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Chapter 12: Inflammation and Wound Healing

Test Bank
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. The nurse assesses a patients surgical wound on the first postoperative day and notes redness

and warmth around the incision. Which action by the nurse is most appropriate?
Obtain wound cultures.
Document the assessment.
Notify the health care provider.
Assess the wound every 2 hours.

a.
b.
c.
d.

ANS: B

The incisional redness and warmth are indicators of the normal initial (inflammatory) stage of
wound healing by primary intention. The nurse should document the wound appearance and
continue to monitor the wound. Notification of the health care provider, assessment every 2
hours, and obtaining wound cultures are not indicated because the healing is progressing
normally.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application)
REF:
177-178
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity
2. A patient with an open leg wound has a white blood cell (WBC) count of 13, 500/L and a

band count of 11%. What action should the nurse take first?
Obtain wound cultures.
Start antibiotic therapy.
Redress the wound with wet-to-dry dressings.
Continue to monitor the wound for purulent drainage.

a.
b.
c.
d.

ANS: A

The increase in WBC count with the increased bands (shift to the left) indicates that the
patient probably has a bacterial infection, and the nurse should obtain wound cultures.
Antibiotic therapy and/or dressing changes may be started, but cultures should be done first.
The nurse will continue to monitor the wound, but additional actions are needed as well.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application)
REF:
173
OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization
TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity
3. A patient with a systemic bacterial infection feels cold and has a shaking chill. Which

assessment finding will the nurse expect next?


Skin flushing
Muscle cramps
Rising body temperature
Decreasing blood pressure

a.
b.
c.
d.

ANS: C

The patients complaints of feeling cold and shivering indicate that the hypothalamic set point
for temperature has been increased and the temperature is increasing. Because associated
peripheral vasoconstriction and sympathetic nervous system stimulation will occur, skin
flushing and hypotension are not expected. Muscle cramps are not expected with chills and
shivering or with a rising temperature.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application)
REF:
174-175
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity
4. A young adult patient who is receiving antibiotics for an infected leg wound has a temperature

of 101.8 F (38.7 C). Which action by the nurse is most appropriate?


Apply a cooling blanket.
Notify the health care provider.
Give the prescribed PRN aspirin (Ascriptin) 650 mg.
Check the patients oral temperature again in 4 hours.

a.
b.
c.
d.

ANS: D

Mild to moderate temperature elevations (less than 103 F) do not harm the young adult
patient and may benefit host defense mechanisms. The nurse should continue to monitor the
temperature. Antipyretics are not indicated unless the patient is complaining of fever-related
symptoms. There is no need to notify the patients health care provider or to use a cooling
blanket for a moderate temperature elevation.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application)
REF:
176
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity
5. A patients 4 3-cm leg wound has a 0.4 cm black area in the center of the wound surrounded

by yellow-green semiliquid material. Which dressing should the nurse apply to the wound?
Dry gauze dressing (Kerlix)
Nonadherent dressing (Xeroform)
Hydrocolloid dressing (DuoDerm)
Transparent film dressing (Tegaderm)

a.
b.
c.
d.

ANS: C

The wound requires debridement of the necrotic areas and absorption of the yellow-green
slough. A hydrocolloid dressing such as DuoDerm would accomplish these goals. Transparent
film dressings are used for red wounds or approximated surgical incisions. Dry dressings will
not debride the necrotic areas. Nonadherent dressings will not absorb wound drainage or
debride the wound.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application)
REF:
182 | 179
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity
6. A patient has an open surgical wound on the abdomen that contains deep pink granulation

tissue. How would the nurse document this wound?


Red wound
Yellow wound
Full-thickness wound
Stage III pressure ulcer

a.
b.
c.
d.

ANS: A

The description is consistent with a red wound. A stage III pressure ulcer would expose
subcutaneous fat. A yellow wound would have creamy colored exudate. A full-thickness
wound involves subcutaneous tissue, which is not indicated in the wound description.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (comprehension)
REF: 179
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity
7. A patient with rheumatoid arthritis has been taking corticosteroids for 11 months. Which

nursing action is most likely to detect early signs of infection in this patient?
Monitor white blood cell count.
Check the skin for areas of redness.
Check the temperature every 2 hours.
Ask about fatigue or feelings of malaise.

a.
b.
c.
d.

ANS: D

Common clinical manifestations of inflammation and infection are frequently not present
when patients receive immunosuppressive medications. The earliest manifestation of an
infection may be just not feeling well.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application)
REF:
176
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity
8. The nurse should plan to use a wet-to-dry dressing for which patient?
a. A patient who has a pressure ulcer with pink granulation tissue
b. A patient who has a surgical incision with pink, approximated edges
c. A patient who has a full-thickness burn filled with dry, black material
d. A patient who has a wound with purulent drainage and dry brown areas
ANS: D

Wet-to-dry dressings are used when there is minimal eschar to be removed. A full-thickness
wound filled with eschar will require interventions such as surgical debridement to remove the
necrotic tissue. Wet-to-dry dressings are not needed on approximated surgical incisions. Wetto-dry dressings are not used on uninfected granulating wounds because of the damage to the
granulation tissue.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application)
REF:
187 | 183
TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity
9. A patient from a long-term care facility is admitted to the hospital with a sacral pressure ulcer.

The base of the wound is yellow and involves subcutaneous tissue. How should the nurse
classify this pressure ulcer?
a. Stage I
b. Stage II
c. Stage III
d. Stage IV
ANS: C

A stage III pressure ulcer has full-thickness skin damage and extends into the subcutaneous
tissue. A stage I pressure ulcer has intact skin with some observable damage such as redness
or a boggy feel. Stage II pressure ulcers have partial-thickness skin loss. Stage IV pressure
ulcers have full-thickness damage with tissue necrosis, extensive damage, or damage to bone,
muscle, or supporting tissues.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (comprehension)


REF: 185
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity
10. A young male patient who is a paraplegic has a stage II sacral pressure ulcer and is being

cared for at home by his mother. To prevent further tissue damage, what instructions are most
important for the nurse to teach the mother?
a. Change the patients bedding frequently.
b. Use a hydrocolloid dressing over the ulcer.
c. Record the size and appearance of the ulcer weekly.
d. Change the patients position at least every 2 hours.
ANS: D

The most important intervention is to avoid prolonged pressure on bony prominences by


frequent repositioning. The other interventions may also be included in family teaching, but
the most important instruction is to change the patients position at least every 2 hours.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application)
REF:
184
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity
11. The nurse will perform which action when doing a wet-to-dry dressing change on a patients

stage III sacral pressure ulcer?


Soak the old dressings with sterile saline 30 minutes before removing them.
Pour sterile saline onto the new dry dressings after the wound has been packed.
Apply antimicrobial ointment before repacking the wound with moist dressings.
Administer the ordered PRN hydrocodone (Lortab) 30 minutes before the dressing
change.

a.
b.
c.
d.

ANS: D

Mechanical debridement with wet-to-dry dressings is painful, and patients should receive pain
medications before the dressing change begins. The new dressings are moistened with saline
before being applied to the wound. Soaking the old dressings before removing them will
eliminate the wound debridement that is the purpose of this type of dressing. Application of
antimicrobial ointments is not indicated for a wet-to-dry dressing.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application)
REF:
183
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity
12. A new nurse performs a dressing change on a stage II left heel pressure ulcer. Which action by

the new nurse indicates a need for further teaching about pressure ulcer care?
The new nurse uses a hydrocolloid dressing (DuoDerm) to cover the ulcer.
The new nurse inserts a sterile cotton-tipped applicator into the pressure ulcer.
The new nurse irrigates the pressure ulcer with sterile saline using a 30-mL syringe.
The new nurse cleans the ulcer with a sterile dressing soaked in half-strength
peroxide.

a.
b.
c.
d.

ANS: D

Pressure ulcers should not be cleaned with solutions that are cytotoxic, such as hydrogen
peroxide. The other actions by the new nurse are appropriate.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application)
REF:
187
TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation
MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment

13. A patient arrives in the emergency department with a swollen ankle after an injury incurred

while playing soccer. Which action by the nurse is most appropriate?


Elevate the ankle above heart level.
Apply a warm moist pack to the ankle.
Assess the ankles range of motion (ROM).
Assess whether the patient can bear weight on the affected ankle.

a.
b.
c.
d.

ANS: A

Soft tissue injuries are treated with rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE). Elevation of
the ankle will decrease tissue swelling. Moving the ankle through the ROM will increase
swelling and risk further injury. Cold packs should be applied the first 24 hours to reduce
swelling. The nurse should not ask the patient to move or bear weight on the swollen ankle
because immobilization of the inflamed or injured area promotes healing by decreasing
metabolic needs of the tissues.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application)
REF:
177
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity
14. When admitting a patient with stage III pressure ulcers on both heels, which information

obtained by the nurse will have the most impact on wound healing?
The patient takes insulin daily.
The patient states that the ulcers are very painful.
The patient has had the heel ulcers for the last 6 months.
The patient has several old incisions that have formed keloids.

a.
b.
c.
d.

ANS: A

Chronic insulin use indicates diabetes, which can interfere with wound healing. The
persistence of the ulcers over the last 6 months is a concern, but changes in care may be
effective in promoting healing. Keloids are not disabling or painful, although the cosmetic
effects may be distressing for some patients. Actions to reduce the patients pain will be
implemented, but pain does not directly affect wound healing.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application)
REF:
181
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity
15. After receiving a change-of-shift report, which patient should the nurse assess first?
a. The patient who has multiple black wounds on the feet and ankles
b. The newly admitted patient with a stage IV pressure ulcer on the coccyx
c. The patient who has been receiving chemotherapy and has a temperature of 102 F
d. The patient who needs to be medicated with multiple analgesics before a scheduled

dressing change
ANS: C

Chemotherapy is an immunosuppressant. Even a low fever in an immunosuppressed patient is


a sign of serious infection and should be treated immediately with cultures and rapid initiation
of antibiotic therapy. The nurse should assess the other patients as soon as possible after
assessing and implementing appropriate care for the immunosuppressed patient.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (analysis)
REF: 176
OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment

16. The nurse could delegate care of which patient to a licensed practical/vocational nurse

(LPN/LVN)?
The patient who has increased tenderness and swelling around a leg wound
The patient who was just admitted after suturing of a full-thickness arm wound
The patient who needs teaching about home care for a draining abdominal wound
The patient who requires a hydrocolloid dressing change for a stage III sacral ulcer

a.
b.
c.
d.

ANS: D

LPN/LVN education and scope of practice include sterile dressing changes for stable patients.
Initial wound assessments, patient teaching, and evaluation for possible poor wound healing
or infection should be done by the registered nurse (RN).
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application)
REF:
183
OBJ: Special Questions: Delegation
TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment
17. The nurse is caring for a patient with diabetes who had abdominal surgery 3 days ago. Which

finding is most important for the nurse to report to the health care provider?
Blood glucose 136 mg/dL
Oral temperature 101 F (38.3 C)
Patient complaint of increased incisional pain
Separation of the proximal wound edges by 1 cm

a.
b.
c.
d.

ANS: D

Wound separation 3 days postoperatively indicates possible wound dehiscence and should be
immediately reported to the health care provider. The other findings will also be reported but
do not require intervention as rapidly.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application)
REF:
180
OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity
18. A patient who has diabetes is admitted for an exploratory laparotomy for abdominal pain.

When planning interventions to promote wound healing, what is the nurses highest priority?
Maintaining the patients blood glucose within a normal range
Ensuring that the patient has an adequate dietary protein intake
Giving antipyretics to keep the temperature less than 102 F (38.9 C)
Redressing the surgical incision with a dry, sterile dressing twice daily

a.
b.
c.
d.

ANS: A

Elevated blood glucose will have an impact on multiple factors involved in wound healing.
Ensuring adequate nutrition also is important for the postoperative patient, but a higher
priority is blood glucose control. A temperature of 102 F will not impact adversely on wound
healing, although the nurse may administer antipyretics if the patient is uncomfortable.
Application of a dry, sterile dressing daily may be ordered, but frequent dressing changes for a
wound healing by primary intention is not necessary to promote wound healing.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application)
REF:
181
OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization
TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

19. Which finding is most important for the nurse to communicate to the health care provider

when caring for a patient who is receiving negative pressure wound therapy?
Low serum albumin level
Serosanguineous drainage
Deep red and moist wound bed
Cobblestone appearance of wound

a.
b.
c.
d.

ANS: A

With negative pressure therapy, serum protein levels may decrease, which will adversely
affect wound healing. The other findings are expected with wound healing.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application)
REF:
182
OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity
20. After the home health nurse teaches a patients family member about how to care for a sacral

pressure ulcer, which finding indicates that additional teaching is needed?


The family member uses a lift sheet to reposition the patient.
The family member uses clean tap water to clean the wound.
The family member places contaminated dressings in a plastic grocery bag.
The family member dries the wound using a hair dryer set on a low setting.

a.
b.
c.
d.

ANS: D

Pressure ulcers need to be kept moist to facilitate wound healing. The other actions indicate a
good understanding of pressure ulcer care.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application)
REF:
187-188
TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity
SHORT ANSWER
1. A patients temperature has been 101 F (38.3 C) for several days. The patients normal

caloric intake to meet nutritional needs is 2000 calories per day. Knowing that the metabolic
rate increases 7% for each Fahrenheit degree above 100 in body temperature, how many total
calories should the patient receive each day?
ANS:

2140 calories
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application)
REF:
176
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity
OTHER
1. A patient who has an infected abdominal wound develops a temperature of 104 F (40 C). All

the following interventions are included in the patients plan of care. In which order should
the nurse perform the following actions? (Put a comma and a space between each answer
choice [A, B, C, D]).
a. Administer IV antibiotics.
b. Sponge patient with cool water.
c. Perform wet-to-dry dressing change.

d. Administer acetaminophen (Tylenol).


ANS:

A, D, B, C
The first action should be to administer the antibiotic because treating the infection that has
caused the fever is the most important aspect of fever management. The next priority is to
lower the high fever, so the nurse should administer acetaminophen to lower the temperature
set point. A cool sponge bath should be done after the acetaminophen is given to lower the
temperature further. The wet-to-dry dressing change will not have an immediate impact on the
infection or fever and should be done last.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (analysis)
REF: 184 | 187-188
OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization
TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity