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16

Wave Motion
CHAPTER OUTLINE
16.1
16.2
16.3
16.5
16.6

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS

Propagation of a Disturbance
The Traveling Wave Model
The Speed of Waves on Strings
Rate of Energy Transfer by Sinusoidal
Waves on Strings
The Linear Wave Equation

*Q16.3 (i)

(ii)

Q16.1

As the pulse moves down the string, the particles of the
string itself move side to side. Since the medium—here,
the string—moves perpendicular to the direction of wave
propagation, the wave is transverse by definition.

Q16.2

To use a slinky to create a longitudinal wave, pull a few
coils back and release. For a transverse wave, jostle the
end coil side to side.

Look at the coefficients of the sine and cosine functions: 2, 4, 6, 8, 8, 7. The ranking is d =
e > f > c > b > a.
Look at the coefficients of x. Each is the wave number, 2πⲐλ , so the smallest k goes with the
largest wavelength. The ranking is d > a = b = c > e > f.

(iii) Look at the coefficients of t. The absolute value of each is the angular frequency ω = 2π f. The
ranking is f > e > a = b = c = d.
(iv) Period is the reciprocal of frequency, so the ranking is the reverse of that in part iii: d = c =
b = a > e > f.
(v)

From v = f λ = ω Ⲑk, we compute the absolute value of the ratio of the coefficient of t to the
coefficient of x in each case. From a to f respectively the numerical speeds are 5, 5, 5, 7.5,
5, 4. The ranking is d > a = b = c = e > f.

*Q16.4 From v =

T
, we must increase the tension by a factor of 4 to make v double. Answer (b).
µ

*Q16.5 Answer (b). Wave speed is inversely proportional to the square root of linear density.
*Q16.6 (i)
(ii)

Answer (a). Higher tension makes wave speed higher.
Answer (b). Greater linear density makes the wave move more slowly.

Q16.7

It depends on from what the wave reflects. If reflecting from a less dense string, the reflected
part of the wave will be right side up.

Q16.8

Yes, among other things it depends on. The particle speed is described by vy,max = ω A = 2π fA =
Here v is the speed of the wave.

2π vA
.
λ

427

13794_16_ch16_p427-448.indd 427

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428

Chapter 16

*Q16.9 (a) through (d): Yes to all. The maximum particle speed and the wave speed are related by
2π vA
vy,max = ω A = 2π fA =
. Thus the amplitude or the wavelength of the wave can be adjusted
λ
to make either vy,max or v larger.
Q16.10 Since the frequency is 3 cycles per second, the period is
Q16.11

1
second = 333 ms.
3

Each element of the rope must support the weight of the rope below it. The tension increases with
T
height. (It increases linearly, if the rope does not stretch.) Then the wave speed v =
increases
µ
with height.

*Q16.12 Answer (c). If the frequency does not change, the amplitude is increased by a factor of 2.
The wave speed does not change.
*Q16.13 (i)

(ii)

Answer a. As the wave passes from the massive string to the less massive string, the wave
T
speed will increase according to v =
.
µ
Answer c. The frequency will remain unchanged. However often crests come up to the
boundary they leave the boundary.

(iii) Answer a. Since v = f λ , the wavelength must increase.
Q16.14 Longitudinal waves depend on the compressibility of the fluid for their propagation. Transverse
waves require a restoring force in response to shear strain. Fluids do not have the underlying
structure to supply such a force. A fluid cannot support static shear. A viscous fluid can temporarily be put under shear, but the higher its viscosity the more quickly it converts input work
into internal energy. A local vibration imposed on it is strongly damped, and not a source of
wave propagation.
Q16.15 Let ∆t = t s − t p represent the difference in arrival times of the two waves at a station at distance
−1
⎛1 1⎞
d = vs t s = v p t p from the hypocenter. Then d = ∆t ⎜ − ⎟ . Knowing the distance from the
⎝ vs v p ⎠
first station places the hypocenter on a sphere around it. A measurement from a second station limits it to another sphere, which intersects with the first in a circle. Data from a third
non-collinear station will generally limit the possibilities to a point.
Q16.16 The speed of a wave on a “massless” string would be infinite!

SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS
Section 16.1
P16.1

Propagation of a Disturbance

Replace x by

x − vt = x − 4.5t
to get y =

13794_16_ch16_p427-448.indd 428

6
⎡⎣( x − 4.5t )2 + 3 ⎤⎦

12/9/06 12:46:48 PM

3 s ) = 23.0° = 6.Wave Motion 429 *P16.50 ) ( km s ) t = ( 4.40 m.1 min The distance the waves have traveled is d = ( 7.0° = 2 ( 6. Then.4 13794_16_ch16_p427-448. so it will arrive at point B first.80 km s ) ( 23.80 − 4.6 s ( 7.3 (a) The longitudinal P wave travels a shorter distance and is moving faster.37 × 10 6 m = 817 s 7 800 m s The wave that travels along the Earth’s surface must travel π a distance of s = Rθ = R ⎛ rad⎞ = 6.50 km s ) ( t + 17.2 (a) (b) FIG.67 × 10 6 = 1 482 s 4 500 Therefore.3 s ) or t= and the distance is d = ( 7. The wave has traveled 2. P16.40 m to the right.6 s ) = 184 km . it differs just by being shifted toward larger x by 2.67 × 10 6 m ⎝3 ⎠ at a speed of 4 500 m /s 6.50 12/9/06 12:46:49 PM .80 km s ) t = ( 4. P16.80 − 4.37 × 10 6 m at a speed of 7 800 m /s Therefore.indd 429 665 s = 11. it takes 6.37 × 10 6 m ) sin 30. km s ) (17.50 ) km s ( 4. it takes The time difference is P16.3 s ) where t is the travel time for the faster wave.2 The graph (b) has the same amplitude and wavelength as graph (a). ( 7. (b) The wave that travels through the Earth must travel a distance of 2 R sin 30.50 km s ) (17.

100.0 vibrations 4 425 cm = Hz v= = 42.48 cm ⎝ 4⎠ 2π k= = 3π : λ = 0.020 0 m ) sin ( 2. we have Therefore.319 m f 3 Hz f = Using data from the observations. max = (10π ) ( 0.9 cm = 0.0 s v 42.11 rad m λ= v = fλ = f = 8.62t ) in SI units A = 2. P16.00 12. 0 ) = ( 0.62 rad s 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.2 *P16.62 = = 1.350 ) = 11.350 ) (10π ) cos 10π t − 3π x + ⎞ v y.11x − 3.800 m s ⎝ 12.7 P16. π y ( 0.430 P16.667 m ω = 2π f = 10π : f = 5.5 times larger (d) λ is 1.indd 430 λ = 1.9 π 4 y = ( 0.576 Hz 2π 12/9/06 12:46:50 PM .33 m s dt 3 The velocity is in the positive x -direction .0 s 2π = 2.6 P16.5 cm s λ= = 4 = 31.0 m s ⎝ 4⎠ ∂t The Traveling Wave Model (a) a wave (b) later by T4 (c) A is 1.72 m s 2π k 2.20 m and ω 2π 3.20 m ) ⎛ = 0.00 cm k = 2.0 s ⎠ ω = 3.11 8.054 8 m = −5.300π + ⎞ = −0.350 m ) sin ⎛ −0.5 Chapter 16 (a) (b) (c) (d) Section 16.00 Hz λ π ∂y ⎛ vy = = ( 0.8 Let u = 10π t − 3π x + du dx = 10π − 3π = 0 at a point of constant phase dt dt dx 10 = = 3.98 m k ω f = = 0.00 ⎞ v = λ f = (1.5 times larger (e) λ is 23 as large 40.5 cm s 30.0 s 3 10.

10 431 v = f λ = ( 4.157 rad cm ) y = 0.4 rad s ) = 3. Then y = (12. At x = 0 and t = 0 we have y = (12 cm ) sin φ .00 Hz ) ( 60. the requirement for point B is that 3 π φ B = φ A ± rad.77 m s ay = ∂v y ∂t = ∂ ( − Aω cos ( kx − ω t )) = − Aω 2 sin ( kx − ω t ) ∂t The maximum value is P16.0 rad s ⎞ v = fλ = ⎛ ⎞ λ = ⎛ ( 20.4 rad s λ= v 20 m s = = 4.300 x − 40. To make this fit y = 0.0 cm ) sin ((1.3 rad s ) t ± π rad 3 ±π rad = ±6.indd 431 (a) A = 0.11 (a) (b) (c) ω = 2π f = 2π ( 5 s −1 ) = 31. 3 ( 0.3 rad s ) t = 0 − ( 50.157 This reduces to x B = P16. we take φ = 0.0 cm ) cos ( 0. or (since x A = 0).3 rad s ) t.12 2 At time t.300 rad m (d) λ= (e) ω 40.40 m s *P16. Since 60.250 sin ( 0.157 x − 50. 3 ( 0.157 rad cm ) x − ( 50.300 rad m 12/9/06 12:46:51 PM .67 cm .0° = rad.4 s −1 ) = 118 m s 2 rad cm ) x B − ( 50.9 m k 0.0 rad s (c) k = 0.Wave Motion P16.12 m ) ( 31. the phase of y = (15.57 rad m ) x − ( 31.250 m (b) ω = 40.0t ) m Compare this with the general expression y = A sin ( kx − ω t ) 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.4 rad s ) t ) (d) (e) The transverse velocity is ∂y = − Aω cos ( kx − ω t ) ∂t Its maximum magnitude is Aω = 12 cm ( 31.13 Aω 2 = ( 0. in +x direction .00 m f 5 s −1 k= 2π 2π = = 1.0 cm ) = 240 cm s = 2.57 rad m λ 4m In y = A sin ( kx − ω t + φ ) we take A = 12 cm. 2π 2π = = 20.3t ) at coordinate x is π φ = ( 0.9 m ) = 133 m s ⎝ 2π ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2π (f) The wave moves to the right.

2 –10 FIG.0 rad m λ 0. P16. 0 ) = 0 at x = 0. t ) = ( 0.800 m ) ω = 2π f = 2π ( 3.0 –0.785) m Therefore.100 m then we require that 0 = 0.85 x + 6π t − 0. y = 0.4t s − 0.4 rad s v = f λ = (12.00π rad s y = A sin ( kx + ω t ) Therefore.16 (a) y (m) 0.0 s k= ω = 2π f = 2π 12.200 m sin (18. P16.080 0 sin ( 7.00 ) = 6. P16.indd 432 y ( x .083 3 s f 12.85 x + 6π t + φ ) Assuming y ( x.0 x m + 75.432 Chapter 16 *P16.200 m ) sin (18.785 y = 0.0 s ) ( 0.1 –0.2 t=0 0.00 × 10 −2 m = 0.3 to the next one.0 s = 75.2 0.0 x m + 75. 2π 2π = = 0.1 0.15 (a) A = ymax = 8.85 x + 6π t ) m In general.16(a) (b) 2π 2π = = 18. t = 0 we require −3.350 m 1 1 T= = = 0.4t s + φ ) at x = 0.00 cm = 0. T= 10 t (s) 0 0.785 + φ ) or φ = −0.1 This agrees with the period found in the example in the text.2 0.63° = − 0.125 s is the time from one peak ω 50.080 0 m k= 2π 2π = = 7.14 (a) (b) y (cm) See figure at right.200 m sin ( +φ ) φ = −8.85 m −1 λ ( 0.080 0 sin ( 7. 0.4 x (m) FIG.20 m s (c) y = A sin ( kx + ω t + φ ) specializes to y = 0.080 0 ) sin ( 7.151 rad so 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.350 m ) = 4.14 P16. t ) = 0 at t = 0) (b) y = ( 0.080 0 sin ( 0. Or (where y ( 0.151 rad ) 12/9/06 12:46:52 PM .

19 rad has a negative sine and positive cosine.025 0 s ) = 0. 1.95 rad (c) v y .750 m k= 2π 2π = = 8.0π t rad s + 1.18 (a) λ 16.38 m λ 0.120 m ) ( 4π ) sin ⎛ x + 4π t ⎞ ⎝8 ⎠ a ( 0. 0 ω= Also. max = Aω = 0.021 5 m ) sin (8.0π Your calculator’s answer tan −1 ( −2.38 x rad m + 80.0 m = = 32.60 m ) = −1.021 5 m (80.020 0 = = −2.025 0 s 2 ⎛ 2. 2π 2π = = 80.500 s y ( x .0 m s T 0.51 m s a= dv : dt π 2 a = ( − 0.00 m s dt 0 . You must look beyond your calculator to find φ = π − 1. t ) = A sin ( kx + ω t + φ ) Let us write the wave function as y ( 0.0π s ) = 5.021 5 m (b) A sin φ 0. 0 ) = A sin φ = 0.200 s.Wave Motion P16.020 0 m ) + ⎜ ⎝ω⎠ ⎝ 80.120 m ) sin ⎛ x + 4π t ⎞ ⎝8 ⎠ (a) v= dy : dt π v = ( 0.120 ) ( 4π ) cos ⎛ x + 4π t ⎞ ⎝8 ⎠ v ( 0. just the reverse of what is required.00 m s ⎞ v 2 A 2 = xi2 + ⎛ i ⎞ = ( 0.51) = −1.0 m s ) ( 0.0 π s ⎟⎠ 2 A = 0. 1.17 433 π y = ( 0.51 = tan φ A cos φ −2 / 80.0π s y ( x .19 rad = 1.95 rad ) 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.020 0 m dy = Aω cos φ = −2.41 m s (d) λ = v xT = ( 30.200 s.500 s v= P16.indd 433 12/9/06 12:46:53 PM .0 m T = 0.750 m ω = 80.60 m ) = 0 (b) π 2π : = 8 λ 2π ω = 4π = : T k= λ = 16. t ) = ( 0.0 π s T 0.

14 rad m λ 2.10 × 10 −3 kg m T = 158 N 13794_16_ch16_p427-448. (a) dtotal 4 (8.100 m ) sin ( 4.0 m s = t 0.00 × 10 −2 kg m ) ( 40.00 m ) T = = 40.18 Hz 2π The Speed of Waves on Strings The down and back distance is 4.0 rad m v 196 y = ( 2.00 m s ) = = 0.100 m ) sin ( 3. The speed is then Now.800 s µ 0.00 m.indd 434 12/9/06 12:46:54 PM .200 kg µ= = 5.0 x − 3 140t ) (b) v = 196 m s = T 4. y = ( 0.500 s ) = 3.19 Chapter 16 (a) v (1.14 t s ) ∂y = 0.00 m = 8.0 N 2 So P16.14 rad s 2π 2π = = 3.500 x − 20.100 m ) sin ( −3.14t s + 0 ) (d) For x = 0 the wave function requires y = ( 0.14t s ) (e) (f) y = ( 0.00 rad − 20.0t ) Because this disturbance varies sinusoidally in time.314 m s P16.14 x m − 3.00 m (b) k= (c) y = A sin ( kx − ω t + φ ) becomes y = ( 0.20 (a) At x = 2.500 Hz λ 2.100 m ( − 3.00 m.0 rad s f = ω = 3.00 m f = ω = 2π f = 2π ( 0.00 × 10 −4 m ) sin (16.21 ω = 20.00 m v= T = µ v 2 = ( 5. k = ω 3 140 = = 16.3 P16.71 rad − 3.14 x m − 3.00 m + 4.0t ) = A sin ( kx − ω t ) so Section 16.100 m ) sin (1.22 and ω = 2π f = 2π ( 500 ) = 3 140 rad s.100 m ) sin ( 0.0 m s ) = 80.00 × 10 −2 kg m 4. it describes simple harmonic motion.14 s ) cos ( 3.14t s ) ∂t The cosine varies between +1 and –1. so vy = v y ≤ 0. (b) y = ( 0.434 P16.

µ = M m T2 T1 = and v22 v12 2 2 ⎛v ⎞ ⎛ 30.80 m s 2 =⎜ ⎟ m −3 2 µ sin 41.23 v= T 1 350 kg ⋅ m s 2 = = 520 m s µ 5.28 ⎛ ⎞ mg 9. MgL L2 = 2 m t and g= Mg = m L MgL L = is the wave speed.indd 435 v = 60.60 m ( 4.26 T = µ T = Mg is the tension.89 kg 12/9/06 12:46:55 PM .27 Since µ is constant.00 × 10 kg m ) sin 41. m t −3 Lm 1.0 = 30.24 v= T µ 435 T = µ v 2 = ρ Av 2 = ρπ r 2 v 2 T = (8 920 kg m 3 ) (π ) ( 7.28 From the free-body diagram The angle θ is found from (a) v= T µ or (b) 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.00 N ) = 13.61 × 10 −2 s ) The period of the pendulum is T = 2π L g Let F represent the tension in the string (to avoid confusion with the period) when the pendulum is vertical and stationary.4° ⎠ ⎛ m s⎞ v = ⎜ 30.00 × 10 −3 kg m P16.Wave Motion P16.4 m kg ⎟⎠ ⎝ m = 3.50 × 10 −4 m ) ( 200 m s ) 2 2 T = 631 N P16.5 N ⎝ 20.64 m s Mt 2 3.0 m s ⎟⎠ ⎝ v1 ⎠ P16.00 kg ( 3.00 × 10 kg ) 2 = 2 = 1. P16.4° ⎝ 2 (8.4 m and mg = 2T sin θ mg T= 2 sin θ 3 L8 3 = L 2 4 ∴θ = 41.0 m s ⎞ T2 = ⎜ 2 ⎟ T1 = ⎜ ( 6. v= Then. The speed of waves in the string is then: F = µ v= Mg = m L MgL m Since it might be difficult to measure L precisely. we eliminate L = T g 2π so Mg T g Tg = m 2π 2π v= P16.4° cos θ = v= FIG.25 P16.

⎛ πρd 2 ⎞ t = L⎜ ⎝ 4T ⎟⎠ For copper. The mass of one wire can be written both as m = ρV = ρ AL and also as m = µ L .0 = = 60.32 f = Rate of Energy Transfer by Sinusoidal Waves on Strings v 30.100 )2 ( 30. (b) P16.00 × 10 −3 )2 ⎤ ⎥ t = ( 20.0 ) ⎢ ( 4 ) (150 ) ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ = 0.07 kW 2 ⎝ 3.70 × 108 Pa = 185 m s 7 860 kg m 3 The total time is the sum of the two times.31 2. the second is force of tension.436 P16.192 s The total time is 0. s . For the other T we have T = µ v 2. The maximum velocity occurs when the stress is a maximum: vmax = f has units Hz = 1 s. ⎡ (π ) ( 7 860 ) (1.500 P = 1 µω 2 13794_16_ch16_p427-448. f kg m 2 kg ⋅ m = 2 = N .180 ⎞ (120π )2 ( 0.0 Hz λ 0. L µ In each wire t= =L v T Let A represent the cross-sectional area of one wire.indd 436 2 A2 v = ω = 2π f = 120π rad s 1 ⎛ 0. m s2 s The first T is period of time. πρd 2 4 Then we have µ = ρA = Thus. the tensile stress is T Stress = so A The speed of transverse waves in the wire is v= T = µ T = A ( stress ) Stress A ( Stress ) = = m L m AL Stress Stress = ρ mVolume where ρ is the density.0 ) ⎢ ( 4 ) (150 ) ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ = 0.00 × 10 −3 )2 ⎤ ⎥ t = ( 30.60 ⎠ 12/9/06 12:46:56 PM . ⎡ (π ) (8 920 ) (1.0 ) = 1.5 P16.137 + 0.137 s For steel.192 = 0.329 s 12 12 12 Section 16. so T = *P16.29 Chapter 16 If the tension in the wire is T.30 (a) with units 1 has units of seconds.

(c) If λ and A are doubled.33 437 Suppose that no energy is absorbed or carried down into the water.00 × 10 ) ( 5.50 m f = 50. 1 2 2 µω A v : 2 P = 300 W T = 100 N T = 50.00 × 10 −2 )2 ( 50. P = µω 2 A2 v 2 µ If L is doubled.50 × 10 −2 ) ⎛ W ⎝ 2 2 4.19 ⎠ P = 625 W 12/9/06 12:46:57 PM .indd 437 P = FIG. It is spread over the circumference 2π r of an expanding circle.00 × 10 −2 kg m v= Therefore.0 g m = 30. P16.) (d) P16.35 A = 5. so P is quadrupled . λ (Changing L doesn’t affect P .50 × 10 −2 m (a) 2π y = A sin ⎛ x − ωt ⎞ ⎝ λ ⎠ y = ( 7. Then a fixed amount of power is spread thinner farther away from the source.34 (a) T 1 .0 × 10 −3 ) ( 314 )2 ( 7. P  ω 2 A 2 remains constant . the product ω 2 A 2  T = constant. P P is constant .0 m s µ 2 ( 300 ) 2P ω 2 = _____ 2 = − 2 µ A v ( 4.0 ) ω = 346 rad s ω f = = 55. λ2 1 If L and λ are halved.19 x − 314t ) (b) 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.Wave Motion P16.0 × 10 −3 kg m λ = 1.1 Hz 2π P16. The power-per-width across the wave front P 2π r is proportional to amplitude squared so amplitude is proportional to P 2π r P16.00 × 10 −2 m = µ = 4. so P remains constant .50 × 10 −2 ) sin ( 4. v = A2 remains constant.0 Hz: ω = 2π f = 314 s −1 2 A = 0. then ω 2  2 is quadrupled.36 µ = 30. v remains constant and (b) If A is doubled and ω is halved.36 2 1 1 314 ⎞ µω 2 A 2 v = ( 30.150 m: A = 7.

P 0 = 1 2 2 µω A v 2 P 0 = 1 2 2 T µω A µ 2 P 0 1 = ω 2 A2 Tµ 2 The doubled string will have doubled mass-per-length.1 W 2 2 π Comparing y = 0.00 times.02 J 2 2 3π Originally.96 Hz 2π (d) P16. the rate of energy transfer is proportional to the square of the amplitude and to the speed.40 As for a string wave.5) W = 21.0 = 7.150 )2 ( 62.800 (a) P = 1 1 µω 2 A 2 v = (12. Then v = f λ = 2π f = = = 3. 2π k 3π m m The rate of energy transport is P = 1 µω 2 (b) A2 v = 1 ( 75 × 10 −3 kg m ) (10π s )2 ( 0.0 = = m s = 62. ω = 10π s.39 2 1 1 2π m 2 µω 2 A 2 λ = ( 75 × 10 −3 kg m ) (10π s ) ( 0.38 ω 2π ω 50. 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.35 m )2 3.35 sin ⎛ 10π t − 3π x + ⎞ with y = A sin ( kx − ω t + φ ) = A sin (ω t − kx − φ + π ) ⎝ 4⎠ we have k = (a) λ ω 10π s 3π . it can carry power larger by 2 times. The rate of energy transfer stays constant because each wavefront carries constant energy and the frequency stays constant.33 m s = 15.indd 438 12/9/06 12:46:58 PM .85 m k 0.35 m. A = 0. 2 2 F vbedrock Abedrock = F vmudfill Amudfill vbedrock A = mudfill = vmudfill Abedrock 25vmudfill =5 vmudfill The amplitude increases by 5.1 W 2 The energy per cycle is Eλ = P T = P16.0 )2 ( 0. Presuming that we hold tension constant. With no absorption of energy. We write P = FvA2 where F is some constant.5 m s 2π k k 0. 1 2P0 = ω 2 A2 T 2 µ 2 *P16.35 m )2 = 3. As the speed drops the amplitude must increase.37 v = fλ = (b) λ= 2π 2π = m = 7.800 (c) f = 50.33 m s .0 × 10 −3 ) ( 50.438 Chapter 16 P16.

00 yields A = 40. Then 1 ∂ y = 1 ( 2 = − 2 = 2 2 2 v ∂t v ( x − vt ) ( x − vt ) ∂x 2 2 13794_16_ch16_p427-448. they must have the same magnitude and the same direction in three-dimensional space. P16.0 (b) In order for two vectors to be equal. In A + B cos ( Cx + Dt + E ) = 0 + 7.indd 439 12/28/06 6:39:46 PM . The equality of maximum values requires B = 7. 7.00.43 and The linear wave equation is 1 ∂2 y ∂2 y = v 2 ∂t 2 ∂x 2 To show that y = ln [ b ( x − vt )] is a solution.00 rad m . and the equality of zero-crossings requires E = 2.00 .00 kˆ = Aˆi + Bˆj + C kˆ requires A = 7. The equality for the wavelength or periodicity as a function of x requires C = 3. ∂y 1 = ( − bv ) ∂t b ( x − vt ) ∂2 y −1( −bv ) v2 = 2 2 = − 2 ∂t b ( x − vt ) ( x − vt )2 ∂y −1 = [ b ( x − vt ) ] b ∂x ∂2 y b 1 = − ( x − vt )−2 = − 2 b ( x − vt ) 2 ∂x 2 2 −v ) 1 ∂ 2 y so the given wave function is a solution. They must have the same graphs. we find its first and second derivatives with respect to x and t and substitute into the equation.00 rad s .00 ˆi + 0 ˆj + 3. 2 ∂t ∂x Therefore.41 439 The Linear Wave Equation (a) A = ( 7.6 P16.00 ) the equality of average values requires that A = 0 .00 rad .00 x + 4.00 ) 4.00 + 3. B = 0.00 mm .42 The linear wave equation is ∂2 y 1 ∂2 y = ∂x 2 v 2 ∂t 2 If y = eb( x − vt ) then ∂y = −bveb( x − vt ) ∂t ∂2 y = b 2 v 2 eb( x − vt ) ∂t 2 and ∂y = beb( x − vt ) ∂x ∂2 y = b 2 eb( x − vt ) ∂x 2 ∂2 y ∂2 y = v 2 2 . and C = 3. All of their components must be equal. The equality of period requires D = 4. demonstrating that eb( x − vt ) is a solution.00t + 2. Thus.Wave Motion Section 16.00 mm cos ( 3. (c) In order for two functions to be identically equal. P16. they must be equal for every value of every variable.

indd 440 12/9/06 12:47:00 PM . So 1 2 f ( x + vt ) = ( x + vt ) 2 (c) 1 2 g ( x − vt ) = ( x − v t ) 2 and y = sin x cos vt makes ∂y = cos x cos vt ∂x ∂2 y = − sin x cos vt ∂x 2 ∂y = − v sin x sin vt ∂t ∂2 y = − v 2 sin x cos vt ∂t 2 Then ∂2 y 1 ∂2 y = ∂x 2 v 2 ∂t 2 −1 2 v sin x cos vt which is true as required. (b) 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 Note ( x + vt ) + ( x − vt ) = x 2 + xvt + v 2t 2 + x 2 − xvt + v 2t 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = x 2 + v 2t 2 as required.440 P16. so the wave function does satisfy v the wave equation. v2 Note sin ( x + vt ) = sin x cos vt + cos x sin vt becomes − sin x cos vt = sin ( x − vt ) = sin x cos vt − cos x sin vt So sin x cos vt = f ( x + vt ) + g ( x − vt ) with f ( x + vt ) = 1 sin ( x + vt ) 2 and g ( x − vt ) = 1 sin ( x − vt ) 2 Additional Problems P16. the time for one circuit around the stadium is 2 2π r 2π (10 ) T= = 63 s ~1 min ~ v 10 m s 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.1 s Model the stadium as a circle with a radius of order 100 m. Then. Then the wave speed is v= ∆x 1 m ~ ~ 10 m s ∆t 0.44 Chapter 16 (a) From y = x 2 + v 2t 2. ∂y evaluate = 2x ∂x ∂y = v 2 2t ∂t ∂2 y =2 ∂x 2 ∂2 y = 2v 2 ∂t 2 ∂2 y 1 ∂2 y ? = ∂t 2 v 2 ∂t 2 Does 1 By substitution.45 Assume a typical distance between adjacent people ~1 m. we must test 2 = 2 2v 2 and this is true.

6 rad s ) t ⎤⎦ ∴ sin ⎡⎣( 99.5 m /s = (Tµ)12 T = v2µ = (62.045 0 N (b) We find the tension in the string from v = f λ = ω k = (50s)(0.9 N. thus t 2 = 26.26 ms = 21.892 m 100 N m v = 83.892 m 5.indd 441 12/9/06 12:47:01 PM .3 ms ∆t ⬅ t 2 − t1 = 26. thus t1 = 5.6 rad s ) t ⎤⎦ = 0. v = (19. ΣF = ma = [12 g(100 cm)] 1 cm 375 m /s2 = 0.6 m s 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.150 m sin(0. more than a thousand times smaller.80 m s 2 ) = 39.26 ms rad s ) t 2 = 2. P16.46 (a) From y = 0.48 (a) 0.350 m ) sin ⎡⎣( 99.e.0 × 10 −3 kg 2 Mg k 39.68 m .618 rad .523 6 rad and 2.5 m /s)2(0.8x – 50t) Then amax = 375 m /s 2 441 For the 1-cm segment with maximum force acting on it. ( 99.150 m (–50s)2 sin(0.0 × 10 −3 s ) = 1.0 frames s ) = 0.25 rad m ⎟⎠ Energy is conserved as the block moves down distance x: (K + U g + Us ) top ( + ∆ E = K + Ug + Us ) bottom 1 0 + Mgx + 0 + 0 = 0 + 0 + kx 2 2 2 Mg x= k (a) T = kx = 2 Mg = 2 ( 2.8x – 50t) we compute dydt = 0.6 rad s ) t1 = 0.Wave Motion *P16.456 m s P16.6 ( 99.0 ms (b) P16.523 6 rad .2 N × 0.175 m = ( 0.0 × 10 −3 m frame ) ( 24.8x – 50t) and a = d2ydt2 = –0.2 N (b) L = L0 + x = L0 + (c) v= T TL = µ m v= 39.8m) = 62.618 rad. 0.6 rad s ⎞ ω Distance traveled by the wave = ⎛ ⎞ ∆ t = ⎜ ( 21.5 The smallest two angles for which the sine function is 0. ⎝ k⎠ ⎝ 1.00 kg ) ( 9.2 N L = 0.. i.5 are 30° and 150°.012 kgm) = 46. The maximum transverse force is very small compared to the tension.150 m (–50) cos(0.47 The equation v = λ f is a special case of speed = (cycle length)(repetition rate) Thus.500 m + = 0.49 ⎛ 99.3 ms − 5.

Then the rate at which energy passes a stationary point. is constant. our formula gd for wave speed no longer applies. (b) For the wave described. so the amplitude must increase. or smaller. with a single direction of energy transport. our model would predict zero speed and infinite amplitude.50 Chapter 16 Mgx = 1 2 kx 2 (a) T = kx = 2 Mg (b) L = L0 + x = L0 + (c) v= *P16. The power is proportional to the square of the amplitude and to the wave speed. To express the constant intensity we write A12 v1 = A22 v2 = A22 gd2 (1. Assuming the incline to be frictionless and taking the positive x-direction to be up the incline: ∑F x 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.8 ⎜ ⎝ 9. When it becomes comparable to the water depth.51 (a) T TL = = µ m 2 Mg k 2 Mg ⎛ 2 Mg ⎞ L0 + ⎝ m k ⎠ The energy a wave crest carries is constant in the absence of absorption.39 m s ⎛ 200 m s ⎞ A2 = 1. the intensity is the same at the deep-water location 1 and at the place 2 with depth 9 m. As the speed decreases the wavelength also decreases.indd 442 = T − Mg sin θ = 0 or the tension in the string is T = Mg sin θ Mg sin θ = m L MgL sin θ m The speed of transverse waves in the string is then v= T = µ The time interval for a pulse to travel the string’s length is ∆t = L m =L = v MgL sin θ mL Mg sin θ 12/9/06 12:47:02 PM . The speed decreases as the wave moves into shallower water near shore.52 As the water depth goes to zero.8 m )2 200 m s = A22 ( 9.442 P16.39 m s ⎟⎠ 12 = 8. which is the power of the wave.31 m (c) P16. In fact the amplitude must be finite as the wave comes ashore.8 m s2 ) 9 m = A22 9.

54 (d) 2 E = P t = (0.015 s) = 7. The string also contains potential energy.max (6 s) = 0. For the block.max = Kmax.084 3 rad 0.05 kgs) v2y.77 m s ⎡⎣( 2 700 ) (10 + 10 −2 ) (10 −4 ) ⎤⎦ −2 12/9/06 12:47:03 PM . all the energy in a 3-m length of string goes past a point. Therefore the amount of this energy is 2 E = P t = (0.5 × 10−4 kg v y.max The mass of this section is m3 = (0. the quantity ωA is the maximum particle speed vymax.0 = 94.450 kg dm dx = ρA = ρA dL dx T = µ T = ρA T [ ρ ( ax + b )] = T ⎡⎣ ρ (10 −3 x + 10 −2 ) cm 2 ⎤⎦ With all SI units.5 × 10–2 s. therefore.53 (a) In P = 12 µω 2 A2 v where v is the wave speed.003 2 kg = 0. ∑ F = ma implies T = mvb2 = mω 2 r r The speed of a wave on the string is then v= T = µ t= r 1 = v ω θ = ωt = P16. v= (b) v x= 0 = v x=10.5 × 10–3 kgm and v = (Tµ)12 = (20 N0.max v= T µv 2 and in this case T = mg. m = mass of string. In time t = (3 m)v = (3 m)(200 m /s) = 1.indd 443 T ms ⎡⎣ ρ (10 −3 x + 10 −2 )10 −4 ⎤⎦ 24.3 m s ⎡⎣( 2 700 ) ( 0 + 10 −2 ) (10 −4 ) ⎤⎦ 24.5 × 10−4 kg and E = (1/2) m3v2y.0 = 66.05 kgs) v2y.56 (a) µ= v= Mω 2r M = rω m r m m M m = M 0.max The power is proportional to the square of the maximum particle speed.80 m s 2 ⎢⎣ 0.55 Let M = mass of block. We could write its energy as Umax or as Uavg + Kavg P16.300 kg v y. m = µ g Now v = f λ implies v = ω so that k 2 µ ω 0.050 0 kg/s)v2y.0 = 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.Wave Motion *P16.7 kg m= ⎛ ⎞ = g⎝ k⎠ 9. We have µ = 0.750π m −1 ⎥⎦ 2 P16.max (0.5 × 10–3 kg so (12)m3 = 7.5 × 10–3 kgm)3 m = 1.250 kg m ⎡ 18π s −1 ⎤ = 14.5 × 10–3 kgm) v2ymax (200 m s) = (0.5 × 10–3 kgm)12 = 200 m/s P Then (b) (c) 443 = 12 (0.

58 dx 1 = gx g x 1 2 L = 2 0 L g mxg ⎞ At distance x from the bottom.57 Chapter 16 v= T where µ T = µ xg. But v = dx . to support the weight of a length x.indd 444 t = 2 12/9/06 12:47:04 PM . we find the distance climbed = . (c) m As m → 0 we expand m + M = M ⎛ 1 + ⎞ ⎝ M⎠ (a) ( t=2 1 L⎛ M +2 m ⎜ g⎝ t≈2 L g ⎛1 m ⎞ ⎜⎝ 2 M ⎟⎠ = t=2 t=2 (b) to obtain P16. of rope.444 P16. g 4 1 In half the total trip time.707 ⎜ 2 2g ⎝ g ⎟⎠ It takes the pulse more that 70% of the total time to cover 50% of the distance. the tension is T = ⎛ + Mg. v = gx Therefore. so that dt dt = L t= and ∫ 0 P16. as in the previous problem. so the wave speed is: ⎝ L ⎠ v= t (a) Then T TL MgL ⎞ dx = = xg + ⎛ = ⎝ m ⎠ dt µ m L MgL ⎞ ⎤ ⎡ t = ∫ dt = ∫ ⎢ xg + ⎛ ⎝ m ⎠ ⎥⎦ 0 0 ⎣ t= 2 ⎡⎛ MgL ⎞ ⎢ Lg + g ⎣⎝ m ⎠ 12 1 2 x= L 1 ⎡ xg + ( MgL m ) ⎤⎦ t= ⎣ 1 g 2 −1 2 dx MgL ⎞ −⎛ ⎝ m ⎠ 12 ⎤ ⎥ ⎦ When M = 0. ⎝ 2⎠ L L′ Thus. the distance climbed in τ is given by d = gτ 2 4 L L . the time required = 2 with L ′ = 2 g and the time required = 2 ⎛ L⎞ L = 0. the pulse has climbed of the total length. 4 For τ = 13794_16_ch16_p427-448. (b) By the same reasoning applied in part (a).59 dx gx 12 x=0 L ⎛ m+M − M ⎞ ⎟⎠ g ⎜⎝ m L ⎛ m − 0⎞ L = 2 ⎟ ⎜ g⎝ m ⎠ g ⎛ 1 m 1 m 2 …⎞ = M ⎜1 + − + ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 M 8 M2 ) M − 81 ( m 2 M 3 2 ) + … − M ⎞ ⎟ m ⎠ mL Mg The speed in the lower half of a rope of length L is the same function of distance (from the L bottom end) as the speed along the entire length of a rope of length ⎛ ⎞ .

it will stay at the six-o’clock position.60(a) For a very short section.Wave Motion P16. once pulse moves backward at speed v0 + v = 2v0 and the other forward at v0 − v = 0 . v0 v0 v0 FIG. P16. In the frame of reference of the center of the loop. If it is generated at the six-o’clock position.61 T ⲐA . Also.60(c1) In the frame of reference of the ground. the mass density of the wire µ may be expressed as ρ = A The speed of transverse waves in the wire is then Young’s modulus for the wire may be written as Y = v= and the strain in the wire is Y ( ∆ L ⲐL ) T T ⲐA = = µ µⲐ A ρ ∆ L ρv 2 = Y L If the wire is aluminum and v = 100 m s.indd 445 12/11/06 3:50:29 PM . v v0 v0 v v0 FIG.60 (a) ∑F y = may 2T sin θ down = θ θ Consider a short section of chain at the top of the loop.86 × 10 −4 = 7.70 × 10 kg m ) (100 m s ) = 3. A free-body diagram is shown. Its length is s = R(2θ) and its mass is µ R2θ. the strain is 3 3 ∆ L ( 2. The one pulse makes two revolutions while the loop makes one revolution and the other pulse does not move around the loop. P16. where T is the tension maintained in ∆ LⲐ L the wire and ∆ L is the elongation produced by this tension. each pulse moves with equal speed clockwise and counterclockwise. sin θ = θ and T = µ v02 T = v0 µ (b) The wave speed is v = (c) In the frame of reference of the center of the loop.00 × 1010 N m 2 L 2 13794_16_ch16_p427-448. Newton’s second law is T mv02 µ R2θ v02 down = R R 445 2θ R T FIG. P16.60(c2) P16.

400 kg 2 1 ω µω 3 2 −2bx µω 2 A02 e−2bx ⎛ ⎞ = A0 e ⎝ k⎠ 2 2k µω 3 2 A0 2k P P (0) v= 4 450 km = 468 km h = 130 m s 9. But so a= v2 L Equating the two expressions for a. extended to have a length L much greater than its equilibrium length. ∑ F = ma kdx = adm becomes or k =a dmdx k dm = µ so a = µ dx dv v a= = when vi = 0 dt t But Also.50 h d= v 2 (130 m s ) = = 1 730 m g ( 9. L = vt.6 m s 0. We start moving one end forward with the speed v at which a wave propagates on the spring.63 P16. we have P16.indd 446 12/9/06 12:47:06 PM . For an increment of spring with length dx and mass dm.80 m s 2 ) 2 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.62 Chapter 16 (a) Assume the spring is originally stationary throughout.00 m ) = 31. In this way we create a single pulse of compression that moves down the length of the spring.64 (b) Using the expression from part (a) v = (a) P ( x ) = 1 µω (b) P (0) = (c) (x) _____ = e−2bx 2 2 A2 v = kL = µ k v2 = µ L kL2 = m (100 or v= kL µ N m ) ( 2.446 P16. just as the pulse swallows it up.

4 184 km P16. 83.4 rad s.95) 13794_16_ch16_p427-448. in agreement with the example 12/9/06 12:47:06 PM .40 m to the right.2 See the solution.18 (a) 0.800 m s P16.65 (a) µ ( x ) is a linear function.40 m.38 x + 80. the time required to move from x to x + dx is . 75.10 2.151) P16.indd 447 (b) 0.67 cm P16.021 5 m ) sin (8.0π t + 1.95 rad (c) 5. 4.14 (a) see the solution P16.4t − 0. P16.40 m s P16.16 (a) see the solution (b) 18. so it is of the form µ ( x ) = mx + b To have µ ( 0 ) = µ0 we require b = µ0.41 m s (d) y ( x .3 ms.125 s.0 m. t ) = ( 0.20 m s (c) ( 0.12 ±6. The time required to move dt v from 0 to L is From v = L ∆t = ∫ 0 L L 1 dx dx = = v ∫0 T  µ T µ ( x )dx ∫ 0 ⎛ ( µ L − µ0 ) x ⎞ ∫0 ⎜⎝ L + µ0 ⎟⎠ L 1 ∆t = T 12 ⎛ µ L − µ0 ⎞ ⎛ L ⎞ ⎜⎝ ⎟ dx L ⎠ ⎜⎝ µ L − µ0 ⎟⎠ ⎞ 1 ⎛ L ⎞ ⎛ ( µ L − µ0 ) x ∆t = + µ0 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ L T ⎝ µ L − µ0 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ∆t = ∆t = ∆t = 32 2L ( µL3 2 − µ03 2 ) 3 T ( µ L − µ0 ) 2L ( µ L − µ0 3 T ( )( µ µ L − µ0 L + µ L µ0 + µ0 )( µ L + µ0 ) 1 L 3 2 0 ) 2 L ⎛ µ L + µ L µ0 + µ0 ⎞ µ L + µ0 ⎟⎠ 3 T ⎜⎝ ANSWERS TO EVEN PROBLEMS P16.021 5 m (b) 1.6 See the solution P16.8 0. Then µ ( L ) = µ L = mL + µ0 so m= (b) µ L − µ0 L µ ( x) = Then 447 ( µ L − µ0 ) x + µ L 0 dx dx .Wave Motion P16. The wave has traveled 2.2 m ) sin (18 x + 75. The graph (b) has the same amplitude and wavelength as graph (a). It differs just by being shifted toward larger x by 2.

32 1.9-N tension.00 times. As the speed drops the amplitude must increase.3 m s.89 kg (b) The first T is period of time.22 (a) y = ( 0.1 W (b) 3.6 m /s 12/12/06 2:55:31 PM . It increases by 5. This force is very small compared to the 46.40 As for a string wave.52 ∆t = P16.0 ms P16.64 130 m s.42 see the solution P16. The rate of energy transfer stays constant because each wavefront carries constant energy and the frequency stays constant.68 m 2 Mg k (c) 2 Mg ⎛ 2 Mg ⎞ L0 + m ⎝ k ⎠ mL Mg sin θ T in SI units ρ (10 x + 10 −6 ) −7 (b) v0 (b) 94. the rate of energy transfer is proportional to the square of the amplitude and to the speed.02 J P16.56 (a) v = P16.58 See the solution. P16.73 km 13794_16_ch16_p427-448. (b) (d) P is quadrupled (b) 625 W 1 1 ( x + vt )2 + ( x − vt )2 2 2 (c) 1 1 sin ( x + vt ) + sin ( x − vt ) 2 2 (b) 1.46 (a) 375 m /s2 (b) 0.7 m s (c) One travels 2 rev and the other does not move around the loop.448 Chapter 16 P16.62 (a) see the solution P16. the second is force of tension.18 Hz (b) 158 N M m (b) 3.19 x − 314t ) P16. 66. 1. (b). P16.07 kW P16.50 (a) 2Mg (b) L0 + P16.24 631 N P16. (c) P is a constant P16.60 (a) µ v02 P16. P16.7 Kg P16. (b) 31.38 (a) 15. more than a thousand times smaller.36 (a) y = ( 0.48 (a) 21.26 v= P16.34 (a).20 (a) see the solution P16.30 (a) s and N P16.4 m s ⋅ kg ⎟⎠ ⎝ P16.0450 N.28 ⎛ m ⎞ (a) v = ⎜ 30.indd 448 Tg 2π (b) 3.44 (a) see the solution P16.2 mm ) sin (16 x − 3 140t ) P16.075 0 ) sin ( 4.54 14.