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2.2.1

for classroom planning

Nicole Cochrane S00142840 -

Content and

teaching

strategies of

the teaching

area

Algebra

Introduction

Students should be exposed to algebraic thinking early as they are more likely

to succeed at advanced mathematics courses later in their schooling (Stein,

Kaufman, Sherman, & Hillen, 2011; Taylor-Cox, 2003). It has been discovered

that students who have been found to have difficulties with algebraic thinking

were not exposed to early experiences (Warren & Cooper, 2008). Exposure to

algebra allows students to develop generalisation (Taylor-Cox, 2003), explore

multiple solutions to a problem (Rivera & Becker, 2005) and justifying

techniques can be strengthened (Rivera, 2006). There are misconceptions which

must be addressed and rectified, as well teaching strategies that can be

employed when teaching the unit of work.

Literature review

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM, 2000) state that

algebra can be taught from prekindergarten through to year 12 studies. To

ensure that students have a beneficial start to algebra it must be of a high

quality, challenging and accessible mathematics education (NAEYC & NCTM,

2002). This can be displayed through teaching algebra beyond patterns which

involve two-colour patterns or introducing algebraic concepts that are

disconnected from students lives, teachers need to move beyond this to include

colour, shape, size, and orientation (Taylor-Cox, 2003). Patterns occur in everyday life, watching the sun set, days of the week and jump rope are some

examples, teachers must offer experiences with varied types of patterns,

mathematical situations and structures, and change to enhance learning

through appropriate challenges (Taylor-Cox, 2003). Although repeating pattern

Green

2.2.2

Content

selection

and

activities are common within classrooms, there are limited activities that occur

with growing patterns (Warren & Cooper, 2008).

Primary school students already have an understanding of basic algebraic

properties relevant to solving equations such as addition and subtraction, they

can solve simple equations using a variety of strategies such as trial and error,

and can generalise simple patterns (Rivera, 2006). It is through teacher

instruction, exploration and discussion about algebraic-related activities that

students can extend on their prior knowledge to develop more sophisticated

thinking skills (Van Den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Kolovou, & Robitzsch, 2013),

teaching students to go beyond the mechanics of the procedure to exploring

and generalising (Booker & Windsor, 2010).

Asking students to recognise, describe, extend and translate patterns

encourages students to think algebraically when justifying as well developing

generalisation (Taylor-Cox, 2003). Rivera and Becker (2005) state that there are

multiple representations of generalisation, which encourage students to think

algebraically (Redden, 1999). Through experiencing patterns students are able

to generalise which implies that they can distinguish between what changes and

what remains invariant (Van Den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Kolovou, & Robitzsch,

2013). Students who find algebra difficult may be because they find figural

generalisations problematic as numerical generalisations are predominantly

taught within the classroom, therefore teachers must become flexible and teach

using both representations to allow the students to think of alternative ways of

generalising (Rivera & Becker, 2005). In contrast to this Sfard and Linchevski

(1994) state that teachers must use both words and symbols within their

algebraic representations, as symbols are easier to manipulate but words offer

an advanced approach of operational thinking, which creates active struggling

within the classroom to challenge and motivate students. Teachers should also

use multiple representations involving sharing, interpreting, comparing and

classifying representations (Bush & Karp, 2013; Naftaliev & Yerushalmy, 2011),

asking students to find multiple ways of working out the problem as a way to

introduce equivalence (Rivera & Becker, 2005).

It has been discovered that students are scoring lower on both worded

equations and algebra story problems, which can be rectified by using algebraic

symbolism whenever possible and emphasising that letters in algebraic

expressions stand for numbers rather than labels (Bush & Karp, 2013) as a way

understanding about algebra, instead of asking what is the answer ask what

number can you replace n with to make this statement true, this allows

students to hear letters used in algebraic expressions and allows students to

justify and represent their ideas (Rivera, 2006).

Students should be exposed to concrete materials to allow exploration and

experimentation, such as diagrams, graphs and balance scales (Booker &

Windsor, 2010). Warren and Cooper (2005) state that balance scales are a good

form of representation because it considers both the right and left hand side of

the equation, allowing for exploration of the equation rather than instructions to

achieve results. Although they continue to discuss the limitations associated

with balance scales, such as the inability to model subtraction equations or

unknowns as negative quantities, therefore it is not adequate for full

development of algebraic thinking (Warren & Cooper, 2005). Other models

include interactive diagrams, which allows students to create their own

diagrams, to check answers and compare results (Naftaliev & Yerushalmy,

2011). When studying an algebraic equation it can seem as though it is a list of

instructions but rather it is what you are prepared to notice and able to

recognise, to understand the hidden meaning behind the symbols (Sfard &

Linchevski, 1994).

Research has found that young students are experiencing difficulties with the

transition to pattern as functions, lacking the appropriate language, having a

predisposition to use an additive strategy for describing generalisation, the

inability to visualise or complete patterns and the inability to link the position

number to the pattern (Warren & Cooper, 2008). Generalising from patterns

cardinal position allows students to articulate between the position number and

visual pattern, this can be achieved through asking for the 10 th and 20th step

(Warren & Cooper, 2008), using function tables, function machines and

patterning activities (Van Den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Kolovou, & Robitzsch, 2013).

There are various misconceptions involving algebraic thinking including but not

limited to viewing the variables as labels (E.g. 4c+3b as 4 cakes and 3

brownies) (Bush & Karp, 2013) which can be rectified by using algebraic

language within the classroom setting (Rivera, 2006) (eg if I had 3 amounts of c,

what would you call this). Limited understanding of equality and the equals sign

(Falkner, Levi, & Carpenter, 1999) is another misconception, students believes

the equals sign is a do it sign (Falkner, Levi, & Carpenter, 1999; Warren &

Cooper, 2005), this can be resolved by offering many experiences and using

balance scales so students can discover equality (Taylor-Cox, 2003). Other

misconceptions comprise of using letters as the unknown (Linchevski &

Herscovics, 1996) and finding it difficult to grasp the meaning of algebraic

symbols in the original expression (Phillip & Schappelle, 1999).

Algebra is first introduced in foundation level where students are expected to be

able to count numbers in sequences, subitise small groups of objects, and

sorting and classifying familiar objects, among other content (Victorian

Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2013). This complements Stein et al

(2011), Taylor-Cox (2003) and The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

(2000) which

all

state

Although throughout the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority (2013)

there is no mention of exploring equality within number and algebra or patterns

and algebra, this needs to be explore during foundation level and continued

throughout all levels (Falkner et al., 1999). Equality should be explored and

discussed as students may think that the equals sign is a do it sign (Falkner,

Levi, & Carpenter, 1999; Warren & Cooper, 2005), which means when faced with

more challenging equations (eg. 4+2 = [ ] + 3) students will only notice the first

section of the equation (eg. 4+2=[ ]) (Warren & Cooper, 2005).

As discussed by Taylor-Cox (2003) students should observe patterns from their

everyday lives, which is reflected in the Australian Curriculum (2013) by

observing natural patterns in the world. Justification is an important component

within algebraic thinking as discussed by Van Den Heuvel-Panhuizen et al.

(2013) and Taylor-Cox (2003) who state that through exploring, discussing,

describing and translating students are able to justify their decisions and

choices, although this is not found within the proficiency strands of Australian

Curriculum (2013).

Conclusion

Algebra can serve as both a gate and a barrier for students and thus it is

important for teachers to ensure that algebraic concepts are discussed and

explored from an early age (Warren & Cooper, 2008). This exploration should

include exploring patterns evident in everyday life (Taylor-Cox, 2003) as well as

exploring concrete materials (Booker & Windsor, 2010), interactive diagrams

(Naftaliev & Yerushalmy, 2011) and using a variety of representations (Bush &

Karp, 2013). It is important that students are able to develop generalisation

(Taylor-Cox, 2003; Rivera & Becker, 2005) and understand that algebra is not

following a list of instructions (Sfard & Linchevski, 1994) to ensure that

misconceptions are overcome and avoided.

[Total Word count: 1446]

References

Booker, G., & Windsor, W. (2010). Developing Algebraic Thinking: using problemsolving to build from number and geometry in the primary school to the ideas

that underpin algebra in high school and beyond. Procedia Social and

Behavioural Sciences, 8, 411 - 419. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.12.057

Bush, S., & Karp, K. (2013). Prerequisite algebra skills and associated

misconceptions of middle grade students: A review. The Journal of

Mathematical Behavior, 32, 613 - 632. doi:10.1016/j.jmathb.2013.07.002

Falkner, N., Levi, L., & Carpenter, T. (1999). Children's understanding of equality: A

foundation of algebra. Teaching Children Mathematics, 6 (4), 232 - 236.

Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41197398

Linchevski, L., & Herscovics, N. (1996). Crossing the cognitive gap between

arithmetic and algebra: Operating on the unkown in the context of equations.

Educational Studies in Mathematics, 30, 39 -65. doi:10.1007/BF00163752

NAEYC & NCTM (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics). (2002). Early

childhood mathematics: Promoting good beginnings. Joint position statement.

Washington, DC: NAEYC and Reston, VA: NCTM. Retrieved from

www.naeyc.org/resources/position-statements/psmath.htm

Naftaliev, E., & Yerushalmy, M. (2011). Solving algebra problems with interactive

diagrams: Demonstration and construction of examples. The Journal of

Mathematical Behavior, 30, 48 - 61. doi:10.1016/j.jmathb.2010.12.002

NCTM (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics). (2000). Principles and

standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: NCTM. Retrieved from

http://www.nctm.org/Standards-and-Positions/Principles-and-Standards/

Phillip, R., & Schappelle, B. (1999). Algebra as generalized arithmetic: Starting with

the known for a change. National council of teachers of mathematics, 92(4),

310 - 316. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27970968

Redden, T. (1999). Introductory algebra: Four approaches or one? Mathematics

Education Research Journal, 11 (2), 145 - 148. doi:10.1007/BF03217066

Rivera, F. (2006). Changing the face of arithmetic: Teaching children algebra.

Teaching Children Mathematics, 12 (6), 306 - 311. Retrieved from

http://www.jstor.org/stable/41198749

Rivera, F., & Becker, J. (2005). Teacher to teacher: Figural and numerical modes of

generalizing in algebra. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 11 (4),

198 - 203. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41182215

Sfard, A., & Linchevski, L. (1994). The gain and the pitfalls of reification: The case of

algebra. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 26, 191 - 228.

doi:10.1007/BF01273663

Stein, M., Kaufman, J., Sherman, M., & Hillen, A. (2011). Algebra: A challenge at the

crossroads of policy and practice. Educational research 81(4), 453 - 492.

doi:10.3102/0034654311423025

Taylor-Cox, J. (2003). Algebra in the early years? Yes! Young Children, 14 - 21.

Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/42729713

Van Den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M., Kolovou, A., & Robitzsch, A. (2013). Primary school

students' strategies in early algebra problem solving supported by an online

game. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 84(3), 281 - 307.

doi:10.1007/s10649-013-9483-5

Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. (2013). The Australian curriculum in

Victoria (AusVELS). Melbourne, VIC: VCAA.

Warren, E., & Cooper, T. (2005). Young children's ability to use the balance strategy

to solve for unknowns. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 17 (1), 58 72. doi:10.1007/BF03217409

Warren, E., & Cooper, T. (2008). Generalising the pattern rule for visual growth

patterns: Actions that support 8 year olds' thinking. Educational Studies in

Mathematics, 67(2), 171 - 185. Retrieved from

http://www.jstor.org/stable/40284649

Nicole Cochrane S00142840

Unit Overview

Unit title:

Algebra

Grade/year level:

Grade T, level 2

Learning Focus:

algebra through a focus on pattern and algebra. Students will use understanding

skills to connect number calculations with counting sequences, problem solving

skills to use number sentences that represent problem situations and reasoning skill

to use known facts to derive strategies for unfamiliar calculations. Students will

justify, explore and provide reasoning for choices made in relation to algebraic

thinking. Students will Describe patterns with numbers and identify missing

elements (ACMNA035) (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2013, p.

19).

Rationale:

(Redden, 1999; Rivera & Becker, 2005; Taylor-Cox, 2003) and equivalence when

comparing and classifying representations (Bush & Karp, 2013; Rivera & Becker,

2005). Students will be exploring algebraic thinking with the use of concrete

materials (Booker & Windsor, 2010) and interactive diagrams (Naftaliev &

Yerushalmy, 2011) to allow exploration and experimentation, to accomplish that

students do not look at algebraic equations as a list of instructions but rather look

for the meaning behind the symbols (Sfard & Linchevski, 1994). Through

experiencing patterns (Van Den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Kolovou, & Robitzsch, 2013),

algebraic expressions (Rivera, 2006) and equality (Falkner, Levi, & Carpenter, 1999)

students will restrict misconceptions

Based on the Victorian curriculum (2013) students would have prior knowledge from

level 1 about investigating and describing number patterns , and foundation level

about sorting and classifying familiar objects. Students will also have knowledge

about the language of counting names, possibly shown through the use of symbols,

words and numbers, number sequences shown trough skip counting 2s, 3s, 5s and

10s, modelling numbers with materials, able to subitise small groups and solving

simple addition and subtraction (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority,

2013).

Rarely within the sequential lessons is a student working alone. When students work

together it develops collaboration, which increases mathematical communication

and builds understanding (Van de Walle, Karp, & Bay-Williams, 2013). Flexible

grouping will be used at various opportunities throughout the sequential lessons,

allowing for varying student knowledge to scaffold other students learning (Van de

Walle et al., 2013) to achieve the outcomes of the activity.

Overview of assessment:

The assessments that the students will be completing are undertaken within the

activities, which consist of predominantly observational notes. As discussed by

Easton, Golightly and Oyston (1999) when conducting observational assessment it

is important to conduct probing questions and discuss concepts, analyse work over

a period of time and using some work samples. Observations are a useful method in

gathering information on what students know and understand about mathematical

concepts (Van de Walle et al., 2013). The use of checklists minimises time spent

writing and allows you to focus your attention on each student (Van de Walle et al.,

2013). Other assessments methods included in the sequential lessons are work

samples, anecdotal observations and assessing against a rubric.

Topic: Algebra

Key mathematical understandings

(2-4 understandings only; written as

statements believed to be true about the

mathematical idea/topic):

Patterns can be created using a variety of

attributes.

the same equation by using different

representations.

representation of equivalent equations.

algebra,

Year Level: 2

equations.

equivalence.

Date:

Statistics and Probability

Level descriptions:

Describe patterns with numbers and identify missing elements (ACMNA035)

Proficiency strand(s):

Understanding

Fluency

Problem Solving

Reasoning

Understanding: making connections with varying patterns and number sentences, describe and identify recognizable

patterns or trends within patterns and number sentences.

Problem solving: use number sentences, find and investigate varying patterns and represent the patterns in varying

ways.

Reasoning: creating and interpreting representations using known facts, comparing and justifying patterns, and

generalizing patterns.

Key equipment / resources:

and varying size

Poster paper

related to the mathematical idea/topic that

students might develop):

Week:

Content strand(s):

Number and Algebra Measurement and Geometry

Sub-strand(s): Pattern and Algebra

strategies, ways of working mathematically,

language goals, etc.) (4-5 key skills only):

Term:

questions that will be used to develop

understanding to be used during the

sequence of lessons; 3 5 probing

of key words appropriate to use with students)

Pattern

Equivalent

Number sentence

Extend

e.g., inquiry unit focus, current

events, literature, etc.):

strategies/ Learning

(Sfard & Linchevski, 1994)

Use an additive strategy students

believe that using an additive strategy

will always work (Warren & Cooper,

2008)

Equality students believe the equals

sign is a do it sign (Falkner, Levi, &

Carpenter, 1999)

Can you extend the pattern?

How do you know the equations are

equivalent?

Can you prove how the equations are

equivalent?

Estimating

Listening

Performing

Reading

Seeing patterns

Testing

Checking

Explaining

Locating

information

Persuading

Recognising

bias

Selecting

information

Viewing

the children to

come to

understand as a

result of this

lesson short,

succinct

statement)

Session 1

Analysing

MATHEMATICA

L

FOCUS

questions):

Explore

patterns

Represent

pattern with

shape, colour

and size

TUNING IN

(WHOLE CLASS

FOCUS)

(a short, sharp task

relating to the focus of

the lesson; sets the

scene/ context for what

students do in the

independent aspect.

e.g., It may be a

problem posed, spider

diagram, an openended question, game,

or reading a story)

INVESTIGATIONS

SESSION

(INDEPENDENT

LEARNING)

(extended opportunity

for students to work in

pairs, small groups or

individually. Time for

teacher to probe

childrens thinking or

work with a small group

for part of the time and

to also conduct roving

conferences)

REFLECTION &

MAKING

CONNECTIONS

SESSION

(WHOLE CLASS

FOCUS)

(focused teacher

questions and summary

to draw out the

mathematics and assist

children to make links.

NB. This may occur at

particular points during

a lesson. Use of

spotlight, strategy,

gallery walk, etc.)

Whole Class

discussion

shape tiles to explore

various patterns.

in a gallery walk,

noticing the different

patterns that where

created. Teacher is to

take photos of each

childs pattern for

assessment.

Learnt (KWL) in relation

to patterns.

What do we know

about patterns?

draw the first 5

characters of their

pattern using the

correct shape and

colour to match the

concrete material.

ADAPTATIONS

- Enabling prompt

(to allow those

experiencing difficulty

to engage in active

experiences related to

the initial goal task)

- Extending prompt

(questions that extend

students thinking on

the initial task)

Enabling

Choose 2-3 shapes to

create 2 different

patterns, drawing the

first 5 characters once

they are made.

Students are then to

swap their drawn

pattern with their

partner and try to

ASSESSMENT

STRATEGIES

(should relate to

objective. Includes

what the teacher will

listen for, observe,

note or analyse; what

evidence of learning

will be collected and

what criteria will be

used to analyse the

evidence)

teacher will take

photos of students

work. Using these

work samples, the

teacher will assess

against the following

checklist:

made of?

What is a repeating

pattern?

What is a growing

pattern?

using large shapes

(with no colour) sticking

them to the white board

(Adapted from Tes

Australia 2013).

Introduce shapes with

colour and various size

to create other

patterns.

As a class discuss how

it is a pattern and how

it can be extended.

patterns in total using

various shape and

colour. Students can

choose as many shapes

and colour as they wish

to be in their pattern.

Students are then to

get in into pairs, and

swap their patterns

they have drawn. They

are to extend the

pattern their partner

has created in their

work books, describe

their partners pattern.

probing questions

(listed above) as well

as the following

when relevant:

What is your pattern

created with?

How does your pattern

continue?

What did you partners

pattern look like?

same pattern?

Did anyone have a

pattern that your

partner could not

extend?

Describe their partners

pattern in your work

book.

1.

2.

3.

make using 2 or 3

different shapes?

What did you partners

pattern look like?

Extending

Students are to make

more complex patterns,

using more than 6

shapes, incorporating

colour and size into

their pattern. Drawing

the first section of the

pattern in their work

books. Students are

then to swap their

drawn pattern with a

partner and try to

extend their pattern.

Describing their

partners pattern in

your work book.

a pattern that is more

complex?

pattern using more

than 2 shapes.

Student can extend a

repeating pattern.

Student can write a

descriptive sentence

about the pattern.

MATHEMATICA

L

FOCUS

(what you want

the children to

come to

understand as a

result of this

lesson short,

succinct

statement)

Session 2

Exploring

equivalence

Creating

number

sentences

TUNING IN

(WHOLE CLASS

FOCUS)

(a short, sharp task

relating to the focus of

the lesson; sets the

scene/ context for what

students do in the

independent aspect.

e.g., It may be a

problem posed, spider

diagram, an openended question, game,

or reading a story)

INVESTIGATIONS

SESSION

(INDEPENDENT

LEARNING)

(extended opportunity

for students to work in

pairs, small groups or

individually. Time for

teacher to probe

childrens thinking or

work with a small group

for part of the time and

to also conduct roving

conferences)

REFLECTION &

MAKING

CONNECTIONS

SESSION

(WHOLE CLASS

FOCUS)

(focused teacher

questions and summary

to draw out the

mathematics and assist

children to make links.

NB. This may occur at

particular points during

a lesson. Use of

spotlight, strategy,

gallery walk, etc.)

Whole class

discussion

in groups of 4 and play

the equivalent snap

game (see appendix 1)

(Adapted from Tes

Australia 2013).

the floor with their

books and think, pair

and share with a

different partner about

equivalent equations.

sign.

the equals sign?

What does the equals

sign mean?

What do you do if you

have an equals sign in

your equation?

What does the word

equivalent mean?

equivalent equation

they are to draw this

representation and

justify why this

equation is equivalent

in their work books.

Students are also to

write 3 equations that

are not equivalent and

justify why.

then to discuss what

they found were

equivalent equations

and not equivalent

equations writing a list

on poster paper (to be

hung up in the room).

an equivalent

equation?

Did anyone else find

ADAPTATIONS

- Enabling prompt

(to allow those

experiencing difficulty

to engage in active

experiences related to

the initial goal task)

- Extending prompt

(questions that extend

students thinking on

the initial task)

Enabling

Play the equivalent

snap game using

counters to represent

the numbers on the

cards.

When students find an

equivalent equation

they are to draw this

representation and

justify why this

equation is equivalent

in their work books.

Students also need to

write 2 equations that

are not equivalent and

justify why.

Extending

ASSESSMENT

STRATEGIES

(should relate to

objective. Includes

what the teacher will

listen for, observe,

note or analyse; what

evidence of learning

will be collected and

what criteria will be

used to analyse the

evidence)

anecdotal

observational notes.

Assessing the

following criteria:

1.

2.

3.

Student is able to

match equivalent

equations.

Student can justifying

why it is equivalent.

Student can create

equations that are not

equivalent.

board.

If we had an equation

like 3+3= and 2+2+2=

are they equivalent?

probing questions

(listed above) as well

as the following

when relevant:

If we had an equation

like 3+3= and 3+1=

are they equivalent?

you find to be

equivalent?

an equation like 4+2 =[

]+3?

these are equivalent?

this 5+1 = 8 1, is that

equivalent?

you find were not

equivalent?

this equation?

How did you know it

was equivalent?

What did you find as

not an equivalent

equation?

Did anyone else find

this equation?

How do you know it

isnt equivalent?

the children to

come to

understand as a

result of this

lesson short,

succinct

statement)

TUNING IN

(WHOLE CLASS

FOCUS)

(a short, sharp task

relating to the focus of

the lesson; sets the

scene/ context for what

students do in the

independent aspect.

e.g., It may be a

problem posed, spider

diagram, an openended question, game,

or reading a story)

INVESTIGATIONS

SESSION

(INDEPENDENT

LEARNING)

(extended opportunity

for students to work in

pairs, small groups or

individually. Time for

teacher to probe

childrens thinking or

work with a small group

for part of the time and

to also conduct roving

conferences)

equivalent equation

they are to draw this

representation and

justify why this

equation is equivalent

in their work books.

Students are also to

write 3 equations that

are not equivalent and

justify why.

are not equivalent?

MATHEMATICA

L

FOCUS

snap game a second

time using the

additional cards (see

appendix 2).

REFLECTION &

MAKING

CONNECTIONS

SESSION

(WHOLE CLASS

FOCUS)

(focused teacher

questions and summary

to draw out the

mathematics and assist

children to make links.

NB. This may occur at

particular points during

a lesson. Use of

spotlight, strategy,

gallery walk, etc.)

ADAPTATIONS

- Enabling prompt

(to allow those

experiencing difficulty

to engage in active

experiences related to

the initial goal task)

- Extending prompt

(questions that extend

students thinking on

the initial task)

ASSESSMENT

STRATEGIES

(should relate to

objective. Includes

what the teacher will

listen for, observe,

note or analyse; what

evidence of learning

will be collected and

what criteria will be

used to analyse the

evidence)

Session 3

Exploring

number

balances

Exploring

equivalence

Exploring

number

sentences

Whole class

discussion

Recap previous lesson

using KWL.

What did we learn

about equivalence from

the previous lesson?

Have 4+2 = [ ] -2

written on the white

board.

What does this

number sentence

means?

What does 4+2= ?

Can I just write 6?

What does the -2

mean?

number balances

(Adapted from

EDMA310/360 week 7

tutorial) to explore,

allow 5 minutes for

students to touch, feel

and use the number

balances and tags.

settled they are to

place tags on the

number balances to

create 6+1 on one side.

On the opposite side

students are to find as

many representations

of the same equation,

writing the equations

and justifications on

poster paper as they

proceed.

probing questions

(listed above) as well

as the following

when relevant:

What are other ways

that you can create

6+1

Is this equivalent?

Why is this

Once completed

students are to place

posters on the wall and

gather around.

different techniques

they used to find the

equivalent

representations.

use to find the

equivalent

representations?

How did you know that

it was equivalent?

Did anyone find an

equation that was not

equivalent?

Enabling

Teacher is to use

probing questions to

guide student learning.

What happens if you

put this tag here?

Is this equivalent?

What number have

you placed the tag on?

Extending

Students are to find

other equations that

have equivalence and

find multiple ways that

the equations can be

represented. Writing

the equations and

justifications on poster

paper.

What are other

number sentences that

are equivalent?

teacher will complete

an observational

checklist.

1.

2.

Student discovered an

equivalent

representation for 6+1.

Student can justify

why it is equivalent.

used as an

assessment pieces, as

students express what

they know, want to

know and have learnt.

equivalent?

How do you know

when it is equivalent?

MATHEMATICA

L

FOCUS

(what you want

the children to

come to

understand as a

result of this

lesson short,

succinct

statement)

Session 4

Exploring the

use of

coefficients

Equivalent

representatio

ns

(WHOLE CLASS

FOCUS)

(a short, sharp task

relating to the focus of

the lesson; sets the

scene/ context for what

students do in the

independent aspect.

e.g., It may be a

problem posed, spider

diagram, an openended question, game,

or reading a story)

SESSION

(INDEPENDENT

LEARNING)

(extended opportunity

for students to work in

pairs, small groups or

individually. Time for

teacher to probe

childrens thinking or

work with a small group

for part of the time and

to also conduct roving

conferences)

MAKING

CONNECTIONS

SESSION

(WHOLE CLASS

FOCUS)

(focused teacher

questions and summary

to draw out the

mathematics and assist

children to make links.

NB. This may occur at

particular points during

a lesson. Use of

spotlight, strategy,

gallery walk, etc.)

Hungry Caterpillar

(Adapted from Asha, J,

2013) to the class.

While reading the book

ask a child to

remember how many of

each fruit was eaten

(eg. Josh remembers

apples, Susie

remembers oranges).

At the conclusion of the

book write on the board

all the variety of fruit

that was eaten with

to their tables and

complete the task

written on the board.

within a gallery walk,

noticing all the different

variations that were

created.

raspberries +

pineapples + grapes =

32 pieces of fruit, how

many different ways

can you represent

this?

use to solve the

equation?

How do you know you

only had 32 pieces of

fruit

ADAPTATIONS

- Enabling prompt

(to allow those

experiencing difficulty

to engage in active

experiences related to

the initial goal task)

- Extending prompt

(questions that extend

students thinking on

the initial task)

Enabling

Students are to use

counters to represent

various types of fruit,

when answering the

question.

The blue counter is

blue berries, red

counter is raspberries,

yellow counter is

pineapples and green

counter is grapes, I only

want 32. How many of

each fruit will you

STRATEGIES

(should relate to

objective. Includes

what the teacher will

listen for, observe,

note or analyse; what

evidence of learning

will be collected and

what criteria will be

used to analyse the

evidence)

an anecdotal

observation. The

following criteria will

be addressed:

1.

2.

find equivalent

representations.

Student was able to

justify their answer

with drawings and

descriptive writing

them to resemble the

equation, placing an

equals sign and the

total at the end.

Discuss how many of

each food variety was

eaten, writing this as an

equation on the board

(eg. 1+2+3)

underneath that fruit.

MATHEMATICA

L

FOCUS

(what you want

the children to

come to

understand as a

result of this

lesson short,

succinct

statement)

their answers, using

drawing and descriptive

writing of how many

individual pieces of fruit

where eaten.

have?

Extending

Students are to make

their own equation that

allows for multiples

answers.

probing questions

(listed above) as well

as the following

when relevant:

the use of words as

symbols for the

number.

are in your equation?

(WHOLE CLASS

FOCUS)

(a short, sharp task

relating to the focus of

the lesson; sets the

scene/ context for what

students do in the

independent aspect.

e.g., It may be a

problem posed, spider

diagram, an openended question, game,

or reading a story)

SESSION

(INDEPENDENT

LEARNING)

(extended opportunity

for students to work in

pairs, small groups or

individually. Time for

teacher to probe

childrens thinking or

work with a small group

for part of the time and

to also conduct roving

conferences)

students are to justify

their answers.

when you add all of

your fruit together that

there is only 32 pieces

of fruit?

MAKING

CONNECTIONS

SESSION

(WHOLE CLASS

FOCUS)

(focused teacher

questions and summary

to draw out the

mathematics and assist

children to make links.

NB. This may occur at

particular points during

a lesson. Use of

spotlight, strategy,

gallery walk, etc.)

- Enabling prompt

(to allow those

experiencing difficulty

to engage in active

experiences related to

the initial goal task)

- Extending prompt

(questions that extend

students thinking on

the initial task)

STRATEGIES

(should relate to

objective. Includes

what the teacher will

listen for, observe,

note or analyse; what

evidence of learning

will be collected and

what criteria will be

used to analyse the

evidence)

Session 5

Exploring the

use of

function

machines.

Discovering

the pattern

Extending

the pattern

out what the teacher is

doing.

Have a large picture of

a function machine on

the board and write a

childs name on the left

hand side.

Write the first 3 letters

of the same name on

the right hand side.

Give an appropriate

wait time before

continuing.

Write another childs

name and first 3 letters.

Give an appropriate

wait time before

continuing.

anyone tell me what Im

doing?

If students do not

understand, continue

for 4 more names.

Pose the same question

again Can anyone tell

me what is happening

in our function

machine?

and laptops sent up

with the function

machine game

(Adapted from

EDMA310/360 week 7

tutorial) changing each

Ipad and laptop to

apply a different

function (eg +2, -1, +5)

http://www.littlefishsw.c

o.uk/card/functionmachi

ne.html

Students are to go to

their tables in pairs and

work out what is

happening in their

function machine using

a variety of strategies.

Justifying in their work

books what is

happening in the

function machine and

extending the pattern.

Writing down the

original number, what

happened to the

number and the result

after going through the

function machine.

swap technological

devices with someone

else and attempt to

work through all the

different variations.

to the floor and discuss

how they worked out

what each function

machine was doing.

you use?

Did your strategies

always work?

Who tried lots of

different strategies?

Was anyone unable to

find an answer?

Enabling

Students are to use

counters to represent

the original number and

the result after going

through the function

machine.

teacher will complete

an observational

checklist.

1.

2.

Extending

Students are to bring

their technological

devices to the teacher,

so the teacher can

change the amount that

the function machine is

ascending or

decreasing by. The

student keeps their

technological device,

and does not swap.

Students are to go to

their tables in pairs and

work out what is

happening in their

function machine.

Writing in their work

books what is

happening in the

function machine,

proving this by using a

different number.

Writing down the

original number, what

happened to the

number and the result

3.

Student is able to

identify the pattern

that the function

machine creates.

Student is able to

extend the pattern that

the function machine

creates.

Student used a variety

of strategies (eg.

Additive, subtractive,

trial and error).

that the first 3 letters

are being used and the

rest is not being

included. Ask what

would happen to the

names Emily and Josh

going through the

machine.

rubbing the names off.

Tell students we are

going to change to

numbers now and I

want you to find the

pattern again.

Write 2, 3, 4, 10 on the

left hand side of the

machine.

On the right hand side

write 4, across from the

number 2.

What happened to the

number 2.

Across from the number

3, write 6.

What happened to the

number 3?

Across from the number

books what is

happening.

probing questions

(listed above) as well

as the following

when relevant:

What do you think the

function machine is

doing?

How do you know it is

doing that?

Can you prove it with

another number?

function machine.

4 write 8.

What do you think will

happen to the number

10?

Across from the number

10 write 20.

What was happening

in our function

machine?

What was the machine

doing?

References

Asha, J. (2013). 1 - Patterns in words and letters - Capital letters. Retrieved from English for the

Australian Curriculum: http://e4ac.edu.au/units/foundation/sequence01.html

Booker, G., & Windsor, W. (2010). Developing Algebraic Thinking: using problem-solving to build

from number and geometry in the primary school to the ideas that underpin algebra in high

school and beyond. Procedia Social and Behavioural Sciences, 8, 411 - 419.

doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.12.057

Bush, S., & Karp, K. (2013). Prerequisite algebra skills and associated misconceptions of middle

grade students: A review. The Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 32, 613 - 632.

doi:10.1016/j.jmathb.2013.07.002

Easton, C., Golightly, J., & Oyston, M. (1999). Coordinating the curriculum in the small primary

school. Philadelphia, PA: Falmer Press.

Education Australia Pty. (2013). Maths matching card - Equivalence. Retrieved from Tes Australia:

http://www.tesaustralia.com/teaching-resource/Maths-Matching-Cards-Equivalences6150505/

Education Australia Pty. (2013). Shape pattern game. Retrieved from Tes Australia:

http://www.tesaustralia.com/teaching-resource/Shape-Pattern-Game-6008283/

Falkner, N., Levi, L., & Carpenter, T. (1999). Children's understanding of equality: A foundation of

algebra. Teaching Children Mathematics, 6 (4), 232 - 236. Retrieved from

http://www.jstor.org/stable/41197398

Naftaliev, E., & Yerushalmy, M. (2011). Solving algebra problems with interactive diagrams:

Demonstration and construction of examples. The Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 30, 48 61. doi:10.1016/j.jmathb.2010.12.002

Redden, T. (1999). Introductory algebra: Four approaches or one? Mathematics Education

Research Journal, 11 (2), 145 - 148. doi:10.1007/BF03217066

Rivera, F. (2006). Changing the face of arithmetic: Teaching children algebra. Teaching Children

Mathematics, 12 (6), 306 - 311. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41198749

Rivera, F., & Becker, J. (2005). Teacher to teacher: Figural and numerical modes of generalizing in

algebra. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 11 (4), 198 - 203. Retrieved from

http://www.jstor.org/stable/41182215

Sfard, A., & Linchevski, L. (1994). The gain and the pitfalls of reification: The case of algebra.

Educational Studies in Mathematics, 26, 191 - 228. doi:10.1007/BF01273663

Taylor-Cox, J. (2003). Algebra in the early years? Yes! Young Children, 14 - 21. Retrieved from

http://www.jstor.org/stable/42729713

Van de Walle, J. A., Karp, K. S., & Bay-Williams, J. M. (2013). Elementary and middle school

mathematics: Teaching developmentally (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Van Den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M., Kolovou, A., & Robitzsch, A. (2013). Primary school students'

strategies in early algebra problem solving supported by an online game. Educational

Studies in Mathematics, 84(3), 281 - 307. doi:10.1007/s10649-013-9483-5

Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. (2013). The Australian curriculum in Victoria

(AusVELS). Melbourne, VIC: VCAA.

Warren, E., & Cooper, T. (2008). Generalising the pattern rule for visual growth patterns: Actions

that support 8 year olds' thinking. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 67(2), 171 - 185.

Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40284649

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