Clutches The purpose of a clutch is to initiate motion or increase the velocity of a mass generally by transferring kinetic energy from

another moving item. The mass being accelerated is generally a rotating inertial load . Using a friction type clutch the energy is generally transferred using surfaces lined with friction material... Using a positive clutch the energy is transferred using interlocking teeth or projecting lugs. However magnetic force or fluid viscosity is also used to transfer torque Clutch Type Clutch type Plate Description Notes

Two types :single disc and multi disc. Discs generally have Axial fabric linings on both sides to transmit torque from adjacent Plate rotating discs when clamping forces are applied. Clamping Clutch force may be via springs. The clutch drives between internal and external cones instead of plates. The clutch is engaged when the inner cone(external) is forced into the outer (internal) cone. The Cone cone clutch utilises the wedging action of the parts to Clutch increase the normal force on the lining. Thus an increase in the tangential friction and the torque results. The clutch has improved thermal properties over a plate clutch .


If a conductor moves relative to magnetic field cutting the lines of magnetic field then rings of currents are induced in the conductor round the lines of the magnetic field. The induced currents generate magnetic fields opposing the change i.e. try to stop the relative motion. Eddy The eddy current clutch uses this principle by having an Current input rotating member which drives an output rotating member. One of the rotating members is a magnet ( permanent or electromagnet)and the other is a conductor. The torque transmitted is related to the intensity of eddy currents which are set by the relative speed using permanent magnets or by adjusting the flux field using electromagnets. Dog A clutch in which projections on one part fit into recesses on the other part. This is a positive drive clutch. Old fashion design but very simple This type of clutch transfers torque using a viscous fluid in a chamber. This system allows the speed on the driven side to progressively increase up to the speed of the driving side. Not very good for sudden changes of load This is basically an inner race and and outer race and the annulus between is occupied by a number of sprags. The sprags are steel blocks positioned and shaped such that if they will transmit power from one race to the other by a wedging action in the driving direction. Rotation in the

Fluid Sprag

other direction frees the sprags and the clutch is disengaged. Either race can be the driver. This type of clutch can be used to allow simple over-running, indexing, or back-stopping.

A clutch is a mechanism for transmitting rotation, which can be engaged and disengaged. Clutches are useful in devices that have two rotating shafts. In these devices, one shaft is

typically driven by a motor or pulley, and the other shaft drives another device. In a drill, for instance, one shaft is driven by a motor, and the other drives a drill chuck. The clutch connects the two shafts so that they can either be locked together and spin at the same speed (engaged), or be decoupled and spin at different speeds (disengaged).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Clutch (disambiguation).

Flywheel Clutch for a drive shaft: The clutch disc (center) spins with the flywheel (left). To disengage, the lever is pulled (black arrow), causing a white pressure plate (right) to disengage the green clutch disc from turning the drive shaft, which turns within the thrust-bearing ring of the lever. Never will all 3 rings connect, with no gaps.

Rear side of a Ford V6 engine, looking at the clutch housing on the flywheel

Single, dry, clutch friction disc. The splined hub is attached to the disc with springs to damp chatter.

• •

1 Multiple plate clutch 2 Vehicular
○ ○ ○ ○

2.1 Wet and dry 2.2 Automobiles

2.2.1 Non-powertrain in automobiles

2.3 Motorcycles 2.4 Centrifugal

• • •

3 Other clutches 4 See also 5 External links

[edit] Multiple plate clutch
This type of clutch has several driving members interleaved with several driven members. It is used in motorcycles, automatic transmissions and in some diesel locomotives with mechanical transmission. It is also used in some electronically controlled all-wheel drive systems.

[edit] Vehicular
There are different designs of vehicle clutch, but most are based on one or more friction discs, pressed tightly together or against a flywheel using springs. The friction material varies in composition depending on whether the clutch is dry or wet, and on other considerations. Friction discs once contained asbestos, but this has been largely eliminated. Clutches found in heavy duty applications such as trucks and competition cars use ceramic clutches that have a greatly increased friction coefficient. However, these have a "grabby" action and are unsuitable for road cars. The spring pressure is released when the clutch pedal is depressed thus either pushing or pulling the diaphragm of the pressure plate, depending on type.

However, raising the engine speed too high while engaging the clutch will cause excessive clutch plate wear. Engaging the clutch abruptly when the engine is turning at high speed causes a harsh, jerky start. This kind of start is necessary and desirable in drag racing and other competitions, where speed is more important than comfort.

[edit] Wet and dry
A 'wet clutch' is immersed in a cooling lubricating fluid, which also keeps the surfaces clean and gives smoother performance and longer life. Wet clutches, however, tend to lose some energy to the liquid. A 'dry clutch', as the name implies, is not bathed in fluid. Since the surfaces of a wet clutch can be slippery (as with a motorcycle clutch bathed in engine oil), stacking multiple clutch disks can compensate for the lower coefficient of friction and so eliminate slippage under power when fully engaged. The Hele-Shaw clutch was a wet clutch that relied entirely on viscous effects, rather than on friction.

[edit] Automobiles

This plastic pilot shaft guide tool is used to align the clutch disk as the spring-loaded pressure plate is installed. The transmission's drive splines and pilot shaft have an identical shape. A number of such devices fit various makes and models of drivetrains In a car the clutch is operated by the left-most pedal using a hydraulic or cable connection from the pedal to the clutch mechanism. On older cars the clutch would be operated by a mechanical linkage. Even though the clutch may physically be located very close to the pedal, such remote means of actuation are necessary to eliminate the effect of vibrations and slight engine movement, engine mountings being flexible by design. With a rigid mechanical linkage, smooth engagement would be near-impossible, because engine movement inevitably occurs as the drive is "taken up." No pressure on the pedal means that the clutch plates are engaged (driving), while pressing the pedal disengages the clutch plates, allowing the driver to shift gears or coast. A manual transmission contains cogs for selecting gears. These cogs have matching teeth, called dog teeth, which means that the rotation speeds of the two parts have a synchronizer, a device that uses frictional contact to bring the two parts to the same speed, and a locking mechanism called a blocker ring to prevent engagement of the teeth (full movement of the shift lever into gear) until the speeds are synchronized. [edit] Non-powertrain in automobiles There are other clutches found in a car. For example, a belt-driven engine cooling fan may have a clutch that is heat-activated. The driving and driven elements are separated by a silicone-based fluid and a valve controlled by a bimetallic spring. When the temperature is low, the spring winds and closes the valve, which allows the fan to spin at about 20% to 30% of the shaft speed. As the temperature of the spring rises, it unwinds and opens the valve, allowing fluid past the valve which allows the fan to spin at about 60% to 90% of shaft speed depending on whether it's a regular or heavy-duty clutch. There are also electronically engaged clutches (such as for an air conditioning compressor) that use magnetic force to lock the drive and driven shafts together.

[edit] Motorcycles
On most motorcycles, the clutch is operated by the clutch lever, located on the left handlebar. No pressure on the lever means that the clutch plates are engaged (driving), while pulling the lever back towards the rider will disengage the clutch plates through a cable, allowing the rider to shift gears. Motorcycle clutches are usually made up of a stack of alternating plain steel and friction plates. One type of plate has lugs on its inner diameter that key it to the engine crankshaft, while the other type of plate has lugs on its outer diameter that key it to a basket that turns the transmission input shaft. The plates are forced together by a set of coil springs when the clutch is engaged. Racing motorcycles often use slipper clutches to eliminate the effects of engine braking, which, being applied only to the rear wheel, can lead to instability.

[edit] Centrifugal
Some cars and mopeds have a centrifugal clutch, using centrifugal effects to automatically engage the clutch, when the engine is accelerated above certain rpm, see Saxomat and Variomatic. Mopeds also use centrifugal clutches. On the flat they may be pedalled manually, on apporaching a hill the engine speed is increased, engaging the clutch to assist with the climb.

[edit] Other clutches
• • •

Dog clutches Cone clutches Torque limiter or Safety clutch: This device allows a rotating shaft to "slip" when higher than normal resistance is encountered on a machine. An example of a safety clutch is the one mounted on the driving shaft of a large grass mower. The clutch will "slip" or "give" if the blades hit a rock, stump, or other immobile object. Overrunning clutch or freewheel Centrifugal clutch and semi-centrifugal clutch Hydraulic clutch Electromagnetic clutch Fluid coupling

• • • • •

Dog clutch
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Dog clutch used to drive the platter in a microwave oven. A dog clutch is a type of clutch that couples two rotating shafts or other rotating components not by friction but by interference. The two parts of the clutch are designed such that one will push the other, causing both to rotate at the same speed and will never slip. Dog clutches are used where slip is undesirable and/or the clutch is not used to control torque. Without slippage, dog clutches are not affected by wear in the same way that friction clutches are. Dog clutches are used inside manual automotive transmissions to lock different gears to the rotating input and output shafts. A synchromesh arrangement ensures smooth engagement by matching the shaft speeds before the dog clutch is allowed to engage. A good example of a simple dog clutch can be found in a Sturmey-Archer bicycle hub gear, where a sliding cross-shaped clutch is used to lock the driver assembly to different parts of the planetary geartrain.

[edit] External links

Cone clutch
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Schematic drawing of a cone clutch: 1. Cones: female cone (green), male cone(blue) 2. Shaft: male cone is sliding on splines 3. Friction material: usually on female cone, here on male cone 4. Spring: brings the male cone back after using the clutch control 5. Clutch control: separating both cones by pressing 6. Rotating direction: both direction of the axis are possible A cone clutch serves the same purpose as a disk or plate clutch. However, instead of mating two spinning disks, the cone clutch uses two conical surfaces to transmit torque by friction. The cone clutch transfers a higher torque than plate or disk clutches of the same size due to

the wedging action and increased surface area. Cone clutches are generally now only used in low peripheral speed applications although they were once common in automobiles and other combustion engine transmissions. They are usually now confined to very specialist transmissions in racing, rallying, or in extreme off-road vehicles, although they are common in power boats. This is because the clutch doesn't have to be pushed in all the way and the gears will be changed quicker. Small cone clutches are used in synchronizer mechanisms in manual transmissions.

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Freewheel mechanism In mechanical or automotive engineering, a freewheel or overrunning clutch is a device in a transmission that disengages the driveshaft from the driven shaft when the driven shaft rotates faster than the driveshaft. An overdrive is sometimes mistakenly called a freewheel, but is otherwise unrelated. The condition of a driven shaft spinning faster than its driveshaft exists in most bicycles when the rider holds his or her feet still, no longer pushing the pedals. In a fixed-gear bicycle, without a freewheel, the rear wheel would drive the pedals around. An analogous condition exists in an automobile with a manual transmission going down hill or any situation where the driver takes his foot off the gas pedal, closing the throttle; the wheels want to drive the engine, possibly at a higher RPM. In a two-stroke engine this is a catastrophic situation: as the engine depends on a fuel/oil mixture for lubrication, a shortage of fuel to the engine would result in a shortage of oil in the cylinders, and the pistons would seize after a very short time causing extensive engine damage. Saab used a freewheel system in their two-stroke models for this reason and maintained it in the Saab 96 V4 and early Saab 99 for better fuel efficiency.

[edit] Agricultural equipment
In agricultural equipment an overrunning clutch is typically used on hay balers and other equipment with a high inertial load, particularly when used in conjunction with a tractor

without a live power take-off (PTO). Without a live PTO, a high inertial load can cause the tractor to continue to move forward even when the foot clutch is depressed, creating an unsafe condition. By disconnecting the load from the PTO under these conditions, the overrunning clutch improves safety. Similarly, many unpowered 'push' cylinder lawnmowers use a freewheel to drive the blades: these are geared or chain-driven to rotate at high speed and the freewheel prevents their momentum being transferred in the reverse direction through the drive when the machine is halted.

[edit] Engine starters
A freewheel assembly is also widely used on engine starters as a kind of protective device. Starter motors usually need to spin at 3,000 RPM to get the engine to turn over. When the key is turned to the start position for any amount of time after the engine has already turned over, the starter can not spin fast enough to keep up with the flywheel. Because of the extreme gear ratio between starter gear and flywheel (about 15 or 20:1) it would spin the starter armature at dangerously high speeds, causing an explosion when the centripetal force acting on the copper coils wound in the armature can no longer resist the outward force acting on them. In starters without the freewheel or overrun clutch this would be a major problem because, with the flywheel spinning at about 1,000 RPM at idle, the starter, if engaged with the flywheel, would be forced to spin between 15,000 and 20,000 RPM. Once the engine has turned over and is running, the overrun clutch will release the starter from the flywheel and prevent the gears from re-meshing (as in an accidental turning of the ignition key) while the engine is running. A freewheel clutch is now used in many motorcycles with an electric starter motor. It is used as a replacement for the Bendix drive used on most auto starters because it reduces the electrical needs of the starting system.

[edit] Vehicle transmissions
In addition to the automotive uses listed above (i.e. in two-stroke-engine vehicles and early four-stroke Saabs), freewheels were used in some luxury or up-market conventional cars (such as Rovers and Cords) from the 1930s into the 1960s. The freewheel meant that the engine returned to its idle speed on the overrun, thus greatly reducing noise from both the engine and gearbox. The mechanism could usually be locked to provide engine braking if needed. A freewheel was also used in the original Land Rover vehicle from 1948 to 1951. The freewheel controlled drive from the gearbox to the front axle, which disengaged on the overrun. This allowed the vehicle to have a permanent 4 wheel drive system by avoiding 'wind-up' forces in the transmission. This system worked, but produced unpredictable handling, especially in slippery conditions or when towing, and was replaced by a conventional selectable 4WD system.

[edit] Bicycles
In the older style of bicycle, where the freewheel mechanism is included in the gear assembly, the system is called a freewheel, whereas the newer style, in which the freewheel mechanism is in the hub, is called a freehub.

[edit] Helicopters
Freewheels are also used in rotorcraft. As a bicycle's wheels need to be able to rotate faster than the pedals so too does a rotorcraft's blades need to be able to spin faster than its drive engines. This is especially important in the event of an engine failure where a freewheel in the main transmission allows the main and tail rotor systems to continue to spin independent of the drive system. This provides for continued flight control and an autorotation landing.

Centrifugal clutch
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A chainsaw clutch. The chain wraps around a sprocket behind the clutch that turns with the outer drum. A centrifugal clutch is a clutch that uses centrifugal force to connect two concentric shafts, with the driving shaft nested inside the driven shaft. The input of the clutch is connected to the engine crankshaft while the output may drive a shaft, chain, or belt. As engine RPM increases, weighted arms in the clutch swing outward and force the clutch to engage. The most common types have friction pads or shoes radially mounted that engage the inside of the rim of a housing. On the center shaft there are an assorted number of extension springs, which connect to a clutch shoe. When the center shaft spins fast enough, the springs extend causing the clutch shoes to engage the friction face. It can be compared to a drum brake in reverse. This type can be found on most home built karts, lawn and garden equipment, fuel powered model cars and low power chainsaws. Another type used in racing karts has friction and clutch disks stacked together like a motorcycle clutch. The weighted arms force these disks together and engage the clutch. When the engine reaches a certain RPM, the clutch activates, working almost like a continuously variable transmission. As the load increases the rpm drops, disengaging the clutch, letting the rpm rise again and reengaging the clutch. If tuned properly, the clutch will tend to keep the engine at or near the torque peak of the engine. This results in a fair bit of waste heat, but over a broad range of speeds it is much more useful than a direct drive in many applications. Centrifugal clutches are often used in mopeds, underbones, lawnmowers, go-karts, chainsaws, and mini bikes to:

keep the internal combustion engine from stalling when the blade is stopped abruptly disengage load during starting and idle

Thomas Fogarty, who also invented the balloon catheter, is credited with inventing a centrifugal clutch in the 1940s,[1] although automobiles were being manufactured with centrifugal clutches as early as 1936[

Fluid coupling
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search This article is not about hydrodyamic fluid complings, for "hydroviscous fluid couplings" see Viscous coupling unit.

A fluid coupling is a hydrodynamic device used to transmit rotating mechanical power.[1] It has been used in automobile transmissions as an alternative to a mechanical clutch. It also has widespread application in marine and industrial machine drives, where variable speed operation and/or controlled start-up without shock loading of the power transmission system is essential.

• •

1 History 2 Overview
○ ○ ○ ○

2.1 Stall speed 2.2 Slip 2.3 Hydraulic fluid 2.4 Hydrodynamic braking 3.1 Industrial 3.2 Rail transportation 3.3 Automotive 3.4 Aviation

3 Applications
○ ○ ○ ○

• • • •

4 Calculations 5 Manufacture 6 See also 7 References and notes
○ ○

7.1 Notes 7.2 References

[edit] History
The fluid coupling originates from the work of Dr. Hermann Föttinger, who was the chief designer at the AG Vulcan Works in Stettin.[2]. His patents from 1905 covered both fluid couplings and torque converters. In 1930 Harold Sinclair, working with the Daimler company, devised a transmission system using a fluid coupling and planetary gearing for buses in an attempt to mitigate the lurching he had experienced while riding on London buses during the 1920s.[2] In 1939 General Motors Corporation introduced Hydramatic drive, the first fully automatic automotive transmission system installed in a mass produced automobile[2]. The Hydramatic employed a fluid coupling. The first Diesel locomotives using fluid couplings were also produced in the 1930s[3]

[edit] Overview
A fluid coupling consists of three components, plus the hydraulic fluid:

The housing, also known as the shell[4] (which must have an oil tight seal around the drive shafts), contains the fluid and turbines.

Two turbines (fan like components):
○ ○

One connected to the input shaft; known as the pump or impellor[4], primary wheel[4] input turbine The other connected to the output shaft, known as the turbine, output turbine, secondary wheel[4] or runner

The driving turbine, known as the 'pump', (or driving torus[note 1]) is rotated by the prime mover, which is typically an internal combustion engine or electric motor. The impellor's motion imparts both outwards linear and rotational motion to the fluid. The hydraulic fluid is directed by the 'pump' whose shape forces the flow in the direction of the 'output turbine' (or driven torus[note 1]). Here, any difference in the angular velocities of 'input stage' and 'output stage' result in a net force on the 'output turbine' causing a torque; thus causing it to rotate in the same direction as the pump. The motion of the fluid is effectively toroidal - travelling in one direction on paths that can be visualised as being on the surface of a torus: • • If there is a difference between input and output angular velocities the motion has a component which is circular (ie round the rings formed by sections of the torus) If the input and output stages have identical angular velocities there is no net centripetal force - and the motion of the fluid is circular and co-axial with the axis of rotation (ie round the edges of a torus), there is no flow of fluid from one turbine to the other.

[edit] Stall speed
An important characteristic of a fluid coupling is its stall speed. The stall speed is defined as the highest speed at which the pump can turn when the output turbine is locked and maximum input power is applied. Under stall conditions all of the engine's power would be dissipated in the fluid coupling as heat, possibly leading to damage. Step-circuit coupling A modification to the simple fluid coupling is the step-circuit coupling which was formerly manufactured as the "STC coupling" by the Fluidrive Engineering Company. The STC coupling contains a reservoir to which some, but not all, of the oil gravitates when the output shaft is stalled. This reduces the "drag" on the input shaft, resulting in reduced fuel consumption when idling and a reduction in the vehicle's tendency to "creep". When the output shaft begins to rotate, the oil is thrown out of the reservoir by centrifugal force, and returns to the main body of the coupling, so that normal power transmission is restored [5].

[edit] Slip
A fluid coupling cannot develop output torque when the input and output angular velocities are identical.[6] Hence a fluid coupling cannot achieve 100 percent power transmission efficiency. Due to slippage that will occur in any fluid coupling under load, some power will always be lost in fluid friction and turbulence, and dissipated as heat. The very best efficiency a fluid coupling can achieve is 94%, that is for every 100 revolutions input, there will be 94 revolutions output.

[edit] Hydraulic fluid
As a fluid coupling operates kinetically, low viscosity fluids are preferred.[6] Generally speaking, multi-grade motor oils or automatic transmission fluids are used. Increasing density of the fluid increases the amount of torque that can be transmitted at a given input speed.[7]

[edit] Hydrodynamic braking
Fluid couplings can also act as hydrodynamic brakes, dissipating rotational energy as heat through frictional forces (both viscous and fluid/container). When a fluid coupling is used for braking it is also known as a retarder.[4]

[edit] Applications
[edit] Industrial
Fluid couplings are used in many industrial application involving rotational power[8][9], especially in machine drives that involve high-inertia starts or constant cyclic loading.

[edit] Rail transportation
Fluid couplings are found in some Diesel locomotives as part of the power transmission system. Self-Changing Gears made semi-automatic transmissions for British Rail, and Voith manufacture turbo-transmissions for railcars and diesel multiple units which contain various combinations of fluid couplings and torque converters.

[edit] Automotive
Fluid couplings were used in a variety of early semi-automatic transmissions and automatic transmissions. Since the late 1940s, the hydrodynamic torque converter has replaced the fluid coupling in automotive applications. In automotive applications, the pump typically is connected to the flywheel of the engine—in fact, the coupling's enclosure may be part of the flywheel proper, and thus is turned by the engine's crankshaft. The turbine is connected to the input shaft of the transmission. While the transmission is in gear, as engine speed increases torque is transferred from the engine to the input shaft by the motion of the fluid, propelling the vehicle. In this regard, the behavior of the fluid coupling strongly resembles that of a mechanical clutch driving a manual transmission. Fluid flywheels, as distinct from torque converters, are best known for their use in Daimler cars in conjunction with a Wilson pre-selector gearbox. Daimler used these throughout their range of luxury cars, until switching to automatic gearboxes with the 1958 Majestic. Daimler and Alvis were both also known for their military vehicles and armored cars, some of which also used the combination of pre-selector gearbox and fluid flywheel.

[edit] Aviation
The most prominent use of fluid couplings in aeronautical applications was in the Wright turbo-compound reciprocating engine, in which three power recovery turbines extracted approximately 20 percent of the energy or about 500 horsepower (370 kW) from the engine's exhaust gases and then, using three fluid couplings and gearing, converted low-torque highspeed turbine rotation to low-speed, high-torque output to drive the propeller.

Electromagnetic clutch
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search Electromagnetic clutches operate electrically, but transmit torque mechanically. This is why they used to be referred to as electro-mechanical clutches. Over the years EM became known as electromagnetic versus electro mechanical, referring more about their actuation method versus physical operation. Since the clutches started becoming popular over sixty years ago, the variety of applications and clutch designs has increased dramatically, but the basic operation remains the same.

Single-face clutches make up approximately 90% of all electromagnetic clutch sales. This article mainly deals with these types of clutches. Alternative clutch designs are mentioned at the end of this article.

• • • • • • • • • • •

1 Construction 2 Basic operation 3 Voltage/current - and the magnetic field 4 Engagement time 5 Burnishing 6 Torque 7 Over-excitation 8 Clutch wear 9 Backlash 10 Environment / contamination 11 Other types of electromagnetic clutches
○ ○ ○ ○

11.1 Muliple Disk Clutches 11.2 Electromagnetic tooth clutches 11.3 Electromagnetic particle clutches 11.4 Hysteresis-powered clutch

12 References

[edit] Construction

B-1 Electromagnetic clutch

A-1 Horseshoe magnet red silver iron

A-6 Double Flux clutch

A-2 Ogura Industrial Typical 2 pole clutch

Operation of a clutch

A-4 Triple flux clutch

A-7 Triple flux rotor with banana slots and bridges A horseshoe magnet (A-1) has a north and south pole. If a piece of carbon steel contacts both poles, a magnetic circuit is created. In an electromagnetic clutch, the north and south pole is created by a coil shell and a wound coil. In a clutch, (B1) when powers applied, a magnetic field is created in the coil (A2 blue). This field (flux) overcomes an air gap between the clutch rotor (A2 yellow) and the armature (A2 red). This magnetic attraction, pulls the armature in contact with the rotor face. The frictional contact, which is being controlled by the strength of the magnetic field, is what causes the rotational motion to start. The torque comes from the magnetic attraction, of the coil and the friction between the steel of the armature and the steel of the clutch rotor. For many industrial clutches, friction material is used between the poles. The material is mainly used to help decrease the wear rate, but different types of material can also be used to change the coefficient of friction (torque for special applications). For example, if the clutch is required to have an extended time to speed

or slip time, a low coefficient friction material can be used and if a clutch is required to have a slightly higher torque (mostly for low rpm applications), a high coefficient friction material can be used.[1] In a clutch, the electromagnetic lines of flux have to pass into the rotor, and in turn, attract and pull the armature in contact with it to complete clutch engagement. Most industrial clutches use what is called a single flux, two pole design (A-2). Mobile clutches of other specialty electromagnetic clutches can use a double or triple flux rotor (A-4). The double or trip flux refers to the number of north/south flux paths (A-6), in the rotor and armature. These slots (banana slots) (A-7) create an air gap which causes the flux path to take the path of least resistance when the faces are engaged. This means that, if the armature is designed properly and has similar banana slots, what occurs is a leaping of the flux path, which goes north south, north south (A-6). By having more points of contact, the torque can be greatly increased. In theory, if there were 2 sets of poles at the same diameter, the torque would double in a clutch. Obviously, that is not possible to do, so the points of contact have to be at a smaller inner diameter. Also, there are magnetic flux losses because of the bridges between the banana slots. But by using a double flux design, a 30%-50% increase in torque, can be achieved, and by using a triple flux design, a 40%-90% in torque can be achieved. This is important in applications where size and weight are critical, such as automotive requirements.

The coil shell is made with carbon steel that has a combination of good strength and good magnetic properties. Copper (sometimes aluminum) magnet wire, is used to create the coil, which is held in shell either by a bobbin or by some type of epoxy/adhesive.[3] To help increase life in applications, friction material is used between the poles on the face of the rotor. This friction material is flush with the steel on the rotor, since if the friction material was not flush, good magnetic traction could not occur between the faces. Some people look at electromagnetic clutches and mistakenly assume that, since the friction material is flush with the steel, that the clutch has already worn down, but this is not the case. Clutches used in most mobile applications, (automotive, agriculture, construction equipment) do not use friction material. Their cycle requirements tend to be lower than industrial clutches, and their cost is more sensitive. Also, many mobile clutches are exposed to outside elements, so by not having friction material, it eliminates the possibility of swelling (reduced torque), that can happen when friction material absorbs moisture.[4]

[edit] Basic operation
The clutch has four main parts: field, rotor, armature, and hub (output) (B1). When voltage is applied the stationary magnetic field generates the lines of flux that pass into the rotor. (The rotor is normally connected to the part that is always moving in the machine.) The flux (magnetic attraction) pulls the armature in contact with the rotor (the armature is connected to the component that requires the acceleration), as the armature and the output start to accelerate. Slipping between the rotor face and the armature face continues until the input and output speed is the same (100% lockup). The actual time for this is quite short, between 1/200th of a second and 1 second. Disengagement is very simple. Once the field starts to degrade, flux falls rapidly and the armature separates. One or more springs hold the armature away from the rotor at a predetermined air gap.

[edit] Voltage/current - and the magnetic field

V-1 Right hand thumb rule If a piece of copper wire was wound, around the nail and then connected to a battery, it would create an electro magnet. The magnetic field that is generated in the wire, from the current, is known as the “right hand thumb rule”. (V-1) The strength of the magnetic field can be changed by changing both wire size and the amount of wire (turns). EM clutches are similar; they use a copper wire coil (sometimes aluminum) to create a magnetic field. The fields of EM clutch can be made to operate at almost any DC voltage, and the torque produced by the clutch or brake will be the same, as long as the correct operating voltage and current is used with the correct clutch. If a 90 volt clutch, a 48 volt clutch and a 24 volt clutch, all being powered with their respective voltages and current, all would produce the same amount of torque. However, if a 90 volt clutch had 48 volts applied to it, this would get about half of the correct torque output of that clutch. This is because voltage/current is almost linear to torque in DC electromagnetic clutches. A constant power supply is ideal if accurate or maximum torque is requiried from a clutch. If a non regulated power supply is used, the magnetic flux will degrade, as the resistance of the coil goes up. Basically, the hotter the coil gets the lower the torque will be, by about an average of 8% for every 20°C. If the temperature is fairly constant, but there may not be enough service factor in your design for minor temperature fluctuation. Over-sizing, the clutch would compensate for minor flux. This will allow the use a rectified power supply which is far less expensive than a constant current supply. Based on V = I × R, as resistance increases available current falls. An increase in resistance, often results from rising temperature as the coil heats up, according to: Rf = Ri × [1 + αCu × (Tf - Ti)] Where Rf = final resistance, Ri = initial resistance, αCu = copper wire’s temperature coefficient of resistance, 0.0039 °C-1, Tf = final temperature, and Ti = initial temperature.

[edit] Engagement time
There are actually two engagement times to consider in an electromagnetic clutch. The first one is the time it takes for a coil to develop a magnetic field, strong enough to pull in an armature. Within this, there are two factors to consider. The first one is the amount of ampere turns in a coil, which will determine the strength of a magnetic field. The second one is air gap, which is the space between the armature and the rotor. Magnetic lines of flux diminish quickly in the air. The further away the attractive piece is from the coil, the longer it will take for that piece to actually develop enough magnetic force to be attracted and pull in to overcome the air gap. For very high cycle applications, floating armatures can be used that rest lightly against the rotor. In this case, the air gap is zero; but, more importantly the response time is very consistent since there is no air gap to overcome. Air gap is an important consideration especially with a fixed armature design because as the unit wears over many

cycles of engagement the armature and the rotor will create a larger air gap which will change the engagement time of the clutch. In high cycle applications, where registration is important, even the difference of 10 to 15 milliseconds can make a difference, in registration of a machine. Even in a normal cycle application, this is important because a new machine that has accurate timing can eventually see a “drift” in its accuracy as the machine gets older. The second factor in figuring out response time of a clutch is actually much more important than the magnet wire or the air gap. It involves calculating the amount of inertia that the clutch needs to accelerate. This is referred to as “time to speed”. In reality, this is what the end-user is most concerned with. Once it is known how much inertia is present for the clutch to start then the torque can be calculated and the appropriate size of clutch can be chosen. Most CAD systems can automatically calculate component inertia, but the key to sizing a clutch is calculating how much inertial is reflected back to the clutch or brake. To do this, engineers use the formula: T = (WK2 × ΔN) / (308 × t) Where T = required torque in lb-ft, WK2 = total inertia in lb-ft2, ΔN = change in the rotational speed in rpm, and t = time during which the acceleration or deceleration must take place. There are also online sites that can help confirm how much torque is required to accelerate a given amount of inertia over a specific time. Remember to make sure that the torque chosen, for the clutch, should be after the clutch has been burnished. Inertia Calculator

[edit] Burnishing
Burnishing is the wearing or mating of opposing surfaces. When the armature and rotor faces are produced, the faces are machined as flat as possible. (Some manufacturers also lightly grind the faces to get them smoother.) But even with that the machining process leaves peaks and valleys on the surface of the steel. When a new “out of the box” clutch is initially engaged most peaks on both mating surfaces touch which means that the potential contact area can be significantly reduced. In some cases, an out of box clutch can have only 50% of its torque rating. Burnishing is the process of cycling the clutch to wear down those initial peaks, so that there is more surface contact between the mating faces. Even though burnishing is required to get full torque out of the clutch it may not be required in all applications. Simply put, if the application torque is lower than the initial out of box torque of the clutch, burnishing is not required however, if the torque required is higher, then burnishing needs to be done. In general, this tends to be required more on higher torque clutches than on smaller torque clutches. The process involves cycling the clutch a number of times at a lower inertia, lower speed or a combination of both. Burnishing can require anywhere from 20 to over 100 cycles depending upon the size of a clutch and the amount of initial torque required. For bearing mounted clutches, where the rotor and armature are connected and held in place via a bearing, burnishing does not have to take place on the machine. It can be done individually on a bench or in a group burnishing station. If a clutch has a separate armature and rotor (two piece unit) burnishing is done as a matched set, to make sure proper torque is achieved.

[edit] Torque
Burnishing can affect initial torque of a clutch but there are also factors that affect the torque performance of a clutch in an application. The main one is voltage/current. In the voltage/current section it was shown why a constant current supply is important to get full torque out of a clutch.

When considering torque, is dynamic or static torque more important? For example, if a machine is running at a relatively low rpm (5 – 50 depending upon size) then dynamic torque is not a consideration since the static torque rating of the clutch will come closest to where the application is running. However, if a machine is running at 3,000rpm and the same full torque is required the result will not be the same because of the difference between static and dynamic torques. Almost all manufacturers put the static rated torque for their clutches in their catalog. If a specific response time is needed the dynamic torque rating for a particular clutch at a given speed is required. In many cases, this can be significantly lower. Sometimes it can be less than half of the static torque rating. Most manufacturers publish torque curves showing the relationship between dynamic and static torque for a given series of clutch. (T-1)


[edit] Over-excitation
Over-excitation is used to achieve a faster response time. It’s when a coil momentarily receives a higher voltage then its nominal rating. To be effective the over excitation voltage must be significantly, but not to the point of diminishing returns, higher than the normal coil voltage. Three times the voltage typically gives around 1/3 faster response. Fifteen times the normal coil voltage will produce a 3 times faster response time. For example, a clutch coil that was rated for 6 volts would need to put in 90 volts to achieve the 3 times factor. With over-excitation the in-rush voltage is momentary. Although it would depend upon the size of the coil the actual time is usually only a few milliseconds. The theory is, for the coil to generate as much of a magnetic field as quickly as possible to attract the armature and start the process of acceleration or deceleration. Once the over excitation is no longer required the power supply to the clutch or brake would return to its normal operating voltage. This process can be repeated a number of times as long as the high voltage does not stay in the coil long enough to cause the coil wire to overheat.

[edit] Clutch wear
It is very rare that a coil would just stop working in an electromagnetic clutch. Typically, if a coil fails it is usually due to heat which has caused the insulation of the coil wire to break down. The heat can be caused by high ambient temperature, high cycle rates, slipping or applying too high of a voltage. Bushings can be used in some clutches that have low speed, low side loads or low operating hours. At higher loads and speeds, bearing mounted

field/rotors and hubs are a better option. Like the coils, unless bearings are stressed beyond their physical limitations or become contaminated, they tend to have a long life and they are usually the second item to wear out. The main wear in electromagnetic clutches occurs on the faces of the mating surfaces. Every time a clutch is engaged during rotation a certain amount of energy is transferred as heat. The transfer which occurs during rotation wears both the armature and the opposing contact surface. Based upon the size of the clutch or brake, the speed and the inertia, wear rates will differ. For example a machine that was running at 500 rpm with a clutch and is now sped up to 1000 rpm would have its wear rate significantly increased because the amount of energy required to start the same amount of inertia is a lot higher at the higher speed. With a fixed armature design a clutch will eventually simply cease to engage. This is because the air gap will eventually become too large for the magnetic field to overcome. Zero gap or auto wear armatures can wear to the point of less than one half of its original thickness, which will eventually cause missed engagements. Designers can estimate life from the energy transferred each time the brake or clutch engages. Ee = [m × v2 × τd] / [182 × (τd + τl)] Where Ee = energy per engagement, m = inertia, v = speed, τd = dynamic torque, and τl = load torque. Knowing the energy per engagement lets the designer calculate the number of engagement cycles the clutch or brake will last: L = V / (Ee × w) Where L = unit life in number of cycles, V = total engagement area, and w = wear rate.

[edit] Backlash
Some applications require very tight precision between all components. In these applications even a degree of movement between the input and the output when a clutch is engaged can be a problem. This is true in many robotic applications. Sometimes the design engineers will order clutches with zero backlash but then key them to the shafts so although the clutch or brake will have zero backlash there’s still minimal movement occurring between the hub or rotor in the shaft. Most applications, however, do not need true zero backlash and can use a spline type connection. Some of these connections between the armature and the hub are standard splines others are hex or square hub designs. The spline will have the best initial backlash tolerance. Typically around 2 degrees but the spline and the other connection types can wear over time and the tolerances will increase.

[edit] Environment / contamination
As clutches wear they create wear particles. In some applications such as clean rooms or food handling this dust could be a contamination problem so in these applications the clutch should be enclosed to prevent the particles from contaminating other surfaces around it. But a more likely scenario is that the clutch has a better chance of getting contaminated from its environment. Obviously oil or grease should be kept away from the contact surface because they would significantly reduce the coefficient of friction which could drastically decrease the torque potentially causing failure. Oil midst or lubricated particles can also cause surface contamination. Sometimes paper dust or other contamination can fall in between the contact surfaces. This can also result in a lost of torque. If a known source of contamination is going to be present many clutch manufactures offer contamination shields that prevent material from falling in between the contact surfaces. In clutches that have not been used in a while rust can develop on the surfaces. But in general this is normally not a major concern since the rust is worn off within a few cycles and there is no lasting impact on the torque.

[edit] Other types of electromagnetic clutches
[edit] Muliple Disk Clutches

Multiple Disk Clutch Introduction - Multiple Disk clutches are used to deliver extremely high torque in a relatively small space. These clutches can be used dry or wet (oil bath). Running the clutches in an oil bath also greatly increases the heat dissipation capability, which makes them ideally suited for multiple speed gear boxes and machine tool applications. How it works - Multiple disk clutches operate via an electrical actuation but transmit torque mechanically. When voltage /current is applied to the clutch coil, the coil becomes an electromagnet and produces magnetic lines of flux. These lines of flux are transferred through the small air gap between the field and the rotor. The rotor portion of the clutch becomes magnetized and sets up a magnetic loop, which attracts both the armature and friction disks. The attraction of the armature compresses (squeezes) the friction disks, transferring the torque from the in inner driver to the out disks. The output disks are connected to a gear, coupling, or pulley via drive cup. The clutch slips until the input and output RPMs are matched. This happens relatively quickly typically (.2 - 2 sec). When the current/voltages are removed from the clutch, the armature is free to turn with the shaft. Springs hold the friction disk away from each other, so there is no contact when the clutch is not engaged, creating a minimal amount of drag.

[edit] Electromagnetic tooth clutches

Electromagnetic Tooth Clutch Introduction - Of all the electromagnetic clutches, the tooth clutches provide the greatest amount of torque in the smallest overall size. Because torque is transmitted without any

slippage, clutches are idea for multi stage machines where timing is critical such as multi stage printing presses. Sometimes, exact timing needs to be kept, so tooth clutches can be made with a single position option which means that they will only engage at a specific degree mark. They can be used in dry or wet (oil bath) applications, so they are very well suited for gear box type drives. They should not be used in high speed applications or applications that have engagement speeds over 50 RPM otherwise damage to the clutch teeth would occur when trying to engage the clutch. How it Works – Electromagnetic Tooth clutches operate via an electric actuation but transmit torque mechanically. When voltage/current is applied to the clutch coil, the coil becomes an electromagnet and produces magnetic lines of flux. This flux is then transferred through the small gap between the field and the rotor. The rotor portion of the clutch becomes magnetized and sets up a magnetic loop, which attracts the armature teeth to the rotor teeth. In most instances, the rotor is consistently rotating with the input (driver). As soon as the clutch armature and rotor are engaged, lock up is 100%. When current/voltage is removed from the clutch field, the armature is free to turn with the shaft. Springs hold the armature away from the rotor surface when power is released, creating a small air gap and providing complete disengagement from input to output.

[edit] Electromagnetic particle clutches

Electro-magnetic Particle Clutch Introduction – Magnetic particle clutches are unique in their design, from other electromechanical clutches because of the wide operating torque range available. Like a standard, single face clutch, torque to voltage is almost linear. However, in a magnetic particle clutch torque can be controlled very accurately. This makes these units ideally suited for tension control applications, such as wire winding, foil, film, and tape tension control. Because of their fast response, they can also be used in high cycle application, such as card readers, sorting machines, and labeling equipment. How it Works – Magnetic particles (very similar to iron filings) are located in the powder cavity. Without any voltage/current they sit in the cavity. However, when voltage/current is applied to the coil, the magnetic flux that is created tries to bind the particles together, almost like a magnetic particle slush. As the voltage/current is increased, the magnetic field builds, strengthening the binding of the particles. The clutch rotor passes through the bound particles, causing drag between the input and the output during rotation. Depending upon the output torque requirement, the output and input may lock at 100% transfer. When voltage/current is removed from the clutch, the input is free to turn with the shaft. Since the magnetic particle is in the cavity, all magnetic particle units have some type of minimum drag associated with them.

[edit] Hysteresis-powered clutch

Hysteresis Powered Clutch Introduction – Electrical hysteresis units have an extremely high torque range. Since these units can be controlled remotely, they are ideal for testing application where varying torque is required. Since drag torque is minimal, these units offer the widest available torque range of any electromagnetic product. Most applications involving powered hysteresis units are in test stand requirements. Since all torque is transmitted magnetically, there is no contact, so no wear occurs to any of the torque transfer components providing for extremely long life. How it works – When the current / voltage is applied to the field, it creates magnetic flux. This passes into the rotor portion of the field. The hysteresis disk physically passes through the rotor, without touching it. These disks have the ability to become magnetized depending upon the strength of the flux (this dissipates as flux is removed). This means, as the rotor rotates, magnetic drag between the rotor and the hysteresis disk take place causing rotation. In a sense, the hysteresis disk is pulled after the rotor. Depending upon the output torque required, this pull eventually can match the input speed, giving a 100% lockup. When current / voltage is removed from the clutch, the armature is free to turn and no relative force is transmitted between either member. Therefore, the only torque seen between the input and the output is bearing drag.

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