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2.2.1

Gaining insights from research


for classroom planning
Nicole Cochrane S00142840 -

Content and
teaching
strategies of
the teaching
area

Algebra
Introduction
Students should be exposed to algebraic thinking early as they are more likely
to succeed at advanced mathematics courses later in their schooling (Stein,
Kaufman, Sherman, & Hillen, 2011; Taylor-Cox, 2003). It has been discovered
that students who have been found to have difficulties with algebraic thinking
were not exposed to early experiences (Warren & Cooper, 2008). Exposure to
algebra allows students to develop generalisation (Taylor-Cox, 2003), explore
multiple solutions to a problem (Rivera & Becker, 2005) and justifying
techniques can be strengthened (Rivera, 2006). There are misconceptions which
must be addressed and rectified, as well teaching strategies that can be
employed when teaching the unit of work.

Literature review
The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM, 2000) state that
algebra can be taught from prekindergarten through to year 12 studies. To
ensure that students have a beneficial start to algebra it must be of a high
quality, challenging and accessible mathematics education (NAEYC & NCTM,
2002). This can be displayed through teaching algebra beyond patterns which
involve two-colour patterns or introducing algebraic concepts that are
disconnected from students lives, teachers need to move beyond this to include
colour, shape, size, and orientation (Taylor-Cox, 2003). Patterns occur in everyday life, watching the sun set, days of the week and jump rope are some
examples, teachers must offer experiences with varied types of patterns,
mathematical situations and structures, and change to enhance learning
through appropriate challenges (Taylor-Cox, 2003). Although repeating pattern

Green
2.2.2
Content
selection
and

activities are common within classrooms, there are limited activities that occur
with growing patterns (Warren & Cooper, 2008).
Primary school students already have an understanding of basic algebraic
properties relevant to solving equations such as addition and subtraction, they
can solve simple equations using a variety of strategies such as trial and error,
and can generalise simple patterns (Rivera, 2006). It is through teacher
instruction, exploration and discussion about algebraic-related activities that
students can extend on their prior knowledge to develop more sophisticated
thinking skills (Van Den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Kolovou, & Robitzsch, 2013),
teaching students to go beyond the mechanics of the procedure to exploring
and generalising (Booker & Windsor, 2010).
Asking students to recognise, describe, extend and translate patterns
encourages students to think algebraically when justifying as well developing
generalisation (Taylor-Cox, 2003). Rivera and Becker (2005) state that there are
multiple representations of generalisation, which encourage students to think
algebraically (Redden, 1999). Through experiencing patterns students are able
to generalise which implies that they can distinguish between what changes and
what remains invariant (Van Den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Kolovou, & Robitzsch,
2013). Students who find algebra difficult may be because they find figural
generalisations problematic as numerical generalisations are predominantly
taught within the classroom, therefore teachers must become flexible and teach
using both representations to allow the students to think of alternative ways of
generalising (Rivera & Becker, 2005). In contrast to this Sfard and Linchevski
(1994) state that teachers must use both words and symbols within their
algebraic representations, as symbols are easier to manipulate but words offer
an advanced approach of operational thinking, which creates active struggling
within the classroom to challenge and motivate students. Teachers should also
use multiple representations involving sharing, interpreting, comparing and
classifying representations (Bush & Karp, 2013; Naftaliev & Yerushalmy, 2011),
asking students to find multiple ways of working out the problem as a way to
introduce equivalence (Rivera & Becker, 2005).
It has been discovered that students are scoring lower on both worded
equations and algebra story problems, which can be rectified by using algebraic
symbolism whenever possible and emphasising that letters in algebraic
expressions stand for numbers rather than labels (Bush & Karp, 2013) as a way

to better equip students. Teachers use of language can change students


understanding about algebra, instead of asking what is the answer ask what
number can you replace n with to make this statement true, this allows
students to hear letters used in algebraic expressions and allows students to
justify and represent their ideas (Rivera, 2006).
Students should be exposed to concrete materials to allow exploration and
experimentation, such as diagrams, graphs and balance scales (Booker &
Windsor, 2010). Warren and Cooper (2005) state that balance scales are a good
form of representation because it considers both the right and left hand side of
the equation, allowing for exploration of the equation rather than instructions to
achieve results. Although they continue to discuss the limitations associated
with balance scales, such as the inability to model subtraction equations or
unknowns as negative quantities, therefore it is not adequate for full
development of algebraic thinking (Warren & Cooper, 2005). Other models
include interactive diagrams, which allows students to create their own
diagrams, to check answers and compare results (Naftaliev & Yerushalmy,
2011). When studying an algebraic equation it can seem as though it is a list of
instructions but rather it is what you are prepared to notice and able to
recognise, to understand the hidden meaning behind the symbols (Sfard &
Linchevski, 1994).
Research has found that young students are experiencing difficulties with the
transition to pattern as functions, lacking the appropriate language, having a
predisposition to use an additive strategy for describing generalisation, the
inability to visualise or complete patterns and the inability to link the position
number to the pattern (Warren & Cooper, 2008). Generalising from patterns
cardinal position allows students to articulate between the position number and
visual pattern, this can be achieved through asking for the 10 th and 20th step
(Warren & Cooper, 2008), using function tables, function machines and
patterning activities (Van Den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Kolovou, & Robitzsch, 2013).
There are various misconceptions involving algebraic thinking including but not
limited to viewing the variables as labels (E.g. 4c+3b as 4 cakes and 3
brownies) (Bush & Karp, 2013) which can be rectified by using algebraic
language within the classroom setting (Rivera, 2006) (eg if I had 3 amounts of c,
what would you call this). Limited understanding of equality and the equals sign
(Falkner, Levi, & Carpenter, 1999) is another misconception, students believes

the equals sign is a do it sign (Falkner, Levi, & Carpenter, 1999; Warren &
Cooper, 2005), this can be resolved by offering many experiences and using
balance scales so students can discover equality (Taylor-Cox, 2003). Other
misconceptions comprise of using letters as the unknown (Linchevski &
Herscovics, 1996) and finding it difficult to grasp the meaning of algebraic
symbols in the original expression (Phillip & Schappelle, 1999).

Critique of the Curriculum


Algebra is first introduced in foundation level where students are expected to be
able to count numbers in sequences, subitise small groups of objects, and
sorting and classifying familiar objects, among other content (Victorian
Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2013). This complements Stein et al
(2011), Taylor-Cox (2003) and The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
(2000) which

all

state

that algebra can

and should be taught from

prekindergarten through to further studies.


Although throughout the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority (2013)
there is no mention of exploring equality within number and algebra or patterns
and algebra, this needs to be explore during foundation level and continued
throughout all levels (Falkner et al., 1999). Equality should be explored and
discussed as students may think that the equals sign is a do it sign (Falkner,
Levi, & Carpenter, 1999; Warren & Cooper, 2005), which means when faced with
more challenging equations (eg. 4+2 = [ ] + 3) students will only notice the first
section of the equation (eg. 4+2=[ ]) (Warren & Cooper, 2005).
As discussed by Taylor-Cox (2003) students should observe patterns from their
everyday lives, which is reflected in the Australian Curriculum (2013) by
observing natural patterns in the world. Justification is an important component
within algebraic thinking as discussed by Van Den Heuvel-Panhuizen et al.
(2013) and Taylor-Cox (2003) who state that through exploring, discussing,
describing and translating students are able to justify their decisions and
choices, although this is not found within the proficiency strands of Australian
Curriculum (2013).

Conclusion
Algebra can serve as both a gate and a barrier for students and thus it is
important for teachers to ensure that algebraic concepts are discussed and

explored from an early age (Warren & Cooper, 2008). This exploration should
include exploring patterns evident in everyday life (Taylor-Cox, 2003) as well as
exploring concrete materials (Booker & Windsor, 2010), interactive diagrams
(Naftaliev & Yerushalmy, 2011) and using a variety of representations (Bush &
Karp, 2013). It is important that students are able to develop generalisation
(Taylor-Cox, 2003; Rivera & Becker, 2005) and understand that algebra is not
following a list of instructions (Sfard & Linchevski, 1994) to ensure that
misconceptions are overcome and avoided.
[Total Word count: 1446]

References
Booker, G., & Windsor, W. (2010). Developing Algebraic Thinking: using problemsolving to build from number and geometry in the primary school to the ideas
that underpin algebra in high school and beyond. Procedia Social and
Behavioural Sciences, 8, 411 - 419. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.12.057
Bush, S., & Karp, K. (2013). Prerequisite algebra skills and associated
misconceptions of middle grade students: A review. The Journal of
Mathematical Behavior, 32, 613 - 632. doi:10.1016/j.jmathb.2013.07.002
Falkner, N., Levi, L., & Carpenter, T. (1999). Children's understanding of equality: A
foundation of algebra. Teaching Children Mathematics, 6 (4), 232 - 236.
Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41197398
Linchevski, L., & Herscovics, N. (1996). Crossing the cognitive gap between
arithmetic and algebra: Operating on the unkown in the context of equations.
Educational Studies in Mathematics, 30, 39 -65. doi:10.1007/BF00163752
NAEYC & NCTM (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics). (2002). Early
childhood mathematics: Promoting good beginnings. Joint position statement.
Washington, DC: NAEYC and Reston, VA: NCTM. Retrieved from
www.naeyc.org/resources/position-statements/psmath.htm
Naftaliev, E., & Yerushalmy, M. (2011). Solving algebra problems with interactive
diagrams: Demonstration and construction of examples. The Journal of
Mathematical Behavior, 30, 48 - 61. doi:10.1016/j.jmathb.2010.12.002
NCTM (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics). (2000). Principles and
standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: NCTM. Retrieved from
http://www.nctm.org/Standards-and-Positions/Principles-and-Standards/
Phillip, R., & Schappelle, B. (1999). Algebra as generalized arithmetic: Starting with
the known for a change. National council of teachers of mathematics, 92(4),
310 - 316. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27970968
Redden, T. (1999). Introductory algebra: Four approaches or one? Mathematics
Education Research Journal, 11 (2), 145 - 148. doi:10.1007/BF03217066
Rivera, F. (2006). Changing the face of arithmetic: Teaching children algebra.
Teaching Children Mathematics, 12 (6), 306 - 311. Retrieved from
http://www.jstor.org/stable/41198749
Rivera, F., & Becker, J. (2005). Teacher to teacher: Figural and numerical modes of
generalizing in algebra. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 11 (4),
198 - 203. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41182215
Sfard, A., & Linchevski, L. (1994). The gain and the pitfalls of reification: The case of
algebra. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 26, 191 - 228.
doi:10.1007/BF01273663
Stein, M., Kaufman, J., Sherman, M., & Hillen, A. (2011). Algebra: A challenge at the
crossroads of policy and practice. Educational research 81(4), 453 - 492.
doi:10.3102/0034654311423025

Taylor-Cox, J. (2003). Algebra in the early years? Yes! Young Children, 14 - 21.
Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/42729713
Van Den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M., Kolovou, A., & Robitzsch, A. (2013). Primary school
students' strategies in early algebra problem solving supported by an online
game. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 84(3), 281 - 307.
doi:10.1007/s10649-013-9483-5
Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. (2013). The Australian curriculum in
Victoria (AusVELS). Melbourne, VIC: VCAA.
Warren, E., & Cooper, T. (2005). Young children's ability to use the balance strategy
to solve for unknowns. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 17 (1), 58 72. doi:10.1007/BF03217409
Warren, E., & Cooper, T. (2008). Generalising the pattern rule for visual growth
patterns: Actions that support 8 year olds' thinking. Educational Studies in
Mathematics, 67(2), 171 - 185. Retrieved from
http://www.jstor.org/stable/40284649

EDMA310/360 Mathematics unit planner


Nicole Cochrane S00142840

Unit Overview

Unit title:

Exploring pattern and algebra

Content maths area:

Algebra

Grade/year level:

Grade T, level 2

Learning Focus:

The emphasis of the sequential lessons is extending knowledge of number and


algebra through a focus on pattern and algebra. Students will use understanding
skills to connect number calculations with counting sequences, problem solving
skills to use number sentences that represent problem situations and reasoning skill
to use known facts to derive strategies for unfamiliar calculations. Students will
justify, explore and provide reasoning for choices made in relation to algebraic

thinking. Students will Describe patterns with numbers and identify missing
elements (ACMNA035) (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2013, p.
19).

Rationale:

Algebraic thinking is important for students to explore as it develops generalisation


(Redden, 1999; Rivera & Becker, 2005; Taylor-Cox, 2003) and equivalence when
comparing and classifying representations (Bush & Karp, 2013; Rivera & Becker,
2005). Students will be exploring algebraic thinking with the use of concrete
materials (Booker & Windsor, 2010) and interactive diagrams (Naftaliev &
Yerushalmy, 2011) to allow exploration and experimentation, to accomplish that
students do not look at algebraic equations as a list of instructions but rather look
for the meaning behind the symbols (Sfard & Linchevski, 1994). Through
experiencing patterns (Van Den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Kolovou, & Robitzsch, 2013),
algebraic expressions (Rivera, 2006) and equality (Falkner, Levi, & Carpenter, 1999)
students will restrict misconceptions

and be able to recognise, describe, extend

and translate algebraic thinking (Taylor-Cox, 2003).

Assumed prior knowledge of students:

Based on the Victorian curriculum (2013) students would have prior knowledge from
level 1 about investigating and describing number patterns , and foundation level
about sorting and classifying familiar objects. Students will also have knowledge
about the language of counting names, possibly shown through the use of symbols,
words and numbers, number sequences shown trough skip counting 2s, 3s, 5s and
10s, modelling numbers with materials, able to subitise small groups and solving
simple addition and subtraction (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority,
2013).

Grouping strategies to support learning:

Rarely within the sequential lessons is a student working alone. When students work
together it develops collaboration, which increases mathematical communication
and builds understanding (Van de Walle, Karp, & Bay-Williams, 2013). Flexible
grouping will be used at various opportunities throughout the sequential lessons,
allowing for varying student knowledge to scaffold other students learning (Van de
Walle et al., 2013) to achieve the outcomes of the activity.

Overview of assessment:

The assessments that the students will be completing are undertaken within the
activities, which consist of predominantly observational notes. As discussed by
Easton, Golightly and Oyston (1999) when conducting observational assessment it
is important to conduct probing questions and discuss concepts, analyse work over
a period of time and using some work samples. Observations are a useful method in
gathering information on what students know and understand about mathematical
concepts (Van de Walle et al., 2013). The use of checklists minimises time spent
writing and allows you to focus your attention on each student (Van de Walle et al.,
2013). Other assessments methods included in the sequential lessons are work
samples, anecdotal observations and assessing against a rubric.

MATHEMATICS UNIT PLANNER


Topic: Algebra
Key mathematical understandings
(2-4 understandings only; written as
statements believed to be true about the
mathematical idea/topic):
Patterns can be created using a variety of
attributes.

Equivalent equations are ways of describing


the same equation by using different
representations.

Number sentences are a good visual


representation of equivalent equations.

Physical representations assist with learning


algebra,

Year Level: 2

Create patterns using a variety of attributes.

Compare equivalent and non-equivalent


equations.

Use physical representations to understand


equivalence.

Date:
Statistics and Probability

Level descriptions:
Describe patterns with numbers and identify missing elements (ACMNA035)
Proficiency strand(s):
Understanding
Fluency
Problem Solving
Reasoning
Understanding: making connections with varying patterns and number sentences, describe and identify recognizable
patterns or trends within patterns and number sentences.
Problem solving: use number sentences, find and investigate varying patterns and represent the patterns in varying
ways.
Reasoning: creating and interpreting representations using known facts, comparing and justifying patterns, and
generalizing patterns.
Key equipment / resources:

Large pattern shapes without colour, with colour


and varying size

Small shape tiles

Equivalent snap game

Number balances and tags

Poster paper

Justify equivalent equations.

The Hungry Caterpillar book

Resolve and extend pattern representations.

Ipads and Laptops

Possible misconceptions (list of misconceptions


related to the mathematical idea/topic that
students might develop):

Week:

Key AusVELS Focus / Standard (taken directly from AusVELS documents):


Content strand(s):
Number and Algebra Measurement and Geometry
Sub-strand(s): Pattern and Algebra

Key skills to develop and practise (including


strategies, ways of working mathematically,
language goals, etc.) (4-5 key skills only):

Term:

A list of instructions students believe

Key probing questions (focus


questions that will be used to develop
understanding to be used during the
sequence of lessons; 3 5 probing

Key vocabulary (be specific and include definitions


of key words appropriate to use with students)
Pattern
Equivalent
Number sentence
Extend

Links to other contexts (if applicable,


e.g., inquiry unit focus, current
events, literature, etc.):

strategies/ Learning

that algebra is a list of instructions


(Sfard & Linchevski, 1994)
Use an additive strategy students
believe that using an additive strategy
will always work (Warren & Cooper,
2008)
Equality students believe the equals
sign is a do it sign (Falkner, Levi, &
Carpenter, 1999)

What is the pattern?


Can you extend the pattern?
How do you know the equations are
equivalent?
Can you prove how the equations are
equivalent?

Estimating

Listening

Performing

Reading

Seeing patterns

Testing

Checking

Explaining

Locating
information

Persuading

Recognising
bias

Selecting
information

Viewing

(what you want


the children to
come to
understand as a
result of this
lesson short,
succinct
statement)

Session 1

Analysing

MATHEMATICA
L
FOCUS

questions):

Explore
patterns
Represent
pattern with
shape, colour
and size

TUNING IN
(WHOLE CLASS
FOCUS)
(a short, sharp task
relating to the focus of
the lesson; sets the
scene/ context for what
students do in the
independent aspect.
e.g., It may be a
problem posed, spider
diagram, an openended question, game,
or reading a story)

INVESTIGATIONS
SESSION
(INDEPENDENT
LEARNING)
(extended opportunity
for students to work in
pairs, small groups or
individually. Time for
teacher to probe
childrens thinking or
work with a small group
for part of the time and
to also conduct roving
conferences)

REFLECTION &
MAKING
CONNECTIONS
SESSION
(WHOLE CLASS
FOCUS)
(focused teacher
questions and summary
to draw out the
mathematics and assist
children to make links.
NB. This may occur at
particular points during
a lesson. Use of
spotlight, strategy,
gallery walk, etc.)

Whole Class
discussion

Give students small


shape tiles to explore
various patterns.

Students are to engage


in a gallery walk,
noticing the different
patterns that where
created. Teacher is to
take photos of each
childs pattern for
assessment.

Know, Want to know,


Learnt (KWL) in relation
to patterns.

What do we know
about patterns?

Students are then to


draw the first 5
characters of their
pattern using the
correct shape and
colour to match the
concrete material.

ADAPTATIONS

- Enabling prompt
(to allow those
experiencing difficulty
to engage in active
experiences related to
the initial goal task)
- Extending prompt
(questions that extend
students thinking on
the initial task)

Enabling
Choose 2-3 shapes to
create 2 different
patterns, drawing the
first 5 characters once
they are made.
Students are then to
swap their drawn
pattern with their
partner and try to

ASSESSMENT
STRATEGIES
(should relate to
objective. Includes
what the teacher will
listen for, observe,
note or analyse; what
evidence of learning
will be collected and
what criteria will be
used to analyse the
evidence)

During the lesson the


teacher will take
photos of students
work. Using these
work samples, the
teacher will assess
against the following
checklist:

What can patterns be


made of?
What is a repeating
pattern?
What is a growing
pattern?

Make a class pattern


using large shapes
(with no colour) sticking
them to the white board
(Adapted from Tes
Australia 2013).
Introduce shapes with
colour and various size
to create other
patterns.
As a class discuss how
it is a pattern and how
it can be extended.

Students are to make 3


patterns in total using
various shape and
colour. Students can
choose as many shapes
and colour as they wish
to be in their pattern.
Students are then to
get in into pairs, and
swap their patterns
they have drawn. They
are to extend the
pattern their partner
has created in their
work books, describe
their partners pattern.

The teacher will use


probing questions
(listed above) as well
as the following
when relevant:
What is your pattern
created with?
How does your pattern
continue?
What did you partners
pattern look like?

Did anyone have the


same pattern?
Did anyone have a
pattern that your
partner could not
extend?

extend the pattern.


Describe their partners
pattern in your work
book.

1.

2.
3.

What patterns can you


make using 2 or 3
different shapes?
What did you partners
pattern look like?

Extending
Students are to make
more complex patterns,
using more than 6
shapes, incorporating
colour and size into
their pattern. Drawing
the first section of the
pattern in their work
books. Students are
then to swap their
drawn pattern with a
partner and try to
extend their pattern.
Describing their
partners pattern in
your work book.

How could you create


a pattern that is more
complex?

Student can create a


pattern using more
than 2 shapes.
Student can extend a
repeating pattern.
Student can write a
descriptive sentence
about the pattern.

MATHEMATICA
L
FOCUS
(what you want
the children to
come to
understand as a
result of this
lesson short,
succinct
statement)

Session 2

Exploring
equivalence
Creating
number
sentences

TUNING IN
(WHOLE CLASS
FOCUS)
(a short, sharp task
relating to the focus of
the lesson; sets the
scene/ context for what
students do in the
independent aspect.
e.g., It may be a
problem posed, spider
diagram, an openended question, game,
or reading a story)

INVESTIGATIONS
SESSION
(INDEPENDENT
LEARNING)
(extended opportunity
for students to work in
pairs, small groups or
individually. Time for
teacher to probe
childrens thinking or
work with a small group
for part of the time and
to also conduct roving
conferences)

REFLECTION &
MAKING
CONNECTIONS
SESSION
(WHOLE CLASS
FOCUS)
(focused teacher
questions and summary
to draw out the
mathematics and assist
children to make links.
NB. This may occur at
particular points during
a lesson. Use of
spotlight, strategy,
gallery walk, etc.)

Whole class
discussion

Students are to gather


in groups of 4 and play
the equivalent snap
game (see appendix 1)
(Adapted from Tes
Australia 2013).

Students are to come to


the floor with their
books and think, pair
and share with a
different partner about
equivalent equations.

KWL about the equals


sign.

What is the symbol for


the equals sign?
What does the equals
sign mean?
What do you do if you
have an equals sign in
your equation?
What does the word
equivalent mean?

Write equation on the

When students find an


equivalent equation
they are to draw this
representation and
justify why this
equation is equivalent
in their work books.
Students are also to
write 3 equations that
are not equivalent and
justify why.

As a class students are


then to discuss what
they found were
equivalent equations
and not equivalent
equations writing a list
on poster paper (to be
hung up in the room).

What did you find as


an equivalent
equation?
Did anyone else find

ADAPTATIONS
- Enabling prompt
(to allow those
experiencing difficulty
to engage in active
experiences related to
the initial goal task)
- Extending prompt
(questions that extend
students thinking on
the initial task)

Enabling
Play the equivalent
snap game using
counters to represent
the numbers on the
cards.
When students find an
equivalent equation
they are to draw this
representation and
justify why this
equation is equivalent
in their work books.
Students also need to
write 2 equations that
are not equivalent and
justify why.

Extending

ASSESSMENT
STRATEGIES
(should relate to
objective. Includes
what the teacher will
listen for, observe,
note or analyse; what
evidence of learning
will be collected and
what criteria will be
used to analyse the
evidence)

Teacher will use an


anecdotal
observational notes.
Assessing the
following criteria:
1.

2.
3.

Student is able to
match equivalent
equations.
Student can justifying
why it is equivalent.
Student can create
equations that are not
equivalent.

board.
If we had an equation
like 3+3= and 2+2+2=
are they equivalent?

The teacher will use


probing questions
(listed above) as well
as the following
when relevant:

If we had an equation
like 3+3= and 3+1=
are they equivalent?

What equations did


you find to be
equivalent?

What happens if I have


an equation like 4+2 =[
]+3?

Why do you think


these are equivalent?

What if they look like


this 5+1 = 8 1, is that
equivalent?

What equations did


you find were not
equivalent?

this equation?
How did you know it
was equivalent?
What did you find as
not an equivalent
equation?
Did anyone else find
this equation?
How do you know it
isnt equivalent?

(what you want


the children to
come to
understand as a
result of this
lesson short,
succinct
statement)

TUNING IN
(WHOLE CLASS
FOCUS)
(a short, sharp task
relating to the focus of
the lesson; sets the
scene/ context for what
students do in the
independent aspect.
e.g., It may be a
problem posed, spider
diagram, an openended question, game,
or reading a story)

INVESTIGATIONS
SESSION
(INDEPENDENT
LEARNING)
(extended opportunity
for students to work in
pairs, small groups or
individually. Time for
teacher to probe
childrens thinking or
work with a small group
for part of the time and
to also conduct roving
conferences)

When students find an


equivalent equation
they are to draw this
representation and
justify why this
equation is equivalent
in their work books.
Students are also to
write 3 equations that
are not equivalent and
justify why.

Why do you think they


are not equivalent?

MATHEMATICA
L
FOCUS

Student is to play the


snap game a second
time using the
additional cards (see
appendix 2).

REFLECTION &
MAKING
CONNECTIONS
SESSION
(WHOLE CLASS
FOCUS)
(focused teacher
questions and summary
to draw out the
mathematics and assist
children to make links.
NB. This may occur at
particular points during
a lesson. Use of
spotlight, strategy,
gallery walk, etc.)

ADAPTATIONS
- Enabling prompt
(to allow those
experiencing difficulty
to engage in active
experiences related to
the initial goal task)
- Extending prompt
(questions that extend
students thinking on
the initial task)

ASSESSMENT
STRATEGIES
(should relate to
objective. Includes
what the teacher will
listen for, observe,
note or analyse; what
evidence of learning
will be collected and
what criteria will be
used to analyse the
evidence)

Session 3

Exploring
number
balances
Exploring
equivalence
Exploring
number
sentences

Whole class
discussion
Recap previous lesson
using KWL.
What did we learn
about equivalence from
the previous lesson?

Have 4+2 = [ ] -2
written on the white
board.
What does this
number sentence
means?
What does 4+2= ?
Can I just write 6?
What does the -2
mean?

Students are to use


number balances
(Adapted from
EDMA310/360 week 7
tutorial) to explore,
allow 5 minutes for
students to touch, feel
and use the number
balances and tags.

When students are


settled they are to
place tags on the
number balances to
create 6+1 on one side.
On the opposite side
students are to find as
many representations
of the same equation,
writing the equations
and justifications on
poster paper as they
proceed.

The teacher will use


probing questions
(listed above) as well
as the following
when relevant:
What are other ways
that you can create
6+1
Is this equivalent?
Why is this

Once completed
students are to place
posters on the wall and
gather around.

Students are to discuss


different techniques
they used to find the
equivalent
representations.

What strategy did you


use to find the
equivalent
representations?
How did you know that
it was equivalent?
Did anyone find an
equation that was not
equivalent?

Enabling
Teacher is to use
probing questions to
guide student learning.
What happens if you
put this tag here?
Is this equivalent?
What number have
you placed the tag on?

Extending
Students are to find
other equations that
have equivalence and
find multiple ways that
the equations can be
represented. Writing
the equations and
justifications on poster
paper.
What are other
number sentences that
are equivalent?

Using work samples


teacher will complete
an observational
checklist.
1.

2.

Student discovered an
equivalent
representation for 6+1.
Student can justify
why it is equivalent.

The KWL can also be


used as an
assessment pieces, as
students express what
they know, want to
know and have learnt.

equivalent?
How do you know
when it is equivalent?

MATHEMATICA
L
FOCUS
(what you want
the children to
come to
understand as a
result of this
lesson short,
succinct
statement)

Session 4

Exploring the
use of
coefficients
Equivalent
representatio
ns

TUNING IN
(WHOLE CLASS
FOCUS)
(a short, sharp task
relating to the focus of
the lesson; sets the
scene/ context for what
students do in the
independent aspect.
e.g., It may be a
problem posed, spider
diagram, an openended question, game,
or reading a story)

INVESTIGATIONS
SESSION
(INDEPENDENT
LEARNING)
(extended opportunity
for students to work in
pairs, small groups or
individually. Time for
teacher to probe
childrens thinking or
work with a small group
for part of the time and
to also conduct roving
conferences)

REFLECTION &
MAKING
CONNECTIONS
SESSION
(WHOLE CLASS
FOCUS)
(focused teacher
questions and summary
to draw out the
mathematics and assist
children to make links.
NB. This may occur at
particular points during
a lesson. Use of
spotlight, strategy,
gallery walk, etc.)

Read the book The


Hungry Caterpillar
(Adapted from Asha, J,
2013) to the class.
While reading the book
ask a child to
remember how many of
each fruit was eaten
(eg. Josh remembers
apples, Susie
remembers oranges).
At the conclusion of the
book write on the board
all the variety of fruit
that was eaten with

Students are to return


to their tables and
complete the task
written on the board.

Students are to engage


within a gallery walk,
noticing all the different
variations that were
created.

If I ate blue berries +


raspberries +
pineapples + grapes =
32 pieces of fruit, how
many different ways
can you represent
this?

Using poster paper

What strategy did you


use to solve the
equation?
How do you know you
only had 32 pieces of
fruit

ADAPTATIONS
- Enabling prompt
(to allow those
experiencing difficulty
to engage in active
experiences related to
the initial goal task)
- Extending prompt
(questions that extend
students thinking on
the initial task)

Enabling
Students are to use
counters to represent
various types of fruit,
when answering the
question.
The blue counter is
blue berries, red
counter is raspberries,
yellow counter is
pineapples and green
counter is grapes, I only
want 32. How many of
each fruit will you

ASSESSMENT
STRATEGIES
(should relate to
objective. Includes
what the teacher will
listen for, observe,
note or analyse; what
evidence of learning
will be collected and
what criteria will be
used to analyse the
evidence)

Teacher will complete


an anecdotal
observation. The
following criteria will
be addressed:
1.

2.

Student was able to


find equivalent
representations.
Student was able to
justify their answer
with drawings and
descriptive writing

addition signs between


them to resemble the
equation, placing an
equals sign and the
total at the end.
Discuss how many of
each food variety was
eaten, writing this as an
equation on the board
(eg. 1+2+3)
underneath that fruit.

MATHEMATICA
L
FOCUS
(what you want
the children to
come to
understand as a
result of this
lesson short,
succinct
statement)

students are to justify


their answers, using
drawing and descriptive
writing of how many
individual pieces of fruit
where eaten.

have?

Extending
Students are to make
their own equation that
allows for multiples
answers.

The teacher will use


probing questions
(listed above) as well
as the following
when relevant:

Discuss with the class


the use of words as
symbols for the
number.

How many blue berries


are in your equation?

TUNING IN
(WHOLE CLASS
FOCUS)
(a short, sharp task
relating to the focus of
the lesson; sets the
scene/ context for what
students do in the
independent aspect.
e.g., It may be a
problem posed, spider
diagram, an openended question, game,
or reading a story)

INVESTIGATIONS
SESSION
(INDEPENDENT
LEARNING)
(extended opportunity
for students to work in
pairs, small groups or
individually. Time for
teacher to probe
childrens thinking or
work with a small group
for part of the time and
to also conduct roving
conferences)

Using poster paper


students are to justify
their answers.

Can you prove that


when you add all of
your fruit together that
there is only 32 pieces
of fruit?

REFLECTION &
MAKING
CONNECTIONS
SESSION
(WHOLE CLASS
FOCUS)
(focused teacher
questions and summary
to draw out the
mathematics and assist
children to make links.
NB. This may occur at
particular points during
a lesson. Use of
spotlight, strategy,
gallery walk, etc.)

ADAPTATIONS
- Enabling prompt
(to allow those
experiencing difficulty
to engage in active
experiences related to
the initial goal task)
- Extending prompt
(questions that extend
students thinking on
the initial task)

ASSESSMENT
STRATEGIES
(should relate to
objective. Includes
what the teacher will
listen for, observe,
note or analyse; what
evidence of learning
will be collected and
what criteria will be
used to analyse the
evidence)

Session 5

Exploring the
use of
function
machines.
Discovering
the pattern
Extending
the pattern

Students are to work


out what the teacher is
doing.
Have a large picture of
a function machine on
the board and write a
childs name on the left
hand side.
Write the first 3 letters
of the same name on
the right hand side.
Give an appropriate
wait time before
continuing.
Write another childs
name and first 3 letters.
Give an appropriate
wait time before
continuing.

Pose the question Can


anyone tell me what Im
doing?
If students do not
understand, continue
for 4 more names.
Pose the same question
again Can anyone tell
me what is happening
in our function
machine?

Teacher will have Ipads


and laptops sent up
with the function
machine game
(Adapted from
EDMA310/360 week 7
tutorial) changing each
Ipad and laptop to
apply a different
function (eg +2, -1, +5)
http://www.littlefishsw.c
o.uk/card/functionmachi
ne.html
Students are to go to
their tables in pairs and
work out what is
happening in their
function machine using
a variety of strategies.
Justifying in their work
books what is
happening in the
function machine and
extending the pattern.
Writing down the
original number, what
happened to the
number and the result
after going through the
function machine.

Students are then to


swap technological
devices with someone
else and attempt to
work through all the
different variations.

Students are to return


to the floor and discuss
how they worked out
what each function
machine was doing.

What strategies did


you use?
Did your strategies
always work?
Who tried lots of
different strategies?
Was anyone unable to
find an answer?

Enabling
Students are to use
counters to represent
the original number and
the result after going
through the function
machine.

Using work samples


teacher will complete
an observational
checklist.
1.

2.
Extending
Students are to bring
their technological
devices to the teacher,
so the teacher can
change the amount that
the function machine is
ascending or
decreasing by. The
student keeps their
technological device,
and does not swap.
Students are to go to
their tables in pairs and
work out what is
happening in their
function machine.
Writing in their work
books what is
happening in the
function machine,
proving this by using a
different number.
Writing down the
original number, what
happened to the
number and the result

3.

Student is able to
identify the pattern
that the function
machine creates.
Student is able to
extend the pattern that
the function machine
creates.
Student used a variety
of strategies (eg.
Additive, subtractive,
trial and error).

Discuss with students


that the first 3 letters
are being used and the
rest is not being
included. Ask what
would happen to the
names Emily and Josh
going through the
machine.

Move onto numbers,


rubbing the names off.
Tell students we are
going to change to
numbers now and I
want you to find the
pattern again.

Write 2, 3, 4, 10 on the
left hand side of the
machine.
On the right hand side
write 4, across from the
number 2.
What happened to the
number 2.
Across from the number
3, write 6.
What happened to the
number 3?
Across from the number

Justifying in their work


books what is
happening.

The teacher will use


probing questions
(listed above) as well
as the following
when relevant:
What do you think the
function machine is
doing?
How do you know it is
doing that?
Can you prove it with
another number?

after going through the


function machine.

4 write 8.
What do you think will
happen to the number
10?
Across from the number
10 write 20.
What was happening
in our function
machine?
What was the machine
doing?

References
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Australian Curriculum: http://e4ac.edu.au/units/foundation/sequence01.html
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