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# Transmission line parameters:

## (a) Introduction to Transmission lines , purpose and importance

- Towers usually made up of steel, wood or reinforced concrete with its own
right of way. Generally, steel towers are of single circuit line, double
circuit lines or multi circuit lines.
- Less than 1% transmission lines are underground
(c) Types of conductors(i)
ACSR Aluminium conductor steel reinforced.
(ii)
AAC All aluminium conductor
(iii)
AAAC All aluminium alloy conductor
(iv)
ACAR- aluminium conductor alloy reinforced.
(d) Transmission line voltage
Transmission lines operating at more than 60kV are standardised at
69kV,115kV,138kV,161kV,230kV,345kV,500kV,765kV line to line.
Transmission voltage above 230kV are usually referred as extra-high
voltage(EHV) and those at 765kV and above are referred as ultra-high
voltage(UHV).
(e) Conductor area
-Conductors sizes are expressed by cmil( circular mills) by the manufacturers
- One mil equals 0.001inch
- For a solid round conductor the area in circular mils is defined as the square of
diameter in mils.
-1,000,000 cmil areas represent a solid round conductor 1 inch in diameter.
Line Resistance:
Rdc = l/A
Where , = conductor resistivity
l= effective length of the conductor
A= Conductor cross-sectional area
Skin effect
Uneven distribution of current in a conductor
Temperature effect

T t2

## T t1 Where, R2 and R1 are conductor resistances at t2 and t1

R2= R1
degree centigrade. T is the temperature constant, which is equal to 228 for
aluminium.