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Stephanie Sanders



The choices made in the lesson plans were a result of a range of theoretical
and practical research. Reading comprehension strategies involve cognitive
or behavioral actions (McNamara, 2007, p.6) that advance a students ability
to gain meaning from a text and thus are vital to students reading
development. In light of the needs of group three students, the
comprehension strategy, inferring was selected. Duffy (2009) defines inferring
as the meaning an author implies but does not state directly (p.122). Making
predictions and inferences are intertwined concepts, as they demand students
gain information from the text while accessing and applying their prior
knowledge to form an understanding or guess in regard to the text (Donohue,
2007). Inferring was the selected strategy, as making inferences is a vital
element of critical, high level thinking and is imperative to the core set of
processes involved in many other comprehension strategies (Duffy, 2009;
Toomey, 2000). Inferring can be utilised by students in a variety of ways in
order to gain meaning from the text; identifying a theme, reading between the
lines, understanding characters feelings and making predictions (Donohue,

The lesson plans include both print-based text and an animated screen-based
text. Providing access to texts that are multimodal is vital. Walsh (2003)
defines multimodal texts as texts that have more than one mode so that
meaning is communicated through a synchronization of modes (as cited in
Harris, 2011, p. 20). These texts utlise five key semiotic systems to convey
meaning (Anstey and Bull, 2006). The society in which students live is rich
with screen-based information and texts, therefore classrooms have the
opportunity and an obligation, to extend and enhance this knowledge (Callow,
2010;Harris, 2011). At this level students are beginning to read chapter books
and are introduced to content area texts in science and history (p. 281). In
response to this a chapter book has been selected that delivers history
content. A picture book has also been selected as it provides opportunity to

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make inferences within both the text and the illustrations and thus
incorporates several different levels of comprehension and meaning-making
(Roche, 2014, p. 47)
The meaning-making element of four-resource model, text participant, has
been selected as an instructional strategy as it assists students with the
process of inferring (Seely Flint, Kitson, Lowe, & Shaw, 2014). The text
participant role enables students to examine different levels within the text,
this can be applied to a traditional linguistic text or a visual text (Seely Flint et
al., 2014). These are important for students to experience and therefore both
types of drawing inferences have been included in the lesson plan. This
approach was also selected as it supports students in making inferences
within history texts to meet Australian Curriculum expectations (Seely Flint et
al., 2014). A key instructional practice that will be employed during the whole
class activity is read aloud. This was selected as there is a diverse range of
student ability and this approach enables all to engage with and draw
meaning from the text (Seely Flint et al., 2014). Read aloud further develops
students inferencing skills as it is a metacognitive reading strategy and
assists students in become[ing] aware of how they are thinking about a text
(Seely Flint et al., p. 307). Additionally, read aloud sessions also allow the
teacher to model explicitly the correct use of the comprehension strategy and
effectively utilise open-ended questions (Seely Flint et al., 2014; Urquhart &
Frazee, 2012).

A range of activities were utilised to maximize students opportunities to meet

the learning intentions. The students utilise the KWL activity to activate prior
knowledge and engage them in learning about the topic (Wing Jan, 2009, p.
112). Additionally, it was selected as a method for assessing student
knowledge and providing opportunity for them to direct their learning. The
activity What makes you say that? was selected as provides students with
the opportunity to reason with evidence, which is a key skill involved in
inferring (Urquhart & Frazee, 2012). Students will then engage in think-pairshare to ensure all students are participating and practicing the inferring

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strategy (Donohue, 2007). The activity red light, yellow light would be
completed as a group as some vocabulary is difficult. This would ensure all
students could access the task and participate. Questioning has been used in
both the whole group and focused teaching group. It was used as it engages
students and assists all students in meeting the learning intention (Ramsey,
Gabbard, Clawson, Lee & Henson, 2010). In conclusion, a range of quality
literacy sources were utilised to ensure the students gained knowledge and

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Anstey, M. and Bull, G. (2006). Teaching and Learning Multiliteracies:

Changing Times, Changing Literacies. Carlton, Australia:Curriculum
Callow, J. (2010). Spot the Difference: The Changing Nature of Page-based
and Screen-based Texts. Screen Education, 58(1), 106-110.
Retrieved from:;dn=2118205988772
Donohue, L. (2007). Guided Listening. Markham, Canada: Pembroke
Duffy, G. G. (2009). Explaining reading: A resource for teaching concepts,
skills, and strategies. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Gear, A. (2006). Reading Power: Teaching Students to Think While they
Read. Markham, Canada: Pembroke Publishers.
Harris, A. (2011). How effective are print-based comprehension models for
reading and assessing multimodal texts? Literacy Learning: the
Middle Years, 19(3),19-32. Retrieved from;res=AEIPT
McNamara, D. S. (2007). Reading Comprehension Strategies. Memphis,
USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associate.
Ramsey, I., Gabbard, C., Clawson, K., Lee, L., Henson, K. (2010).

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Questioning: An Effective Teaching Method. The Clearing House: A

Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas 63(9), 420-422.

Roche, M. (2014). Developing Childrens Critical Thinking through

Picturebooks : A guide for primary and early years students and
teachers. New York, NY: Routledge.
Toomey, M. (2000). Introducing inference. Maplewood, NJ: Circuit
Seely Flint, A., Kitson, L., Lowe, K., & Shaw, K. (2014). Literacy in Australia:
Pedagogies for engagement. Milton, Australia: John Wiley & Sons
Australia Ltd.
Urquhart, V., & Frazee, D. (2012). Teaching Reading in the Content Areas : If
Not Me, Then Who? (3rd Edition). Alexandria, VA, USA: Association
for Supervision & Curriculum Development (ASCD).
Wing Jan, L. (2009). Write ways: Modelling writing forms (3rd ed.). Melbourne,
VIC: Oxford University Press.

Stephanie Sanders