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Movement of Materials in Xylem and Phloem

Aim: To observe how materials move up the plant.


Equipment:

Celery
Light microscope
Microscope slides x2
Cover slips x2
Petri dish
Scalpel
Water

Risk Assessment:
Risk
Dye could stain your
clothes

Level
Moderate

You could get cut by a


scalpel.

High

Control Measure
While using the dye be
careful not to spill it
and once finished put
it back.
Handle the scalpel
carefully while cutting
the celery.

Method:
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Prepare a celery stem leaving it mixed with water and blue dye.
Cut a piece of celery stem and place it on the petri dish.
Cut a thin longitudinal and transverse slice of xylem with a scalpel.
Place the two slices on two different slides.
Add one drop of water on each to wet it.
Place one slide at a time under the microscope.
Observe and record the results.

Results:
Longitudinal Section

Transverse Section

Conclusion: The experiment proved that the movement of materials in


plants is a one way flow, from bottom to top. The dye rose up the xylem,
staining it strongly and allowing the different parts of it to be viewed
under the microscope.
Discussion:

The food dye highlights the xylem vessels. It shows the tube
through which the water and nutrients travel. It also helps to prove
that water and nutrients travel upwards.
Xylem vessels are tubes with spirals. The spirals or the circular rings
in the vessel are vascular bundles that were observed in the
transverse section.
Evidence that xylem transports water and nutrients and the
direction of movement:
Bottom of the celery stick was blue and it rose upwards
Xylem is blue
During transpiration water is lost which creates high pressure
outside the leaf and low pressure inside. To equalise the pressure,
the water is sucked through the xylem and transported to the
leaves. This is how movement of water occurs.