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MBA – II SEM Financial Management - MB0033 Set – 1
Q1. Define Project Management, resource, process and project cycle. Explain the life-cycle of a project?
Answer: Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, and managing resources to bring about the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives. It is sometimes conflated with program management, however technically a program is actually a higher level construct: a group of related and somehow interdependent projects. A project is a temporary endeavor, having a defined beginning and end (usually constrained by date, but can be by funding or deliverables, undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives, usually to bring about beneficial change or added value. The temporary nature of projects stands in contrast to business as usual (or operations), which are repetitive, permanent or semi-permanent functional work to produce products or services. In practice, the management of these two systems is often found to be quite different, and as such requires the development of distinct technical skills and the adoption of separate management. Resources: In project management terminology, resources are required to carry out the project tasks. They can be people, equipment, facilities, funding, or anything else capable of definition (usually other than labour) required for the completion of a project activity. The lack of a resource will therefore be a constraint on the completion of the project activity. Resources may be storable or non storable. Storable resources remain available unless depleted by usage, and may be replenished by project tasks which produce them. Non-storable resources must be renewed for each time period, even if not utilized in previous time periods. Process: A project Management process is the management process of planning and controlling the performance or execution of a project. Input
Project Management Process Traditionally, project management includes a number of elements: four to five process groups, and a control system. Regardless of the methodology or terminology used, the same basic project management processes will be used.
The project development stages Major process groups generally include: • Initiation • Planning or development • Production or execution
Monitoring and controlling Closing
The initiation processes determine the nature and scope of the project. If this stage is not performed well, it is unlikely that the project will be successful in meeting the business’ needs. The key project controls needed here are an understanding of the business environment and making sure that all necessary controls are incorporated into the project. Any deficiencies should be reported and a recommendation should be made to fix them. The initiation stage should include a plan that encompasses the following areas: • Analyzing the business needs/requirements in measurable goals • Reviewing of the current operations • Financial analysis of the costs and benefits including a budget • Stakeholder analysis, including users, and support personnel for the project • Project charter including costs, tasks, deliverables, and schedule Planning and design
Planning Process Group Activities After the initiation stage, the project is planned to an appropriate level of detail. The main purpose is to plan time, cost and resources adequately to estimate the work needed and to effectively manage risk during project execution. As with the Initiation process group, a failure to adequately plan greatly reduces the project's chances of successfully accomplishing its goals. Project planning generally consists of • determining how to plan (e.g. by level of detail or rolling wave); • developing the scope statement; • selecting the planning team; • identifying deliverables and creating the work breakdown structure; • identifying the activities needed to complete those deliverables and networking the activities in their logical sequence;
Executing Process Group Processes Executing consists of the processes used to complete the work defined in the project management plan to accomplish the project's requirements. Execution process involves coordinating people and resources, as well as integrating and performing the activities of the project in accordance with the project management plan. The deliverables are produced as outputs from the processes performed as defined in the project management plan. Monitoring and controlling Monitoring and controlling consists of those processes performed to observe project execution so that potential problems can be identified in a timely manner and corrective action can be taken, when necessary, to control the execution of the project. The key benefit is that project performance is observed and measured regularly to identify variances from the project management plan.
Monitoring and Controlling includes: • Measuring the ongoing project activities (where we are); • Monitoring the project variables (cost, effort, scope, etc.) against the project management plan and the project performance baseline (where we should be); • Identify corrective actions to address issues and risks properly (How can we get on track again); • Influencing the factors that could circumvent integrated change control so only approved changes are implemented In multi-phase projects, the monitoring and controlling process also provides feedback between project phases, in order to implement corrective or preventive actions to bring the project into compliance with the project management plan. Project Maintenance is an ongoing process, and it includes: • Continuing support of end users • Correction of errors • Updates of the software over time
Monitoring and controlling cycle In this stage, auditors should pay attention to how effectively and quickly user problems are resolved. Over the course of any construction project, the work scope may change. Change is a normal and expected part of the construction process. Changes can be the result of necessary design modifications, differing site conditions, material availability, contractor-requested changes, value engineering and impacts from third parties, to name a few. Beyond executing the change in the field, the change normally needs to be documented to show what was actually constructed. This is referred to as Change Management. Hence, the owner usually requires a final record to show all changes or, more specifically, any change that modifies the tangible portions of the finished work. Closing
Closing includes the formal acceptance of the project and the ending thereof. Administrative activities include the archiving of the files and documenting lessons learned. This phase consists of: • Project close: Finalize all activities across all of the process groups to formally close the project or a project phase • Contract closure: Complete and settle each contract (including the resolution of any open items) and close each contract applicable to the project or project phase
Resources: In project management terminology, resources are required to carry out the project tasks. They
can be people, equipment, facilities, funding, or anything else capable of definition (usually other than labour) required for the completion of a project activity. The lack of a resource will therefore be a constraint on the completion of the project activity. Resources may be storable or non storable. Storable resources remain available unless depleted by usage, and may be replenished by project tasks which produce them. Non-storable resources must be renewed for each time period, even if not utilised in previous time periods.
Q2. What are the roles and responsibilities of a project manager?
Title Project Manager Role The person responsible for developing, in conjunction with the Project Sponsor, a definition of the project. The Project Manager then ensures that the project is delivered on time, to budget and to the required quality standard (within agreed specifications). He/she ensures the project is effectively resourced and manages relationships with a wide range of groups (including all project contributors). The Project Manager is also responsible for managing the work of consultants, allocating and utilising resources in an efficient manner and maintaining a co-operative, motivated and successful team.
Responsibilities • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Managing and leading the project team. Recruiting project staff and consultants. Managing co-ordination of the partners and working groups engaged in project work. Detailed project planning and control including: Developing and maintaining a detailed project plan. Managing project deliverables in line with the project plan. Recording and managing project issues and escalating where necessary. Resolving cross-functional issues at project level. Managing project scope and change control and escalating issues where necessary. Monitoring project progress and performance. Providing status reports to the project sponsor. Managing project training within the defined budget. Liaison with, and updates progress to, project steering board/senior management. Managing project evaluation and dissemination activities. Managing consultancy input within the defined budget. Final approval of the design specification. Working closely with users to ensure the project meets business needs. Definition and management of the User Acceptance Testing programme. Identifying user training needs and devising and managing user training programmes.
Q4. What is Risk Management? How can Risks be prioritized?
Risk management may be classified and categorized as: 1. Risk assessment and identification The assessment and identification focuses on enumerating possible risks to the project. Methods that can aid risk identification include checklists of possible risks, surveys, meetings and brainstorming and reviews of plans, process and work products. The project manager can also use the process database to get information about risks and risk management on similar projects. 2. Risk prioritization – focus on the highest risk. Prioritization requires analyzing the possible effects of the risk event in case it actually occurs. This approach requires a quantitative assessment of the risk probability and the risk consequences. For each risk rate the probability of its happening as low, medium or high. If necessary, assign probability values in the ranges given for each rating. For each risk, assess its impact on the project as low, medium, high or very high. Rank the risk based on the probability. Select the top few risk items for mitigation and tracking. 3. Risk Control: The main task is to identify the actions needed to minimize the risk consequences, generally called risk mitigation steps. Refer to a list of commonly used risk mitigation steps for various risks from the previous risk logs maintained by the PM and select a suitable risk mitigation step. The risk mitigation step must be properly executed by incorporating them into the project schedule. In addition to monitoring the progress of the planned risk mitigation steps periodically revisit project. The results of this review are reported in each milestone analysis report. To prepare this report, make fresh risk analysis to determine whether the priorities have Risk Analysis The first step in risk analysis is to make each risk item more specific. Risks such as, “Lack of Management buy in,” and “people might leave,” are a little ambiguous. In these cases the group might decide to split the risk into smaller specific risks, such as, “manager Jane decides that the project is not beneficial,” “Database expert might leave,” and “Webmaster might get pulled off the project.” The next step is to set priorities and determine where to focus risk mitigation efforts. Some of the identified risks are unlikely to occur, and others might not be serious enough to worry about. During the analysis, discuss with the team members, each risk item to understand how devastating it would be if it did occur, and how likely it is to occur. For example, if you had a
risk of a key person leaving, you might decide that it would have a large impact on the project, but that it is not very likely. In the process below, we have the group agree on how likely it thinks each risk item is to occur, using a simple scale from 1 to 10 (where 1 is very unlikely and 10 is very likely). The group then rates how serious the impact would be if the risk did occur, using a simple scale from 1 to 10 (where 1is little impact and 10 is very large). To use this numbering scheme, first pick out the items that rate 1 and 10, respectively. Then rate the other items relative to these boundaries. To determine the priority of each risk item, calculate the product of the two values, likelihood and impact. This priority scheme helps push the big risks to the top of the list, and the small risks to the bottom. It is a usual practice to analyze risk either by sensitivity analysis or by probabilistic analysis. In sensitivity analysis a study is done to analyse the changes in the variable values because of a change in one or more of the decision criteria. In the probability analysis, the frequency of a particular event occurring is determined, based on which it average weighted average value is calculated. Each outcome of an event resulting in a risk situation in a risk analysis process is expressed as a probability. Risk analysis can be performed by calculating the expected value of each alternative and selecting the best alternative. Ex: Now that the group has assigned a priority to each risk, it is ready to select the items to mange. Some projects select a subset to take action upon, while others choose to work on all of Project the items. To get started, you might select the top 3 risks, or the top 20%, based on the priority calculation.
Q5. What is project management knowledge area? Explain briefly PMIS.
PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT A subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure that the various elements of the project are properly coordinated. It consists of: • • • Project plan development—integrating and coordinating all project plans to create a consistent, coherent document. Project plan execution—carrying out the project plan by performing the activities included therein. Integrated change control—coordinating changes across the entire project.
PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT A subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. It consists of: • • • Initiation—authorizing the project or phase. Scope planning—developing a written scope statement as the basis for future project decisions. Scope definition—subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components.
PROJECT TIME MANAGEMENT A subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure timely completion of the project. It consists of:
Activity definition—identifying the specific activities that must be performed to produce the various project deliverables. Activity sequencing—identifying and documenting interactivity dependencies. Activity duration estimating—estimating the number of work periods that will be needed to complete individual activities.
PROJECT COST MANAGEMENT A subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure that the project is completed within the approved budget. It consists of: • Resource planning—determining what resources (people, equipment, materials) and what quantities of each should be used to perform project activities.
Cost estimating—developing an approximation (estimate) of the costs of the resources needed to complete project activities. Cost budgeting—allocating the overall cost estimate to individual work activities.
PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT A subset of project management that includes the processes required to make the most effective use of the people involved with the project. It consists of: • • • Organizational planning—identifying, documenting, and assigning project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships. Staff acquisition—getting the needed human resources assigned to and working on the project. Team development—developing individual and group skills to enhance project performance.
PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT Risk management is the systematic process of identifying, analyzing, and responding to project risks. It includes maximizing the probability and consequences of positive events and minimizing the probability and consequences of adverse events to project objectives. It includes: • • • Risk management planning—deciding how to approach and plan the risk management activities for a project. Risk identification—determining which risks might affect the project and document their characteristics. Qualitative risk analysis—performing a qualitative analysis of risks and conditions to prioritize their effects on project objectives.
PROJECT PROCUREMENT MANAGEMENT A subset of project management that includes the processes required to acquire goods and services to attain project scope from outside the performing organization. It consists of: • Procurement planning—determining what to procure and when. • • Solicitation planning—documenting product requirements and identifying potential sources. Solicitation—obtaining quotations, bids, offers, or proposals, as appropriate.
Q6. List out the macro issues in project management and explain each. a) Evolving key success factors (KSF) upfront: In order to provide complete stability to fulfilment of
goals, one needs to constantly evaluate from time to time, the consideration of what will constitute the success of completing a project and assessing its success before completion. The KSF should be evolved based on a basic consensus document (BCD). KSF will also provide an input to effective exit strategy (EES). Exit here does not mean exit from the project but from any of the drilled down elemental activities which may prove to be hurdles rather than contributors. b) Empowerment Title (ET): ET reflects the relative importance of members of the organisation at three levels. i) Team members empowered to work within limits of their respective allocated responsibilities the major change from bureaucratic systems is an expectation from theses members to innovate and contribute to tome and cost. ii) Group leaders are empowered additionally to act independently towards client expectation and are also vested with some limited financial powers. iii) Managers are empowered further to act independently but to maintain a scientific balance among time, cost, expectation and perception, apart from being a virtual advisor to the top management. a) Partnering Decision making (PDM): PDM is a substitute to monitoring and control a senior with better decision making process with work closely with the project managers as well as members to plan what based can be done to manage the future better from past experience. The key here is the active participation of members in the decision making process. The ownership is distributed among all irrespective of levels the term equally should be avoided here since ownership is not quantifiable. The right feeling of ownership is important.
The PD process is made scientific through: i) ii) iii) iv) Earned Value management system (EVMS) Budgeted Cost of work scheduled (BCWS) Budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP) Actual cost of work performed (ACWP) located a source and proposed to the manager only if such help is not accessible for free. Similarly a member should believe that a team leaders silence is a sign of approval should not provoke comments through excessive seeking of opinions. In short leave people alone and let situation perform the demanding act. The bond limit of MBE can be evolved depending on the sensitivity of the nature and size of the project.
a) Management by exception (MBE): “No news is good news”. If a member wants help he or she
MBA – II SEM Financial Management - MB0033 Set – 2
1. Providing adequate resources is key to productivity – comment.
Key elements of a Productivity Improvement Program: 1. Obtain Upper Management Support. Without top management support, experience shows a PIP likely will fail. The Chief Executive Officer should issue a clear, comprehensive policy statement. The statement should be communicated to everyone in the company. Top management also must be willing to allocate adequate resources to permit success. 2. Create New Organizational Components. A Steering Committee to oversee the PIP and Productivity Managers to implement it are essential. The Committee should be staffed by top departmental executives with the responsibilities of goal setting, guidance, advice, and general control. The Productivity Managers are responsible for the day-to-day activities of measurement and analysis. The responsibilities of all organizational components must be clear and well established. 3. Plan Systematically. Success doesn't just happen. Goals and objectives should be set, problems targeted and rank ordered, reporting and monitoring requirements developed, and feedback channels established. 4. Open Communications. Increasing productivity means changing the way things are done. Desired changes must be communicated. Communication should flow up and down the business organization. Through publications, meetings, and films, employees must be told what is going on and how they will benefit. 5. Involve Employees. This is a very broad element encompassing the quality of work life, worker motivation, training, worker attitudes, job enrichment, quality circles, incentive systems and much more. Studies show a characteristic of successful, growing businesses is that they develop a "corporate culture" where employees strongly identify with and are an important part of company life. This sense of belonging is not easy to engender. Through basic fairness, employee involvement, and equitable incentives, the corporate culture and productivity both can grow. 6. Measure and Analyze. This is the technical key to success for a PIP. Productivity must be defined, formulas and worksheets developed, sources of data identified, benchmark studies performed, and personnel assigned. Measuring productivity can be a highly complex task. The goal, however, is to keep it as simple as possible without distorting and depreciating the data. Measurement is so critical to success, a more detailed analysis is helpful.
2. Explain the relevance of work breakdown structure in determine responsibility area. Explain in detail GDM and its key features? The Global delivery model (GDM) is adopted by an industry or business such that it has a capability to plan design, deliver and serve to any customer or client worldwide with speed, Accuracy, Economy and reliability. The key features of GDM are:-
a) Standardization: Ingenious design and development of components and features which like to be accepted by 90% of worldwide customer. Global standard of design focusing on highly standardized method and processes of manufacture or development. Adopt block-and-socket concept with minimum adaptable or connection. b) Modularization: Product or solution split up into smallest possible individual identifiable entities, with limited individuals functioning capability but powerful and robust in combination with other modules. c) Minimum customization: Minimum changes or modifications to suit individual customers. d) Maximum micro structuring: splitting of the product modules further into much smaller entity identifiable more through characteristics rather than application features. Approach through standardization of these microbial entities even across multiple modules. Application of these microbial entities to rest within multiple projects or products or even as add-ons suit belated customer needs. 3. What do you understand by Resource Smoothing? What is the significance of reviewing ROI?
Resource smoothing is part of the resource levelling process. In itself, resource smoothing is the process that, not withstanding any constraints imposed during the levelling process, attempts to determine a resource requirement that is "smooth" and where peaks and troughs are eliminated. For example, even if 7 units of a given resource are available at any one time, utilizing 5 of these units each week is preferable to 4 one week, 7 the next, 2 the next and so on. Even if there is no limit to the amount of any one resource available, it is still desirable that resource usage is as smooth as possible. Given that the resource requirements of those activities on the critical path are fixed, some order or priority needs to be established for selecting which activity and which particular resource associated with this activity should be given priority in the smoothing process. In determining which activity should be given priority, a subjective judgment should be made about the type of resource (or resources) associated with each activity; priority should be given to the activities whose resources are considered to be most important. Beyond this consideration, activities should be ranked in order of total work content and total float or slack available for that activity. A useful device for prioritizing is to consider the ratio of total work content/total float remaining and give priority to activities with the highest value of this ratio. Return on Investment (ROI) is the calculated benefit that an organization is projected to receive in return for investing money (resources) in a project. Within the context of the Review Process, the investment would be in an information system development or enhancement project. ROI information is used to assess the status of the business viability of the project at key checkpoints throughout the project’s lifecycle. ROI may include the benefits associated with improved mission performance, reduced cost, increased quality, speed, or flexibility, and increased customer and employee satisfaction. ROI should reflect such risk factors as the project’s technical complexity, the agency’s management capacity, the likelihood of cost overruns, and the consequences of under or non performance. Where appropriate, ROI should reflect actual returns observed through pilot projects and prototypes.ROI should be quantified in terms of dollars and should include a calculation of the breakeven point (BEP), which is the date when the investment begins to generate a positive return. ROI should be recalculated at every major checkpoint of a project to se if the BEP is still on schedule, based on project spending and accomplishments to date. If the project is behind schedule or over budget, the BEP may move out in time; If the project is ahead of schedule or under budget the BEP may occur earlier. In either case, the information is important for decision making based on the value of the investment throughout the project lifecycle. Any project that has developed a business case is expected to refresh the ROI at each key project decision point (i.e., stage exit) or at least yearly. If the detailed data collection, calculation of benefits and costs, and capitalization data from which Return on Investment (ROI) is derived was not required for a particular project, then it may not be realistic or practical to require the retrofit calculation of ROI once the project is added to the Review portfolio. In such a case, it is recommended that a memorandum of record be developed as a substitute for ROI. The memorandum should provide a brief history of the program, a description of the major benefits realized to date with as much Quantitative data as possible and a summary of the process used to identify and select system enhancements. Some of the major benefits experienced by sites that installed the information system that would be important to include in the memorandum are: a) Decommissioning of mainframe computers b) Reduction/redirection of labour c) Elimination of redundant systems d) Ability to more cost effectively upgrades all sites with one standard upgrade package. In each case above, identify the specific site, systems, and labour involved in determining the cited benefit. Identify any costs or dollar savings that are known or have been estimated. The memorandum will be used as
tool for responding to any future audit inquiries on project ROI. For the Project Management Review; it is recommended that the project leader replace the text on the ROI document through (1) A note stating which stage of its cycle the project is in; (2) A bulleted list of the most important points from the memorandum of record; and (3) A copy of the memorandum of record for the Review repository. In subsequent Reviews of the information system, the ROI slide can be eliminated from the package. There is one notable exception to this guidance. Any internal use software project in the maintenance phase of its lifecycle that adds a new site or undertakes an enhancement or technology refresh that reaches the cost threshold established by Standard will need to satisfy capitalization requirements. It requires all agencies to capitalize items acquired or developed for internal use if the expected service life is two or more years and its cost meets or exceeds the agency’s threshold for internal use software. The standard requires capitalization of direct and indirect costs, including employee salaries and benefits for both Federal and Contractor employees who materially participate in the Software project. Program managers are considered to be the source of cost information for internal use software projects. If capitalization data is collected for the project in the future, the project would be expected to calculate and track its ROI.
4. Explain the concept of concurrency in High Technology Development.
Always aim one step higher in performance usually; high technology development has a long gestation period. By the time the product is perfected, it might have become obsolete. This necessitates that the period be shortened. The other alternative is to make technology development futuristic i.e. keeps the aim or target one step beyond what is required. Combination of both will yield better results. Using principles of concurrent engineering, we can start building components as developed and assembling on ad hoc basis and testing them and making changes taking into consideration any new requirements. Every effort to make the product Contemporary will improve the competitive advantage. Build concurrency into every activity Building concurrency into every activity is essential to reduce the development cycle time and to counter the technology obsolescence. Many of the tasks that are normally done in a serial fashion can be done in parallel by synchronizing the flow of information. The practices of the concurrent engineering where the design of the product and all its associated processes are carried out simultaneously based on team work and participation. Would not only help in reducing the development cycle time, but also improves the product functionality with regard to requirements. Concurrency can be accomplished in many ways both for product development as well as technology transfer, user evaluation and production.
5. What are the main utilities of an ERP package?
Integration is Key to ERP Systems Integration is an exceptionally significant ingredient to ERP systems. The integration between business processes helps develop communication and information distribution, leading to remarkable increase in productivity, speed and performance. The key objective of an ERP system is to integrate information and processes from all functional divisions of an organization and merge it for effortless access and structured workflow. The integration is typically accomplished by constructing a single database repository that communicates with multiple software applications providing different divisions of an organization with various business statistics and information. The Ideal ERP System An ERP system would qualify as the best model for enterprise wide solution architecture, if it chains all the below organizational processes together with a central database repository and a fused computing platform. Manufacturing Engineering, resource & capacity planning, material planning, workflow management, shop floor management, quality control, bills of material, manufacturing process, etc. Financials Accounts payable, accounts receivable, fixed assets, general ledger, cash management, and billing (contract/service)
Human Resource Recruitment, benefits, compensations, training, payroll, time and attendance, labour rules, people management Supply Chain Management Inventory management, supply chain planning, supplier scheduling, claim processing, sales order administration, procurement planning, transportation and distribution Projects Costing, billing, activity management, time and expense Customer Relationship Management Sales and marketing, service, commissions, customer contact and after sales support ERP Systems Improve Productivity, Speed and Performance Prior to evolution of the ERP model, each department in an enterprise had their own isolated software application which did not interface with any other system. Such isolated framework could not synchronize the inter-department processes and hence hampered the productivity, speed and performance of the overall organization. These led to issues such as incompatible exchange standards, lack of synchronization, incomplete understanding of the enterprise functioning, unproductive decisions and many more. For example: The financials could not coordinate with the procurement team to plan out purchases as per the availability of money. Implementation of an ERP System Implementing an ERP system in an organization is an extremely complex process. It takes lot of systematic planning, expert consultation and well structured approach. Due to its extensive scope it may even take years to implement in a large organization. Implementing an ERP system will eventually necessitate significant changes on staff and work processes. • Consulting Services - are responsible for the initial stages of ERP implementation where they help an organization go live with their new system, with product training, workflow, improve ERP's use in the specific organization, etc. Customization Services - work by extending the use of the new ERP system or changing its use by creating customized interfaces and/or underlying application code. While ERP systems are made for many core routines, there are still some needs that need to be built or customized for a particular organization.
The ERP implementation process goes through five major stages which are Structured Planning, Process Assessment, Data Compilation & Cleanup, Education & Testing and Usage & Evaluation. 1. Structured Planning: is the foremost and the most crucial stage where an capable project team is selected, present business processes are studied, information flow within and outside the organization is scrutinized, vital objectives are set and a comprehensive implementation plan is formulated. Process Assessment: is the next important stage where the prospective software capabilities are examined, manual business processes are recognized and standard working procedures are constructed. Data Compilation & Cleanup: helps in identifying data which is to be converted and the new information that would be needed. The compiled data is then analyzed for accuracy and completeness, throwing away the worthless/unwanted information.
Advantages of ERP Systems There are many advantages of implementing an EPR system. A few of them are listed below: • • • A perfectly integrated system chaining all the functional areas together The capability to streamline different organizational processes and workflows The ability to effortlessly communicate information across various departments\
Improved efficiency, performance and productivity levels
Disadvantages of ERP Systems While advantages usually outweigh disadvantages for most organizations implementing an ERP system, here are some of the most common obstacles experienced: • • • • The scope of customization is limited in several circumstances The present business processes have to be rethought to make them synchronize with the ERP ERP systems can be extremely expensive to implement There could be lack of continuous technical support
Q6. Explain three levels of SCMo documentation. Explain PILIN. It is possible today to establish a system aligned with an organization supply chain. It can be an add-on to existing ERP systems. The main objectives are: i. ii. iii. Prevention of stock-out and over supply Early warnings, elimination of bull-whip effect Optimized allocation in bottleneck situations due to network-wide inventory and demand transparency.
The main principles behind is the integration of supply chain participants, exchange of demand and inventory information, transparency & visibility of inventories and demands for multi-level supply chain. It also eliminates time lags in the information flow and ensures synchronization of demand information. SCMo set up (initialisation): The main steps for the set are; a) Determination of the potentially critical part of the supply network criteria. inventory cost, frequent engineering changes. i.
b) Mapping of structures a) high shortage risk and effect, long lead and reaction times, high total
Main features- The main features of such systems are: Releases and Interactions Planning- it is a simple way to create project plan. ii. Dashboard- It is a quick project status reporting tool. iii. To-Do lists_ Identify and list the integrated assignments iv. Integrated QA_ Bug tracking, test cases management, user story-to-bugs traceability, QA stats and charts. v. a) c) e) f) Time Tracking- Create more accurate estimate of time. A typical iteration plan methodology Add release (iterations will be generated automatically) Assign user stories on iterations (control team velocity) View assigned tasks and bugs Change bugs status b) Add user stories d) To plan next iteration just assign required user stories and control remaining velocity units.
g) Add spent time h) Spent time report could be added form To-do list. To simplify time calculation today’s time shown in the form. i) PILLIN Growing realization that sustainable identifier infrastructure is required to deal with the vast amount of digital assets being produced and stored within universities. PILIN is a particular challenge for e-research communities Bugs status could be changes right from the To-do list as well. So developer spends less time on frequent actions.
where massive amount of data are being generated without any means of managing this date over any length of time. The broad objectives are to: I. II. Support adoption and use of persistent identifiers and shared persistent identifier management services by the project stakeholders. Plan for a sustainable, share identifier management infrastructure that enables persistence of identifiers and associated services over archival lengths of time. Deploying a worldwide site consolidated solution for exchange sever 2003 at Microsoft. Pictures Using Microsoft exchange server 2003 to consolidate more than 70 messaging sites worldwide into seven physical locations.
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