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16

Wave Motion
CHAPTER OUTLINE
16.1
16.2
16.3
16.5
16.6

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS

Propagation of a Disturbance
The Traveling Wave Model
The Speed of Waves on Strings
Rate of Energy Transfer by Sinusoidal
Waves on Strings
The Linear Wave Equation

*Q16.3 (i)

(ii)

Q16.1

As the pulse moves down the string, the particles of the
string itself move side to side. Since the medium—here,
the string—moves perpendicular to the direction of wave
propagation, the wave is transverse by definition.

Q16.2

To use a slinky to create a longitudinal wave, pull a few
coils back and release. For a transverse wave, jostle the
end coil side to side.

Look at the coefficients of the sine and cosine functions: 2, 4, 6, 8, 8, 7. The ranking is d =
e > f > c > b > a.
Look at the coefficients of x. Each is the wave number, 2πⲐλ , so the smallest k goes with the
largest wavelength. The ranking is d > a = b = c > e > f.

(iii) Look at the coefficients of t. The absolute value of each is the angular frequency ω = 2π f. The
ranking is f > e > a = b = c = d.
(iv) Period is the reciprocal of frequency, so the ranking is the reverse of that in part iii: d = c =
b = a > e > f.
(v)

From v = f λ = ω Ⲑk, we compute the absolute value of the ratio of the coefficient of t to the
coefficient of x in each case. From a to f respectively the numerical speeds are 5, 5, 5, 7.5,
5, 4. The ranking is d > a = b = c = e > f.

*Q16.4 From v =

T
, we must increase the tension by a factor of 4 to make v double. Answer (b).
µ

*Q16.5 Answer (b). Wave speed is inversely proportional to the square root of linear density.
*Q16.6 (i)
(ii)

Answer (a). Higher tension makes wave speed higher.
Answer (b). Greater linear density makes the wave move more slowly.

Q16.7

It depends on from what the wave reflects. If reflecting from a less dense string, the reflected
part of the wave will be right side up.

Q16.8

Yes, among other things it depends on. The particle speed is described by vy,max = ω A = 2π fA =
Here v is the speed of the wave.

2π vA
.
λ

427

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428

Chapter 16

*Q16.9 (a) through (d): Yes to all. The maximum particle speed and the wave speed are related by
2π vA
vy,max = ω A = 2π fA =
. Thus the amplitude or the wavelength of the wave can be adjusted
λ
to make either vy,max or v larger.
Q16.10 Since the frequency is 3 cycles per second, the period is
Q16.11

1
second = 333 ms.
3

Each element of the rope must support the weight of the rope below it. The tension increases with
T
height. (It increases linearly, if the rope does not stretch.) Then the wave speed v =
increases
µ
with height.

*Q16.12 Answer (c). If the frequency does not change, the amplitude is increased by a factor of 2.
The wave speed does not change.
*Q16.13 (i)

(ii)

Answer a. As the wave passes from the massive string to the less massive string, the wave
T
speed will increase according to v =
.
µ
Answer c. The frequency will remain unchanged. However often crests come up to the
boundary they leave the boundary.

(iii) Answer a. Since v = f λ , the wavelength must increase.
Q16.14 Longitudinal waves depend on the compressibility of the fluid for their propagation. Transverse
waves require a restoring force in response to shear strain. Fluids do not have the underlying
structure to supply such a force. A fluid cannot support static shear. A viscous fluid can temporarily be put under shear, but the higher its viscosity the more quickly it converts input work
into internal energy. A local vibration imposed on it is strongly damped, and not a source of
wave propagation.
Q16.15 Let ∆t = t s − t p represent the difference in arrival times of the two waves at a station at distance
−1
⎛1 1⎞
d = vs t s = v p t p from the hypocenter. Then d = ∆t ⎜ − ⎟ . Knowing the distance from the
⎝ vs v p ⎠
first station places the hypocenter on a sphere around it. A measurement from a second station limits it to another sphere, which intersects with the first in a circle. Data from a third
non-collinear station will generally limit the possibilities to a point.
Q16.16 The speed of a wave on a “massless” string would be infinite!

SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS
Section 16.1
P16.1

Propagation of a Disturbance

Replace x by

x − vt = x − 4.5t
to get y =

13794_16_ch16_p427-448.indd 428

6
⎡⎣( x − 4.5t )2 + 3 ⎤⎦

12/9/06 12:46:48 PM

67 × 10 6 = 1 482 s 4 500 Therefore.4 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.40 m.0° = 6.80 − 4. so it will arrive at point B first.50 ) ( km s ) t = ( 4.1 min The distance the waves have traveled is d = ( 7.67 × 10 6 m ⎝3 ⎠ at a speed of 4 500 m /s 6.3 (a) The longitudinal P wave travels a shorter distance and is moving faster. P16. The wave has traveled 2. (b) The wave that travels through the Earth must travel a distance of 2 R sin 30.3 s ) or t= and the distance is d = ( 7.37 × 10 6 m ) sin 30.6 s ) = 184 km . ( 7.80 km s ) t = ( 4.50 ) km s ( 4. km s ) (17.37 × 10 6 m at a speed of 7 800 m /s Therefore.2 The graph (b) has the same amplitude and wavelength as graph (a).Wave Motion 429 *P16.0° = 2 ( 6.indd 429 665 s = 11. it differs just by being shifted toward larger x by 2.50 12/9/06 12:46:49 PM .50 km s ) (17. it takes The time difference is P16.3 s ) = 23.50 km s ) ( t + 17.2 (a) (b) FIG. Then.37 × 10 6 m = 817 s 7 800 m s The wave that travels along the Earth’s surface must travel π a distance of s = Rθ = R ⎛ rad⎞ = 6.80 − 4.3 s ) where t is the travel time for the faster wave.40 m to the right.80 km s ) ( 23. it takes 6. P16.6 s ( 7.

00 12.indd 430 λ = 1. P16. 0 ) = ( 0.430 P16.62t ) in SI units A = 2.11 8.5 cm s 30.800 m s ⎝ 12.350 ) (10π ) cos 10π t − 3π x + ⎞ v y.00 ⎞ v = λ f = (1.0 s 2π = 2.00 cm k = 2.0 s v 42.98 m k ω f = = 0.350 ) = 11.7 P16.11x − 3.48 cm ⎝ 4⎠ 2π k= = 3π : λ = 0.00 Hz λ π ∂y ⎛ vy = = ( 0.20 m ) ⎛ = 0.9 cm = 0.100.300π + ⎞ = −0.20 m and ω 2π 3.350 m ) sin ⎛ −0.72 m s 2π k 2. we have Therefore.020 0 m ) sin ( 2.0 s ⎠ ω = 3.2 *P16.62 = = 1.667 m ω = 2π f = 10π : f = 5.8 Let u = 10π t − 3π x + du dx = 10π − 3π = 0 at a point of constant phase dt dt dx 10 = = 3.5 cm s λ= = 4 = 31.11 rad m λ= v = fλ = f = 8.62 rad s 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.5 times larger (e) λ is 23 as large 40.5 Chapter 16 (a) (b) (c) (d) Section 16.6 P16.0 vibrations 4 425 cm = Hz v= = 42.9 π 4 y = ( 0.0 m s ⎝ 4⎠ ∂t The Traveling Wave Model (a) a wave (b) later by T4 (c) A is 1.576 Hz 2π 12/9/06 12:46:50 PM .319 m f 3 Hz f = Using data from the observations.0 s 3 10. π y ( 0. max = (10π ) ( 0.33 m s dt 3 The velocity is in the positive x -direction .5 times larger (d) λ is 1.054 8 m = −5.

0 cm ) = 240 cm s = 2. the requirement for point B is that 3 π φ B = φ A ± rad.12 2 At time t.3 rad s ) t.Wave Motion P16.9 m k 0.40 m s *P16. the phase of y = (15.57 rad m ) x − ( 31. To make this fit y = 0.0 rad s ⎞ v = fλ = ⎛ ⎞ λ = ⎛ ( 20.77 m s ay = ∂v y ∂t = ∂ ( − Aω cos ( kx − ω t )) = − Aω 2 sin ( kx − ω t ) ∂t The maximum value is P16. 3 ( 0.11 (a) (b) (c) ω = 2π f = 2π ( 5 s −1 ) = 31.9 m ) = 133 m s ⎝ 2π ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2π (f) The wave moves to the right.4 s −1 ) = 118 m s 2 rad cm ) x B − ( 50.67 cm .300 rad m 12/9/06 12:46:51 PM .0° = rad.0t ) m Compare this with the general expression y = A sin ( kx − ω t ) 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.4 rad s ) t ) (d) (e) The transverse velocity is ∂y = − Aω cos ( kx − ω t ) ∂t Its maximum magnitude is Aω = 12 cm ( 31.0 cm ) sin ((1.00 m f 5 s −1 k= 2π 2π = = 1.57 rad m λ 4m In y = A sin ( kx − ω t + φ ) we take A = 12 cm. we take φ = 0.3t ) at coordinate x is π φ = ( 0. in +x direction .4 rad s λ= v 20 m s = = 4.250 m (b) ω = 40.4 rad s ) = 3. or (since x A = 0).indd 431 (a) A = 0.12 m ) ( 31. 2π 2π = = 20. At x = 0 and t = 0 we have y = (12 cm ) sin φ .157 rad cm ) y = 0.0 rad s (c) k = 0.250 sin ( 0.300 rad m (d) λ= (e) ω 40.157 This reduces to x B = P16.10 431 v = f λ = ( 4.157 rad cm ) x − ( 50. Then y = (12.13 Aω 2 = ( 0.157 x − 50. Since 60.00 Hz ) ( 60. 3 ( 0.300 x − 40.0 cm ) cos ( 0.3 rad s ) t ± π rad 3 ±π rad = ±6.3 rad s ) t = 0 − ( 50.

4t s − 0.1 –0.16 (a) y (m) 0.20 m s (c) y = A sin ( kx + ω t + φ ) specializes to y = 0.63° = − 0. 0 ) = 0 at x = 0.800 m ) ω = 2π f = 2π ( 3. 0.indd 432 y ( x .00π rad s y = A sin ( kx + ω t ) Therefore.080 0 m k= 2π 2π = = 7.100 m then we require that 0 = 0.14 (a) (b) y (cm) See figure at right.151 rad so 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.080 0 sin ( 7. t ) = ( 0.2 0.785) m Therefore.0 rad m λ 0.00 × 10 −2 m = 0.0 s ) ( 0.2 0.3 to the next one.785 y = 0.125 s is the time from one peak ω 50.4t s + φ ) at x = 0.0 x m + 75. y = 0.4 x (m) FIG.4 rad s v = f λ = (12.350 m ) = 4.0 s = 75. 2π 2π = = 0.080 0 sin ( 7. P16. P16.14 P16.16(a) (b) 2π 2π = = 18.080 0 sin ( 0. t ) = 0 at t = 0) (b) y = ( 0. Or (where y ( 0.00 ) = 6. t = 0 we require −3. T= 10 t (s) 0 0.080 0 ) sin ( 7.00 cm = 0.85 x + 6π t − 0. P16.0 x m + 75.432 Chapter 16 *P16.0 s k= ω = 2π f = 2π 12.200 m sin ( +φ ) φ = −8.85 m −1 λ ( 0.083 3 s f 12.85 x + 6π t ) m In general.2 –10 FIG.350 m 1 1 T= = = 0.0 –0.85 x + 6π t + φ ) Assuming y ( x.785 + φ ) or φ = −0.200 m ) sin (18.200 m sin (18.1 0.2 t=0 0.15 (a) A = ymax = 8.151 rad ) 12/9/06 12:46:52 PM .1 This agrees with the period found in the example in the text.

0π s y ( x .60 m ) = 0 (b) π 2π : = 8 λ 2π ω = 4π = : T k= λ = 16.indd 433 12/9/06 12:46:53 PM .17 433 π y = ( 0.200 s.0 m s ) ( 0.0 m T = 0.0 π s ⎟⎠ 2 A = 0.51) = −1. 1.025 0 s 2 ⎛ 2.020 0 m ) + ⎜ ⎝ω⎠ ⎝ 80. 0 ω= Also.200 s.021 5 m (b) A sin φ 0.0 π s T 0.38 x rad m + 80.120 m ) ( 4π ) sin ⎛ x + 4π t ⎞ ⎝8 ⎠ a ( 0.500 s v= P16.00 m s dt 0 . t ) = ( 0. 2π 2π = = 80.120 ) ( 4π ) cos ⎛ x + 4π t ⎞ ⎝8 ⎠ v ( 0.19 rad has a negative sine and positive cosine.95 rad ) 13794_16_ch16_p427-448. 0 ) = A sin φ = 0.120 m ) sin ⎛ x + 4π t ⎞ ⎝8 ⎠ (a) v= dy : dt π v = ( 0. You must look beyond your calculator to find φ = π − 1.0π s ) = 5.51 m s a= dv : dt π 2 a = ( − 0.95 rad (c) v y .51 = tan φ A cos φ −2 / 80. 1. max = Aω = 0.0π Your calculator’s answer tan −1 ( −2.0 m = = 32.0 m s T 0. just the reverse of what is required.500 s y ( x .Wave Motion P16. t ) = A sin ( kx + ω t + φ ) Let us write the wave function as y ( 0.19 rad = 1.021 5 m ) sin (8.020 0 = = −2.025 0 s ) = 0.41 m s (d) λ = v xT = ( 30.020 0 m dy = Aω cos φ = −2.750 m k= 2π 2π = = 8.18 (a) λ 16.60 m ) = −1.0π t rad s + 1.750 m ω = 80.38 m λ 0.00 m s ⎞ v 2 A 2 = xi2 + ⎛ i ⎞ = ( 0.021 5 m (80.

500 Hz λ 2.0 rad m v 196 y = ( 2. (a) dtotal 4 (8.314 m s P16.3 P16.18 Hz 2π The Speed of Waves on Strings The down and back distance is 4.indd 434 12/9/06 12:46:54 PM .100 m ) sin (1.14 rad s 2π 2π = = 3. y = ( 0. it describes simple harmonic motion.200 kg µ= = 5.14t s ) ∂t The cosine varies between +1 and –1.00 m ) T = = 40.14t s ) (e) (f) y = ( 0.71 rad − 3.500 x − 20.0 m s = t 0.434 P16.0 N 2 So P16. k = ω 3 140 = = 16.100 m ) sin ( 3.00 rad − 20.14t s + 0 ) (d) For x = 0 the wave function requires y = ( 0.00 m v= T = µ v 2 = ( 5.00 m + 4.0 rad s f = ω = 3.00 × 10 −2 kg m 4.00 m.100 m ( − 3.14 x m − 3.14 s ) cos ( 3.14 t s ) ∂y = 0.19 Chapter 16 (a) v (1.100 m ) sin ( 0.22 and ω = 2π f = 2π ( 500 ) = 3 140 rad s.21 ω = 20.00 m = 8.20 (a) At x = 2.00 m s ) = = 0. so vy = v y ≤ 0.10 × 10 −3 kg m T = 158 N 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.0t ) = A sin ( kx − ω t ) so Section 16.800 s µ 0.0 x − 3 140t ) (b) v = 196 m s = T 4.500 s ) = 3.14 rad m λ 2.00 m (b) k= (c) y = A sin ( kx − ω t + φ ) becomes y = ( 0.00 m f = ω = 2π f = 2π ( 0.00 m.100 m ) sin ( −3.100 m ) sin ( 4. (b) y = ( 0.00 × 10 −2 kg m ) ( 40.0 m s ) = 80. The speed is then Now.14 x m − 3.00 × 10 −4 m ) sin (16.0t ) Because this disturbance varies sinusoidally in time.

0 = 30. P16.80 m s 2 =⎜ ⎟ m −3 2 µ sin 41.00 × 10 kg ) 2 = 2 = 1.50 × 10 −4 m ) ( 200 m s ) 2 2 T = 631 N P16.5 N ⎝ 20. m t −3 Lm 1. The speed of waves in the string is then: F = µ v= Mg = m L MgL m Since it might be difficult to measure L precisely.4° cos θ = v= FIG.4° ⎠ ⎛ m s⎞ v = ⎜ 30.89 kg 12/9/06 12:46:55 PM .4 m and mg = 2T sin θ mg T= 2 sin θ 3 L8 3 = L 2 4 ∴θ = 41.4° ⎝ 2 (8.25 P16.0 m s ⎞ T2 = ⎜ 2 ⎟ T1 = ⎜ ( 6.27 Since µ is constant.23 v= T 1 350 kg ⋅ m s 2 = = 520 m s µ 5.24 v= T µ 435 T = µ v 2 = ρ Av 2 = ρπ r 2 v 2 T = (8 920 kg m 3 ) (π ) ( 7.Wave Motion P16.00 N ) = 13.4 m kg ⎟⎠ ⎝ m = 3.64 m s Mt 2 3.28 From the free-body diagram The angle θ is found from (a) v= T µ or (b) 13794_16_ch16_p427-448. µ = M m T2 T1 = and v22 v12 2 2 ⎛v ⎞ ⎛ 30.00 kg ( 3. v= Then.0 m s ⎟⎠ ⎝ v1 ⎠ P16.26 T = µ T = Mg is the tension.28 ⎛ ⎞ mg 9.61 × 10 −2 s ) The period of the pendulum is T = 2π L g Let F represent the tension in the string (to avoid confusion with the period) when the pendulum is vertical and stationary.60 m ( 4. MgL L2 = 2 m t and g= Mg = m L MgL L = is the wave speed.00 × 10 kg m ) sin 41.indd 435 v = 60. we eliminate L = T g 2π so Mg T g Tg = m 2π 2π v= P16.00 × 10 −3 kg m P16.

5 P16.192 = 0.0 = = 60. (b) P16.0 ) ⎢ ( 4 ) (150 ) ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ = 0. The maximum velocity occurs when the stress is a maximum: vmax = f has units Hz = 1 s.70 × 108 Pa = 185 m s 7 860 kg m 3 The total time is the sum of the two times.137 + 0.100 )2 ( 30. the second is force of tension.137 s For steel.29 Chapter 16 If the tension in the wire is T. ⎡ (π ) ( 7 860 ) (1. The mass of one wire can be written both as m = ρV = ρ AL and also as m = µ L .30 (a) with units 1 has units of seconds.00 × 10 −3 )2 ⎤ ⎥ t = ( 20.436 P16.192 s The total time is 0.180 ⎞ (120π )2 ( 0.60 ⎠ 12/9/06 12:46:56 PM .indd 436 2 A2 v = ω = 2π f = 120π rad s 1 ⎛ 0.31 2. so T = *P16.500 P = 1 µω 2 13794_16_ch16_p427-448. ⎛ πρd 2 ⎞ t = L⎜ ⎝ 4T ⎟⎠ For copper. s .329 s 12 12 12 Section 16. πρd 2 4 Then we have µ = ρA = Thus.07 kW 2 ⎝ 3. For the other T we have T = µ v 2. f kg m 2 kg ⋅ m = 2 = N . L µ In each wire t= =L v T Let A represent the cross-sectional area of one wire. m s2 s The first T is period of time. ⎡ (π ) (8 920 ) (1.0 ) ⎢ ( 4 ) (150 ) ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ = 0. the tensile stress is T Stress = so A The speed of transverse waves in the wire is v= T = µ T = A ( stress ) Stress A ( Stress ) = = m L m AL Stress Stress = ρ mVolume where ρ is the density.32 f = Rate of Energy Transfer by Sinusoidal Waves on Strings v 30.0 ) = 1.00 × 10 −3 )2 ⎤ ⎥ t = ( 30.0 Hz λ 0.

indd 437 P = FIG.50 × 10 −2 m (a) 2π y = A sin ⎛ x − ωt ⎞ ⎝ λ ⎠ y = ( 7.1 Hz 2π P16. so P is quadrupled . P P is constant . P = µω 2 A2 v 2 µ If L is doubled. so P remains constant .36 2 1 1 314 ⎞ µω 2 A 2 v = ( 30. Then a fixed amount of power is spread thinner farther away from the source.00 × 10 ) ( 5. v remains constant and (b) If A is doubled and ω is halved.34 (a) T 1 . v = A2 remains constant.0 ) ω = 346 rad s ω f = = 55.33 437 Suppose that no energy is absorbed or carried down into the water. The power-per-width across the wave front P 2π r is proportional to amplitude squared so amplitude is proportional to P 2π r P16.150 m: A = 7. P16.Wave Motion P16. P  ω 2 A 2 remains constant .50 × 10 −2 ) sin ( 4.50 × 10 −2 ) ⎛ W ⎝ 2 2 4.00 × 10 −2 m = µ = 4. (c) If λ and A are doubled.35 A = 5.36 µ = 30. λ (Changing L doesn’t affect P . the product ω 2 A 2  T = constant.19 x − 314t ) (b) 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.0 g m = 30. λ2 1 If L and λ are halved. It is spread over the circumference 2π r of an expanding circle.0 m s µ 2 ( 300 ) 2P ω 2 = _____ 2 = − 2 µ A v ( 4.) (d) P16.0 Hz: ω = 2π f = 314 s −1 2 A = 0. 1 2 2 µω A v : 2 P = 300 W T = 100 N T = 50. then ω 2  2 is quadrupled.19 ⎠ P = 625 W 12/9/06 12:46:57 PM .50 m f = 50.0 × 10 −3 ) ( 314 )2 ( 7.0 × 10 −3 kg m λ = 1.00 × 10 −2 )2 ( 50.00 × 10 −2 kg m v= Therefore.

5) W = 21. A = 0. P 0 = 1 2 2 µω A v 2 P 0 = 1 2 2 T µω A µ 2 P 0 1 = ω 2 A2 Tµ 2 The doubled string will have doubled mass-per-length. Then v = f λ = 2π f = = = 3.96 Hz 2π (d) P16.40 As for a string wave.150 )2 ( 62. ω = 10π s. We write P = FvA2 where F is some constant. 13794_16_ch16_p427-448. The rate of energy transfer stays constant because each wavefront carries constant energy and the frequency stays constant.5 m s 2π k k 0.37 v = fλ = (b) λ= 2π 2π = m = 7.35 m. As the speed drops the amplitude must increase.0 = = m s = 62.0 × 10 −3 ) ( 50.438 Chapter 16 P16.1 W 2 The energy per cycle is Eλ = P T = P16.800 (a) P = 1 1 µω 2 A 2 v = (12. 2π k 3π m m The rate of energy transport is P = 1 µω 2 (b) A2 v = 1 ( 75 × 10 −3 kg m ) (10π s )2 ( 0.38 ω 2π ω 50.0 )2 ( 0.33 m s .85 m k 0.indd 438 12/9/06 12:46:58 PM .35 sin ⎛ 10π t − 3π x + ⎞ with y = A sin ( kx − ω t + φ ) = A sin (ω t − kx − φ + π ) ⎝ 4⎠ we have k = (a) λ ω 10π s 3π .0 = 7. 2 2 F vbedrock Abedrock = F vmudfill Amudfill vbedrock A = mudfill = vmudfill Abedrock 25vmudfill =5 vmudfill The amplitude increases by 5.35 m )2 = 3.00 times.35 m )2 3. it can carry power larger by 2 times.33 m s = 15.02 J 2 2 3π Originally.1 W 2 2 π Comparing y = 0.800 (c) f = 50. 1 2P0 = ω 2 A2 T 2 µ 2 *P16.39 2 1 1 2π m 2 µω 2 A 2 λ = ( 75 × 10 −3 kg m ) (10π s ) ( 0. With no absorption of energy. Presuming that we hold tension constant. the rate of energy transfer is proportional to the square of the amplitude and to the speed.

P16. 2 ∂t ∂x Therefore. The equality of maximum values requires B = 7. we find its first and second derivatives with respect to x and t and substitute into the equation.indd 439 12/28/06 6:39:46 PM . Then 1 ∂ y = 1 ( 2 = − 2 = 2 2 2 v ∂t v ( x − vt ) ( x − vt ) ∂x 2 2 13794_16_ch16_p427-448. The equality for the wavelength or periodicity as a function of x requires C = 3. they must be equal for every value of every variable. In A + B cos ( Cx + Dt + E ) = 0 + 7.42 The linear wave equation is ∂2 y 1 ∂2 y = ∂x 2 v 2 ∂t 2 If y = eb( x − vt ) then ∂y = −bveb( x − vt ) ∂t ∂2 y = b 2 v 2 eb( x − vt ) ∂t 2 and ∂y = beb( x − vt ) ∂x ∂2 y = b 2 eb( x − vt ) ∂x 2 ∂2 y ∂2 y = v 2 2 . The equality of period requires D = 4. and the equality of zero-crossings requires E = 2. They must have the same graphs.00 mm . B = 0. ∂y 1 = ( − bv ) ∂t b ( x − vt ) ∂2 y −1( −bv ) v2 = 2 2 = − 2 ∂t b ( x − vt ) ( x − vt )2 ∂y −1 = [ b ( x − vt ) ] b ∂x ∂2 y b 1 = − ( x − vt )−2 = − 2 b ( x − vt ) 2 ∂x 2 2 −v ) 1 ∂ 2 y so the given wave function is a solution.00 ˆi + 0 ˆj + 3.00 ) 4.00 yields A = 40. and C = 3.Wave Motion Section 16.43 and The linear wave equation is 1 ∂2 y ∂2 y = v 2 ∂t 2 ∂x 2 To show that y = ln [ b ( x − vt )] is a solution.00 mm cos ( 3. they must have the same magnitude and the same direction in three-dimensional space.0 (b) In order for two vectors to be equal. All of their components must be equal. (c) In order for two functions to be identically equal. Thus.00 + 3.00. demonstrating that eb( x − vt ) is a solution.00t + 2.00 rad s .00 rad m . 7.00 kˆ = Aˆi + Bˆj + C kˆ requires A = 7.41 439 The Linear Wave Equation (a) A = ( 7.00 .6 P16.00 rad .00 ) the equality of average values requires that A = 0 . P16.00 x + 4.

(b) 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 Note ( x + vt ) + ( x − vt ) = x 2 + xvt + v 2t 2 + x 2 − xvt + v 2t 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = x 2 + v 2t 2 as required. the time for one circuit around the stadium is 2 2π r 2π (10 ) T= = 63 s ~1 min ~ v 10 m s 13794_16_ch16_p427-448. Then the wave speed is v= ∆x 1 m ~ ~ 10 m s ∆t 0.indd 440 12/9/06 12:47:00 PM . Then. so the wave function does satisfy v the wave equation.45 Assume a typical distance between adjacent people ~1 m.1 s Model the stadium as a circle with a radius of order 100 m. v2 Note sin ( x + vt ) = sin x cos vt + cos x sin vt becomes − sin x cos vt = sin ( x − vt ) = sin x cos vt − cos x sin vt So sin x cos vt = f ( x + vt ) + g ( x − vt ) with f ( x + vt ) = 1 sin ( x + vt ) 2 and g ( x − vt ) = 1 sin ( x − vt ) 2 Additional Problems P16.44 Chapter 16 (a) From y = x 2 + v 2t 2.440 P16. we must test 2 = 2 2v 2 and this is true. ∂y evaluate = 2x ∂x ∂y = v 2 2t ∂t ∂2 y =2 ∂x 2 ∂2 y = 2v 2 ∂t 2 ∂2 y 1 ∂2 y ? = ∂t 2 v 2 ∂t 2 Does 1 By substitution. So 1 2 f ( x + vt ) = ( x + vt ) 2 (c) 1 2 g ( x − vt ) = ( x − v t ) 2 and y = sin x cos vt makes ∂y = cos x cos vt ∂x ∂2 y = − sin x cos vt ∂x 2 ∂y = − v sin x sin vt ∂t ∂2 y = − v 2 sin x cos vt ∂t 2 Then ∂2 y 1 ∂2 y = ∂x 2 v 2 ∂t 2 −1 2 v sin x cos vt which is true as required.

26 ms = 21.012 kgm) = 46.6 m s 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.8x – 50t) and a = d2ydt2 = –0.47 The equation v = λ f is a special case of speed = (cycle length)(repetition rate) Thus.48 (a) 0.523 6 rad .3 ms − 5.045 0 N (b) We find the tension in the string from v = f λ = ω k = (50s)(0.150 m (–50s)2 sin(0. thus t 2 = 26.2 N (b) L = L0 + x = L0 + (c) v= T TL = µ m v= 39. i.8m) = 62.0 frames s ) = 0..618 rad .3 ms ∆t ⬅ t 2 − t1 = 26.618 rad.0 × 10 −3 kg 2 Mg k 39. ΣF = ma = [12 g(100 cm)] 1 cm 375 m /s2 = 0.500 m + = 0.6 rad s ⎞ ω Distance traveled by the wave = ⎛ ⎞ ∆ t = ⎜ ( 21.8x – 50t) Then amax = 375 m /s 2 441 For the 1-cm segment with maximum force acting on it.9 N.25 rad m ⎟⎠ Energy is conserved as the block moves down distance x: (K + U g + Us ) top ( + ∆ E = K + Ug + Us ) bottom 1 0 + Mgx + 0 + 0 = 0 + 0 + kx 2 2 2 Mg x= k (a) T = kx = 2 Mg = 2 ( 2.e.6 rad s ) t ⎤⎦ = 0.456 m s P16.5 are 30° and 150°.150 m (–50) cos(0. more than a thousand times smaller.6 rad s ) t ⎤⎦ ∴ sin ⎡⎣( 99.26 ms rad s ) t 2 = 2.Wave Motion *P16.892 m 5.46 (a) From y = 0.150 m sin(0. The maximum transverse force is very small compared to the tension. v = (19.49 ⎛ 99. ( 99.5 m /s)2(0.523 6 rad and 2.indd 441 12/9/06 12:47:01 PM .00 kg ) ( 9.8x – 50t) we compute dydt = 0.6 ( 99.350 m ) sin ⎡⎣( 99. P16.2 N × 0.80 m s 2 ) = 39.0 × 10 −3 m frame ) ( 24.0 × 10 −3 s ) = 1.175 m = ( 0.2 N L = 0.892 m 100 N m v = 83.0 ms (b) P16. 0.5 m /s = (Tµ)12 T = v2µ = (62.68 m .6 rad s ) t1 = 0. ⎝ k⎠ ⎝ 1.5 The smallest two angles for which the sine function is 0. thus t1 = 5.

indd 442 = T − Mg sin θ = 0 or the tension in the string is T = Mg sin θ Mg sin θ = m L MgL sin θ m The speed of transverse waves in the string is then v= T = µ The time interval for a pulse to travel the string’s length is ∆t = L m =L = v MgL sin θ mL Mg sin θ 12/9/06 12:47:02 PM . (b) For the wave described. To express the constant intensity we write A12 v1 = A22 v2 = A22 gd2 (1.52 As the water depth goes to zero.8 ⎜ ⎝ 9. is constant.31 m (c) P16. In fact the amplitude must be finite as the wave comes ashore.39 m s ⎛ 200 m s ⎞ A2 = 1. Assuming the incline to be frictionless and taking the positive x-direction to be up the incline: ∑F x 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.442 P16.39 m s ⎟⎠ 12 = 8. Then the rate at which energy passes a stationary point. with a single direction of energy transport.8 m s2 ) 9 m = A22 9. our model would predict zero speed and infinite amplitude. which is the power of the wave.51 (a) T TL = = µ m 2 Mg k 2 Mg ⎛ 2 Mg ⎞ L0 + ⎝ m k ⎠ The energy a wave crest carries is constant in the absence of absorption. the intensity is the same at the deep-water location 1 and at the place 2 with depth 9 m.8 m )2 200 m s = A22 ( 9. so the amplitude must increase. When it becomes comparable to the water depth. The power is proportional to the square of the amplitude and to the wave speed. As the speed decreases the wavelength also decreases. our formula gd for wave speed no longer applies. The speed decreases as the wave moves into shallower water near shore. or smaller.50 Chapter 16 Mgx = 1 2 kx 2 (a) T = kx = 2 Mg (b) L = L0 + x = L0 + (c) v= *P16.

53 (a) In P = 12 µω 2 A2 v where v is the wave speed.5 × 10−4 kg and E = (1/2) m3v2y.max (6 s) = 0.003 2 kg = 0.084 3 rad 0.250 kg m ⎡ 18π s −1 ⎤ = 14.3 m s ⎡⎣( 2 700 ) ( 0 + 10 −2 ) (10 −4 ) ⎤⎦ 24. m = µ g Now v = f λ implies v = ω so that k 2 µ ω 0.7 kg m= ⎛ ⎞ = g⎝ k⎠ 9. therefore.56 (a) µ= v= Mω 2r M = rω m r m m M m = M 0.0 = 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.max (0.5 × 10–3 kgm and v = (Tµ)12 = (20 N0.750π m −1 ⎥⎦ 2 P16.77 m s ⎡⎣( 2 700 ) (10 + 10 −2 ) (10 −4 ) ⎤⎦ −2 12/9/06 12:47:03 PM . We have µ = 0.300 kg v y. the quantity ωA is the maximum particle speed vymax.55 Let M = mass of block.indd 443 T ms ⎡⎣ ρ (10 −3 x + 10 −2 )10 −4 ⎤⎦ 24.max = Kmax. For the block. v= (b) v x= 0 = v x=10.5 × 10–3 kgm) v2ymax (200 m s) = (0.05 kgs) v2y.Wave Motion *P16. The string also contains potential energy. m = mass of string. In time t = (3 m)v = (3 m)(200 m /s) = 1.0 = 66.450 kg dm dx = ρA = ρA dL dx T = µ T = ρA T [ ρ ( ax + b )] = T ⎡⎣ ρ (10 −3 x + 10 −2 ) cm 2 ⎤⎦ With all SI units.max The power is proportional to the square of the maximum particle speed. Therefore the amount of this energy is 2 E = P t = (0.max The mass of this section is m3 = (0. ∑ F = ma implies T = mvb2 = mω 2 r r The speed of a wave on the string is then v= T = µ t= r 1 = v ω θ = ωt = P16.5 × 10−4 kg v y.5 × 10–3 kg so (12)m3 = 7.max v= T µv 2 and in this case T = mg.0 = 94. We could write its energy as Umax or as Uavg + Kavg P16.015 s) = 7.5 × 10–3 kgm)3 m = 1.80 m s 2 ⎢⎣ 0.050 0 kg/s)v2y.5 × 10–3 kgm)12 = 200 m/s P Then (b) (c) 443 = 12 (0. all the energy in a 3-m length of string goes past a point.5 × 10–2 s.05 kgs) v2y.54 (d) 2 E = P t = (0.

But v = dx .444 P16. (b) By the same reasoning applied in part (a).707 ⎜ 2 2g ⎝ g ⎟⎠ It takes the pulse more that 70% of the total time to cover 50% of the distance. to support the weight of a length x. we find the distance climbed = . the tension is T = ⎛ + Mg.58 dx 1 = gx g x 1 2 L = 2 0 L g mxg ⎞ At distance x from the bottom. so the wave speed is: ⎝ L ⎠ v= t (a) Then T TL MgL ⎞ dx = = xg + ⎛ = ⎝ m ⎠ dt µ m L MgL ⎞ ⎤ ⎡ t = ∫ dt = ∫ ⎢ xg + ⎛ ⎝ m ⎠ ⎥⎦ 0 0 ⎣ t= 2 ⎡⎛ MgL ⎞ ⎢ Lg + g ⎣⎝ m ⎠ 12 1 2 x= L 1 ⎡ xg + ( MgL m ) ⎤⎦ t= ⎣ 1 g 2 −1 2 dx MgL ⎞ −⎛ ⎝ m ⎠ 12 ⎤ ⎥ ⎦ When M = 0. 4 For τ = 13794_16_ch16_p427-448. ⎝ 2⎠ L L′ Thus. of rope. g 4 1 In half the total trip time. v = gx Therefore. the time required = 2 with L ′ = 2 g and the time required = 2 ⎛ L⎞ L = 0.59 dx gx 12 x=0 L ⎛ m+M − M ⎞ ⎟⎠ g ⎜⎝ m L ⎛ m − 0⎞ L = 2 ⎟ ⎜ g⎝ m ⎠ g ⎛ 1 m 1 m 2 …⎞ = M ⎜1 + − + ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 M 8 M2 ) M − 81 ( m 2 M 3 2 ) + … − M ⎞ ⎟ m ⎠ mL Mg The speed in the lower half of a rope of length L is the same function of distance (from the L bottom end) as the speed along the entire length of a rope of length ⎛ ⎞ .indd 444 t = 2 12/9/06 12:47:04 PM .57 Chapter 16 v= T where µ T = µ xg. the distance climbed in τ is given by d = gτ 2 4 L L . so that dt dt = L t= and ∫ 0 P16. as in the previous problem. (c) m As m → 0 we expand m + M = M ⎛ 1 + ⎞ ⎝ M⎠ (a) ( t=2 1 L⎛ M +2 m ⎜ g⎝ t≈2 L g ⎛1 m ⎞ ⎜⎝ 2 M ⎟⎠ = t=2 t=2 (b) to obtain P16. the pulse has climbed of the total length.

A free-body diagram is shown. the mass density of the wire µ may be expressed as ρ = A The speed of transverse waves in the wire is then Young’s modulus for the wire may be written as Y = v= and the strain in the wire is Y ( ∆ L ⲐL ) T T ⲐA = = µ µⲐ A ρ ∆ L ρv 2 = Y L If the wire is aluminum and v = 100 m s. v0 v0 v0 FIG. sin θ = θ and T = µ v02 T = v0 µ (b) The wave speed is v = (c) In the frame of reference of the center of the loop.60(c1) In the frame of reference of the ground. where T is the tension maintained in ∆ LⲐ L the wire and ∆ L is the elongation produced by this tension.60 (a) ∑F y = may 2T sin θ down = θ θ Consider a short section of chain at the top of the loop. The one pulse makes two revolutions while the loop makes one revolution and the other pulse does not move around the loop. Newton’s second law is T mv02 µ R2θ v02 down = R R 445 2θ R T FIG.86 × 10 −4 = 7.60(a) For a very short section.70 × 10 kg m ) (100 m s ) = 3. v v0 v0 v v0 FIG. each pulse moves with equal speed clockwise and counterclockwise. P16. it will stay at the six-o’clock position.60(c2) P16. If it is generated at the six-o’clock position.00 × 1010 N m 2 L 2 13794_16_ch16_p427-448. once pulse moves backward at speed v0 + v = 2v0 and the other forward at v0 − v = 0 . the strain is 3 3 ∆ L ( 2. Also. P16. In the frame of reference of the center of the loop.indd 445 12/11/06 3:50:29 PM .Wave Motion P16. Its length is s = R(2θ) and its mass is µ R2θ.61 T ⲐA . P16.

446 P16.80 m s 2 ) 2 13794_16_ch16_p427-448. ∑ F = ma kdx = adm becomes or k =a dmdx k dm = µ so a = µ dx dv v a= = when vi = 0 dt t But Also. just as the pulse swallows it up. For an increment of spring with length dx and mass dm.63 P16. In this way we create a single pulse of compression that moves down the length of the spring.400 kg 2 1 ω µω 3 2 −2bx µω 2 A02 e−2bx ⎛ ⎞ = A0 e ⎝ k⎠ 2 2k µω 3 2 A0 2k P P (0) v= 4 450 km = 468 km h = 130 m s 9. But so a= v2 L Equating the two expressions for a. extended to have a length L much greater than its equilibrium length.62 Chapter 16 (a) Assume the spring is originally stationary throughout. we have P16.indd 446 12/9/06 12:47:06 PM .50 h d= v 2 (130 m s ) = = 1 730 m g ( 9. We start moving one end forward with the speed v at which a wave propagates on the spring.6 m s 0. L = vt.00 m ) = 31.64 (b) Using the expression from part (a) v = (a) P ( x ) = 1 µω (b) P (0) = (c) (x) _____ = e−2bx 2 2 A2 v = kL = µ k v2 = µ L kL2 = m (100 or v= kL µ N m ) ( 2.

800 m s P16. P16. in agreement with the example 12/9/06 12:47:06 PM .16 (a) see the solution (b) 18.021 5 m ) sin (8.67 cm P16.40 m. 83.indd 447 (b) 0. The graph (b) has the same amplitude and wavelength as graph (a).021 5 m (b) 1.38 x + 80.95 rad (c) 5.0π t + 1.3 ms. The wave has traveled 2. so it is of the form µ ( x ) = mx + b To have µ ( 0 ) = µ0 we require b = µ0.40 m s P16.2 m ) sin (18 x + 75. It differs just by being shifted toward larger x by 2.18 (a) 0.6 See the solution P16.20 m s (c) ( 0.12 ±6. 75.151) P16.40 m to the right. t ) = ( 0.0 m.125 s.95) 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.4 rad s.Wave Motion P16.10 2. the time required to move from x to x + dx is . 4.41 m s (d) y ( x .2 See the solution. The time required to move dt v from 0 to L is From v = L ∆t = ∫ 0 L L 1 dx dx = = v ∫0 T  µ T µ ( x )dx ∫ 0 ⎛ ( µ L − µ0 ) x ⎞ ∫0 ⎜⎝ L + µ0 ⎟⎠ L 1 ∆t = T 12 ⎛ µ L − µ0 ⎞ ⎛ L ⎞ ⎜⎝ ⎟ dx L ⎠ ⎜⎝ µ L − µ0 ⎟⎠ ⎞ 1 ⎛ L ⎞ ⎛ ( µ L − µ0 ) x ∆t = + µ0 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ L T ⎝ µ L − µ0 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ∆t = ∆t = ∆t = 32 2L ( µL3 2 − µ03 2 ) 3 T ( µ L − µ0 ) 2L ( µ L − µ0 3 T ( )( µ µ L − µ0 L + µ L µ0 + µ0 )( µ L + µ0 ) 1 L 3 2 0 ) 2 L ⎛ µ L + µ L µ0 + µ0 ⎞ µ L + µ0 ⎟⎠ 3 T ⎜⎝ ANSWERS TO EVEN PROBLEMS P16. Then µ ( L ) = µ L = mL + µ0 so m= (b) µ L − µ0 L µ ( x) = Then 447 ( µ L − µ0 ) x + µ L 0 dx dx .14 (a) see the solution P16.8 0.4t − 0.4 184 km P16.65 (a) µ ( x ) is a linear function.

46 (a) 375 m /s2 (b) 0.7 m s (c) One travels 2 rev and the other does not move around the loop. (c) P is a constant P16.32 1.64 130 m s.0450 N.6 m /s 12/12/06 2:55:31 PM .30 (a) s and N P16.56 (a) v = P16.3 m s.22 (a) y = ( 0. The rate of energy transfer stays constant because each wavefront carries constant energy and the frequency stays constant.075 0 ) sin ( 4.40 As for a string wave. P16.89 kg (b) The first T is period of time.9-N tension.42 see the solution P16. 1.2 mm ) sin (16 x − 3 140t ) P16.00 times.62 (a) see the solution P16. As the speed drops the amplitude must increase.52 ∆t = P16.448 Chapter 16 P16.7 Kg P16.26 v= P16. It increases by 5.19 x − 314t ) P16. the rate of energy transfer is proportional to the square of the amplitude and to the speed.02 J P16.36 (a) y = ( 0.24 631 N P16. the second is force of tension. (b) (d) P is quadrupled (b) 625 W 1 1 ( x + vt )2 + ( x − vt )2 2 2 (c) 1 1 sin ( x + vt ) + sin ( x − vt ) 2 2 (b) 1.38 (a) 15. P16. (b) 31.4 m s ⋅ kg ⎟⎠ ⎝ P16. P16.28 ⎛ m ⎞ (a) v = ⎜ 30.73 km 13794_16_ch16_p427-448.48 (a) 21.54 14.50 (a) 2Mg (b) L0 + P16. This force is very small compared to the 46.34 (a).68 m 2 Mg k (c) 2 Mg ⎛ 2 Mg ⎞ L0 + m ⎝ k ⎠ mL Mg sin θ T in SI units ρ (10 x + 10 −6 ) −7 (b) v0 (b) 94.0 ms P16.1 W (b) 3. (b). 66.18 Hz (b) 158 N M m (b) 3.58 See the solution. more than a thousand times smaller.20 (a) see the solution P16.indd 448 Tg 2π (b) 3.44 (a) see the solution P16.60 (a) µ v02 P16.07 kW P16.