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Wave Motion

CHAPTER OUTLINE

16.1

16.2

16.3

16.5

16.6

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS

Propagation of a Disturbance

The Traveling Wave Model

The Speed of Waves on Strings

Rate of Energy Transfer by Sinusoidal

Waves on Strings

The Linear Wave Equation

*Q16.3 (i)

(ii)

Q16.1

**As the pulse moves down the string, the particles of the
**

string itself move side to side. Since the medium—here,

the string—moves perpendicular to the direction of wave

propagation, the wave is transverse by definition.

Q16.2

**To use a slinky to create a longitudinal wave, pull a few
**

coils back and release. For a transverse wave, jostle the

end coil side to side.

**Look at the coefficients of the sine and cosine functions: 2, 4, 6, 8, 8, 7. The ranking is d =
**

e > f > c > b > a.

Look at the coefficients of x. Each is the wave number, 2πⲐλ , so the smallest k goes with the

largest wavelength. The ranking is d > a = b = c > e > f.

**(iii) Look at the coefficients of t. The absolute value of each is the angular frequency ω = 2π f. The
**

ranking is f > e > a = b = c = d.

(iv) Period is the reciprocal of frequency, so the ranking is the reverse of that in part iii: d = c =

b = a > e > f.

(v)

**From v = f λ = ω Ⲑk, we compute the absolute value of the ratio of the coefficient of t to the
**

coefficient of x in each case. From a to f respectively the numerical speeds are 5, 5, 5, 7.5,

5, 4. The ranking is d > a = b = c = e > f.

*Q16.4 From v =

T

, we must increase the tension by a factor of 4 to make v double. Answer (b).

µ

***Q16.5 Answer (b). Wave speed is inversely proportional to the square root of linear density.
**

*Q16.6 (i)

(ii)

**Answer (a). Higher tension makes wave speed higher.
**

Answer (b). Greater linear density makes the wave move more slowly.

Q16.7

It depends on from what the wave reflects. If reflecting from a less dense string, the reflected

part of the wave will be right side up.

Q16.8

**Yes, among other things it depends on. The particle speed is described by vy,max = ω A = 2π fA =
**

Here v is the speed of the wave.

2π vA

.

λ

427

13794_16_ch16_p427-448.indd 427

12/11/06 5:03:19 PM

428

Chapter 16

*Q16.9 (a) through (d): Yes to all. The maximum particle speed and the wave speed are related by

2π vA

vy,max = ω A = 2π fA =

. Thus the amplitude or the wavelength of the wave can be adjusted

λ

to make either vy,max or v larger.

Q16.10 Since the frequency is 3 cycles per second, the period is

Q16.11

1

second = 333 ms.

3

Each element of the rope must support the weight of the rope below it. The tension increases with

T

height. (It increases linearly, if the rope does not stretch.) Then the wave speed v =

increases

µ

with height.

***Q16.12 Answer (c). If the frequency does not change, the amplitude is increased by a factor of 2.
**

The wave speed does not change.

*Q16.13 (i)

(ii)

Answer a. As the wave passes from the massive string to the less massive string, the wave

T

speed will increase according to v =

.

µ

Answer c. The frequency will remain unchanged. However often crests come up to the

boundary they leave the boundary.

**(iii) Answer a. Since v = f λ , the wavelength must increase.
**

Q16.14 Longitudinal waves depend on the compressibility of the ﬂuid for their propagation. Transverse

waves require a restoring force in response to shear strain. Fluids do not have the underlying

structure to supply such a force. A ﬂuid cannot support static shear. A viscous ﬂuid can temporarily be put under shear, but the higher its viscosity the more quickly it converts input work

into internal energy. A local vibration imposed on it is strongly damped, and not a source of

wave propagation.

Q16.15 Let ∆t = t s − t p represent the difference in arrival times of the two waves at a station at distance

−1

⎛1 1⎞

d = vs t s = v p t p from the hypocenter. Then d = ∆t ⎜ − ⎟ . Knowing the distance from the

⎝ vs v p ⎠

ﬁrst station places the hypocenter on a sphere around it. A measurement from a second station limits it to another sphere, which intersects with the ﬁrst in a circle. Data from a third

non-collinear station will generally limit the possibilities to a point.

Q16.16 The speed of a wave on a “massless” string would be inﬁnite!

SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS

Section 16.1

P16.1

Propagation of a Disturbance

Replace x by

x − vt = x − 4.5t

to get y =

13794_16_ch16_p427-448.indd 428

6

⎡⎣( x − 4.5t )2 + 3 ⎤⎦

12/9/06 12:46:48 PM

3 s ) = 23.0° = 6.Wave Motion 429 *P16.50 ) ( km s ) t = ( 4.40 m.1 min The distance the waves have traveled is d = ( 7.0° = 2 ( 6. Then.4 13794_16_ch16_p427-448. so it will arrive at point B ﬁrst.80 km s ) ( 23.80 − 4.6 s ( 7.3 (a) The longitudinal P wave travels a shorter distance and is moving faster.37 × 10 6 m = 817 s 7 800 m s The wave that travels along the Earth’s surface must travel π a distance of s = Rθ = R ⎛ rad⎞ = 6.50 km s ) ( t + 17.2 (a) (b) FIG.67 × 10 6 = 1 482 s 4 500 Therefore.3 s ) or t= and the distance is d = ( 7. The wave has traveled 2. P16.40 m to the right.6 s ) = 184 km . it differs just by being shifted toward larger x by 2.67 × 10 6 m ⎝3 ⎠ at a speed of 4 500 m /s 6.50 12/9/06 12:46:49 PM .80 km s ) t = ( 4. P16.80 − 4.37 × 10 6 m at a speed of 7 800 m /s Therefore.indd 429 665 s = 11. it takes 6.37 × 10 6 m ) sin 30. km s ) (17.50 ) km s ( 4. it takes The time difference is P16.3 s ) where t is the travel time for the faster wave.2 The graph (b) has the same amplitude and wavelength as graph (a). ( 7. (b) The wave that travels through the Earth must travel a distance of 2 R sin 30.50 km s ) (17.

100.0 vibrations 4 425 cm = Hz v= = 42.48 cm ⎝ 4⎠ 2π k= = 3π : λ = 0.020 0 m ) sin ( 2. we have Therefore.319 m f 3 Hz f = Using data from the observations. max = (10π ) ( 0.9 cm = 0.0 s v 42.11 rad m λ= v = fλ = f = 8.62t ) in SI units A = 2. P16.00 12. 0 ) = ( 0.62 rad s 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.2 *P16.62 = = 1.350 ) = 11.350 ) (10π ) cos 10π t − 3π x + ⎞ v y.11x − 3.800 m s ⎝ 12.7 P16. π y ( 0.430 P16.667 m ω = 2π f = 10π : f = 5.5 times larger (d) λ is 1.indd 430 λ = 1.9 π 4 y = ( 0.576 Hz 2π 12/9/06 12:46:50 PM .33 m s dt 3 The velocity is in the positive x -direction .0 s 2π = 2.6 P16.5 cm s λ= = 4 = 31.0 m s ⎝ 4⎠ ∂t The Traveling Wave Model (a) a wave (b) later by T4 (c) A is 1.72 m s 2π k 2.20 m and ω 2π 3.20 m ) ⎛ = 0.00 cm k = 2.0 s ⎠ ω = 3.11 8.054 8 m = −5.300π + ⎞ = −0.350 m ) sin ⎛ −0.5 Chapter 16 (a) (b) (c) (d) Section 16.00 Hz λ π ∂y ⎛ vy = = ( 0.8 Let u = 10π t − 3π x + du dx = 10π − 3π = 0 at a point of constant phase dt dt dx 10 = = 3.98 m k ω f = = 0.00 ⎞ v = λ f = (1.5 times larger (e) λ is 23 as large 40.5 cm s 30.0 s 3 10.

10 431 v = f λ = ( 4.157 rad cm ) y = 0.4 rad s ) = 3. Then y = (12. At x = 0 and t = 0 we have y = (12 cm ) sin φ .00 Hz ) ( 60. the requirement for point B is that 3 π φ B = φ A ± rad.77 m s ay = ∂v y ∂t = ∂ ( − Aω cos ( kx − ω t )) = − Aω 2 sin ( kx − ω t ) ∂t The maximum value is P16.0 rad s ⎞ v = fλ = ⎛ ⎞ λ = ⎛ ( 20.4 rad s λ= v 20 m s = = 4.300 x − 40. To make this ﬁt y = 0.0 cm ) sin ((1.3 rad s ) t ± π rad 3 ±π rad = ±6.indd 431 (a) A = 0.11 (a) (b) (c) ω = 2π f = 2π ( 5 s −1 ) = 31. 3 ( 0.3 rad s ) t = 0 − ( 50.157 This reduces to x B = P16. we take φ = 0.0 cm ) cos ( 0. or (since x A = 0).3 rad s ) t.12 2 At time t.300 rad m (d) λ= (e) ω 40.40 m s *P16. Since 60.250 sin ( 0.157 x − 50. 3 ( 0.157 rad cm ) x − ( 50.300 rad m 12/9/06 12:46:51 PM .67 cm .0° = rad.4 s −1 ) = 118 m s 2 rad cm ) x B − ( 50.9 m k 0.0 rad s (c) k = 0.Wave Motion P16.12 m ) ( 31. the phase of y = (15.57 rad m ) x − ( 31.250 m (b) ω = 40.0t ) m Compare this with the general expression y = A sin ( kx − ω t ) 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.4 rad s ) t ) (d) (e) The transverse velocity is ∂y = − Aω cos ( kx − ω t ) ∂t Its maximum magnitude is Aω = 12 cm ( 31.13 Aω 2 = ( 0. in +x direction .00 m f 5 s −1 k= 2π 2π = = 1.0 cm ) = 240 cm s = 2.57 rad m λ 4m In y = A sin ( kx − ω t + φ ) we take A = 12 cm. 2π 2π = = 20.3t ) at coordinate x is π φ = ( 0.9 m ) = 133 m s ⎝ 2π ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2π (f) The wave moves to the right.

2 –10 FIG.0 rad m λ 0. P16. 0 ) = 0 at x = 0. t ) = ( 0.800 m ) ω = 2π f = 2π ( 3.0 –0.785) m Therefore.100 m then we require that 0 = 0.85 x + 6π t − 0. y = 0.4t s − 0.4 rad s v = f λ = (12.00π rad s y = A sin ( kx + ω t ) Therefore.16 (a) y (m) 0.0 s k= ω = 2π f = 2π 12.200 m sin (18. P16.080 0 sin ( 7.00 ) = 6. P16.indd 432 y ( x .083 3 s f 12.85 x + 6π t + φ ) Assuming y ( x.0 x m + 75.432 Chapter 16 *P16.200 m ) sin (18.785 y = 0.0 s ) ( 0.1 –0.2 t=0 0.00 × 10 −2 m = 0.3 to the next one.0 s = 75.2 0.0 x m + 75. 2π 2π = = 0.1 0.15 (a) A = ymax = 8.85 x + 6π t ) m In general.16(a) (b) 2π 2π = = 18. t = 0 we require −3.350 m 1 1 T= = = 0.4t s + φ ) at x = 0.00 cm = 0. T= 10 t (s) 0 0.785 + φ ) or φ = −0.1 This agrees with the period found in the example in the text.2 0.63° = − 0.125 s is the time from one peak ω 50.080 0 m k= 2π 2π = = 7.14 (a) (b) y (cm) See ﬁgure at right.200 m sin ( +φ ) φ = −8.85 m −1 λ ( 0.080 0 sin ( 7. 0.4 x (m) FIG.20 m s (c) y = A sin ( kx + ω t + φ ) specializes to y = 0.080 0 ) sin ( 7.151 rad so 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.350 m ) = 4.14 P16. t ) = 0 at t = 0) (b) y = ( 0.080 0 sin ( 0. Or (where y ( 0.151 rad ) 12/9/06 12:46:52 PM .

19 rad has a negative sine and positive cosine.025 0 s ) = 0. 1.95 rad (c) v y .750 m k= 2π 2π = = 8.0π t rad s + 1.18 (a) λ 16.38 m λ 0.120 m ) ( 4π ) sin ⎛ x + 4π t ⎞ ⎝8 ⎠ a ( 0. 0 ω= Also. max = Aω = 0.021 5 m ) sin (8.0π Your calculator’s answer tan −1 ( −2.38 x rad m + 80.0 m = = 32.60 m ) = −1.021 5 m (80.020 0 = = −2.025 0 s 2 ⎛ 2. 2π 2π = = 80.500 s y ( x .0 m s T 0.51 m s a= dv : dt π 2 a = ( − 0.00 m s dt 0 . You must look beyond your calculator to ﬁnd φ = π − 1. t ) = A sin ( kx + ω t + φ ) Let us write the wave function as y ( 0.0π s ) = 5.021 5 m (b) A sin φ 0. 0 ) = A sin φ = 0.200 s.Wave Motion P16.020 0 m ) + ⎜ ⎝ω⎠ ⎝ 80.120 m ) sin ⎛ x + 4π t ⎞ ⎝8 ⎠ (a) v= dy : dt π v = ( 0.120 ) ( 4π ) cos ⎛ x + 4π t ⎞ ⎝8 ⎠ v ( 0. just the reverse of what is required.00 m s ⎞ v 2 A 2 = xi2 + ⎛ i ⎞ = ( 0.51) = −1.0 m s ) ( 0.0 π s ⎟⎠ 2 A = 0. 1.17 433 π y = ( 0.51 = tan φ A cos φ −2 / 80.0π s y ( x .19 rad = 1.95 rad ) 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.020 0 m dy = Aω cos φ = −2.41 m s (d) λ = v xT = ( 30.200 s.500 s v= P16.indd 433 12/9/06 12:46:53 PM .0 m T = 0.750 m ω = 80.60 m ) = 0 (b) π 2π : = 8 λ 2π ω = 4π = : T k= λ = 16. t ) = ( 0.0 π s T 0.

14 rad m λ 2.10 × 10 −3 kg m T = 158 N 13794_16_ch16_p427-448. (a) dtotal 4 (8.100 m ) sin ( 4.0 m s = t 0.00 × 10 −2 kg m ) ( 40.00 m ) T = = 40.18 Hz 2π The Speed of Waves on Strings The down and back distance is 4.0 rad m v 196 y = ( 2.00 m s ) = = 0.100 m ) sin ( 3. The speed is then Now.800 s µ 0.00 m.indd 434 12/9/06 12:46:54 PM .200 kg µ= = 5.0 x − 3 140t ) (b) v = 196 m s = T 4. y = ( 0.500 s ) = 3.19 Chapter 16 (a) v (1.14 t s ) ∂y = 0.00 m = 8.0 N 2 So P16.14 rad s 2π 2π = = 3.500 x − 20.100 m ) sin ( −3.14t s + 0 ) (d) For x = 0 the wave function requires y = ( 0.14t s ) (e) (f) y = ( 0.00 rad − 20.0t ) Because this disturbance varies sinusoidally in time.314 m s P16.14 x m − 3.00 m (b) k= (c) y = A sin ( kx − ω t + φ ) becomes y = ( 0.20 (a) At x = 2.500 Hz λ 2.100 m ( − 3.00 m.0 rad s f = ω = 3.00 m f = ω = 2π f = 2π ( 0.00 × 10 −4 m ) sin (16.21 ω = 20.00 m v= T = µ v 2 = ( 5. k = ω 3 140 = = 16.3 P16.71 rad − 3.14 x m − 3.00 m + 4.0t ) = A sin ( kx − ω t ) so Section 16.100 m ) sin (1.22 and ω = 2π f = 2π ( 500 ) = 3 140 rad s.100 m ) sin ( 0.0 m s ) = 80.00 × 10 −2 kg m 4. it describes simple harmonic motion.14 s ) cos ( 3.14t s ) ∂t The cosine varies between +1 and –1. so vy = v y ≤ 0. (b) y = ( 0.434 P16.

µ = M m T2 T1 = and v22 v12 2 2 ⎛v ⎞ ⎛ 30.80 m s 2 =⎜ ⎟ m −3 2 µ sin 41.23 v= T 1 350 kg ⋅ m s 2 = = 520 m s µ 5.28 ⎛ ⎞ mg 9. MgL L2 = 2 m t and g= Mg = m L MgL L = is the wave speed.indd 435 v = 60.60 m ( 4.26 T = µ T = Mg is the tension.89 kg 12/9/06 12:46:55 PM .27 Since µ is constant.00 × 10 kg m ) sin 41. m t −3 Lm 1.0 = 30.24 v= T µ 435 T = µ v 2 = ρ Av 2 = ρπ r 2 v 2 T = (8 920 kg m 3 ) (π ) ( 7.28 From the free-body diagram The angle θ is found from (a) v= T µ or (b) 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.00 N ) = 13.61 × 10 −2 s ) The period of the pendulum is T = 2π L g Let F represent the tension in the string (to avoid confusion with the period) when the pendulum is vertical and stationary.4° ⎠ ⎛ m s⎞ v = ⎜ 30.00 × 10 −3 kg m P16.Wave Motion P16.4 m kg ⎟⎠ ⎝ m = 3.50 × 10 −4 m ) ( 200 m s ) 2 2 T = 631 N P16.5 N ⎝ 20.64 m s Mt 2 3.0 m s ⎟⎠ ⎝ v1 ⎠ P16.00 kg ( 3.00 × 10 kg ) 2 = 2 = 1. P16.4° ⎝ 2 (8.4 m and mg = 2T sin θ mg T= 2 sin θ 3 L8 3 = L 2 4 ∴θ = 41.0 m s ⎞ T2 = ⎜ 2 ⎟ T1 = ⎜ ( 6. v= Then. The speed of waves in the string is then: F = µ v= Mg = m L MgL m Since it might be difﬁcult to measure L precisely. we eliminate L = T g 2π so Mg T g Tg = m 2π 2π v= P16.4° cos θ = v= FIG.25 P16.

⎛ πρd 2 ⎞ t = L⎜ ⎝ 4T ⎟⎠ For copper. The mass of one wire can be written both as m = ρV = ρ AL and also as m = µ L .0 = = 60.32 f = Rate of Energy Transfer by Sinusoidal Waves on Strings v 30.100 )2 ( 30. (b) P16.00 × 10 −3 )2 ⎤ ⎥ t = ( 20.0 ) ⎢ ( 4 ) (150 ) ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ = 0.07 kW 2 ⎝ 3.70 × 108 Pa = 185 m s 7 860 kg m 3 The total time is the sum of the two times.31 2. the second is force of tension.436 P16.192 s The total time is 0. s . For the other T we have T = µ v 2. The maximum velocity occurs when the stress is a maximum: vmax = f has units Hz = 1 s. ⎡ (π ) ( 7 860 ) (1.500 P = 1 µω 2 13794_16_ch16_p427-448. f kg m 2 kg ⋅ m = 2 = N .180 ⎞ (120π )2 ( 0.0 Hz λ 0. L µ In each wire t= =L v T Let A represent the cross-sectional area of one wire.indd 436 2 A2 v = ω = 2π f = 120π rad s 1 ⎛ 0. m s2 s The ﬁrst T is period of time. πρd 2 4 Then we have µ = ρA = Thus. the tensile stress is T Stress = so A The speed of transverse waves in the wire is v= T = µ T = A ( stress ) Stress A ( Stress ) = = m L m AL Stress Stress = ρ mVolume where ρ is the density.0 ) ⎢ ( 4 ) (150 ) ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ = 0.00 × 10 −3 )2 ⎤ ⎥ t = ( 30.60 ⎠ 12/9/06 12:46:56 PM . ⎡ (π ) (8 920 ) (1.0 ) = 1.5 P16.137 + 0.137 s For steel.192 = 0.329 s 12 12 12 Section 16. so T = *P16.29 Chapter 16 If the tension in the wire is T.30 (a) with units 1 has units of seconds.

(c) If λ and A are doubled.33 437 Suppose that no energy is absorbed or carried down into the water.00 × 10 ) ( 5.50 m f = 50. 1 2 2 µω A v : 2 P = 300 W T = 100 N T = 50.00 × 10 −2 )2 ( 50. P = µω 2 A2 v 2 µ If L is doubled.50 × 10 −2 ) ⎛ W ⎝ 2 2 4.19 ⎠ P = 625 W 12/9/06 12:46:57 PM .indd 437 P = FIG. It is spread over the circumference 2π r of an expanding circle.00 × 10 −2 kg m v= Therefore.0 g m = 30. P16.) (d) P16.35 A = 5. so P is quadrupled . λ (Changing L doesn’t affect P .50 × 10 −2 m (a) 2π y = A sin ⎛ x − ωt ⎞ ⎝ λ ⎠ y = ( 7. Then a ﬁxed amount of power is spread thinner farther away from the source.34 (a) T 1 .0 × 10 −3 ) ( 314 )2 ( 7. P ω 2 A 2 remains constant . the product ω 2 A 2 T = constant. P P is constant .0 m s µ 2 ( 300 ) 2P ω 2 = _____ 2 = − 2 µ A v ( 4.0 ) ω = 346 rad s ω f = = 55. λ2 1 If L and λ are halved.19 x − 314t ) (b) 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.Wave Motion P16.0 × 10 −3 kg m λ = 1.1 Hz 2π P16. The power-per-width across the wave front P 2π r is proportional to amplitude squared so amplitude is proportional to P 2π r P16.00 × 10 −2 m = µ = 4. so P remains constant .50 × 10 −2 ) sin ( 4. v = A2 remains constant.0 Hz: ω = 2π f = 314 s −1 2 A = 0. then ω 2 2 is quadrupled.36 µ = 30. v remains constant and (b) If A is doubled and ω is halved.36 2 1 1 314 ⎞ µω 2 A 2 v = ( 30.150 m: A = 7.

P 0 = 1 2 2 µω A v 2 P 0 = 1 2 2 T µω A µ 2 P 0 1 = ω 2 A2 Tµ 2 The doubled string will have doubled mass-per-length.1 W 2 2 π Comparing y = 0.00 times.02 J 2 2 3π Originally.96 Hz 2π (d) P16. the rate of energy transfer is proportional to the square of the amplitude and to the speed.40 As for a string wave.5) W = 21.0 = 7.150 )2 ( 62.800 (a) P = 1 1 µω 2 A 2 v = (12. Then v = f λ = 2π f = = = 3. 2π k 3π m m The rate of energy transport is P = 1 µω 2 (b) A2 v = 1 ( 75 × 10 −3 kg m ) (10π s )2 ( 0.0 = = m s = 62. ω = 10π s.39 2 1 1 2π m 2 µω 2 A 2 λ = ( 75 × 10 −3 kg m ) (10π s ) ( 0.38 ω 2π ω 50. 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.35 m )2 3.35 sin ⎛ 10π t − 3π x + ⎞ with y = A sin ( kx − ω t + φ ) = A sin (ω t − kx − φ + π ) ⎝ 4⎠ we have k = (a) λ ω 10π s 3π . it can carry power larger by 2 times. The rate of energy transfer stays constant because each wavefront carries constant energy and the frequency stays constant.33 m s = 15.indd 438 12/9/06 12:46:58 PM .85 m k 0.35 m. A = 0. 2 2 F vbedrock Abedrock = F vmudfill Amudfill vbedrock A = mudfill = vmudfill Abedrock 25vmudfill =5 vmudfill The amplitude increases by 5.1 W 2 The energy per cycle is Eλ = P T = P16.0 )2 ( 0. Presuming that we hold tension constant. With no absorption of energy. We write P = FvA2 where F is some constant.5 m s 2π k k 0. 1 2P0 = ω 2 A2 T 2 µ 2 *P16.35 m )2 = 3. As the speed drops the amplitude must increase.37 v = fλ = (b) λ= 2π 2π = m = 7.800 (c) f = 50.33 m s .0 × 10 −3 ) ( 50.438 Chapter 16 P16.

00 yields A = 40. Then 1 ∂ y = 1 ( 2 = − 2 = 2 2 2 v ∂t v ( x − vt ) ( x − vt ) ∂x 2 2 13794_16_ch16_p427-448. they must have the same magnitude and the same direction in three-dimensional space. P16.0 (b) In order for two vectors to be equal. In A + B cos ( Cx + Dt + E ) = 0 + 7.indd 439 12/28/06 6:39:46 PM . The equality of maximum values requires B = 7. 7.00.43 and The linear wave equation is 1 ∂2 y ∂2 y = v 2 ∂t 2 ∂x 2 To show that y = ln [ b ( x − vt )] is a solution.00 rad m . and the equality of zero-crossings requires E = 2.00 .00 kˆ = Aˆi + Bˆj + C kˆ requires A = 7. The equality for the wavelength or periodicity as a function of x requires C = 3. ∂y 1 = ( − bv ) ∂t b ( x − vt ) ∂2 y −1( −bv ) v2 = 2 2 = − 2 ∂t b ( x − vt ) ( x − vt )2 ∂y −1 = [ b ( x − vt ) ] b ∂x ∂2 y b 1 = − ( x − vt )−2 = − 2 b ( x − vt ) 2 ∂x 2 2 −v ) 1 ∂ 2 y so the given wave function is a solution. They must have the same graphs. we ﬁnd its ﬁrst and second derivatives with respect to x and t and substitute into the equation.00 rad s .00 ˆi + 0 ˆj + 3. 2 ∂t ∂x Therefore.41 439 The Linear Wave Equation (a) A = ( 7.6 P16.00 ) the equality of average values requires that A = 0 .00 rad .00 x + 4.00 ) 4.00 + 3. B = 0.00 mm .42 The linear wave equation is ∂2 y 1 ∂2 y = ∂x 2 v 2 ∂t 2 If y = eb( x − vt ) then ∂y = −bveb( x − vt ) ∂t ∂2 y = b 2 v 2 eb( x − vt ) ∂t 2 and ∂y = beb( x − vt ) ∂x ∂2 y = b 2 eb( x − vt ) ∂x 2 ∂2 y ∂2 y = v 2 2 . and C = 3. All of their components must be equal. The equality of period requires D = 4. demonstrating that eb( x − vt ) is a solution.00t + 2. Thus.Wave Motion Section 16.00 mm cos ( 3. (c) In order for two functions to be identically equal. P16. they must be equal for every value of every variable.

indd 440 12/9/06 12:47:00 PM . So 1 2 f ( x + vt ) = ( x + vt ) 2 (c) 1 2 g ( x − vt ) = ( x − v t ) 2 and y = sin x cos vt makes ∂y = cos x cos vt ∂x ∂2 y = − sin x cos vt ∂x 2 ∂y = − v sin x sin vt ∂t ∂2 y = − v 2 sin x cos vt ∂t 2 Then ∂2 y 1 ∂2 y = ∂x 2 v 2 ∂t 2 −1 2 v sin x cos vt which is true as required. (b) 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 Note ( x + vt ) + ( x − vt ) = x 2 + xvt + v 2t 2 + x 2 − xvt + v 2t 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = x 2 + v 2t 2 as required.440 P16. so the wave function does satisfy v the wave equation. v2 Note sin ( x + vt ) = sin x cos vt + cos x sin vt becomes − sin x cos vt = sin ( x − vt ) = sin x cos vt − cos x sin vt So sin x cos vt = f ( x + vt ) + g ( x − vt ) with f ( x + vt ) = 1 sin ( x + vt ) 2 and g ( x − vt ) = 1 sin ( x − vt ) 2 Additional Problems P16. the time for one circuit around the stadium is 2 2π r 2π (10 ) T= = 63 s ~1 min ~ v 10 m s 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.1 s Model the stadium as a circle with a radius of order 100 m. Then. Then the wave speed is v= ∆x 1 m ~ ~ 10 m s ∆t 0.44 Chapter 16 (a) From y = x 2 + v 2t 2. ∂y evaluate = 2x ∂x ∂y = v 2 2t ∂t ∂2 y =2 ∂x 2 ∂2 y = 2v 2 ∂t 2 ∂2 y 1 ∂2 y ? = ∂t 2 v 2 ∂t 2 Does 1 By substitution.45 Assume a typical distance between adjacent people ~1 m. we must test 2 = 2 2v 2 and this is true.

6 rad s ) t ⎤⎦ ∴ sin ⎡⎣( 99.5 m /s = (Tµ)12 T = v2µ = (62.045 0 N (b) We ﬁnd the tension in the string from v = f λ = ω k = (50s)(0.9 N. thus t 2 = 26.26 ms = 21.892 m 100 N m v = 83.892 m 5.indd 441 12/9/06 12:47:01 PM .3 ms ∆t ⬅ t 2 − t1 = 26. thus t1 = 5.6 rad s ) t ⎤⎦ = 0. v = (19. ΣF = ma = [12 g(100 cm)] 1 cm 375 m /s2 = 0.6 m s 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.150 m sin(0. more than a thousand times smaller.80 m s 2 ) = 39.26 ms rad s ) t 2 = 2. P16.46 (a) From y = 0.48 (a) 0.350 m ) sin ⎡⎣( 99.e.0 × 10 −3 kg 2 Mg k 39.68 m .618 rad .523 6 rad and 2.5 m /s)2(0.8x – 50t) Then amax = 375 m /s 2 441 For the 1-cm segment with maximum force acting on it. ( 99.150 m (–50s)2 sin(0.0 × 10 −3 s ) = 1.0 frames s ) = 0.25 rad m ⎟⎠ Energy is conserved as the block moves down distance x: (K + U g + Us ) top ( + ∆ E = K + Ug + Us ) bottom 1 0 + Mgx + 0 + 0 = 0 + 0 + kx 2 2 2 Mg x= k (a) T = kx = 2 Mg = 2 ( 2.8x – 50t) we compute dydt = 0.6 rad s ) t1 = 0.Wave Motion *P16.456 m s P16.6 ( 99.0 ms (b) P16.523 6 rad .2 N × 0.175 m = ( 0.0 × 10 −3 m frame ) ( 24.8x – 50t) and a = d2ydt2 = –0.2 N (b) L = L0 + x = L0 + (c) v= T TL = µ m v= 39.8m) = 62.618 rad. 0.6 rad s ⎞ ω Distance traveled by the wave = ⎛ ⎞ ∆ t = ⎜ ( 21.5 The smallest two angles for which the sine function is 0. ⎝ k⎠ ⎝ 1.00 kg ) ( 9.2 N L = 0.. i.5 are 30° and 150°.012 kgm) = 46. The maximum transverse force is very small compared to the tension.150 m (–50) cos(0.47 The equation v = λ f is a special case of speed = (cycle length)(repetition rate) Thus.500 m + = 0.49 ⎛ 99.3 ms − 5.

Then the rate at which energy passes a stationary point. is constant. our formula gd for wave speed no longer applies. (b) For the wave described. so the amplitude must increase. or smaller. with a single direction of energy transport. our model would predict zero speed and inﬁnite amplitude.50 Chapter 16 Mgx = 1 2 kx 2 (a) T = kx = 2 Mg (b) L = L0 + x = L0 + (c) v= *P16. The power is proportional to the square of the amplitude and to the wave speed. To express the constant intensity we write A12 v1 = A22 v2 = A22 gd2 (1. Assuming the incline to be frictionless and taking the positive x-direction to be up the incline: ∑F x 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.8 ⎜ ⎝ 9. When it becomes comparable to the water depth.51 (a) T TL = = µ m 2 Mg k 2 Mg ⎛ 2 Mg ⎞ L0 + ⎝ m k ⎠ The energy a wave crest carries is constant in the absence of absorption.39 m s ⎛ 200 m s ⎞ A2 = 1. the intensity is the same at the deep-water location 1 and at the place 2 with depth 9 m. As the speed decreases the wavelength also decreases.indd 442 = T − Mg sin θ = 0 or the tension in the string is T = Mg sin θ Mg sin θ = m L MgL sin θ m The speed of transverse waves in the string is then v= T = µ The time interval for a pulse to travel the string’s length is ∆t = L m =L = v MgL sin θ mL Mg sin θ 12/9/06 12:47:02 PM . The speed decreases as the wave moves into shallower water near shore.52 As the water depth goes to zero.8 m )2 200 m s = A22 ( 9.442 P16.39 m s ⎟⎠ 12 = 8. which is the power of the wave.31 m (c) P16. In fact the amplitude must be ﬁnite as the wave comes ashore.8 m s2 ) 9 m = A22 9.

54 (d) 2 E = P t = (0.015 s) = 7. The string also contains potential energy.max (6 s) = 0. For the block.max = Kmax.084 3 rad 0.05 kgs) v2y.77 m s ⎡⎣( 2 700 ) (10 + 10 −2 ) (10 −4 ) ⎤⎦ −2 12/9/06 12:47:03 PM . all the energy in a 3-m length of string goes past a point. Therefore the amount of this energy is 2 E = P t = (0.5 × 10−4 kg v y.max The mass of this section is m3 = (0. the quantity ωA is the maximum particle speed vymax.0 = 94.450 kg dm dx = ρA = ρA dL dx T = µ T = ρA T [ ρ ( ax + b )] = T ⎡⎣ ρ (10 −3 x + 10 −2 ) cm 2 ⎤⎦ With all SI units.5 × 10–2 s. therefore.53 (a) In P = 12 µω 2 A2 v where v is the wave speed.003 2 kg = 0. ∑ F = ma implies T = mvb2 = mω 2 r r The speed of a wave on the string is then v= T = µ t= r 1 = v ω θ = ωt = P16. v= (b) v x= 0 = v x=10.5 × 10–3 kgm and v = (Tµ)12 = (20 N0.max v= T µv 2 and in this case T = mg. m = mass of string. In time t = (3 m)v = (3 m)(200 m /s) = 1.indd 443 T ms ⎡⎣ ρ (10 −3 x + 10 −2 )10 −4 ⎤⎦ 24.3 m s ⎡⎣( 2 700 ) ( 0 + 10 −2 ) (10 −4 ) ⎤⎦ 24.5 × 10−4 kg and E = (1/2) m3v2y.0 = 66.05 kgs) v2y.56 (a) µ= v= Mω 2r M = rω m r m m M m = M 0.max The power is proportional to the square of the maximum particle speed.80 m s 2 ⎢⎣ 0.55 Let M = mass of block. We could write its energy as Umax or as Uavg + Kavg P16.300 kg v y. m = µ g Now v = f λ implies v = ω so that k 2 µ ω 0.050 0 kg/s)v2y.0 = 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.Wave Motion *P16.7 kg m= ⎛ ⎞ = g⎝ k⎠ 9. We have µ = 0.750π m −1 ⎥⎦ 2 P16.max (0.5 × 10–3 kg so (12)m3 = 7.5 × 10–3 kgm)3 m = 1.250 kg m ⎡ 18π s −1 ⎤ = 14.5 × 10–3 kgm) v2ymax (200 m s) = (0.5 × 10–3 kgm)12 = 200 m/s P Then (b) (c) 443 = 12 (0.

58 dx 1 = gx g x 1 2 L = 2 0 L g mxg ⎞ At distance x from the bottom.57 Chapter 16 v= T where µ T = µ xg. But v = dx . to support the weight of a length x.indd 444 t = 2 12/9/06 12:47:04 PM . we ﬁnd the distance climbed = . (c) m As m → 0 we expand m + M = M ⎛ 1 + ⎞ ⎝ M⎠ (a) ( t=2 1 L⎛ M +2 m ⎜ g⎝ t≈2 L g ⎛1 m ⎞ ⎜⎝ 2 M ⎟⎠ = t=2 t=2 (b) to obtain P16. of rope.444 P16. g 4 1 In half the total trip time.707 ⎜ 2 2g ⎝ g ⎟⎠ It takes the pulse more that 70% of the total time to cover 50% of the distance. the tension is T = ⎛ + Mg. v = gx Therefore. so that dt dt = L t= and ∫ 0 P16. as in the previous problem. so the wave speed is: ⎝ L ⎠ v= t (a) Then T TL MgL ⎞ dx = = xg + ⎛ = ⎝ m ⎠ dt µ m L MgL ⎞ ⎤ ⎡ t = ∫ dt = ∫ ⎢ xg + ⎛ ⎝ m ⎠ ⎥⎦ 0 0 ⎣ t= 2 ⎡⎛ MgL ⎞ ⎢ Lg + g ⎣⎝ m ⎠ 12 1 2 x= L 1 ⎡ xg + ( MgL m ) ⎤⎦ t= ⎣ 1 g 2 −1 2 dx MgL ⎞ −⎛ ⎝ m ⎠ 12 ⎤ ⎥ ⎦ When M = 0. ⎝ 2⎠ L L′ Thus. the distance climbed in τ is given by d = gτ 2 4 L L . the time required = 2 with L ′ = 2 g and the time required = 2 ⎛ L⎞ L = 0. the pulse has climbed of the total length. 4 For τ = 13794_16_ch16_p427-448. (b) By the same reasoning applied in part (a).59 dx gx 12 x=0 L ⎛ m+M − M ⎞ ⎟⎠ g ⎜⎝ m L ⎛ m − 0⎞ L = 2 ⎟ ⎜ g⎝ m ⎠ g ⎛ 1 m 1 m 2 …⎞ = M ⎜1 + − + ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 M 8 M2 ) M − 81 ( m 2 M 3 2 ) + … − M ⎞ ⎟ m ⎠ mL Mg The speed in the lower half of a rope of length L is the same function of distance (from the L bottom end) as the speed along the entire length of a rope of length ⎛ ⎞ .

it will stay at the six-o’clock position.60(a) For a very short section.Wave Motion P16. once pulse moves backward at speed v0 + v = 2v0 and the other forward at v0 − v = 0 . v0 v0 v0 FIG. P16. In the frame of reference of the center of the loop. If it is generated at the six-o’clock position.61 T ⲐA . Also.60(c1) In the frame of reference of the ground. the mass density of the wire µ may be expressed as ρ = A The speed of transverse waves in the wire is then Young’s modulus for the wire may be written as Y = v= and the strain in the wire is Y ( ∆ L ⲐL ) T T ⲐA = = µ µⲐ A ρ ∆ L ρv 2 = Y L If the wire is aluminum and v = 100 m s.indd 445 12/11/06 3:50:29 PM . v v0 v0 v v0 FIG.60 (a) ∑F y = may 2T sin θ down = θ θ Consider a short section of chain at the top of the loop.86 × 10 −4 = 7.70 × 10 kg m ) (100 m s ) = 3. A free-body diagram is shown. Its length is s = R(2θ) and its mass is µ R2θ. the strain is 3 3 ∆ L ( 2. The one pulse makes two revolutions while the loop makes one revolution and the other pulse does not move around the loop. P16. where T is the tension maintained in ∆ LⲐ L the wire and ∆ L is the elongation produced by this tension. each pulse moves with equal speed clockwise and counterclockwise. sin θ = θ and T = µ v02 T = v0 µ (b) The wave speed is v = (c) In the frame of reference of the center of the loop.00 × 1010 N m 2 L 2 13794_16_ch16_p427-448. Newton’s second law is T mv02 µ R2θ v02 down = R R 445 2θ R T FIG. P16.60(c2) P16.

400 kg 2 1 ω µω 3 2 −2bx µω 2 A02 e−2bx ⎛ ⎞ = A0 e ⎝ k⎠ 2 2k µω 3 2 A0 2k P P (0) v= 4 450 km = 468 km h = 130 m s 9. But so a= v2 L Equating the two expressions for a. extended to have a length L much greater than its equilibrium length. ∑ F = ma kdx = adm becomes or k =a dmdx k dm = µ so a = µ dx dv v a= = when vi = 0 dt t But Also.50 h d= v 2 (130 m s ) = = 1 730 m g ( 9. L = vt.6 m s 0. We start moving one end forward with the speed v at which a wave propagates on the spring.63 P16. we have P16.indd 446 12/9/06 12:47:06 PM . For an increment of spring with length dx and mass dm.80 m s 2 ) 2 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.62 Chapter 16 (a) Assume the spring is originally stationary throughout.00 m ) = 31. In this way we create a single pulse of compression that moves down the length of the spring.64 (b) Using the expression from part (a) v = (a) P ( x ) = 1 µω (b) P (0) = (c) (x) _____ = e−2bx 2 2 A2 v = kL = µ k v2 = µ L kL2 = m (100 or v= kL µ N m ) ( 2.446 P16. just as the pulse swallows it up.

4 184 km P16. 83.4 rad s.95) 13794_16_ch16_p427-448. in agreement with the example 12/9/06 12:47:06 PM .40 m to the right.2 See the solution.18 (a) 0.800 m s P16.65 (a) µ ( x ) is a linear function.40 m.38 x + 80. the time required to move from x to x + dx is . 75.10 2.151) P16.indd 447 (b) 0.67 cm P16.021 5 m ) sin (8.0π t + 1.95 rad (c) 5. 4.14 (a) see the solution P16.4t − 0. P16.40 m s P16.16 (a) see the solution (b) 18. so it is of the form µ ( x ) = mx + b To have µ ( 0 ) = µ0 we require b = µ0.41 m s (d) y ( x .3 ms.125 s.0 m. t ) = ( 0.20 m s (c) ( 0.12 ±6. The time required to move dt v from 0 to L is From v = L ∆t = ∫ 0 L L 1 dx dx = = v ∫0 T µ T µ ( x )dx ∫ 0 ⎛ ( µ L − µ0 ) x ⎞ ∫0 ⎜⎝ L + µ0 ⎟⎠ L 1 ∆t = T 12 ⎛ µ L − µ0 ⎞ ⎛ L ⎞ ⎜⎝ ⎟ dx L ⎠ ⎜⎝ µ L − µ0 ⎟⎠ ⎞ 1 ⎛ L ⎞ ⎛ ( µ L − µ0 ) x ∆t = + µ0 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ L T ⎝ µ L − µ0 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ∆t = ∆t = ∆t = 32 2L ( µL3 2 − µ03 2 ) 3 T ( µ L − µ0 ) 2L ( µ L − µ0 3 T ( )( µ µ L − µ0 L + µ L µ0 + µ0 )( µ L + µ0 ) 1 L 3 2 0 ) 2 L ⎛ µ L + µ L µ0 + µ0 ⎞ µ L + µ0 ⎟⎠ 3 T ⎜⎝ ANSWERS TO EVEN PROBLEMS P16.021 5 m (b) 1.6 See the solution P16.8 0. Then µ ( L ) = µ L = mL + µ0 so m= (b) µ L − µ0 L µ ( x) = Then 447 ( µ L − µ0 ) x + µ L 0 dx dx .Wave Motion P16. The wave has traveled 2.2 m ) sin (18 x + 75. The graph (b) has the same amplitude and wavelength as graph (a). It differs just by being shifted toward larger x by 2.

32 1.9-N tension.00 times. As the speed drops the amplitude must increase.3 m s.89 kg (b) The ﬁrst T is period of time.22 (a) y = ( 0.1 W (b) 3.6 m /s 12/12/06 2:55:31 PM . It increases by 5. This force is very small compared to the 46.40 As for a string wave.52 ∆t = P16.0 ms P16.64 130 m s.42 see the solution P16. The rate of energy transfer stays constant because each wavefront carries constant energy and the frequency stays constant.68 m 2 Mg k (c) 2 Mg ⎛ 2 Mg ⎞ L0 + m ⎝ k ⎠ mL Mg sin θ T in SI units ρ (10 x + 10 −6 ) −7 (b) v0 (b) 94. the rate of energy transfer is proportional to the square of the amplitude and to the speed.02 J P16.56 (a) v = P16.58 See the solution. P16.73 km 13794_16_ch16_p427-448. (b) (d) P is quadrupled (b) 625 W 1 1 ( x + vt )2 + ( x − vt )2 2 2 (c) 1 1 sin ( x + vt ) + sin ( x − vt ) 2 2 (b) 1.46 (a) 375 m /s2 (b) 0.7 m s (c) One travels 2 rev and the other does not move around the loop.448 Chapter 16 P16.62 (a) see the solution P16. the second is force of tension.18 Hz (b) 158 N M m (b) 3.19 x − 314t ) P16. 66. 1. (b). P16.07 kW P16.50 (a) 2Mg (b) L0 + P16.24 631 N P16. (c) P is a constant P16.60 (a) µ v02 P16. P16.7 Kg P16. (b) 31.38 (a) 15. more than a thousand times smaller.36 (a) y = ( 0.48 (a) 21.26 v= P16.34 (a).20 (a) see the solution P16.30 (a) s and N P16.4 m s ⋅ kg ⎟⎠ ⎝ P16.0450 N.28 ⎛ m ⎞ (a) v = ⎜ 30.indd 448 Tg 2π (b) 3.44 (a) see the solution P16.2 mm ) sin (16 x − 3 140t ) P16.075 0 ) sin ( 4.54 14.

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