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Chem 31.

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hEYAAAA
Experiment 10- Aldehydes and Ketones
*study nomenclature aldehydes usually end with al e.g. methanal, propanal, etc., ketones end with ones e.g. butanone
(please see summary below for tests and results)
Some additional notes:
-

leucofuchsin reagent for Schiffs test

Acid concentration on hydrazine formation (2, 4 DNPH test)


-

Acid hastens the reaction by making carbonyl C more positive therefore making it more
reactive to nucleophile
If acid concentration is TOO LOW, di activated si C therefore slower reaction
If acid concentration is TOO HIGH

Name of Test
2,4 - DNPH test

Reagent
2,4 - DNPH

Tollen's Test

[Ag(NH3)2NO3
]
leucofuchsin

Schiff's test
Benedict's Test

Iodoform Test

Test for Acetic


Acid
Test for
benzoic acid
Hydroxamic
Test

Molisch Test
Bial's Test

Seliwanoff's
Test
Benedict's Test

Barfoed's Test

Osazone
Formation

CuSO4,
citrate,
NaHCO3
NaOH, KI, I2

FeCl3 and
NaOH
FeCl3 and
NH4OH
NH2OH, HCl,
KOH, (lahat
alcoholic),
FeCl3
A- naphthol,
H2SO4
orcinol, HCl,
FeCl3
resorcinol,
H2SO4
CuSO4,
citrate,
NaHCO3
Cu(II)
acetate in
acetic acid
phenylhydra
zine

Test for
aldehydes and
ketones
aldehydes

(+)
yellow to orange
ppt
silver mirror

(-)
orange to red soln

aliphatic
aldehydes
aliphatic
aldehydes

violet colored soln

pink solution

brick red ppt

Blue soln

methyl
ketones
and 2-alkanols
acetic acid

bright yellow ppt

yellow solution

benzoic acid

formation of red
solution
flesh-colored ppt

esters

purple or
magenta solution

carbohydrates

red-violet ring at
interface
pentose- blue
green

differentiate
pentose from
hexose
ketose from
aldose
reducing
sugars
(hemiacetal!!)
monosaccharid
es vs. reducing
disaccharides
(+)
monosaccharid
es, reducing
disaccharides

colorless solution

hexose - yellow to
brown

ketose - bright
red solution
brick red ppt

pink solution

brick red ppt

Blue soln

yellow to yellow
orange ppt

Blue soln

Name of
test

Reagent

Hinsberg
test

1 amine: ppt,
soluble in KOH

2 amine: ppt, no
rxn with KOH

3 amine: no rxn

Sulfonamide

Lucas Test

Benzenesul
fonyl
Chloride,
NaOH
HCl, ZnCl2

1 alcohol: no rxn

2 alcohol: 5 mins

benzyllic: false positive

KMnO4

KMnO4

2 OH: decolor, brown


ppt

+FeCl3

phenol:
violet

primary:
decolorization,
brown ppt
p-nitrophenol: wine
red

3 alcohol: mabilis
maglayer
3 OH: purple solution

+Br2
Water
+neutral
KMnO4

phenol: white
ppt
phenol:
brown ppt

-->tribromophenol
--> quinone

B- naphthol: apple
green

p-bromophenol: dark
yellow

benzyllic: decolor, brown


ppt