IB Biology

Evolution and Ecology Ecology

Yegor Lanovenko

Ecology is the study of living organisms and their environment. ○ Biosphere – all areas on earth where living organisms are formed. Biosphere extends around 10km below the sea level and 8km above.

Food chain Chains ○ Producer ○ First Consumer ○ Second consumer… ○ Arrows represent energy flow ○ Phytoplankton – Zooplankton – Krill – Anchovies – Sardines – Cod – Tiger Shark Energy flow ○ The initial source of energy for everything is Sun. ○ Energy from the Sun transferred to producers, however not all the energy from the Sun is used for photosynthesis. ○ Initial source – (green reflected, saturation point, reflection off other surfaces) – Producers (active transport, respiration) – First consumer (undigested, uneaten plants) – (uneaten, undigested) – Second consumer Carbon Cycle

Carbon cycle ○ In an ecosystem, energy is dissipated. Minerals are recycled. Detripho and sap break down organic material into minerals in soil. ○ Decomposer Animal Detritu Fossil Atmosphere Plants fuels s Gas form, (Respiration, CO 2 photosynthesis)

Normally, the amount in the table is balanced. However, sometimes it increases:  Combustion, burning fossil fuels

IB Biology

Evolution and Ecology

Yegor Lanovenko

 Trees take more carbon out than release ○ Carbon is greenhouse gas. It causes global warming.  Sun emits short-wave radiation. Some of it reflected by the atmosphere back into space. Some of it is reflected y the earth surface. Some is absorbed by the earth.  Longer wavelength radiation (heat) is trapped by gases in the atmosphere in the atmosphere.  Greenhouse effect is vital for the temperature on earth. No GE = no liquid water = no life  Greenhouse gases trap the longer wavelength radiation. The higher the concentration of these gases in the atmosphere, the more energy is trapped. • CO2 – fossil fuel combustion, deforestation • Nitrogen oxides – combustion of fossil fuels, cars, industry • Methane – cows, paddy fields (flooded, so the decomposers respire anaerobically, so as a side effect they produce methane) • Water vapour – increased evaporation (temperature), combustion Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species. ○ Human  Animal, Chordata, Mammals, Primate, Hominidae, Homo, Sapiens. ○ Kinki People Can Often Find Great Sex. Greenhouse effect

Radiation from the sun heats the earth’s surface. Some of it is absorbed by the earth – carbon dioxide, methane, water. These gases prevent the heat leaving the atmosphere. They hold radiation and form a blanket warming the earth. The excessive combustion of fossil fuels has led to an increase in these gases, causing greenhouse effect, causing global warming. Precautionary principle ○ Prove development will do no harm Classification of Animals Invertebrates E.g. Sponge

Phylum Porifera (pore-holes, fera – bearer) Cnidoria

Description No mouth, spines, unsymmetrical body design. Radial symmetry, no skeleton, mouth, no anus. Long, flat, wide. Round segmented body, hydrostatic

Jellyfish

Platyhelminthes Ammelida

Flat worms Round worms

IB Biology

Evolution and Ecology

Yegor Lanovenko skeleton.

Molluska Anthropoda

Squid, mussels. Insects, crabs, arachnids

Muscular foot, hard shell Hard exoskeleton, jointed limbs, segmented bodies.

Plants Title Size Roots Vascul ar system No Leaves Seed s Spore s Other

Bryophtes (moss)

Small

No roots, rhizoid s Yes

Tiny

Moist habitat

Filicinophytes (ferns) Confierophytes (cons)

Large r Big

Yes

Large, segment ed Needles

Spore s Seed s in cones Adapte d to dry and cold

Yes

Yes

Angiospermatoph ytes (flowers)

Varie d

Yes

Yes

Multilayered

Fruits

Keys

IB Biology

Evolution and Ecology

Yegor Lanovenko

Populations • Birth (natality) + immigration = death + emigration ○ Constant, stable population ○ The differences in the two result in either population increase or decrease. Population growth

• ○

Period 1  Exponential growth phase • Fewer predators • Less competition as the population is smaller

IB Biology ○

Evolution and Ecology

Yegor Lanovenko

Phase 2  Transition phase • Factors start to limit population growth • Birth and immigration decrease but are still higher than D and E. ○ Phase 3  Plateau phase • Fluctuating small differences between death + emigration and birth + immigration. • Population has reached its carrying capacity. • Carrying capacity = maximum population size an environment can support. Factors affecting population growth ○ Number / concentration of predators  Relates to fluctuations in the Plateau phase  Time lag ○ Competition for food, water, territory, breeding sites and mates.  Interspecific – between species  Infraspecific ○ Overcrowding  Stress  Decrease in fertility and maturity  Increase in sickness, spread of disease