASTY


The longest lasting Islamic Dynasty in India,
established by Babur
Mongol Descendants (Ghenghis Khan & Timur)
The Great Mughal Emperors were:
Babur (1526-1530) The First of the Mughals
Humayun (1530-1556) The Luckless Leader
Akbar (1556-1605) The Great
Jehangir (1605-1627) The Paragon of Stability
Shah Jehan (1627-1658) The Master Builder
Aurangzeb (1658-1707) The Intolerant

KEY INFLUENCES

Centralized government system was introduced


New art and architecural style developed as Persian
art/culture merged with native Indian art/culture
Urdu developed from fusion of Indian and Islamic
culture (Persian+Turkish+Arabic)
Mughlai cuisine was introduced
New trade routes with Arab and Turks
New styles of clothes and jewellary
Center of Islamic culture

Government & Warfare

Centralized Government System

THE LARGEST ARMY

In 1628, army stationed at


the capital alone was over
200,000
Besides there were armies
of the nobles and princes
Fastest army
Accomplished great feats

Weapons

Mughal weapons
improved under Babur,
Akbar, and Auranzeb.
Swords, bows and
arrows
Some of the world's
largest cannons & rifles
Used horses, camels,
and elephants

Social Life

SOCIAL LIFE UNDER MUGHALS


Prosperous empire
helped by creation of
roads and a uniform
currency
Rulers were Muslim,
though otherwise
dominated by Hindus
Depending on emperor,
there was religious
acceptance & tolerance
Religious segregation

Child Marriage was


common

Status Of Women

Hindus, specifically upper


class, adopted the Muslim
practice of isolating women
Received salaries, owned
land & business.
Aristocratic women painted,
wrote poetry, and played
music due to higher
education
Sati Practice continued,
though Mughals tried to
abolish

Mughal Cuisine
Cuisine was perfected, like
an art form
Vary from extremely mild
to spicy, with distinctive
aroma and the taste of
spices.
Strongly influenced by
Central Asian cuisine
Introduced tradition of
desserts after meal

Mughal Clothes and Jewellery


Mughal emperors wore
luxurious clothes
Used muslin, silk, velvet
and brocade fibers
Men - long & short robes
and coats
Women - Shalwar,
churidar, dhilja, garara,
and farshi.
Women - jewelry
included earrings, nose
jewelry, necklaces,
bangles, belts, and
anklets

Recreation Under Mughals

Wrestling

Music

Juggler tricks

Pigeon flying

Hunting wild game

Playing cards

Chess

Village Life in Mughal times

Mud & bamboo huts


Clay utensils, bronze & brass too expensive
Food - rice and moong khichdi, bajra & jowar
rotis with little vegetables & fruits
Common vegetables - beans, spinach, sweet
potatoes, gourds, ladyfinger, & brinjal.
Potatoes, tomatoes, peas, chilly werent grown
in India
Common fruits - banana, mangoes, jackfruits,
watermelon, grapes, ber and pomegranates
High Land tax
One-third of the crop under Akbar rule
Half under Jahangir & Shah Jahan

Advanced Education, Particularly


Under Akbars Rule
Education - raise moral, intellectual
standard of the people
Primarily benefitted Upper/Middle
income people only

Consisted of primary and secondary schools, and even


colleges
Primary schools taught religion, elementary reading,
writing and arithmetic
Colleges taught Maths, Science, History, Economy,
Administration Philosophy etc
The Mughals also built libraries in every province.

Economic Developments

Agriculture Foundation of Economy

Productive agricultural
economy - base of
empires
Relied heavily on wheat
& rice
Maize - animal feed as
Muslims didnt eat it
Profit financed armies

Industry
o Key industries - shipbuilding,
textiles, and steel
o Industry in rural areas
o Population rise attributed to
agricultural success over
industry/trade.

Trade

Manufactured goods & cash crops


sold throughout world
Tobacco and coffee traded by
European merchants
Coffee and smoke houses set up
for indulgence
Mid 16th century, coffee & tobacco
banned as distracted from moral
teachings

Science & Technololgy

Science and technology in Mughal Era

Akbars reign inventions


Prefabricated & movable structures
Fathullah Shirazi - Volley gun.

Developed Shampoos, initially for


head massage
Made Rose scent Itra
Started use of saltpetre (potassium
nitrate) for water cooling
Humayun built a personal observatory
near Delhi.

Art & Architecture

Legacy of Enduring Beauty

Patrons of Art
Painting styles originated in India, colorful
& intricate
Humayun Founded Mughal school of
painting
Akbar - Painters specialized in portraits &
book illustrations
Shah Jahan
Painting flourished like all other arts,
Both Hindu and Muslim artists collaborated
to produce some of the best Indian art.

Music
Mughals patronized music, particularly under Akbar & Shah
Jahan
Aurangazeb dismissed musicians as he didnt religiously
believe in music.
Tansen Most famous musician. Disliked by Hindu
musicians; for deterioration of hindu music, faking the
ragas.
Khiyal School of music asserted itself under Shah Jahan
While empire weajened, new music originated
Thumuri
Tappa

Became part of daily life

Architecture Style
Blend of Islamic and Persian architecture
Introduced innovative construction ideas
Symmetry and balance stressed in designs
Used arches and domes
Used octagons a lot
White marble, red sandstone and Gemstones extensively used
A large number of monuments have survived many centuries

Bad
sh
Mos ahi
que

Laho
re Fo
rt

Architecture under early Mughal Emperors

Babur - Construction of mosques

The famous architectural groundings


that belong to Akbar are:

the fortified-palace of Agra

Fatehpur Sikri in Agra

Jahangiri Mahal, Palace in


Allahabad

Fatehpur Sikri

Fort in Ajmer
Jodha Bai Palace
House of Birbal and his own
magnificent tomb.

rt
Agra fo

Architecture Under Shah Jahan


o Legacy of structures
o Taj Mahal, now a wonder of the world, built out of love for
his wife the empress Mumtaz Mahal.

Symmetrical structure, with


architects from all over the world
Made from white marble under laid
with brick
Took 20 years to complete

One Of The Seven


Wonders of The World

Master Builders Other Architecture

Shahjahan regimes other popular work are


Red Fort in Delhi
Large sections of Agra Fort
The Jama Masjid(Grand Mosque)
The Wazir Khan Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan
The Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque), Lahore
The Shalimar Gardens in Lahore
Sections of the Lahore Fort, Lahore
The Jahangir mausoleumhis father's tomb
He also had the Peacock Throne, Takht e Taus, made
to celebrate his rule.

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n
ha
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h Ja
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a
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T
ock
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Pear
Mo s q l
ue

Jama Mosque in
Dehli

Shal
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Waz
ar Ga
ir K
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Mos
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Lah
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ore que in

Aurangzebs Architectural Legacy

Taj Mahal, Agra 1631-1652


Shah Jehan

Bibi ka Maqbara, Aurangbab 1678


Aurangzeb

Built nearly 50 years apart, the Taj Mahal and the Bibi ka Maqbara are
very similar in architectural style. Aurangzebs other architectural
legacy included:

Moti Masjid (Delhi Fort), Delhi (1659)

Buri-I-Shamali (Delhi Fort), Delhi

Badshahi Mosque, Lahore (1674)

Myths & Legends Around Taj Mahal

Popular Myths & Legends

Black Taj

Mutilation

Sinking Taj

Shah Jahan planned to


build mirror image of
the Taj Mahal, albeit in
black, on the other side
of the river and connect
the two by a bridge.
This Black Taj was to be
dedicated to Shah Jahan
himself. But he could
not complete it as he
was deposed by his own
son Aurangzeb

Hands of craftsmen and


artisans who were
involved in creating Taj
Mahal were cut off after
the completion of Taj so
that they may never be
able to build another
monument as glorifying
as Taj Mahal.

Cracks were discovered


in Taj within 4 years
after its completion, and
repair measures were
taken. Again cracks
surfaced in 1810 and it
was believed that Taj is
sinking towards the
riverside.

The Decline Of Mughal Empire

Mughal Empires Decline

Political

Economic

Social

Huge size made it


hard to govern

Taxes forced upon the Harsh treatment of


poor
Hindus

Lack of a strong
leader

Taxes on all nonmuslins

Western Nations
(England, Portugal)
made their way into
India

Debts accumulated
by the Mughal
emperors

Lack of religious
freedom and
tolerance

Who started the Mughal


Empire in India?

Babur started the Mughal Empire


in India

Which emperors expanded the


Mughal empire in India?

Akbar & Shah Jahan

Name the emperor who arrested


his own father?

Aurangazeb imprisoned his father Shah


Jahan

Name three great buildings built


in Mughal empire?

Taj Mahal, Fatehpur Sikri, Agra fort etc.

Give a few reasons for the


downfall of Mughal empire?

Political

Economic

Social

Huge size made it


hard to govern

Taxes forced upon the Harsh treatment of


poor
Hindus

Lack of a strong
leader

Taxes on all nonmuslins

Western Nations
(England, Portugal)
made their way into
India

Debts accumulated
by the Mughal
emperors

Lack of religious
freedom and
tolerance

Who had the largest army in the


Mughal empire?

Akbar

Who was the intolerant Mughal


emperor?

Aurangzeb

Which Mughal emperor is better


known as the Master Builder?

Shah Jahan

Bibliography
Website

Date

Time

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12th March 2016 12:10

https://globalhistorycullen.wikispaces.co
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10th March 2016 18:30

https://preetk.wordpress.com/2013/08/22/
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20:30

http://www.historytuition.com/medieval_i
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19:00

http://www.importantindia.com/5096/educa
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19:30

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12th March 2016 10:42

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Time

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2016

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2016

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2016

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2016

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10th March
2016

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Website

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2016

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http://www.indianetzone.com/5/the_mughal_emp 10th March


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Picture Bibliography
Date

Time

http://www.readersarticle.com/indians-made-20- 12th March


clever-inventions-probably-didnt-know/
2016

11:21

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2016

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2016

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