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Operative Temperature

A biophysical index of thermal sensation and

Operative temperature is also known as dry radiant
temperature or radiant temperature.
It is defined as a uniform temperature of a imaginary
black enclosure in which an occupant would exchange
the same amount of heat byradiationplusconvection
as in the actual non-uniform environment.
Operative temperature can be defined as the average of
themean radiantandambient air temperatures.
The instrument used for assessing environmental
thermal comfort in terms of operative temperature is
called a eupatheoscope and was invented by A. F.
Dufton in 1929.

Mathematically, operative temperature can be

shown as;

To = hr tmr + hc ta
hr + h c

hc = convective heat transfer coefficient

hr = linear radiative heat transfer coefficient
t a= air temperature
tmr= mean radiant temperature


Operative temperature is used in

heat transfer and thermal comfort analysis in
transportation and buildings.

Humid Operative
The humid operative temperature is the
temperature of a uniform enclosure,with
a humidity of 100 percent.
It was given by Gagge in 1981.
Much effort has gone into deriving a
single index that will indicate
environmental heat stress for humans.
Environmental variables that affect heat
stress are radiation , temperature, vapor