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C

GRADE 10 SCIENCE
BIOLOGY
by Glebert Dadol for BTG: Kto12 Summer 2016

[2] HEREDITY

[1] HOMEOSTASIS

[4] ECOSYSTEMS

[3] BIODIVERSITY

HOMEOSTASIS

HOMEOSTASIS
Homeostasis is the regulation of conditions in
the body.

Why regulate?
To ensure survival
and reproduction

What conditions?
temperature
water content
sugar level
hormone level
etc.

HOMEOSTASIS: HOW DO WE REGULATE?


THE BASIC NEGATIVE FEEDBACK LOOP
to be maintained at the

Condition

measured
by

if condition is not normal


signals
the

causing
the

Controlled
Element

Sensors

to adjust
the

Controller

refers
to

Normal
Condition

ORGAN SYSTEMS
Different organ systems coordinate with each
other to regulate the conditions of the body.

Nervous System
Endocrine System
Reproductive System HORMONE LEVEL REGULATION
Digestive System
Respiratory System
Cardiovascular System

HORMONE LEVEL REGULATION


REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
The reproductive system is a collection of internal
and external organs in both males and females
that work together for the purpose of
procreating.
The production of sperm cells and egg cells are
regulated by hormones.

MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM


Bladder contains the urine
Seminal vesicle - produce a
sugar-rich fluid (fructose) that
provides sperm with a source of
energy to help them move
Prostate gland - contributes
additional fluid to the ejaculate
Vas deferens
transports
mature sperm to the urethra in
preparation for ejaculation

MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM


Epididymis transports and
stores sperm cells that are
produced in the testes
Urethra carries the ejaculate
to be expelled during orgasm
Penis male organ used in
sexual intercourse
Testicle responsible for making
testosterone and for generating
sperm

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM


Ovaries produce egg cells and
hormones
Fallopian tube serve as tunnels
for the ova (egg cells) to travel
from the ovaries to the uterus
Uterus home to a developing
fetus
Cervix lower part of uterus
Vagina joins the cervix to the
outside of the body

HORMONE LEVEL REGULATION


Primary Male Hormones:
Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH) sperm production
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) produce testosterone
Testosterone development of male characteristics and
also needed to produce sperm
Primary Female Hormones:
Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH) egg cell growth
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) egg cell growth
Estrogen used to regulate the number of mature cells
produced
Progesterone prepares the uterus for a fertilized egg to
implant

MENSTRUAL CYCLE
Phase [1]: Follicular Phase the brain produces FSH and LH which
cause egg cells to be produced; one egg cell per ovary will mature
Phase [2]: Ovulatory Phase the mature egg will move out of the
ovary and go to the fallopian tube

Phase [3]: Luteal Phase the uterus prepares itself for a fertilized egg
to implant; if the egg is fertilized by sperm (through sexual
intercourse), the fertilized egg will move out of the fallopian tube into
the uterus and pregnancy starts; if the egg is not fertilized, the egg
passes through the uterus and the lining of the uterus breaks down
and sheds

HEREDITY

HEREDITY
Heredity is the inheritance of characteristics
from one generation to another generation.

How are the


characteristics
inherited?
Through genes

What are these characteristics?


Morphological
Anatomical
Physiological
Reproductive

GREGOR MENDELS EXPERIMENTS


Garden Pea Plants

Pure Breeds

Self-pollination

GREGOR MENDELS EXPERIMENTS


Monohybrid Cross

3 Tall:1 Dwarf

Parental
Generation

1st Generation
Offspring

2nd Generation
Offspring

PHENOTYPE AND GENOTYPE


Phenotype
Phenotype is the
expression of
morphological
characters such as tall
or dwarf plant.

PHENOTYPE AND GENOTYPE


Genotype
Gene for Height of Plant (Alleles)

Genotype is the
expression of genetic
make up of an
individual for a
particular trait.

T = tall

t = dwarf

Pure Breeds (Genotype)


TT = tall plant tt = dwarf plant

GREGOR MENDELS EXPERIMENTS


Garden Pea Plants

TT

TT

TT

TT

TT

All offspring are tall

tt

tt

tt

tt

tt

All offspring are dwarf

GREGOR MENDELS EXPERIMENTS


Monohybrid Cross
TT
Parental
Generation

tt

Tt

Tt

Tt

Tt

1st Generation
Offspring

Tt

GREGOR MENDELS EXPERIMENTS


Monohybrid Cross
2nd Generation
Offspring

1st
Generation
Offspring

Tt

TT

Tt

Tt

tt
Phenotype Ratio - 3:1
Genotype Ratio - 1:2:1

DNA: THE GENETIC MATERIAL


DNA is a molecule that carries most of the
genetic instructions used in the growth,
development, functioning and reproduction of
all known living organisms

DNA directs the production of proteins through


transcription and translation.

PRODUCTION OF PROTEIN
Transcription the information in the DNA is
transferred to RNA
The RNA transports the information through
the cytoplasm
Translation the protein in produced at the
ribosome according to the information
brought by the RNA

PRODUCTION OF PROTEIN

DNA

MUTATION
Mutation is the permanent change to an
organisms genetic material.
What causes mutation?
Mutations can be caused by high-energy
sources such as radiation or by chemicals in
the environment.
They can also appear spontaneously during
the replication of DNA.

MUTATION
Type of Mutation:

[1] Somatic Mutation the mutation occurs in


any cell in the body except in the germ cells
(sperm cells/egg cells; this mutation is not
inherited
[2] Germ-line Mutation the mutation occurs
in germs cells; this mutation is inherited

MUTATION
Effects of mutation:
Silent
Disease-causing
Generate beneficial genetic diversity

BIODIVERSITY

BIODIVERSITY
Biodiversity is the variation among organisms
brought by evolution.
Evolution is the gradual development of
more complex species from pre-existing
forms through mutation.

CHARLES DARWINS THEORY OF EVOLUTION


Natural Selection
Organisms with advantageous characteristics
with respect to their environment will have a
more likely chance to survive.
Survival of the fittest

CHARLES DARWINS THEORY OF EVOLUTION


EXAMPLES:
VENOM IN SNAKES
COLORED MOTHS

ECOSYSTEMS

ECOSYSTEMS
Ecosystems are communities of living
organisms in conjunction with the nonliving
components of their environment (things like
air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a
system.
Living organisms biotic components
Nonliving components abiotic components

SEATWORK
ON A CW PAPER, ANSWER THE
FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:
[1] Do humans play an important role in
maintaining ecosystems? Why?
[2] How does biodiversity influence the
stability of ecosystems?