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09 - New Testament II

09 - New Testament II

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Published by: oldaltarboy7137 on May 16, 2010
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Fifth Sunday of Easter

Opening Prayer
Come, Holy Spirit Come, Holy Spirit, fill the hearts of the faithful and enkindle in them the fire of Your love. V. Send forth Your Spirit and they shall be created. R. And You shall renew the face of the earth. Let us pray. O God, by the light of the Holy Spirit, You have taught the hearts of Your faithful. In the same Spirit help us to know what is truly right and always to rejoice in Your consolation. We ask this through Christ, our Lord. Amen.

The Fourth Glorious Mystery The Assumption of Mary
“And a great sign appeared in heaven, a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars; she was with child and she cried out in her pangs of birth, in anguish for delivery… And the dragon stood before the woman who was about to bear a child, that he might devour her child; she brought forth a male child, one who is to rule all the nations with a rod of iron, but her child was caught up to God and to his throne…” Revelation 12:1-2,4-5

The New Testament Review
• • The NT is the fulfillment of the OT
o “The NT lies hidden in the Old, and the OT is revealed in the New.” (St. Augustine A.D. 354-430) Gospels – Matthew, Mark, Luke & John Acts of the Apostles – 2nd of two part writing St. Paul’s Letters – Romans; I & II Corinthians; Galatians; Ephesians; Philippians; Colossians; I & II Thessalonians; I & II Timothy; Titus; Philemon The “Catholic” Letters – James; Jude; I & II Peter; I, II & III John Hebrews & The Book of Revelation

The NT consists of:
o o o

o o

The New Testament Timeline
• • • • • • • • • • 6–4 B.C. A.D. 30 A.D. 40s A.D. 50s A.D. 67 A.D. 70 A.D. 80s A.D. 90s A.D. 367 A.D. 382 Birth of Jesus Death and Resurrection of Jesus Paul’s Missionary Journeys Paul’s Epistles Gospel of Mark Destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem Gospels of Matthew & Luke and Acts Gospel of John and Book of Revelation St. Athanasius fixes NT at 27 books Pope Damasus issues official papal decree on NT

The Acts of the Apostles
• • Acts picks up where the Gospel of Luke stops

Repeats the Ascension story, then it’s the time of the Church
Luke 1:1-4 – “Inasmuch as many have undertaken to compile a narrative of the things which have been accomplished among us, just as they were delivered to us by those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word, it seemed good to me also, having following all things closely for some time past, to write an orderly account for you, most excellent Theophilus, that you may know the truth concerning the things of which you have been informed.” Acts 1:1-2 – “In the first book, O Theophilus, I have dealt with all that Jesus began to do and teach, until the day when he was taken up, after he had given commandment through the Holy Spirit to the apostles whom he had chosen.”

Similar introductions show continuity


Author: Luke, a companion of Paul’s (see Col. 4:14)

The Acts of the Apostles
• • When was it written? A.D. 80s Who was it written for?
o o o Theophilus (Greek meaning “God-lover” – Theo + philo) Unknown if he is a historical person or a symbolic name The audience was Gentile Christians, most likely in Greece

o o o Explains how God’s plan of salvation was worked out in the early Church Moves from salvation of Israel toward the salvation of all people Focuses mostly on Peter and Paul

The Acts of Continuity
• Emphasis on the Holy Spirit - Physical Form
o Form of dove – Lk. 3:22 – “…and the Holy Spirit descended upon him in bodily form, as a dove, and a voice came from heaven, “You are my beloved Son; with You I am well pleased.” Tongues of fire – Acts 2:3 – “And there appeared to them tongues as of fire, distributed and resting on each one of them.” Jesus in Galilee – Lk. 4:14 – “Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit to Galilee, and a report concerning him went out through all the surrounding country.” Church in the world – Acts 2:14 – “And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues as the Spirit gave them utterance.”


Emphasis on Preaching


St. Paul

Who was Saul…er, Paul?
• • • • • • Born around A.D. 10 …of Tarsus, on the SE coast of Asia Minor Roman citizen and Jew (Pharisee) Received rabbinic training from Gamaliel (Acts 22:3) Vigorous persecutor of Christians
o Present at the stoning of Stephen, 1st martyr (Acts. 7:58)

Converted on the Road to Damascus… on the way to persecute more Christians
o o “Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me?” (Acts 9:4) Jesus identifies intimately with his followers, as if they are one Body. Sublime change. New name comes with new mission (ex. Abram to Abraham, Sarai to Sarah, Jacob to Israel, Simon to Peter).

Name changed from Saul to Paul (Acts 13:9)

Pauline Letters
To communities: Romans I & II Corinthians Galatians Ephesians Philippians Colossians I & II Thessalonians To pastors: I & II Timothy Titus Philemon

Anatomy of a Pauline Letter
• • • Address and greeting
o o o o Names the sender and addressee. Sets the tone of the letter and introduce its main theme. The letter usually contains Pauline doctrine or teaching on a variety of subjects appropriate to that community. Followed by some practical application that outlines what behavior is appropriate for a Christian community. Includes personal news, requests, and greetings from Paul or coworkers to special friends. Ends with typical Pauling blessing: “If anyone has no love for the Lord, let him be accursed. Our Lord, come! The grace of Lord Jesus be with you. My love be with you all Christ Jesus. Amen.” (I Cor. 16:21)

Thanksgiving Message of the letter

Conclusion and final greeting
o o

Major Pauline Themes
• Against the Judaizers
o o They accused Paul of making life easier on the Gentiles by not requiring circumcision. “Or is God the God of Jews only? Is he not the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also…” (Rom. 3:29) The law was the means of attaining salvation for Jews. Paul gave up on the Jewish Law… and he was a Pharisee! (Gal. 2:1921) Symbol of Abrahamic covenant, act of obedience to God’s law and physical act of continuity with salvation history. Paul rejected it for new Christians.

The Law
o o



See Rom. 2:25-29 and Acts 15:1-21.

Council of Jerusalem
• Story told in Acts 15.
o o Some were teaching, “Unless you are circumcised according to the custom of Moses, you cannot be saved.” Peter said, “…by my mouth the Gentiles should hear the word of the gospel and believe. And God …made no distinction between us and them, but cleansed their hearts by faith.  Now therefore why do you make trial of God by putting a yoke upon the neck of the disciples which neither our fathers nor we have been able to bear?  But we believe that we shall be saved through the grace of the Lord Jesus, just as they will.” Paul & Barnabas retell their experiences with the Gentiles. James replies, “Therefore my judgment is that we should not trouble those of the Gentiles who turn to God, but should write to them to abstain from the pollutions of idols and from unchastity and from what is strangled and from blood.”

o o

Catholic Doctrines in Paul’s Work
• • • • • • Baptismal regeneration
o o o o o o Titus 3:5 I Timothy 3:1-7; Titus 1:7-9 I Corinthians 7; I Timothy 5:11-12 2 Corinthians 1:22; Ephesians 1:13 Philippians 2:6-11; Colossians 1:15-16; Romans 9:5; Titus 2:13 I Corinthians 10:16-17, 11:23-29

Bishops Celibacy and chastity Confirmation Divinity of Christ Eucharist

Catholic Doctrines in Paul’s Work
• • • • • • Excommunication
o o o o o o I Corinthians 5:13; I Timothy 1:20; Titus 3:10 Galatians 5:4; I Corinthians 15:1-2 I Corinthians 3:8, 13:2; Galatians 5:6; 2 Timothy 4:7-8 2 Corinthians 5:1 2 Thessalonians 1:9 Galatians 1:8-9; Colossians 2:8; Ephesians 4:14; I Timothy 1:3-7, 6:3-5; Titus 3:10-11

Forfeiting salvation Merit of good works Heaven Hell Heresy and dissent

Catholic Doctrines in Paul’s Work
• • • • • • Hierarchy, Church
o o o o o o Ephesians 4:11-12 Acts 13:3; I Timothy 4:14, 5:22; 2 Timothy 1:6 Philippians 2:1-11 2 Corinthians 2:10 2 Timothy 3:16 Romans 7:2-3; 1 Corinthians 7:10-11; Ephesians 5:31; I Thessalonians 4:4

Holy Orders Incarnation of Christ Indulgences Inspiration of Scripture Marriage

Catholic Doctrines in Paul’s Work
• • • • • • Mass, Obligation
o o I Corinthians 11:24-25 Romans 1:29-32; I Corinthians 6:9-10; Galatians 5:19-21; Ephesians 5:5 Romans 5:12-19; I Corinthians 15:21-22; Ephesians 2:3 Galatians 1:17-19, 2:7-14 2 Corinthians 5:18-20 Colossians 4:3

Mortal Sin Original Sin
o o o o

Papacy Penance Prayer, Intercessory

Catholic Doctrines in Paul’s Work
• • • • • • Priesthood, Catholic
o o o o o o Romans 15:15-16 I Corinthians 4:15; I Thessalonians 2:11; Philippians 2:22; Philemon 10 I Corinthians 3:15 Acts 19:11-12 I Corinthians 15:12-14 Colossians 1:12

Priest as “Father” Purgatory Relics Resurrection of the Dead Saints in Heaven

Catholic Doctrines in Paul’s Work
• • • Sunday (the Lord’s Day)
o o Acts 20:7; I Corinthians 16:1-2 I Corinthians 11:2; 2 Thessalonians 2:15, 3:6; 2 Timothy 1:13-14, 2:2, 3:14 I Corinthians 6:11; 2 Corinthians 1:21-22, 13:13; Ephesians 2:18

Tradition, Sacred Trinity

Philippians 2:6-11
• A Christ Hymn
o “…Who, though he was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped, but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men.  And being found in human form he humbled himself and became obedient unto death, even death on a cross.  Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name which is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.”

The Catholic Letters
• James
o o o Leader of the Jewish Christian community in Jerusalem. Not James the apostle, but James, the brother of Jesus (ie. Cousin). Written around end of 1st century Important teachings: 1) Faith and Works – 2:14-18; 2) Anointing of the sick – 5:13-15 The 1st Papal Encyclical! Important teachings: 1) Hope of future salvation – 1:3-12; 2) Warning about civil obedience and persecution 2:13-17; 3) Hardship is participation in Christ’s suffering – 3:13-14, 4:12-19 The 2nd Papal Encyclical! Explains the delay of the end of the world – 3:1-14

I Peter
o o

II Peter
o o

The Catholic Letters
• I, II & III John
o o o Copious evidence from 2nd & 3rd centuries that these epistles were written by John the Apostle. Stylistically, they are very similar to the Gospel of John. Major themes include: the light of God; living as God’s children; God is love; vigilance against deceivers; authority of the apostles. Written by Jude, “a servant of Jesus Christ and brother of James.” Deals with the end of the world. And also deals with false teachers.

o o

• Early acceptance as St. Paul’s effort. But the language of the letter is elegant, technically perfect, and written in polished, educated Greek. Paul’s known style is more spontaneous and vigorous. Comprised of five doctrinal sections:
o o o o o Christ’s divinity and activity as creator (1:1-4). Christ’s superiority over the angels (1:5-2:18). Christ’s superiority over Moses (3:1-4:13). Christ’s priesthood is on a higher level than the Levitical priesthood (4:14-7:28). Christ’s sacrifice is worth more than all the sacrifices of the Old Law (8:1-10:18).

Hebrews (cont’d)
• Contains five moral themes:
o o o o o To attain salvation, a person must follow Christ (2:1-4). We need to imitate those faithful souls who accepted Revelation, if we are to enter into God’s “rest” (3:7-4:13). Joyful hope and rules for Christian living (5:11-6:20). Reasons why a believer should persevere in the faith despite difficulties (10:19-12:29). A final appeal to charity and religious duties (13:1-19).

• Written by St. John
o o o Copious evidence from 2nd & 3rd centuries that these epistles were written by John the Apostle. Stylistically, they are very similar to the Gospel of John. Major themes include: the light of God; living as God’s children; God is love; vigilance against deceivers; authority of the apostles . Records visions, full of symbolism. Addressed to a persecuted people. The persecution is so great that it seems like the true embodiment of evil. Only divine intervention can bring persecution to an end. Other apocalyptic literature includes the Book of Daniel, Ezekiel 40-48, Isaiah 24-27 and 56-66, Zechariah 9-14, etc.

Belongs to a genre called “apocalyptic” literature
o o


The name, Apocalypse, means “unveiling”

Revelation (cont’d)
• Structure is seven letters to seven Churches in Asia Minor (2:1-3:22)
o Churches are Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea. Scroll with seven seals (5:1-6:17) Seven trumpets (8:11-19) Dragon’s kingdom (woman in travail, 12:1-18) Beasts (13:1-18) Christ as Lamb (14:1-5) Seven plagues – visions of the fall of Babylon – defeat of the beast by Christ (15:1-16:2)

Records seven groups of visions:
o o o o o o

• •

Satan let loose – overpowered (17:1-20:15) New heaven and new earth (21:1-22)

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