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Hannah Goldstein

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Abraham, Jame, and Carmen J. Allegra, eds. Bethesda Handbook of Clinical Oncology.
Philadelphia: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2001. Print.
This book explained the development of Melanoma, how UV radiation inhibits
cancerous lesions, as well as the types of Melanoma. The development of Melanoma
lesions as a result of UV radiation provide insight on skin damage and consequently The
book provided information on detecting Melanoma; however, this information was very
beneficial to the research being conducted because there was relevant information
explaining Melanoma and some information relating to UV induced Melanoma. Overall,
this article was extremely beneficial because of its insight into Melanoma as a whole and
how UV radiation leads to Melanoma.
Balk, Sophie J., Doris Day, and Bruce E. Katz, eds. "Preventing Skin Cancer." Skin Cancer
Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web.
This article provided insightful information on the dangers of UV radiation and
occurrences of Melanoma. The damage of UV radiation can occur after even 1 sun burn.
The conditions in which most UV induced damage could occur were during middayafternoon and tanning beds, and/ or while wearing minimal or thin clothing. This
information will be insightful in providing information to adolescents on the damage their
skin is subjected to on a daily basis. This article was beneficial in determining ways to
prevent skin cancer; however, they provided little insight as to how the UV radiation
inhibits abnormal cell growth. As a result, this article wasn't very insightful on my topic.
Clancy, S. (2008) DNA damage & repair: mechanisms for maintaining DNA integrity. Nature
Education 1(1):103
This article explained the cellular products that UV radiation inhibits and how
these affect the cells. During cellular replication, during the S and M phases in mitosis,
nucleotides can be paired incorrectly resulting in a possibly ineffective gene. Because
each gene codes for a certain job, variation in this genes sequence can render the gene
useless. Even though numerous mutations such as this are prevented, some continue on
undetected and will continue to replicate in an incorrect way. This article was extremely
beneficial due to its in depth explanation of UV induced mutations of genes. Also, it
provided a breakdown as to when these mutations occur. This article did also focus on
repair mechanisms after genes are damaged; however, this information is not beneficial to
the topic being researched.

Dadlani, Chicky, and Seth J. Orlow. "Planning for a brighter future: A review of sun protection
and barriers to behavioral change in children and adolescents." Dermatology Online
Journal 14.9: n. pag. Web. 17 Dec. 2015.
This article was extremely beneficial because the article described the most
beneficial methods or target audience to focus on in order to prevent Melanoma through
education. The article explained how habits are formed at a young age by everyday
practice and by observing adults in an adolescents life. Therefore, education at the
elementary, middle, and high school levels would be most beneficial in reducing
Melanoma. Also, the article explained the importance of education and possible barriers
that were common. Overall, this article was beneficial in supporting the claim that
prevention through education is essential.
De Fabo, Edward C., Frances P. Noonan, Thomas Fears, and Glenn Merlino. "Ultraviolet B but
Not Ultraviolet A Radiation Initiates Melanoma." The Journal of Cancer Research.
American Association for Cancer Research, n.d. Web. 04 Oct. 2015.
This article depicts a few correlating experiments that prove UVBs direct
influence on the development of Melanoma, and disprove UVAs influence on the
development of melanoma. Mice that were exposed to UVB radiation developed tumors
at a more common rate compared to UVA exposed mice. Finally, the isolated UVB band
caused more development of melanoma compared to other light sources that contained
UVA, UVB, and visible light. This proves the direct role isolated UVB plays in the
development of melanoma. This article well explained how the experiments contributed
to this result. This article provided insightful information on how UVB radiation directly
caused the development of tumors.
Epstein, John H., MD, and Stephan Q. Wang, MD. "Skin Cancer Foundation." Understanding
UVA and UVB. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2015.
This article provided insightful information into how UV light affects our skin. It
explained how the suns radiation damages skin and how the various wavelengths
influence the damage. Also, it explained how the damage can in turn cause tumors and
other abnormal cell growth to occur. This article was useful because it explained the
direct correlation between the UV lights and cancer growth through the use of words and
diagrams. It had minimal bias, and properly addressed the topic it intended to.
"FDA Sheds Light on Sunscreens." U.S. Food and Drug Administration. N.p., 17 May 2012.
Web. 26 Oct. 2015.
This article explained the importance of labeling on Sunscreen products and the
FDA regulations behind the labels. The article described the various aspects of the FDA
regulations that allow for miscommunication between the company and the consumer.
This article was important because it provided the information showing that FDA

regulations allow for the labeling of products with incorrect descriptions. Also, it
provided insightful information on aspects of the regulations that could be altered to more
accurately explain the sun protection the product actually possesses.
"The Genetics of Cancer." Cancer.Net. Cancer.Net, 26 Mar. 2012. Web. 27 Sept. 2015.
This article explains the types of genetic mutations. There are two categories that
the mutations can either be acquired, or occur through damaged DNA sequences, or
germline, also called inherited. Also, the genes that are most commonly linked to
cancer are listed. Tumor suppressor genes protect cells, and when mutations to these
genes occur, cells grow uncontrollably. The other main category of cancer contributing
genes falls under the oncogenes category. Oncogenes turn healthy cells into cancerous
cells that then reproduce to form more cancerous cells. This article was beneficial for
simplistic background knowledge on gene mutations. However, it wasnt very specific on
the processes of genetic mutations.
"Genetics of Skin Cancer." National Cancer Institute. National Institute of Health, n.d. Web. 27
Sept. 2015.
This article explained the various layers of the skin and the components of each,
as well as the common cancers that appear in each. The epidermis is composed of mostly
kerocytes; the dermis is composed primarily of fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and certain
immune system cells; and the subcutis is composed mainly of muscle, fascia, bone and/or
cartilage. The most common cancers of the epidermal layer involve the hair follicles, for
the dermis the most common cancers form within the skin from the immune system cells
moving in and out of blood vessels and lymphatics; and the common cancers for the
subcutis are at varying levels of malignancy but are near region of localized skin cancers
that can spread to this area. This article provided extensive knowledge on the layers of
skin, as well as information on the common cancers in each area. It was thorough and
explained each aspect very well.
Goldstein, Evan K. Personal interview. 26 Nov. 2015.
This interview was conducted with a senior systems engineer from NASA
Goddard Space Flight Center and provided insight into the Ozone conditions within
recent history and the causes of ozone depletion. Mr. Goldstein provided information on
chlorofluorocarbons and other pollutants that contributed to the depletion of the ozone
layer and the increase in the ozone "holes" in the poles. This information will be used to
show that ozone depletion has led to an increase in the amount of UV radiation reaching
Earth's surface causing skin damage.

Hegde, Upendra, and Barry Gause. Bethesda Handbook of Clinical Oncology. Ed. Jame
Abraham and Carmen J. Allegra. Philadelphia: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS,
2001. Print.
This book explains Melanoma development and the classifications of Melanoma.
The book slightly provides information on the etiology of skin cancer, and common Risk
Factors. Intermittent Exposure to UV radiations, more specifically UVB Rays as a child
have been shown to increase the risk of damage. UV radiation causes linkage breaks in
DNA that leads to mutations during cell division and impaired apoptosis as a result.
These cells continue to grow and create a mass of non-functional cells, cancer. Melanoma
can be classified into five categories, category I involve cancer of only the epidermis
layer. Level II involves epidermis and papillary dermis, Level III involves the epidermis,
papillary dermis, and enters the reticular dermis, level IV reaches further into the reticular
dermis, and level V enters the subcutis level. This information will be used to explain
Melanoma progression and UV induced damage.
Hunter, Seft et al. Assessment of Elementary School Students Sun Protection Behaviors.
Pediatric dermatology 27.2 (2010): 182188. PMC. Web. 16 Dec. 2015.
This article reviewed an experiment that was conducted to test what elementary
school level students are educated on in terms of sun-safety and how well what they are
being taught is implemented. The study explained that students spend a substantial
amount of time outdoors through physical education classes offered in school. However,
there is minimal education for these students on the dangers that they face on a daily
basis. As a result, it was found that a majority of students also don't implement proper
safety practices when they are outside. This information is important to supporting the
claim that education is essential to the reduction of annual Melanoma cases due to more
adolescents practicing sun-safety practices.
Latha, M.S. et al. Sunscreening Agents: A Review. The Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic
Dermatology 6.1 (2013): 1626. Print.
This article explains some of the importance of active ingredients in sunscreen.
There are two main categories of Sunscreen agents; topical and systemic. Within topical
agents, there are organic and inorganic sub-types that contain a numerous of the agents.
This article explained the efficacy of these products and the role these products play in
damage protection. This information is important to understanding the best protection
methods for UV induced damage.
MacLeod, Amanda. Telephone interview. 4 Dec. 2015.
This interview provided insight into Melanoma progression and development. Dr.
MacLeod provided vital information on understanding how solar radiation causes skin
damage in multiple ways. The UV radiation causes genetic mutations to skin cells which

cause damage to tumor suppressor genes. With these genes suppressed, damage can result
in more skin lesions and melanoma. In addition to tumor suppressor genes, UV radiation
causes cell death (apoptosis) as well and gene sequence mutation that together increases
the chance of fatal Melanoma and other skin cancer development. This information is
vital to explaining how UV radiation causes Melanoma and other skin cancer.
Furthermore, Dr. Macleod provided more insight into Melanoma development.
MacLeod, Amanda S., et al. Skin-resident T Cells Sense Ultraviolet Radiation-induced Injury
and Contribute to DNA Repair. Research rept. no. 25067. N.p.: n.p., 2014. National
Institute of Health. Web. 8 Nov. 2015.
This experimental report discusses how the skins T Cells contribute to DNA
repair when UV-Radiation is sensed. It is explained that UVR induces ATP to be released,
and as a result T Cells and DETC to become activated and aid in DNA repair. The DETC
and Keratinocytes express P2 receptors. Within keratinocytes, DNA damage can be
described as double stranded breaks, phosphorylated histone variants, as well as the
development of Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer (CPD).This damage can result in the
DNA repair process to fail, which would result in cellular proliferation and/or oncogenic
development. This experiment provides insight onto how cells respond to UV damage
and what damage is caused. This information is important because understanding how
cells respond can help to understand the damage that is caused. However, some of the
evidence provided was of no beneficial value because of fact that some of the information
pertained to Squamous Cell Carcinoma, not Melanoma. However, this principle of DNA
damage and repair systems can be applied to cell development and replication processes.
Mone, Martijn J., et al. Local UV-induced DNA damage in cell nuclei results in local
transcription inhibition. Rept. no. 11. N.p.: EMBO, 2001. Scientific Report. PDF file.
This article focuses more on the repair mechanisms involved after DNA gene
damage; therefore, the article includes only minimal information regarding actual DNA
gene damage. However, the article did explain that the gene damage that is caused is
pyrimidine, Guanine and Adenine, cross-links resulting in the cyclobutane pyrimidine
dimer, DPD, and the (6-4) Photoproduct, 6-4PP. regarding the repair mechanisms, the
article went in depth about the various types of common methods and how they are
instrumental in preventing cancerous cell development. This article was beneficial
because it provided information on the gene mutations, but the main focus was the repair
mechanisms; therefore, it was only somewhat beneficial.
Pattison, David I., and Michael J. Davies. Actions of ultraviolet light on cellular structure. Ed.
Leon P. Bignold. N.p.: n.p., 2006. Cancer: Cell Structures, Carcininogens and Genome
Instability. Web. 23 Nov. 2015.
This document explains the exact process by which UVA, UVB, and UVC inhibit
cellular damage. It explains dimers and photoproducts and how these two are created as a

result of UV radiation. The nitrogen base pyrimidine dimers are mutations where
pyrimidines, T and C, can bind together or bind to themselves to create mutations. The
wavelengths where similar mutations can occur was also explained. This information is
vital because it provides more concrete explanation as to what is happening to human
cells to inhibit damage. This information will be used to build the basis for how UV
radiation inhibits cell damage.
Planta, Margaret B. "Sunscreen and Melanoma: Is Our Prevention Message Correct?" Journal of
the American Board of Family Medicine: n. pag. Web.
This paper was an article taken from the Journal of the Board of Family Medicine.
The article explained how the UVA and UVB radiation from the sun affects skin damage.
Originally, it was believed that UVB radiation was the primary carcinogen and all dmage
from the sun was as a result of the UVB radiation. Therefore, almost all sunscreen
prevents against UVB radiation, not UVA or a combination of both. However, through
recent discoveries from research, evidence has been observed that supports the fact that
UVA radiation also inhibits melanoma development. This article is reliable because the
author is from a medical group. Also, there is little bias due to the fact that it is an
educational piece. Finally, it is reliable because it is posted in a scientific journal.
Therefore, this information will be essential to providing evidence that UVA protective
sunscreen should be worn to provide the most protection.
Spencer, Ben. "Wearing Sunscreen May NOT Prevent Skin Cancer, Study Claims." Daily N.p., 12 June 2014. Web. 30 Aug. 2015.
This article is an educational news article from the Daily Mail. It explains how
even though sunscreen may prevent short term sun damage, such as burns and short-term
cancer; it has minimal to no impact on the long term cancer cells. The sun's radiation
causes mutations of the skin's gene that protects us, the "Guardian Gene", which would
result in potentially fatal cancer later in life. This article is reliable because there is no
bias one way or another and the Daily Mail is a widespread new organization that
provides minimal bias.
"Sunscreens Explained." Skin Cancer Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2015.
This article explains how various types of sunscreens affect skin damage. It
explains the levels of Sun Protection Factor coverage and the fact the spf is a
measurement of the sunscreens ability to prevent UVB induced damage. The active
ingredients in the sunscreen are what protects against skin damage. This article provided
insightful information on sunscreen protection and how the various categories of
sunscreen cause less or more protection. However, this article provided minimal insight
into how the sunscreen prevents damage to the skin/ what damage to the skin sunscreen
helps prevent against.

Ullrich, Stephen E., Margaret L. Kripke, and Honnavara N. Ananthaswamy. Mechanisms

underlaying UV-induced immune suppression: implications for sunscreen design. N.p.:
n.p., n.d. PDF file.
This article discusses the effects of various products on skin immune suppression
as a result of UV radiation. UV radiation causes your immune system to sustain damage,
and currently the only method of determining efficacy of sunscreen is SPF, therefore this
experiment was conducted to determine other methods of measuring how effective
sunscreens are at preventing damage. The experiment tested two kinds of sunscreen;
UVA and UVB protection and just UVB protection sunscreens. The results found that
immune suppression was found to still occur in the UVB sunscreen test, indicating that
the primary cause of immune suppression and consequential cancer development is UVA.
This information is important because sunscreens containing no UVA protection can
result in only short-term protection and have no effect on the long-term implications of
the sustained skin damage. This article is important because it acts as evidence to what
broad UV radiation protection is most important to use in sunscreens.
"UV: Molecular Mechanism of Action." UV: Molecular Mechanism of Action. N.p., 2003. Web.
11 Oct. 2015.
This article thoroughly explained how UV radiation causes skin cancer. The UV
radiation damages various genes that encode for certain proteins. It caused a different bas
to be placed that\n the intended one. As a result, the protein sometimes cannot function,
and over periods of exposure to the light the proteins can reproduce and create more
ineffective cells. This can result in the cells becoming cancerous. This article was
somewhat beneficial because its insight into how UV radiation can cause a direct link to
cancers. But, it provided minimal information on melanoma development; and therefore,
wasnt completely beneficial.
Webber, Mukta M., and Lea I. Sekely, eds. In Vitro Models for Cancer Research. Vol. 3. Boca
Raton: CRC Press, 2000. Print. In Vitro Models for Cancer Research.
This book described various medical techniques for the treatment of carcinomas
of the mammary gland, uterus, and skin. It explained, in depth, in vitro models of the
mammary gland, uterus, and the skin, and insight into how this is beneficial. This book
was interesting and explained the diagnosis and treatment of these cancer; however, it
was of little value to research on development of cancer and cancer growth. This
scholarly book provided minimal information on skin cancer, and even less information
on the development of melanoma.
Wei, Q., J. E. Lee, J. E. Gershenwald, M. I. Ross, P. F. Mansfield, S. S. Strom, L.-E Wang, Z.
Guo, Y. Qiao, C. I. Amos, M. R. Spitz, and M. Duvic. "Repair of UV Light-Induced DNA

Damage and Risk of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma." JNCI Journal of the National
Cancer Institute 95.4 (2003): 308-15. Web. 11 Oct. 2015.
This article discusses an experiment that was conducted to further explain how
UV radiation plays an important role in the development of CMM. Patients were
observed and DRC, DNA Repair Capacity, was concluded to play an important role in the
development of CMM. UV induced DCR was observed in all case study patients. This
article provided a case study to support the hypothesis that UV radiation causes repair
gene damage, thus causing cancer. The evidence provided will be used to further prove
the DCR is affected by UV radiation.
Winsey, Samantha L., Neil A. Haldar, Howard P. Marsh, Mike Bunce, Sara E. Marshall, Adrien
L. Harris, Fenella Wajnarowska, and Ken I. Welsh. "A Variant within the DNA Repair
Gene XRCC3 Is Associated with the Development of Melanoma Skin Cancer 1." The
Journal of Cancer Research. American Association for Cancer Research, n.d. Web. 2 Oct.
This article explained the discovery of the possible influence of the damaged
XRCC3 gene on the development of Melanoma. The XRCC3 gene is responsible for
preventing chromosomal breaks, movement, and deletions which would result in cancer.
Also, it helps in the restoration process of damaged strands of DNA. Because of this
genes major role in proper cell growth, any damage to this gene could result in the
development of Melanoma. The XRCC3 genes role in the body was explained and the
damage that could be caused to it could result in the development of melanoma and
tumors. This article was beneficial in explaining the UV induced damage to genes and the
role those genes play in the body. The importance of these genes was explained which
therefore furthered the influence of the findings.