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Guide to Simplified Design for Reinforced Concrete


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simplified design and construction guide feasible. This guide
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but are modified or reorganized to be more conservative, to
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1.5Notation and definitions
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Chapter 2Notation and definitions, p. 8
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5.12Axial loads with or without flexure
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6.1Types of floor systems
6.2Selection of floor system
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6.5Minimum depth for floor system members
6.6Trial dimensions for floor system
6.7Floor finish
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sufficient information to design structural reinforced
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set forth in this guide are simplifications that, when used
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Observing these limits justifies the simplified analysis and
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uses identified in 1.3.1.1.
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described in this guide apply to buildings with five or fewer
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 Maximum area per floorThe area per floor should
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floor finish to floor finish, should not exceed 13 ft (4 m).

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Building for use as offices, or professional services containing eating and drinking
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 1E\MQYQWTERPIRKXL{8LIWTERPIRKXLJSVKMVHIVW
FIEQWERHWPEFGSPYQRW]WXIQWQIEWYVIHGIRXIVXSGIRXIV
SJXLIWYTTSVXWWLSYPHRSXI\GIIHJX Q 
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FI ETTVS\MQEXIP] IUYEP ERH XLI WLSVXIV SJ X[S EHNEGIRX
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Q 
 1E\MQYQSZIVLERK{*SVKMVHIVWFIEQWERHWPEFW
[MXL SZIVLERKW PIRKXL SJ XLI SZIVLERK WLSYPHRSX I\GIIH
1/3 of the length of the first interior span of the member.
 1E\MQYQ WPSTI JSV WPEFW KMVHIVW FIEQW ERH
NSMWXW{;LIR WPSTMRK WPEFW KMVHIVW FIEQW SV NSMWXW EVI
YWIHWPSTISJXLIQIQFIVWLSYPHRSXI\GIIHHIKVIIW
 1E\MQYQ WPSTI SJ XLI XIVVEMR{8LI WPSTI SJ XLI
XIVVEMRWYVVSYRHMRKXLIFYMPHMRKWLSYPHRSXI\GIIH
E HIKVIIW *MK SV
(b) The ratio of the height of the first story to the smaller
HMQIRWMSRSJXLIFYMPHMRKMRTPER
{7YTTSVXMRKGSHIWERHWXERHEVHW
*SVGEWIW[MXLMRXLIPMQMXWHIWGVMFIHMRXLMWKYMHIMW
intended to be a simplification complying with the following
WYTTSVXMRKGSHIWERHWXERHEVHW

 &YMPHMRK 'SHI 6IUYMVIQIRXW JSV 7XVYGXYVEP 'SRGVIXI


%'- ERH'SQQIRXEV]
1MRMQYQ(IWMKR0SEHWJSV&YMPHMRKWERH3XLIV7XVYG
XYVIW %7') ERH
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3XLIVGEWIWEVIRSXGSZIVIHF]XLMWKYMHI4PIEWIVIJIVXS
8EFPI % MR %TTIRHM\ % JSV EKYMHIF] WIGXMSR XS GSVVI
WTSRHMRKXSTMGWMRXLIWYTTSVXMRKGSHIWERHWXERHEVHW
1.5Notation and definitions
8IVQWJSVKIRIVEPYWIEVITVIWIRXIHMR'LETXIV
{(IWMKRERHGSRWXVYGXMSRTVSGIHYVI
 4VSGIHYVI{8LI HIWMKR TVSGIHYVI GSQTVMWIW XLI
WXITW PMWXIH MR 8EFPI  6IJIV EPWS XS *MK E ERH
F 2SXI XLEX F] GSRJSVQMRK XS XLI HMQIRWMSREP PMQMXW
and cover of this guide, a 1-hour fire rating is achieved. This
rating is usually sufficient for the permitted occupancies in
this guide. Other fire ratings are beyond the scope of this
KYMHIERHWYGLHIWMKRWWLSYPHFITIVJSVQIHYWMRKXLIGSHIW
ERHWXERHEVHWSJ
 (IWMKR HSGYQIRXEXMSR{8LI HIWMKR WXITW WLSYPH
FIVIGSVHIHMREGEPGYPEXMSRVIGSVH  EKISXIGLRMGEP
VITSVX   XLI WXVYGXYVEP HVE[MRKW   ERH XLI
project specifications ( EWJSPPS[W
 'EPGYPEXMSRVIGSVH{8LIPMGIRWIHHIWMKRTVSJIW
WMSREP WLSYPH HSGYQIRX EPP HIWMKR WXITW MR E GEPGYPEXMSR
VIGSVH8LMWVIGSVHWLSYPHGSRXEMREWEQMRMQYQXLI

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8EFPI {(IWMKRERHGSRWXVYGXMSRTVSGIHYVIWXITW
7XIT

6IPEXIH
GLETXIV

(IWGVMTXMSR

Verification that the limitations for using the guide are met.
Definition of the layout in plan and height of the structure.

&
'

'EPGYPEXMSRSJEPPKVEZMX]PSEHWXLEXEGXSRXLIWXVYGXYVII\GPYHMRKXLIWIPJ[IMKLXSJXLIWXVYGXYVEPQIQFIVW
Definition of an appropriate floor system, depending on the span lengths and the magnitude of the gravity loads.

Selection of trial dimensions for the slab of the floor system.


'EPGYPEXMSRSJXLIWIPJ[IMKLXSJXLIW]WXIQERHHIWMKRSJXLIQIQFIVWXLEXGSQTVMWIMXGSVVIGXMRKXLIHMQIRWMSRMJRIIHIHF]XLI
WXVIRKXLERHWIVZMGIEFMPMX]PMQMXWXEXIWGSQTP]MRK[MXLXLIPMQMXWJSVWPEFW]WXIQW[MXLFIEQWSVWPEFGSPYQRW]WXIQW

8VMEPHMQIRWMSRWJSVXLIFIEQWERHKMVHIVW MJRIIHIH 
'EPGYPEXMSRSJXLIWIPJ[IMKLXSJKMVHIVWFIEQWERHNSMWXW
*PI\YVEPERHWLIEVHIWMKRSJXLIFIEQWERHKMVHIVWGSVVIGXMRKXLIHMQIRWMSRWMJRIIHIHF]XLIWXVIRKXLERHWIVZMGIEFMPMX]PMQMXWXEXIW

8VMEPHMQIRWMSRWJSVXLIGSPYQRW
Verification of column slenderness through the use of minimum dimensions.
'EPGYPEXMSRSJXLIWIPJ[IMKLXSJXLIGSPYQRW
(IWMKRSJXLIGSPYQRWJSVGSQFMREXMSRSJE\MEPPSEHQSQIRXERHWLIEV
'SVVIGXMRKXLIHMQIRWMSRWMJRIIHIHF]XLIWXVIRKXLERHWIVZMGIEFMPMX]PMQMXWXEXIW



-JPEXIVEPPSEHWYGLEWIEVXLUYEOI[MRHSVPEXIVEPIEVXLTVIWWYVIMWFI]SRHRSQMREPQEKRMXYHIERHETTPMGEXMSRTSMRXEVIXSFI
IWXEFPMWLIHSXLIV[MWIXLIHIWMKRIVQE]TVSGIIHXS7XIT-

4VIPMQMREV]PSGEXMSRERHXVMEPHMQIRWMSRWJSVVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI[EPPWGETEFPISJVIWMWXMRKPEXIVEPPSEHW
For earthquake loads, the influence of wall self-weight is evaluated.
*PI\YVIERHWLIEVHIWMKRSJXLIVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI[EPPW

(IWMKRSJXLIWXEMV[E]WVEQTWWQEPPTSXEFPI[EXIVXEROWERHVIXEMRMRK[EPPW



0SEHWEXXLIJSYRHEXMSRPIZIPEVIHIXIVQMRIH
Definition of the foundation system is performed.
(IWMKRSJXLIWXVYGXYVEPQIQFIVWSJXLIJSYRHEXMSR



/
0

Production of the structural drawings and specifications.


8LIWXVYGXYVIMWFYMPXGSQTP]MRK[MXLXLIGSRWXVYGXMSRERHMRWTIGXMSRVIUYMVIQIRXW




(a) General structural program, as defined in 'LETXIV


F (IWGVMTXMSRSJXLIWXVYGXYVEPW]WXIQ
G 0SEHW
H 'LEVEGXIVMWXMGWWXVIRKXLERHJEFVMGEXMSRWXERHEVHWJSV
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(e) Justification of all design calculations; and
J 7OIXGLIWSJXLIVIMRJSVGIQIRXPE]SYXJSVEPPWXVYGXYVEP
QIQFIVW
 +ISXIGLRMGEP VITSVX{8LI KISXIGLRMGEP VITSVX
WLSYPH VIGSVH EW E QMRMQYQ XLI WSMP MRZIWXMKEXMSR
TIVJSVQIHWIPIGXIHEPPS[EFPIFIEVMRKGETEGMX]SJXLIWSMP
soil profile type, lateral soil pressures anticipated for design
SJ ER] WSMPVIXEMRMRK WXVYGXYVIW ERH EPP SXLIV MRJSVQEXMSR
MRHMGEXIHMR'LETXIVWERH
 7XVYGXYVEPHVE[MRKW{7XVYGXYVEPHVE[MRKW WLSYPH
MRGPYHIEWEQMRMQYQEPPXLITPERWMRHMGEXIHF]'LETXIV
JSVGSRWXVYGXMSRSJXLIFYMPHMRK
 Project specificationsProject specifications
should include, as a minimum, all the construction specifica
XMSRWHIWGVMFIHMR'LETXIV
 4VIGEWX GSRGVIXI GSQTSRIRXW{4VIGEWX GSRGVIXI
GSQTSRIRXW QE] FI YWIH MRGPYHMRK TVIWXVIWWIH GSRGVIXI
QERYJEGXYVIHMRSJJWMXIJEGMPMXMIW7YGLGSQTSRIRXWWLSYPH
FIHIWMKRIHF]EPMGIRWIHHIWMKRTVSJIWWMSREPMREGGSVHERGI
[MXL XLI GSHIW ERH WXERHEVHW PMWXIH MR  'EPGYPEXMSRW
WLSYPH FI VIZMI[IH F] XLI PMGIRWIH HIWMKRTVSJIWWMSREP SJ
VIGSVH  ERHMRGPYHIHMRXLIGEPGYPEXMSRVIGSVH  

ERH


ERH

ERH

ERH

(IXEMPMRKERHTPEGMRKHVE[MRKWGSRJSVQMRKXSWLSYPH
FIJYVRMWLIHERHMRGPYHIHEWTEVXSJXLIWXVYGXYVEPHVE[MRKW
  1ERYJEGXYVI SJ TVIGEWX GSQTSRIRXW WLSYPH FI
HSRIMREJEGMPMX][MXLHIQSRWXVEXIHGETEFMPMX]SJTVSHYGMRK
UYEPMX]TVSHYGXW
{0MQMXWXEXIW
8LIHIWMKRETTVSEGLSJXLMWKYMHIMWFEWIHSRPMQMXWXEXIW
[LIVIEPMQMXWXEXIMWEGSRHMXMSRFI]SRH[LMGLEWXVYGXYVISV
member becomes unfit for service and is judged to be unsafe
SVRSPSRKIVYWIJYPJSVMXWMRXIRHIHJYRGXMSR8LIHIWMKRIV
WLSYPH ZIVMJ] XLEX XLI JSPPS[MRK PMQMX WXEXIW EVI EGGSYRXIH
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E 7XVIRKXLPMQMXWXEXIERH
F 7IVZMGIEFMPMX]PMQMXWXEXI
8LI JSPPS[MRK EVI GSRWMHIVIH MQTPMGMXP] MR XLI HIWMKR
TVSGIHYVI
E 7XVYGXYVEPMRXIKVMX]
F 0EXIVEPPSEHWXSV]HVMJX
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H *MVIVIWMWXERGI
{7XVIRKXLHIWMKR
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WXVYGXYVEPQIQFIVWEVIHMQIRWMSRIHXSLEZIHIWMKRWXVIRKXLW
EXEPPWIGXMSRWEXPIEWXIUYEPXSXLIHIQERHWGEPGYPEXIHJSVXLI
GSQFMREXMSRWSJJEGXSVIHPSEHWHIWGVMFIHMR'LETXIV

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*MKF{(IWMKRERHGSRWXVYGXMSRTVSGIHYVIJSVIEVXL
UYEOIVIKMSRW

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VIWMWXERGIW PSEHIJJIGXW

E

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PSEHIJJIGXWGSYPHFIPEVKIVXLERGSQTYXIHWXVIRKXLVIHYG
XMSRJEGXSVW PIWWXLERERHPSEHJEGXSVW KIRIVEPP]KVIEXIV
XLEREVIYWIH
Rn

1 1

2 2

F

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XLIWXVIRKXLHIWMKRVIUYMVIWXLEX
HIWMKRWXVIRKXL VIUYMVIHWXVIRKXL
 RSQMREPWXVIRKXL  9

G

 6IUYMVIHWXVIRKXL{8LIVIUYMVIHWXVIRKXL9WLSYPH
FI GSQTYXIH JSV XLI GSQFMREXMSRW SJ JEGXSVIH PSEHW PMWXIH
MR 
 (IWMKRWXVIRKXL{8LIHIWMKRWXVIRKXLTVSZMHIHF]
EQIQFIVMXWGSRRIGXMSRWXSSXLIVQIQFIVWERHMXWGVSWW
sections in terms of flexure, axial load, and shear, is the
RSQMREP WXVIRKXL QYPXMTPMIH F] E WXVIRKXL VIHYGXMSR JEGXSV
 2SQMREP WXVIRKXL WLSYPH FI GEPGYPEXIH JSV IEGL TEVXMG
ular force effect in each of the member types at the defined
GVMXMGEPWIGXMSRW8LIJSPPS[MRKWXVIRKXLVIHYGXMSRJEGXSVW
WLSYPHFIYWIH
*PI\YVI[MXLSYXE\MEPPSEH  !
Axial tension and axial tension with flexure !
Axial compression and axial compression with flexure:
'SPYQRW[MXLXMIWERHVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI[EPPW
 !
'SPYQRW[MXLWTMVEPVIMRJSVGIQIRX  !
7LIEVERHXSVWMSR  !
&IEVMRKSJGSRGVIXI !

[LIVIXLIVIUYMVIHWXVIRKXLMW9! 7 7


%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

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{7IVZMGIEFMPMX]HIWMKR
8S IRWYVI EHIUYEXI VIWTSRWI HYVMRK WIVZMGI JSPPS[ XLI
VIGSQQIRHEXMSRWJSVPMQMXMRKHMQIRWMSRWGSZIVHIXEMPMRK
ERH GSRWXVYGXMSR 8LIWI WIVZMGIEFMPMX] GSRHMXMSRW MRGPYHI
IJJIGXWWYGLEW
E 0SRKXIVQIRZMVSRQIRXEPIJJIGXWMRGPYHMRKI\TSWYVI
XSEKKVIWWMZIIRZMVSRQIRXSVGSVVSWMSRSJXLIVIMRJSVGIQIRX
F (MQIRWMSREPGLERKIWHYIXSZEVMEXMSRWMRXIQTIVEXYVI
VIPEXMZILYQMHMX]ERHSXLIVIJJIGXW
G )\GIWWMZIGVEGOMRKSJXLIGSRGVIXI
(d) Excessive vertical deflections; and
I )\GIWWMZIZMFVEXMSR
',%48)6{238%8-32%2(()*-2-8-327
{2SXEXMSR
E
! HITXLSJIUYMZEPIRXVIGXERKYPEVGSQTVIWWMZIWXVIWW
FPSGOMR QQ
E[
! HMWXERGIJVSQIHKISJ[EPPJSSXMRKXSXLIVIWYPXERX
SJWSMPVIEGXMSRMR[EPPJSSXMRKMR QQ
%E
! IJJIGXMZIWIMWQMGTIEOKVSYRHLSVM^SRXEPEGGIPIVE
XMSRMRVSGOJSVWLSVXTIVMSHWSJZMFVEXMSRI\TVIWWIH
EWEJVEGXMSRSJKVEZMX]K
%F
! EVIE SJ ER MRHMZMHYEP VIMRJSVGMRK FEV SV [MVI MR
QQ
%GF ! FIEVMRKEVIESJGSRGVIXIMR QQ
%GW ! EVIE SJ GSVI SJ WTMVEPP] VIMRJSVGIH GSQTVIWWMSR
QIQFIVQIEWYVIHXSSYXWMHIHMEQIXIVSJWTMVEPMR
QQ
%J
! GSRXEGXEVIESJJSSXMRK[MXLWSMPJX Q
%K
! KVSWW EVIE SJ WIGXMSR SV EVIE SJ GSRGVIXI SRP]
I\GPYHMRKEVIESJZSMHWMR QQ
%M
! EVIESJEHHMXMSREPLERKIVVIMRJSVGIQIRX[LIVIFIEQW
EVIWYTTSVXIHF]KMVHIVWSVSXLIVFIEQWMR QQ
%N
! IJJIGXMZI GVSWWWIGXMSREPWLIEVEVIE[MXLMRENSMRX
MR QQ
%T
! GSQTSRIRX SV GPEHHMRK [MRH I\TSWIH WYVJEGI
EVIEJX Q
%W
! EVIE SJ PSRKMXYHMREP XIRWMSR VIMRJSVGIQIRX MR
QQ
%W
! EVIE SJ PSRKMXYHMREP GSQTVIWWMSR VIMRJSVGIQIRX
MR QQ
%WI ! WXIIPEVIEEXXLII\XVIQIJEGISJGSPYQRSVVIMRJSVGIH
GSRGVIXI[EPPMR QQ
%WQMR ! QMRMQYQ EVIE SJ PSRKMXYHMREP XIRWMSR VIMRJSVGI
QIRXMR QQ
%WW ! WXIIPEVIEEXXLIWMHIJEGISJGSPYQRSVVIMRJSVGIH
GSRGVIXI[EPPMR QQ
%WX ! XSXEPEVIESJPSRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGIQIRXMR QQ 
%WY ! [MRHI\TSWIHWYVJEGIEVIEJX Q
%Z
! EVIESJWLIEVVIMRJSVGIQIRXMR QQ
F
! width of compression flange of member, or width
SJQIQFIVMR QQ
FG
! [MHXL SJ GSPYQR WIGXMSR ERH JSV TYRGLMRK WLIEV
IZEPYEXMSRXLIWQEPPIWXTPERHMQIRWMSRSJTIHIWXEP
GSPYQRGETMXEPSVHVSTTERIPSVXLMGORIWWGLERKI
MRWXITTIHJSSXMRKWMR QQ
FJ
! [MHXLSJGSQTVIWWMSRJEGISJQIQFIVMR QQ

! TIVMQIXIV SJ GVMXMGEP WIGXMSR JSV X[S[E] WLIEV


TYRGLMRKWLIEV MRWPEFWMR QQ
F[
! [IF[MHXLSJWIGXMSRSV[EPP[MHXLMR QQ
&J
! WLSVXLSVM^SRXEPHMQIRWMSRSJJSSXMRKMR QQ
GG
! PIEWXHMWXERGIJVSQWYVJEGISJVIMRJSVGIQIRXXSXLI
WMHIJEGI
'T ! GSQTSRIRX SV GPEHHMRK [MRH WYVJEGI TVIWWYVI
coefficient
'WY ! wind surface pressure coefficient
'Z\ ! coefficient defined in JSVHIWMKRSJWIMWQMG
PSEHW
H
! IJJIGXMZI HITXL SJ WIGXMSR XEOIR EW HMWXERGI JVSQ
extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension
VIMRJSVGIQIRXMR QQ
H
! distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid
SJGSQTVIWWMSRVIMRJSVGIQIRXMR QQ
HF
! RSQMREP HMEQIXIV SJ VIMRJSVGMRK FEV SV [MVI MR
QQ
HG
! distance from extreme tension fiber to centroid of
XIRWMSRVIMRJSVGIQIRXMR QQ
HW
! SYXWMHIHMEQIXIVSJWTMVEPVIMRJSVGIQIRXMR QQ
(
! HIEHPSEHWSVVIPEXIHMRXIVREPQSQIRXWERHPSEHW
I\
! IGGIRXVMGMX]QIEWYVIHMR\HMVIGXMSRFIX[IIRWXSV]
GIRXIVSJ PEXIVEP WXMJJRIWW ERH ETTPMGEXMSR TSMRX SJ
WXSV]PEXIVEPPSEHWEGXMRKMR]HMVIGXMSRMR QQ
I]
! IGGIRXVMGMX]QIEWYVIHMR]HMVIGXMSRFIX[IIRWXSV]
GIRXIVSJ PEXIVEP WXMJJRIWW ERH ETTPMGEXMSR TSMRX SJ
WXSV]PEXIVEPPSEHWEGXMRKMR\HMVIGXMSRMR QQ
I&
! IGGIRXVMGMX] SJ VIWYPXERX ETTPMIH XS JSSXMRK MR
HMVIGXMSRTEVEPPIPXS&JMR QQ
I,
! IGGIRXVMGMX] SJ VIWYPXERX ETTPMIH XS JSSXMRK MR
HMVIGXMSRTEVEPPIPXS,JMR QQ
)
! WIMWQMGPSEHWSVVIPEXIHMRXIVREPQSQIRXWERHPSEHW
)G
! QSHYPYWSJIPEWXMGMX]SJGSRGVIXITWM 14E
JG
! specified compressive strength of concrete, psi
14E
JG ! square root of specified compressive strength of
GSRGVIXIXLIVIWYPXLEWYRMXWSJTWM 14E
JGV
! VIUYMVIHEZIVEKIGSQTVIWWMZIWXVIRKXLSJGSRGVIXI
YWIH EW XLI FEWMW JSV WIPIGXMSR SJ GSRGVIXI
TVSTSVXMSRWTWM 14E
JGY
! extreme fiber compressive stress due to factored
PSEHWEXIHKIWSJWXVYGXYVEP[EPPWTWM 14E
J]
! specified yield strength of reinforcement, psi (MPa)
J]TV ! probable specified maximum strength of
VIMRJSVGIQIRXTWM 14E  J]TV!J]
J]X
! specified yield strength of transverse or spiral
VIMRJSVGIQIRXTWM 14E
*
! loads due to weight and pressure of fluids with
well-defined densities and controllable maximum
LIMKLXWSVVIPEXIHMRXIVREPQSQIRXWERHPSEHW
*E
! seismic site coefficient for short periods of vibration
*EG ! XSXEPPEXIVEPEGXMZIWSMPJSVGIPF O2
*M *\! [MRH SV WIMWQMG JSVGI ETTPMIH EX PIZIP M SV \
VIWTIGXMZIP]PF O2
*S
! XSXEPPEXIVEPEXVIWXWSMPJSVGIPF O2
FS

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

*T[

! IUYMZEPIRX WXEXMG [MRH JSVGI JSV GSQTSRIRXW ERH


GPEHHMRKEGXMRKRSVQEPXS[MRHI\TSWIH WYVJEGI
PF O2
*WY ! IUYMZEPIRXWXEXMG[MRHJSVGIEGXMRKRSVQEPXS[MRH
I\TSWIHWYVJEGIPF O2
*YM*Y\ ! JEGXSVIHPEXIVEPJSVGIETTPMIHXS[EPPEXPIZIPMSV\
VIWTIGXMZIP]PF O2
K
! EGGIPIVEXMSRHYIXSKVEZMX]MRW QW
QW
L
! SZIVEPPHITXLSVXLMGORIWWSJQIQFIVSVLIMKLXSJ
WIGXMSRSJQIQFIVSVSYXWMHIHMEQIXIVSJGMVGYPEV
WIGXMSRMRSVJX QQSVQ
LF
! ZIVXMGEP HMWXERGI QIEWYVIH JVSQ FSXXSQ SJ
WYTTSVXMRKKMVHIVXSFSXXSQSJWYTTSVXIHFIEQJX
Q
LG
! HITXL SJ GSPYQR SV HMQIRWMSR SJ GSPYQR MR
HMVIGXMSRTEVEPPIPXSKMVHIVWTERERHJSVTYRGLMRK
WLIEV IZEPYEXMSR XLI PEVKIWX TPER HMQIRWMSR SJ
GETMXEPHVSTTERIPTIHIWXEPSVXLMGORIWWGLERKIMR
WXITTIHJSSXMRKWMR QQ
LJ
! flange thickness, in. (mm)
LK
! XSXEPHITXLSJWYTTSVXMRKKMVHIVMR QQ
LML\ ! LIMKLXEFSZIFEWIXSPIZIPMSV\VIWTIGXMZIP]JX Q
LR
! GPIEVZIVXMGEP HMWXERGI FIX[IIR PEXIVEPWYTTSVXW SJ
GSPYQRWERH[EPPWMR QQ
LTM ! story height of floor M measured from floor finish of
story to floor finish of story immediately below, ft (m)
! QIERVSSJLIMKLXJSV[MRHHIWMKRQIEWYVIHSZIV
LV
XIVVEMRJX Q
LW
! HITXLSJWSMPEKEMRWXVIXEMRMRK[EPPMR QQ
L[
! LIMKLXSJ[EPPJVSQFEWIXSXSTMR QQ
,
! PSEHWHYIXS[IMKLXERHTVIWWYVISJWSMP[EXIVMR
WSMPSVSXLIVQEXIVMEPWSVVIPEXIHMRXIVREPQSQIRXW
ERHPSEHW
,J
! PSRKLSVM^SRXEPHMQIRWMSRSJJSSXMRKMR QQ
-G
! QSQIRXSJMRIVXMESJGSPYQRWIGXMSRMR QQ
OV
! WXSV]XSXEPVSXEXMSREPWXMJJRIWW
O\ O] ! [EPPPEXIVEPWXMJJRIWWMRHMVIGXMSR\SV]VIWTIGXMZIP]
PFMR 2QQ  )U E E
/E ! active soil pressure coefficient
/S ! at-rest soil pressure coefficient
/T ! passive soil pressure coefficient
! PIRKXLSJGPIEVWTERMRWLSVXHMVIGXMSRSJX[S[E]
E
WPEFWSVMRHMVIGXMSRSJQSQIRXWQIEWYVIHJEGIXS
JEGISJFIEQWSVSXLIVWYTTSVXWMR QQ
!
PIRKXL
SJGPIEV WTER MR PSRKHMVIGXMSRSJX[S[E]
G
WPEFW SVW]WXIQWQIEWYVIH JEGIXSJEGI SJ FIEQW
SVSXLIVWYTTSVXWMR QQ
!
HIZIPSTQIRXPIRKXLMR QQ
H
! PIRKXLSJGPIEVWTERMRPSRKHMVIGXMSRJSVX[S[E]
R
W]WXIQWQIEWYVIHJEGIXSJEGISJFIEQWSV SXLIV
WYTTSVXWMR QQ
!
GIRXIVXSGIRXIV
WTER PIRKXL WLSVXIWX HMWXERGI
W
FIX[IIR EHNEGIRX TEVEPPIP GSPYQR GIRXIVPMRIW MR
QQ
!
LSVM^SRXEPPIRKXLSJ[EPPMR QQ
[
! column confinement length, in. (mm)


! PIRKXLSJWTERMRHMVIGXMSRSJQSQIRXWQIEWYVIH
GIRXIVXSGIRXIVSJWYTTSVXWMR QQ
! PIRKXLSJWTERXVERWZIVWIXS QIEWYVIHGIRXIVXS

GIRXIVSJWYTTSVXWMR QQ
0
! PMZIPSEHWSVVIPEXIHMRXIVREPQSQIRXWERHPSEHW
0V
! VSSJPMZIPSEHSVVIPEXIHMRXIVREPQSQIRXWERHPSEHW
1E ! JEGXSVIH QSQIRX MR WLSVX HMVIGXMSR MR X[S[E]
WPEFWPFMR 2Q TIVYRMXWPEF[MHXL
1F ! JEGXSVIH QSQIRX MR PSRK HMVIGXMSR MR X[S[E]
WPEFWPFMR 2Q TIVYRMXWPEF[MHXL
1FR ! RSQMREP QSQIRX WXVIRKXL EX WIGXMSR EX FEPERGIH
GSRHMXMSRWPFMR 2Q
1M1\! YRJEGXSVIHSZIVXYVRMRKQSQIRXHYIXSPEXIVEPPSEHW
JSVWXSV]MSV\VIWTIGXMZIP]PFMR O2Q
1MY1\Y!JEGXSVIHWXSV]QSQIRXHYIXSPEXIVEPPSEHWEXWXSV]
MSV\VIWTIGXMZIP]PFMR O2Q
1R ! RSQMREPQSQIRXWXVIRKXLEXWIGXMSRPFMR 2Q
1S ! XSXEPJEGXSVIHQSQIRXEXWIGXMSRPFMR O2Q
1SX ! YRJEGXSVIHSZIVXYVRMRKQSQIRXHYIXSPEXIVEPPSEHW
EXFEWISJWXVYGXYVIPFMR O2Q
1SXY ! JEGXSVIHSZIVXYVRMRKQSQIRXHYIXSPEXIVEPPSEHWEX
FEWISJWXVYGXYVIPFMR O2Q
1TV ! probable flexural strength of member at joint face,
GSQTYXIHYWMRKJ]TVERH SJPFMR 2Q
1Y ! JEGXSVIHQSQIRXEXWIGXMSRPFMR 2Q
1ESVF! JEGXSVIH TSWMXMZI QSQIRX EX WIGXMSR PFMR 2Q
TIVYRMXWPEF[MHXL
1zESVF ! JEGXSVIHRIKEXMZI QSQIRX EX WIGXMSRPFMR 2Q
TIVYRMXWPEF[MHXL
1Y ! JEGXSVIHTSWMXMZIQSQIRXEXWIGXMSRPFMR 2Q
1Yz ! JEGXSVIHRIKEXMZIQSQIRXEXWIGXMSRPFMR 2Q
1Y\ ! JEGXSVIH QSQIRX EX WIGXMSR MR \ HMVIGXMSR PFMR
2Q
1Y] ! JEGXSVIH QSQIRX EX WIGXMSR MR ] HMVIGXMSR PFMR
2Q
1\Y ! JEGXSVIH SZIVXYVRMRK QSQIRX HYI XS PEXIVEP PSEHW
JSVWXSV]\PFMR O2Q
RG
! RYQFIV SJ MRXIVMSV GSPYQRW MR WXSV] MR HMVIGXMSR
YRHIVGSRWMHIVEXMSRJSVXLIIRXMVIWXVYGXYVI
RI
! RYQFIVSJIHKIGSPYQRWMRWXSV]MRHMVIGXMSRYRHIV
GSRWMHIVEXMSRJSVXLIIRXMVIWXVYGXYVI
2
! RYQFIVSJFPS[WMRWXERHEVHTIRIXVEXMSRXIWX 748
2
! EZIVEKI WSMP 748 VIWMWXERGI QIEWYVIH MR RYQFIV
SJ FPS[W TIVJX Q  SJ TIRIXVEXMSR EZIVEKIHSZIV
upper 100 ft (30 m) of soil profile
T
! YRJEGXSVIHTVIWWYVIJSVFVEGIHVIXEMRMRK[EPPWTWM
SVPFJX O4ESVO2Q
TE
! YRJEGXSVIHEGXMZITVIWWYVITWMSVPFJX O4ESVO2Q
TH
! YRJEGXSVIHGSRGIRXVEXIHHIEHPSEHETTPMIHHMVIGXP]
XSQIQFIVPF O2
T
! YRJEGXSVIH GSRGIRXVEXIH PMZI PSEH ETTPMIHHMVIGXP]
XSQIQFIVPF O2
TS
! YRJEGXSVIHTVIWWYVIEXVIWXTWMSVPFJX O4ESVO2Q
TT
! YRJEGXSVIHTEWWMZITVIWWYVIPFJX O4ESVO2Q
TX
! YRJEGXSVIH ZIVXMGEP WYVGLEVKI TVIWWYVI SR XST SJ
retaining wall backfill, lb/ft O4ESVO2Q
TY
! JEGXSVIH GSRGIRXVEXIH PSEH ETTPMIH HMVIGXP] XS
QIQFIVPF O2


%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



TYX[

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

! JEGXSVIH HIWMKR LSVM^SRXEP TVIWWYVI JSV VIXEMRMRK


[EPPW GEYWIH F] WYVGLEVKI TVIWWYVI SR XST SJ
retaining wall backfill, lb/ft O4ESVO2Q
TY[ ! JEGXSVIH HIWMKR LSVM^SRXEP TVIWWYVI JSV VIXEMRMRK
[EPPWPFJX O4ESVO2Q
T^
! EXVIWXSVEGXMZIPEXIVEPWSMPTVIWWYVIEXHITXL\PF
JX O4ESVO2Q
4FR ! RSQMREPGSQTVIWWMSRE\MEPGSQTVIWWMSRWXVIRKXLEX
WIGXMSREXFEPERGIHGSRHMXMSRWPF 2
4GY ! JEGXSVIH GSQTVIWWMSR PSEH SR [EPP FSYRHEV]
IPIQIRXMRGPYHMRKWIMWQMGIJJIGXWPF 2
4H
! YRJEGXSVIHHIEHPSEHE\MEPJSVGIEXWIGXMSRPF O2
4P
! YRJEGXSVIHPMZIPSEHE\MEPJSVGIEXWIGXMSRPF O2
4R
! RSQMREP E\MEP GSQTVIWWMSR WXVIRKXL EX KMZIR
IGGIRXVMGMX]PF 2
4R QE\ ! QE\MQYQGSQTVIWWMSRRSQMREPE\MEPGSQTVIWWMSR
WXVIRKXLEXWIGXMSRPF 2
4SR ! nominal compression, without flexure, or axial
GSQTVIWWMSRWXVIRKXLEXWIGXMSRPF 2
4SZ ! QE\MQYQZIVXMGEPPSEHETTPMIHXSJSSXMRKMRGPYHMRK
[MRHSVWIMWQMGSZIVXYVRMRKIJJIGXWPF 2
4XR ! nominal tension, without flexure, or axial tension
WXVIRKXLEXWIGXMSRPF 2
4XY ! JEGXSVIH XIRWMSR JSVGI SR [EPP FSYRHEV] IPIQIRX
MRGPYHMRKWIMWQMGIJJIGXWPF 2
4Y
! JEGXSVIH E\MEP SV GSRGIRXVEXIH PSEH SV JEGXSVIH
E\MEPPSEHEXKMZIRIGGIRXVMGMX]PF 2SVO2
4YF ! JEGXSVIHE\MEPPSEHEXFEWISJGSPYQRPF 2
4Z
! QE\MQYQ ZIVXMGEP PSEH ETTPMIH XS JSSXMRK RSX
MRGPYHMRK[MRHSVWIMWQMGPF 2
4- ! WSMP TPEWXMGMX] MRHI\ IUYEP XS HMJJIVIRGI MR
TIVGIRXEKISJQSMWXYVIGSRXIRXEXPMUYMHPMQMXERH
EXTPEWXMGPMQMX
UE
! YRJEGXSVIHEPPS[EFPIFIEVMRKGETEGMX]SJWSMPPFJX
O4ESVO2Q
UG
! WXERHEVH GSRI TIRIXVEXMSR VIWMWXERGI MR GSRI
TIRIXVEXMSRXIWX '48 PFJX O4ESVO2Q
UH
! YRJEGXSVIHHIEHPSEHTIVYRMXEVIEPFJX O2Q
UL
! [MRHZIPSGMX]TVIWWYVIEXLIMKLXLSZIVXIVVEMRPF
JX O2Q
U
! YRJEGXSVIHPMZIPSEHTIVYRMXEVIEPFJX O2Q
US
! SZIVFYVHIR TVIWWYVI SV YRJEGXSVIH KVEZMX] PSEHW
ETTPMIH HMVIGXP] XS WPEF MR QEX JSYRHEXMSRW PFJX
O2Q
UY
! JEGXSVIHPSEHTIVYRMXEVIEPFJX O2Q
UYG ! unconfined compression strength of soil, lb/ft O4E
SVO2Q
UYR ! JEGXSVIHRIXWSMPVIEGXMSRTVIWWYVISRJSSXMRKPFJX
O2Q
VY
! JEGXSVIH YRMJSVQP] HMWXVMFYXIH VIEGXMSR JVSQ WPEF
SRWYTTSVXMRKKMVHIVFIEQSVVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI
[EPPPFJX O2Q
6
! VEMRPSEHSVVIPEXIHMRXIVREPQSQIRXWERHPSEHWPF
SVJXPFERHPF 2 SV 2Q  2
6R
! nominal strength in terms of flexure, axial load,
WLIEVSVFIEVMRKWXVIRKXLPF 2
6TM ! VIEGXMSRJVSQPEXIVEPWSMPTVIWWYVIEXWXSV]MPF O2

! response modification factor related to energy


HMWWMTEXMSR GETEGMX] MR MRIPEWXMG VERKI SJ WIMWQMG
VIWMWXERXWXVYGXYVEPW]WXIQ
6Y
! JEGXSVIH VIEGXMSR JVSQ WYTTSVXIH WXVYGXYVEP
QIQFIVPF O2
W
! WTEGMRK SJ XVERWZIVWI VIMRJSVGIQIRX WXMVVYTW SV
[EPPVIMRJSVGIQIRXQIEWYVIHEPSRKE\MWSJQIQFIV
MR QQ
WN
! GIRXIVXSGIRXIVWTEGMRKFIX[IIRTEVEPPIPNSMWXWMR
QQ
WW
! WEQTPIWXERHEVHHIZMEXMSRTWM 14E
WWO
! WTEGMRKSJWOMRVIMRJSVGIQIRXMR QQ
WY
! WLIEV WXVIRKXL SJ YRHVEMRIH GSLIWMZI WSMP PFJX
O4ESVO2Q
7
! WRS[PSEHSVVIPEXIHMRXIVREPQSQIRXWERHPSEHW
7E
! ZEPYI SJ IPEWXMG EGGIPIVEXMSR HIWMKR VIWTSRWI
WTIGXVYQJSVHEQTMRKVEXMSSJTIVGIRXSJGVMXMGEP
I\TVIWWIHEWJVEGXMSRSJEGGIPIVEXMSRSJKVEZMX]
7M
! RSQMREPPSEHIJJIGXFEWIHSRPSEHM
7(7 ! ZEPYI SJ HIWMKR IEVXLUYEOI WTIGXVEP EGGIPIVEXMSR
TEVEQIXIVEXWLSVXTIVMSH
X\X] ! WXVYGXYVEP ZIVXMGEP QIQFIV GVSWWWIGXMSREP
HMQIRWMSRMRHMVIGXMSR\SV]VIWTIGXMZIP]MR QQ
8
! GYQYPEXMZIIJJIGXSJXIQTIVEXYVIGVIITWLVMROEKI
HMJJIVIRXMEPWIXXPIQIRXERHWLVMROEKIGSQTIRWEXMRK
GSRGVIXI
8M 8\ ! YRJEGXSVIH WXSV] XSVWMSREP QSQIRX HYI XS PEXIVEP
PSEHWEXWXSV]MSV\VIWTIGXMZIP]PFMR O2Q
! YRJEGXSVIH WXSV] XSVWMSREP QSQIRX HYI XS PEXIVEP
8S
PSEHWEXFEWISJWXVYGXYVIPFMR O2Q
8SY ! JEGXSVIHWXSV]XSVWMSREPQSQIRXHYIXSPEXIVEPPSEHW
EXFEWISJWXVYGXYVIPFMR O2Q
8Y
! JEGXSVIHXSVWMSREPQSQIRXEXWIGXMSRPFMR 2QQ
8\Y 8MY ! JEGXSVIHWXSV]XSVWMSREPQSQIRXHYIXSPEXIVEPPSEHW
EXWXSV]MSV\VIWTIGXMZIP]PFMR O2Q
9
! VIUYMVIHWXVIRKXLXSVIWMWXJEGXSVIHPSEHWSVVIPEXIH
MRXIVREPQSQIRXWERHPSEHW
:
! FEWMG[MRHWTIIHQTLGSVVIWTSRHMRKXSWIGSRH
KYWXWTIIHEXJX Q EFSZIKVSYRH
:FW ! WIMWQMGHIWMKRFEWIWLIEVPF O2
:G
! RSQMREPWLIEVWXVIRKXLTVSZMHIHF]GSRGVIXIPF 2
:M :\! YRJEGXSVIHWXSV]WLIEVHYIXSPEXIVEPPSEHWEXWXSV]M
SV \VIWTIGXMZIP]PF O2
:MY:\Y! JEGXSVIHWXSV]WLIEVHYIXSPEXIVEPPSEHWEXWXSV]MSV
\VIWTIGXMZIP]PF O2
:R
! RSQMREPWLIEVWXVIRKXLEXWIGXMSRPF 2
:S
! YRJEGXSVIHWXSV]WLIEVHYIXSPEXIVEPPSEHWEXFEWISJ
WXVYGXYVIPF O2
:SY ! JEGXSVIHWXSV]WLIEVHYIXSPEXIVEPPSEHWEXFEWISJ
WXVYGXYVIPF O2
:W
! RSQMREP WLIEV WXVIRKXL EX WIGXMSR TVSZMHIH F]
XVERWZIVWIVIMRJSVGIQIRXPF O2
:W[ ! GSRXVMFYXMSRSJXLILSVM^SRXEP[EPPVIMRJSVGIQIRXXS
XLIRSQMREPWLIEVWXVIRKXLEXWIGXMSRPF O2
:Y
! JEGXSVIHWLIEVPF 2
:[ ! [MRHHIWMKRFEWIWLIEVPF O2
[
! QSMWXYVIGSRXIRXSJXLIWSMPTIVGIRXEKI
6W

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

[H

! YRJEGXSVIH HIEH PSEH TIV YRMX QIQFIV PIRKXL


ETTPMIHHMVIGXP]XSXLIQIQFIVPFMR O2Q
[HJ ! YRJEGXSVIH HIEH PSEH TIV YRMX QIQFIV PIRKXL
ETTPMIHHMVIGXP]XSXLIQIQFIVPFJX O2Q
[M[\ ! TEVXSJ;WGSVVIWTSRHMRKXSWXSV]MSV\VIWTIGXMZIP]
PFJX O2Q
[
! YRJEGXSVIHPMZIPSEHTIVYRMXQIQFIVPIRKXLETTPMIH
HMVIGXP]XSXLIQIQFIVPFMR O2Q
[Y ! JEGXSVIH PSEH TIV YRMX QIQFIV PIRKXL ETTPMIH
HMVIGXP]XSXLIQIQFIVPFJX O2Q
;
! [MRHPSEHWSVVIPEXIHMRXIVREPQSQIRXWERHPSEHW
;W ! XSXEP FYMPHMRK [IMKLX JSV WIMWQMG HIWMKR PF O2 

;Y ! XSXEPJEGXSVIHYRMJSVQP]HMWXVMFYXIHHIWMKRPSEHTIV
YRMXQIQFIVPIRKXLPFMR O2QQ
;YJ ! XSXEPJEGXSVIHYRMJSVQP]HMWXVMFYXIHHIWMKRPSEHTIV
YRMXQIQFIVPIRKXLPFJX O2Q
\ ] ! WXSV] PEXIVEP WXMJJRIWW GIRXIV GSSVHMREXIW MR
HMVIGXMSRW \ERH]VIWTIGXMZIP]MR QQ
^
! HITXLSJWSMPJX Q
! JVEGXMSRSJPSEHEGXMRKMRWLSVXHMVIGXMSRMRX[S[E]
E
WPEFWSRKMVHIVW
! JVEGXMSRSJPSEHEGXMRKMRPSRKHMVIGXMSRMRX[S[E]
F
WPEFWSRKMVHIVW
! TEVEQIXIVSJ)U 
J
! JEGXSV EJJIGXMRK IUYMZEPIRX WLIEV JSVGI HYI XS
WL
YRFEPERGIHQSQIRX EXGSPYQRWPEFGSRRIGXMSRMR
)U 
!
LSVM^SRXEPERKPIFIX[IIRRSVQEPXS[MRHI\TSWIH
[
WYVJEGIERH[MRHHMVIGXMSRHIKVIIW
! VEXMS SJ GPIEV WTERW MR PSRK XS WLSVX HMVIGXMSR SJ
X[S[E]WPEFW
!
VEXMSSJPSRKWMHIXSWLSVXWMHISJJSSXMRK
J
! ZIVXMGEP ERKPI FIX[IIR RSVQEP XS [MRHI\TSWIH
[
WYVJEGIERHLSVM^SRXEPPMRIHIKVIIW
! YRMX[IMKLXSJQEXIVMEPSVWSMPPFJX O2Q
! PSEHJEGXSVJSVPSEHIJJIGXM
M
1Y ! JEGXSVIHYRFEPERGIHQSQIRXEXGSPYQRKMVHIVNSMRX
SV[EPPKMVHIVNSMRXPFMR 2QQ
1YEH ! EHHMXMSREPJEGXSVIHYRFEPERGIHQSQIRXEXGSPYQR
WPEFGSRRIGXMSRPFMR 2QQ
:I ! JEGXSVIH HIWMKR WLIEV JSVGI JVSQ HIZIPSTQIRX SJ
probable flexural capacity of member at faces of
NSMRXWPF 2
:Y ! JEGXSVIHWLIEVJSVGIHYIXSYRFEPERGIHQSQIRXEX
GSPYQRWPEFGSRRIGXMSRPF 2
:YX ! MRGVIEWI MR [EPP JEGXSVIH WLIEV HYI XS XSVWMSREP
IJJIGXWPF O2
!
JEGXSVXSGEPGYPEXITYRGLMRKWLIEVWXVIRKXL 
TW
! VEXMSSJPSRKMXYHMREPXIRWMSRVIMRJSVGIQIRX%W FH
! VEXMS SJ PSRKMXYHMREP GSQTVIWWMSR VIMRJSVGIQIRX
%W  FH
! VEXMS SJ XSXEP PSRKMXYHMREP VIMRJSVGIQIRX EVIE XS
KVSWWGSRGVIXIWIGXMSREVIE%WX FL
!
maximum ratio of longitudinal flexural tension
QE\
VIMRJSVGIQIRX
!
minimum
ratio of longitudinal flexural tension
QMR
VIMRJSVGIQIRX

Z[

1G
1K
4Y
6Y



! VEXMS SJ ZSPYQI SJ WTMVEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX XS GSVI


volume confined by spiral reinforcement (measured
SYXXSSYX
! VEXMSSJLSVM^SRXEPWLIEVVIMRJSVGIQIRXEVIEXSKVSWW
GSRGVIXIEVIESJZIVXMGEPWIGXMSR
! VEXMS SJ ZIVXMGEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX MR VIMRJSVGIH
GSRGVIXI[EPPW
! WXVIRKXLVIHYGXMSRJEGXSV 
! ERKPISJMRXIVREPJVMGXMSRSJWSMP
! sum of nominal flexural strengths (1R SJGSPYQRW
JVEQMRKMRXSNSMRXPFMR 2Q
! sum of nominal flexural strengths (1R SJ KMVHIVW
JVEQMRKMRXSNSMRXPFMR 2Q
! WYQSJJEGXSVIHGSRGIRXVEXIHPSEHW[MXLMRWTERPF
O2
! WYQSJJEGXSVIHVIEGXMSRWJVSQWYTTSVXIHWXVYGXYVEP
QIQFIVWEXWEQIWXSV]PF O2

2.2Definitions
ACI provides a comprehensive list of definitions through
ER SRPMRI VIWSYVGI w%'- 'SRGVIXI 8IVQMRSPSK]x LXXT
XIVQMRSPSK]GSRGVIXISVK.) Definitions provided herein
GSQTPIQIRXXLEXVIWSYVGI
EHQM\XYVI{QEXIVMEP SXLIV XLER [EXIV EKKVIKEXI SV
L]HVEYPMG GIQIRX YWIH EW ER MRKVIHMIRX SJ GSRGVIXI ERH
EHHIHXSGSRGVIXIFIJSVISVHYVMRKMXWQM\MRKXSQSHMJ]MXW
TVSTIVXMIW
EKKVIKEXI{KVERYPEV QEXIVMEP WYGL EW WERH KVEZIP
GVYWLIH WXSRI ERH MVSR FPEWXJYVREGI WPEK YWIH [MXL E
GIQIRXMRKQIHMYQXSJSVQEL]HVEYPMGGIQIRXGSRGVIXISV
QSVXEV
EKKVIKEXIPMKLX[IMKLX{EKKVIKEXI QIIXMRK XLI VIUYMVI
QIRXWSJ%781''1ERHLEZMRKEPSSWIFYPO
HIRWMX]SJPFJX OKQ SVPIWWHIXIVQMRIHMREGGSV
HERGI [MXL %781 ''1 'SRGVIXI QERYJEGXYVIH
YWMRKPMKLX[IMKLXEKKVIKEXIMWRSXGSZIVIHF]XLMWKYMHI
EPPS[EFPI FIEVMRK GETEGMX]{XLI QE\MQYQ TVIWWYVI XS
[LMGLEWSMPSVSXLIVQEXIVMEPWLSYPHFIWYFNIGXIHXSKYEVH
EKEMRWXWLIEVJEMPYVISVI\GIWWMZIWIXXPIQIRX
ERGLSVEKI{E HIZMGI IQFIHHIH MR GSRGVIXI JSV XLI
TYVTSWI SJ TVSZMHMRK E GSRRIGXMSR XS ERSXLIV QIQFIV SV
WXVYGXYVI
FEV HMEQIXIV RSQMREP{ZEPYI GSQTYXIH YWMRK XLI
RSQMREPFEVEVIE
FEWI SJ WXVYGXYVI{PIZIP EX [LMGL XLI LSVM^SRXEP IEVXL
UYEOI KVSYRH QSXMSRW EVI EWWYQIH XS FI MQTEVXIH XS E
FYMPHMRK8LMWPIZIPHSIWRSXRIGIWWEVMP]GSMRGMHI[MXLXLI
KVSYRHPIZIP
FIEQ{E WXVYGXYVEP QIQFIV WYFNIGXIH XS E\MEP PSEH ERH
flexure but primarily to flexure. See also KMVHIV
FIRHMRK QSQIRX{XLI FIRHMRK IJJIGX EX ER] WIGXMSR SJ
EWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXMXMWIUYEPXSXLIEPKIFVEMGWYQSJXLI
QSQIRXW SJ XLI MRXIVREP GSQTVIWWMSR ERH XIRWMSR JSVGIW
EGXMRKEXXLIWIGXMSR[MXLVIWTIGXXSXLIGIRXVSMHEPE\MWSJE
QIQFIVSREJVIIFSH]SJXLIQIQFIV
FSYPHIVW{GSEVWIQEXIVMEPWQSVIXLERMR QQ MR
HMEQIXIV

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

FSYRHEV] IPIQIRX{TSVXMSR EPSRK [EPP IHKIW WXVIRKXL


IRIHF]PSRKMXYHMREPERHXVERWZIVWIVIMRJSVGIQIRX&SYRHEV]
IPIQIRXWHSRSXRIGIWWEVMP]VIUYMVIERMRGVIEWIMRXLMGORIWW
SJXLI[EPP
GIQIRX{ER]SJERYQFIVSJQEXIVMEPWXLEXEVIGETEFPISJ
FMRHMRKEKKVIKEXITEVXMGPIWXSKIXLIV
GPE]{REXYVEP QMRIVEP QEXIVMEP LEZMRK TPEWXMG TVSTIVXMIW
and composed of very fine particles; the clay mineral fraction
SJEWSMPMWYWYEPP]GSRWMHIVIHXSFIXLITSVXMSRGSRWMWXMRKSJ
particles finer than 8 10z MR  Q  GPE] QMRIVEPW EVI
IWWIRXMEPP] L]HVSYW EPYQMRYQ WMPMGEXIW SV SGGEWMSREPP]
L]HVSYWQEKRIWMYQWMPMGEXIW
GSPYQR{QIQFIV [MXL E VEXMS SJ LIMKLXXSPIEWX PEXIVEP
HMQIRWMSR I\GIIHMRK  YWIH TVMQEVMP] XS WYTTSVX E\MEP
GSQTVIWWMZIPSEH
GSPPIGXSVIPIQIRX{IPIQIRXXLEXEGXWMRE\MEPXIRWMSRSV
GSQTVIWWMSRXSXVERWQMXIEVXLUYEOIMRHYGIHPSEHWFIX[IIR
EWXVYGXYVEPHMETLVEKQERHEZIVXMGEPIPIQIRXSJXLIWIMWQMG
JSVGIVIWMWXMRKW]WXIQ
GSRGVIXI{QM\XYVI SJ TSVXPERH GIQIRX ERH ER] SXLIV
hydraulic cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, and
[EXIV[MXLSV[MXLSYXEHQM\XYVIW
GSRGVIXI QM\XYVI TVSTSVXMSRMRK{XLI TVSTSVXMSRW SJ
MRKVIHMIRXW XLEX QEOI XLI QSWX IGSRSQMGEP YWI SJ EZEMP
EFPIQEXIVMEPWXSTVSHYGIQSVXEVSVGSRGVIXISJXLIVIUYMVIH
TVSTIVXMIW
concrete, specified compressive strength of JG {
GSQTVIWWMZI G]PMRHIV WXVIRKXL SJ GSRGVIXI EX HE]W YWIH
MRHIWMKRERHIZEPYEXIHMREGGSVHERGI[MXLXLIETTVSTVMEXI
%781 WXERHEVHW I\TVIWWIH MR TWM 14E  ;LIRIZIV XLI
UYERXMX] JG  MW YRHIV E VEHMGEP WMKR JG  WUYEVI VSSX SJ
RYQIVMGEP ZEPYI SRP] MW MRXIRHIHERH XLIVIWYPX QEMRXEMRW
XLIYRMXWEWTWM 14E 
GSRGVIXI PMKLX[IMKLX{GSRGVIXI GSRXEMRMRK PMKLX[IMKLX
EKKVIKEXI ERH ER IUYMPMFVMYQ HIRWMX] EW HIXIVQMRIH F]
%781'FIX[IIRERHPFJX XS
OKQ 8LMWX]TISJGSRGVIXIMWRSXGSZIVIHF]XLMWKYMHI
confinement stirrup or tie{WIIEPWSLSST
GSRWXVYGXMSR HSGYQIRXW{XLI [VMXXIR KVETLMG IPIG
XVSRMGERHTMGXSVMEPHSGYQIRXWHIWGVMFMRKXLIHIWMKRPSGE
XMSRWERHTL]WMGEPGLEVEGXIVMWXMGWSJXLITVSNIGXVIUYMVIHXS
ZIVMJ]GSQTPMERGI[MXLXLIWXERHEVH
GSRXVEGXMSR NSMRX{JSVQIH WE[IH SV XSSPIH KVSSZI MR
E GSRGVIXI WXVYGXYVI XS GVIEXI E [IEOIRIH TPERI ERH VIKY
PEXIXLIPSGEXMSRSJGVEGOMRKVIWYPXMRKJVSQXLIHMQIRWMSREP
GLERKISJHMJJIVIRXTEVXWSJXLIWXVYGXYVI
GSVVSWMSR{HIWXVYGXMSR SJ QIXEP F] E GLIQMGEP IPIGXVS
GLIQMGEPSVIPIGXVSP]XMGVIEGXMSR[MXLMRMXWIRZMVSRQIRX
GSZIV GSRGVIXI{XLI PIEWXHMWXERGI FIX[IIRXLIWYVJEGI
SJIQFIHHIHVIMRJSVGIQIRXERHXLIGPSWIWXSYXIVWYVJEGISJ
XLIGSRGVIXI
GVSWWXMI{E GSRXMRYSYW VIMRJSVGMRK FEV LEZMRKEWIMWQMG
LSSOEXSRIIRHERHELSSORSXPIWWXLERHIKVIIW[MXLEX
PIEWXEWM\HMEQIXIV I\XIRWMSR EX XLI SXLIV IRH 8LI LSSOW
WLEPP IRKEKI TIVMTLIVEP PSRKMXYHMREP FEVW 8LI HIKVII
LSSOWSJX[SWYGGIWWMZIGVSWWXMIWIRKEKMRKXLIWEQIPSRKM
XYHMREPFEVWWLEPPFIEPXIVREXIHIRHJSVIRH

GYVMRK{EGXMSRXEOIRXSQEMRXEMRQSMWXYVIERHXIQTIVE
XYVIGSRHMXMSRWMREJVIWLP]TPEGIHGIQIRXMXMSYWQM\XYVIXS
EPPS[L]HVEYPMGGIQIRXL]HVEXMSRERH MJETTPMGEFPI TS^^S
PERMGVIEGXMSRWXSSGGYVWSXLEXXLITSXIRXMEPTVSTIVXMIWSJXLI
QM\XYVIQE]HIZIPST
GYVXEMR[EPP{[EPPWXLEXEVITEVXSJXLIJEEHISVIRGPS
WYVISJXLIFYMPHMRKXLEXHSRSXJSVQTEVXSJXLIKVEZMX]SV
PEXIVEPPSEHVIWMWXMRKW]WXIQ7IIEPWSTEVXMXMSRW
HITXL SJ QIQFIV Ldistance in a flexural member,
measured from extreme compression fiber to the extreme
tension fiber.
HIWMKR PSEH GSQFMREXMSRW{GSQFMREXMSRW SJ JEGXSVIH
PSEHWERHPSEHW
HIWMKRQIXLSHWXVIRKXL{EQIXLSHSJQIQFIVTVSTSV
XMSRMRKFEWIHSRIRWYVMRKXLEXXLIHIWMKRWXVIRKXLSFXEMRIH
F]VIHYGMRKXLIRSQMREPWXVIRKXLMWPEVKIVXLERXLIVIUYMVIH
WXVIRKXLSFXEMRIHF]ETTP]MRKPSEHJEGXSVWXSWIVZMGIPSEHW
HIZIPSTQIRXPIRKXL{PIRKXLSJIQFIHHIHVIMRJSVGIQIRX
VIUYMVIHXSHIZIPSTXLIHIWMKRWXVIRKXLSJVIMRJSVGIQIRXEX
EGVMXMGEPWIGXMSR
HIZIPSTQIRXPIRKXLJSVEFEV[MXLEWXERHEVHLSSO{
WLSVXIWX HMWXERGI FIX[IIR XLI GVMXMGEP WIGXMSR [LIVI XLI
WXVIRKXLSJXLIFEVMWXSFIHIZIPSTIH ERHEXERKIRXXSXLI
SYXIVIHKISJXLISVHIKVIILSSO
HMJJIVIRXMEP WIXXPIQIRX{XLI PS[IVMRK MR IPIZEXMSR SJ
ZEVMSYWTEVXWSJEJSYRHEXMSRF]HMJJIVIRXEQSYRXW
HSGYQIRXWGSRXVEGX{EWIXSJHSGYQIRXWWYTTPMIHF]XLI
S[RIVXSXLIGSRXVEGXSVEWXLIFEWMWJSVGSRWXVYGXMSR8LIWI
HSGYQIRXW GSRXEMR GSRXVEGX JSVQW GSRXVEGX GSRHMXMSRW
specifications, drawings, addenda, and contract changes.
IJJIGXMZI HITXL SJ WIGXMSR H{HMWXERGI QIEWYVIH
from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension
VIMRJSVGIQIRX
IQFIHQIRXPIRKXL{PIRKXLSJIQFIHHIHVIMRJSVGIQIRX
TVSZMHIHFI]SRHEGVMXMGEPWIGXMSR
IWWIRXMEP JEGMPMXMIW{FYMPHMRKW ERH SXLIV WXVYGXYVIW
MRXIRHIHXSVIQEMRSTIVEXMSREPHYVMRKERHEJXIVERI\XVIQI
IRZMVSRQIRXEPIZIRXJVSQ[MRHWRS[SVIEVXLUYEOI
flange, compression{XLI [MHIRIH TSVXMSR SJ ER - 8
SVWMQMPEVGVSWWWIGXMSRXLEXMWWLSVXIRIHSVGSQTVIWWIHF]
FIRHMRKYRHIVRSVQEPPSEHWWYGLEWXLILSVM^SRXEPTSVXMSR
SJXLIGVSWWWIGXMSRSJEWMQTPIWTER8FIEQ
flexural reinforcement{VIMRJSVGIQIRX TVSZMHIH XS
resist the tension and compression stresses induced by flex
YVEPQSQIRXWEGXMRKSRXLIQIQFIVWIGXMSR
floor systemstructural members that comprise the floor
SJEWXSV]MREFYMPHMRKMRGPYHMRKKMVHIVWFIEQWNSMWXWERH
XLIWPEFXLEXWTERWFIX[IIRXLIQSVXLIWPEFSRP][LIVIMXMW
HMVIGXP]WYTTSVXIHSRGSPYQRWEWMRWPEFGSPYQRW]WXIQW
JSSXMRK{EWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXSJEJSYRHEXMSRXLEXXVERWQMXW
PSEHWHMVIGXP]XSXLIWSMP
JSSXMRKGSQFMRIH{EWXVYGXYVEPYRMXSVEWWIQFP]SJYRMXW
WYTTSVXMRKQSVIXLERSRIGSPYQR
JSVQ[SVO{XSXEP W]WXIQ SJ WYTTSVX JSV JVIWLP] TPEGIH
GSRGVIXI MRGPYHMRK XLI QSPH SV WLIEXLMRK MR GSRXEGX [MXL
XLIGSRGVIXIEW[IPPEWWYTTSVXMRKQIQFIVWLEVH[EVIERH
RIGIWWEV]FVEGMRK

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

JSYRHEXMSR{EW]WXIQSJWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXWXLEXXVERWQMX
PSEHWJVSQXLIWXVYGXYVIEFSZIXSXLIIEVXL
JSYRHEXMSRFIEQ KVEHIFIEQ {EVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI
FIEQYWYEPP]EXKVSYRHPIZIPXLEXWXVIRKXLIRWSVWXMJJIRWXLI
JSYRHEXMSRSVWYTTSVXWSZIVP]MRKGSRWXVYGXMSR
JSYRHEXMSR QEX{E GSRXMRYSYW JSSXMRK WYTTSVXMRK ER
EVVE]SJGSPYQRWMRWIZIVEPVS[WMRIEGLHMVIGXMSRLEZMRK
EWPEFPMOIWLETI[MXLSV[MXLSYXHITVIWWMSRWSVSTIRMRKW
KMVHIV{E PEVKI FIEQ YWYEPP] LSVM^SRXEP XLEX WIVZIW EW
E QEMR WXVYGXYVEP QIQFIV SJXIR WYTTSVXMRK VIEGXMSRW JVSQ
SXLIVFIEQWSVKMVHIVW7IIEPWSFIEQ
KVEHIFIEQ{WII JSYRHEXMSRFIEQ
KVEHI WPEF WPEFSRKVSYRH {E WLEPPS[ JSYRHEXMSR
GSRWMWXMRKSJEGSRXMRYSYWGSRGVIXIWPEFTPEGIHSZIVREXMZI
WSMPSVIRKMRIIVIHWYFKVEHI[LIVIPSEHWEVIPSGEPP]HMWXVMF
YXIHERHXVERWQMXXIHXSXLIKVSYRH
KVEZIP{
+VERYPEVQEXIVMEPTVIHSQMRERXP]VIXEMRIHSRXLI2S
 QQ  WMIZI ERH VIWYPXMRK IMXLIV JVSQ REXYVEP HMWMRXI
KVEXMSRERHEFVEWMSRSJVSGOSVTVSGIWWMRKSJ[IEOP]FSYRH
GSRKPSQIVEXIERH
 8LEX TSVXMSR SJ ER EKKVIKEXI VIXEMRIH SR XLI 2S 
 QQ  WMIZI VIWYPXMRK IMXLIV JVSQ REXYVEP HMWMRXIKVE
XMSR ERH EFVEWMSR SJ VSGO SV TVSGIWWMRK SJ [IEOP] FSYRH
GSRKPSQIVEXI
KVEZMX]PSEHW{PSEHWXLEXEGXHS[R[EVHERHEVIGEYWIH
F] XLI EGGIPIVEXMSR SJ KVEZMX] EGXMRK SR XLI QEWW SJ XLI
IPIQIRXWERHGSRXIRXXLEXGEYWIXLIHIEHERHPMZIPSEHW
LSSO{EFIRHMRXLIIRHSJEVIMRJSVGMRKFEV
LSST{EGPSWIHXMISVGSRXMRYSYWP][SYRHXMI%GPSWIH
XMIGERFIQEHIYTSJWIZIVEPVIMRJSVGIQIRXIPIQIRXWIEGL
LEZMRKWIMWQMGLSSOWEXFSXLIRHW%GSRXMRYSYWP][SYRH
XMIWLEPPLEZIEWIMWQMGLSSOEXFSXLIRHW
MWSPEXMSRNSMRX{EWITEVEXMSRFIX[IIREHNSMRMRKTEVXWSJE
GSRGVIXIWXVYGXYVIYWYEPP]EZIVXMGEPTPERIEXEHIWMKRIHPSGE
XMSRWYGLEWXSMRXIVJIVIPIEWX[MXLTIVJSVQERGISJXLIWXVYG
XYVI]IXWYGLEWXSEPPS[VIPEXMZIQSZIQIRXMRXLVIIHMVIG
XMSRWERHEZSMHJSVQEXMSRSJGVEGOWIPWI[LIVIMRXLIGSRGVIXI
ERHXLVSYKL[LMGLEPPSVTEVXSJXLIFSRHIHVIMRJSVGIQIRXMW
MRXIVVYTXIH
MRXIKVMX] WXVYGXYVEP{XLI HIWMKR GSRGITX XLEX EJXIV ER
SZIVPSEHIZIRXSVEJXIVHEQEKISGGYVWXSEQENSVWYTTSVXMRK
member, the structure has sufficient toughness to confine
the damage to a local area and sufficient overall stability to
TVIZIRXMQQIHMEXIGSPPETWI
NSMWX{E GSQTEVEXMZIP] REVVS[ FIEQ YWIH MR GPSWIP]
spaced parallel arrangements to support floor or roof slabs.
PET WTPMGI{E GSRRIGXMSR SJ VIMRJSVGMRK WXIIP QEHI F]
PETTMRKXLIIRHWSJFEVW
PEXIVEPJSVGIVIWMWXMRK W]WXIQ{TSVXMSR SJ XLI WXVYGXYVI
GSQTSWIHSJ QIQFIVW TVSTSVXMSRIH XS VIWMWX PSEHW VIPEXIH
XSPEXIVEPPSEHW
PMGIRWIH HIWMKR TVSJIWWMSREP{ER MRHMZMHYEP [LS MW
licensed to practice structural design as defined by the statutory
VIUYMVIQIRXWSJXLITVSJIWWMSREPPMGIRWMRKPE[WSJXLIWXEXI
SVNYVMWHMGXMSRMR[LMGLXLITVSNIGXMWXSFIGSRWXVYGXIHERH
[LSMWMRVIWTSRWMFPIGLEVKISJXLIWXVYGXYVEPHIWMKRMRSXLIV
HSGYQIRXWEPWSGEPPIHPMGIRWIHHIWMKRTVSJIWWMSREP



PMQMX WXEXI{E GSRHMXMSR FI]SRH [LMGL E WXVYGXYVI SV


member becomes unfit for service and is judged either to
FIRSPSRKIVYWIJYPJSVMXWMRXIRHIHJYRGXMSR WIVZMGIEFMPMX]
PMQMXWXEXI SVXSFIYRWEJI WXVIRKXLPMQMXWXEXI 
PSEHW{PSEHWSVSXLIVEGXMSRWXLEXVIWYPXJVSQXLI[IMKLX
SJ EPP FYMPHMRK QEXIVMEPW SGGYTERXW ERH SXLIV ZEVMEFPI SV
TIVQERIRX GSRXIRXW IRZMVSRQIRXEP IJJIGXW HMJJIVIRXMEP
QSZIQIRXERHVIWXVEMRIHHMQIRWMSREPGLERKIW4IVQERIRX
PSEHWEVIXLSWIPSEHWMR[LMGLZEVMEXMSRWSZIVXMQIEVIVEVI
SVSJWQEPPQEKRMXYHI%PPSXLIVPSEHWEVIZEVMEFPIPSEHW
PSEHIJJIGXW{PSEHWERHHIJSVQEXMSRWTVSHYGIHMRWXVYG
XYVEPQIQFIVWF]XLIETTPMIHPSEHW
PSEH JEGXSVIH{PSEH QYPXMTPMIH F] ETTVSTVMEXI PSEH
JEGXSVWYWIHXSTVSTSVXMSRQIQFIVWF]XLIWXVIRKXLHIWMKR
QIXLSHSJXLMWKYMHI
PSEH JEGXSV{E JEGXSV F] [LMGL E WIVZMGI PSEH MW QYPXM
TPMIHXSHIXIVQMRIEJEGXSVIHPSEHYWIHMRXLIWXVIRKXLHIWMKR
QIXLSH
PSEH PMZIlive load specified by general building code
[MXLSYXPSEHJEGXSV 
PSEHTIVQERIRX{PSEHMR[LMGLZEVMEXMSRWSZIVXMQIEVI
VEVISVSJWQEPPQEKRMXYHI7IIEPWSPSEHWIVZMGI
PSEHWIVZMGI{EPPPSEHWWXEXMGSVXVERWMXSV]MQTSWIHSRE
WXVYGXYVISVIPIQIRXXLIVISJHYVMRKSTIVEXMSRSJEJEGMPMX]
specified in 'LETXIV  HIEH PMZI WSMP [MRH WRS[ VEMR
flood, and seismic).
PSRKMXYHMREP VIMRJSVGIQIRX{VIMRJSVGIQIRX TEVEPPIP XS
XLIPIRKXLSJEGSRGVIXIQIQFIV
QSHYPYW SJ IPEWXMGMX]{VEXMS SJ RSVQEP WXVIWW XS GSVVI
WTSRHMRK WXVEMR JSV XIRWMPI SV GSQTVIWWMZI WXVIWWIW FIPS[
TVSTSVXMSREPPMQMXSJQEXIVMEP
QSQIRX RIKEXMZIa condition of flexure in which top
fibers of a horizontally placed member, or external fibers of
EZIVXMGEPP]TPEGIHI\XIVMSVQIQFIVEVIWYFNIGXIHXSXIRWMPI
WXVIWWIW
QSQIRXTSWMXMZIa condition of flexure in which, for a
horizontal simply supported member, the deflected shape is
RSVQEPP] GSRWMHIVIH XS FI GSRGEZI HS[R[EVHERH XLIXST
fibers subjected to compression stresses; for other members
ERH SXLIV GSRHMXMSRW GSRWMHIV TSWMXMZI ERH RIKEXMZI EW
VIPEXMZIXIVQW
RSRWXVYGXYVEP IPIQIRXW{XLI EVGLMXIGXYVEP QIGLERMGEP
ERHIPIGXVMGEPGSQTSRIRXWERHW]WXIQWTIVQERIRXP]EXXEGLIH
XSXLIFYMPHMRK
SGGYTERG]{XLI TYVTSWI JSV [LMGL E FYMPHMRK SV SXLIV
WXVYGXYVISVTEVXXLIVISJMWYWIHSVMRXIRHIHXSFIYWIH
TEVXMXMSRW{ERSRWXVYGXYVEPMRXIVMSV[EPPXLEXWTERWLSVM
^SRXEPP]SVZIVXMGEPP]JVSQWYTTSVXXSWYTTSVX8LIWYTTSVXW
QE] FI XLI FEWMG FYMPHMRK JVEQI WYFWMHMEV] WXVYGXYVEP
QIQFIVWSVSXLIVTSVXMSRWSJXLITEVXMXMSRW]WXIQ
TIHIWXEP{YTVMKLX GSQTVIWWMSR QIQFIV [MXL E VEXMS SJ
YRWYTTSVXIH LIMKLX XS EZIVEKI PIEWX PEXIVEP HMQIRWMSR RSX
I\GIIHMRK
TMPI{EWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXXLEXMWHVMZIRNIXXIHSVSXLIV
[MWI IQFIHHIH SR IRH MR XLI KVSYRH XS VIWMWX PSEHW SV
GSQTEGXXLIWSMP

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

TMPI GET{E GSRGVIXI IPIQIRX XLEX XVERWJIVW PSEH JVSQ E


GSPYQR SV TIHIWXEP XS XLI XST SJ SRI SV QSVI WYTTSVXMRK
TMPIW
TPEMR GSRGVIXI{WXVYGXYVEP GSRGVIXI [MXL RS VIMRJSVGI
QIRXSV[MXLPIWWVIMRJSVGIQIRXXLERXLIQMRMQYQEQSYRX
specified for reinforced concrete. Plain concrete is not
GSZIVIHF]XLIKYMHI
TPEMR VIMRJSVGIQIRX{VIMRJSVGIQIRX [MXLSYX WYVJEGI
HIJSVQEXMSRWSVLEZMRKHIJSVQEXMSRWXLEXHSRSXGSRJSVQXS
XLIETTPMGEFPIVIUYMVIQIRXW
TSWMXMZI VIMRJSVGIQIRX{WXIIP VIMRJSVGIQIRX XS VIWMWX
TSWMXMZIFIRHMRKQSQIRX
TVIGEWXGSRGVIXI{WXVYGXYVEPGSRGVIXIIPIQIRXGEWXIPWI
where than its final position in the structure. Precast concrete
MWRSXGSZIVIHF]XLIKYMHII\GITXEWHIWGVMFIHMR
TVIWXVIWWIH GSRGVIXI{WXVYGXYVEP GSRGVIXI MR [LMGL
MRXIVREP WXVIWWIW LEZI FIIR MRXVSHYGIH XS VIHYGI TSXIRXMEP
XIRWMPIWXVIWWIWMRGSRGVIXIVIWYPXMRKJVSQPSEHW4VIWXVIWWIH
GSRGVIXIMWRSXGSZIVIHF]XLIKYMHII\GITXEWHIWGVMFIHMR

TVSNIGXHVE[MRKW{HVE[MRKWXLEXEPSRK[MXLXLITVSNIGX
specifications, complete the descriptive information for
GSRWXVYGXMRKXLI[SVOVIUYMVIHMRXLIGSRXVEGXHSGYQIRXW
project specifications{[VMXXIR HSGYQIRXW XLEX WTIGMJ]
VIUYMVIQIRXW JSV E TVSNIGX MR EGGSVHERGI [MXL XLI WIVZMGI
parameters and other specific criteria established by the
S[RIV7IIEPWSspecifications
VIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI{WXVYGXYVEPGSRGVIXIVIMRJSVGIH[MXL
RSPIWWXLERXLIQMRMQYQEQSYRXWSJVIMRJSVGIQIRX
VIMRJSVGIH GSRGVIXI [EPP{WXVYGXYVEP GSRGVIXI [EPP
VIMRJSVGIH [MXL RS PIWW XLER XLI QMRMQYQ EQSYRX SJ
prestressing steel or nonprestressed reinforcement as specified
MR XLI ETTPMGEFPIFYMPHMRKGSHI%WLIEV[EPPMWEVIMRJSVGIH
GSRGVIXI[EPP
VIMRJSVGIQIRX{HIJSVQIHWXIIPFEVW[MVISV[MVIQIWL
IQFIHHIH MR GSRGVIXI MR WYGL E QERRIV XLEX MX ERH XLI
GSRGVIXIEGXXSKIXLIVMRVIWMWXMRKPSEHW
VIMRJSVGIQIRX GSQTVIWWMSR{VIMRJSVGIQIRX HIWMKRIH
XSGEVV]GSQTVIWWMZIWXVIWWIW
VIMRJSVGIQIRX HIJSVQIH{QIXEP FEVW [MVI SV JEFVMG
[MXLEQERYJEGXYVIHTEXXIVRSJWYVJEGIVMHKIWXLEXTVSZMHIE
PSGOMRKERGLSVEKI[MXLWYVVSYRHMRKGSRGVIXI8LIJSPPS[MRK
WXIIP VIMRJSVGIQIRX MW GSRWMHIVIH HIJSVQIH VIMRJSVGIQIRX
HIJSVQIH VIMRJSVGMRK FEVW [IPHIH TPEMR [MVI JEFVMG ERH
[IPHIHHIJSVQIH[MVIJEFVMGGSRJSVQMRKXSXLIETTVSTVMEXI
%781WXERHEVHW
VIMRJSVGIQIRXRIKEXMZI{WXIIPVIMRJSVGIQIRXJSVRIKEXMZI
QSQIRX
VIMRJSVGIQIRX WTMVEP{GSRXMRYSYWP] [SYRH VIMRJSVGI
QIRXMRXLIJSVQSJEG]PMRHVMGEPLIPM\
VIMRJSVGIQIRXXIRWMSR{VIMRJSVGIQIRXHIWMKRIHXSGEVV]
XIRWMPIWXVIWWIWWYGLEWXLSWIMRXLIFSXXSQSJEWMQTPIFIEQ
VIWLSVIW{WLSVIWTPEGIHWRYKP]YRHIVEGSRGVIXIWPEFSV
SXLIVWXVYGXYVEPQIQFIVEJXIVXLISVMKMREPJSVQWERHWLSVIW
LEZI FIIR VIQSZIH XS EPPS[ XLI RI[ WPEF SV WXVYGXYVEP
member to deflect and support its own weight.
resistance, fire{XLI TVSTIVX]SJEQEXIVMEP SVEWWIQFP]
to withstand fire or give protection from it; as applied to

IPIQIRXW SJ FYMPHMRKW MX MW GLEVEGXIVM^IH F] XLI EFMPMX] XS
confine a fire or, when exposed to fire, to continue to perform
EKMZIRWXVYGXYVEPJYRGXMSRSVFSXL
VIUYMVIHWXVIRKXL{WXVIRKXLSJEQIQFIVSVGVSWWWIGXMSR
VIUYMVIHXSVIWMWXJEGXSVIHPSEHWSVVIPEXIHMRXIVREPQSQIRXW
and loads in specified load combinations.
VIXEMRMRK[EPP{[EPPFYMPXXSLSPHFEGOIEVXL
WERH{
 +VERYPEV QEXIVMEP TEWWMRK XLI  MR  QQ  WMIZI
ERHEPQSWXIRXMVIP]TEWWMRKXLI2S QQ WMIZIERH
TVIHSQMRERXP]VIXEMRIHSRXLI2S  Q WMIZIERH
VIWYPXMRKIMXLIVJVSQREXYVEPHMWMRXIKVEXMSRERHEFVEWMSRSJ
VSGOSVTVSGIWWMRKSJGSQTPIXIP]JVMEFPIWERHWXSRIERH
8LEXTSVXMSRSJEREKKVIKEXITEWWMRKXLI2S QQ 
WMIZIERHTVIHSQMRERXP]VIXEMRIHSRXLI2S  Q WMIZI
ERHVIWYPXMRKIMXLIVJVSQREXYVEPHMWMRXIKVEXMSRERHEFVEWMSR
SJVSGOSVTVSGIWWMRKSJGSQTPIXIP]JVMEFPIWERHWXSRI
WIMWQMGLSSO{ELSSOSREWXMVVYT SVGVSWWXMILEZMRKE
FIRH RSX PIWW XLER  HIKVIIWI\GITX XLEX GMVGYPEV LSSTW
WLEPPLEZIEFIRHRSXPIWWXLERHIKVIIW,SSOWWLEPPLEZI
EHF FYXRSXPIWWXLERMR?QQA I\XIRWMSRXLEXIRKEKIW
XLIPSRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGIQIRXERHTVSNIGXWMRXSXLIMRXIVMSV
SJXLIWXMVVYTSVLSST
WIPJ[IMKLX{[IMKLXSJXLIWXVYGXYVEPQIQFIVGEYWIHF]
XLIQEXIVMEPXLEXGSQTSWIWXLIQIQFIV
WIVZMGIPSEH{EPPPSEHWWXEXMGSVXVERWMXSV]MQTSWIHSRE
WXVYGXYVISVIPIQIRXXLIVISJHYVMRKSTIVEXMSRSJEJEGMPMX]
[MXLSYXPSEHJEGXSVW 
WIXXPIQIRX{HS[R[EVHQSZIQIRXSJXLIWYTTSVXMRKWSMP
WLIEV{ERMRXIVREPJSVGIXERKIRXMEPXSXLITPERISR[LMGL
MXEGXW
WLIEV VIMRJSVGIQIRX{VIMRJSVGIQIRX HIWMKRIH XS VIWMWX
WLIEVSVHMEKSREPXIRWMSRWXVIWWIW
WLIPPGSRGVIXI{GSRGVIXISYXWMHIXLIXVERWZIVWIVIMRJSVGI
ment confining the concrete core.
WLSVIW{ZIVXMGEPSVMRGPMRIHWYTTSVXQIQFIVWHIWMKRIHXS
GEVV]XLI[IMKLXSJXLIJSVQ[SVOGSRGVIXIERHGSRWXVYGXMSR
PSEHWEFSZI
WLVMROEKIERHXIQTIVEXYVIVIMRJSVGIQIRX{VIMRJSVGI
QIRXTVSZMHIHXSVIWMWXWLVMROEKIERHXIQTIVEXYVIWXVIWWIW
MRGSRGVIXI
WMPX{EKVERYPEVQEXIVMEPVIWYPXMRKJVSQXLIHMWMRXIKVEXMSR
SJVSGO[MXLKVEMRWPEVKIP]TEWWMRKE2S  Q WMIZI
EPXIVREXMZIP] WYGL TEVXMGPIW MR XLI VERKI JVSQ    z XS
MR XS Q MRHMEQIXIV
WPEFa molded layer of reinforced concrete, flat, hori
^SRXEP SVRIEVP]WS YWYEPP]SJYRMJSVQFYXWSQIXMQIWSJ
ZEVMEFPI XLMGORIWW IMXLIV SR XLI KVSYRH SV WYTTSVXIH F]
FIEQWGSPYQRW[EPPWSVSXLIVJVEQI[SVO
WSMP{E KIRIVMG XIVQ JSV YRGSRWSPMHEXIH REXYVEP WYVJEGI
QEXIVMEPEFSZIFIHVSGO
WSMPGSEVWIKVEMRIH{WSMPMR[LMGLXLIPEVKIVKVEMRWM^IW
WYGLEWWERHERHKVEZIPTVIHSQMREXI
soil, fine-grained{WSMPMR[LMGLXLIWQEPPIVKVEMRWM^IW
predominate, such as fine sand, silt, and clay.
WSMPFIEVMRK GETEGMX]{XLI QE\MQYQ WXVIWW YRHIV E
JSYRHEXMSRXLEXTVSZMHIWEHIUYEXIWEJIX]EKEMRWXWSMPJEMPYVI
ERHEKEMRWXI\GIWWMZIWSMPWIXXPIQIRX

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

WSPMHWPEF{WPEFSJYRMJSVQXLMGORIWW
WTERPIRKXL{LSVM^SRXEPHMWXERGIFIX[IIR WYTTSVXWSJE
LSVM^SRXEPWXVYGXYVEPQIQFIVWYGLEWEWPEFNSMWXFIEQSV
KMVHIVQIEWYVIHGIRXIVXSGIRXIVSJWYTTSVX
specifications{[VMXXIRHSGYQIRXHIWGVMFMRKMRHIXEMPXLI
WGSTISJ[SVOQEXIVMEPWXSFIYWIHQIXLSHSJMRWXEPPEXMSR
ERHUYEPMX]SJ[SVOQERWLMT7IIEPWSproject specifications
specified lateral seismic loads{PEXIVEP PSEHW GSVVI
WTSRHMRK XS XLI ETTVSTVMEXI HMWXVMFYXMSR SJ XLI FEWI WLIEV
JSVGIJSVWIMWQMGVIWMWXERXHIWMKR
specified wind loads{RSQMREP TVIWWYVI SJ [MRH XS FI
YWIHMRHIWMKR
WTVIEH JSSXMRK{E KIRIVEPP] VIGXERKYPEV TVMWQ SJ
GSRGVIXI PEVKIV MR PEXIVEP HMQIRWMSRW XLER XLI GSPYQR SV
[EPPMXWYTTSVXWXSHMWXVMFYXIXLIPSEHSJEGSPYQRSV[EPPXS
XLIWYFKVEHI7IIEPWSJSSXMRK
WXMVVYT{VIMRJSVGIQIRX YWIH XS VIWMWX WLIEV ERH XSVWMSR
WXVIWWIW MR E WXVYGXYVEP QIQFIV X]TMGEPP] FEVW [MVIW SV
[IPHIH[MVIJEFVMG TPEMRSVHIJSVQIH IMXLIVWMRKPIPIKSV
FIRX MRXS 0 9 SV VIGXERKYPEV WLETIW ERH PSGEXIH TIVTIR
HMGYPEVXSSVEXERERKPIXSPSRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGIQIRX8LI
XIVQwWXMVVYTWxMWYWYEPP]ETTPMIHXSPEXIVEPVIMRJSVGIQIRXMR
FIEQWERHKMVHIVWERHXLIXIVQwXMIWxXSXLSWIMRGSPYQRW
7IIEPWSXMI
WXSV]LIMKLXvertical distance from the floor finish of a
story to the floor finish of the story below.
WXVIRKXL HIWMKR{RSQMREP WXVIRKXL QYPXMTPMIH F] E
WXVIRKXLVIHYGXMSRJEGXSV 
WXVIRKXLRSQMREP{WXVIRKXLSJEQIQFIVSVGVSWWWIGXMSR
GEPGYPEXIHMREGGSVHERGI[MXLTVSZMWMSRWERHEWWYQTXMSRWSJ
XLIWXVIRKXLHIWMKRQIXLSHSJXLMWKYMHIFIJSVIETTPMGEXMSR
SJER]WXVIRKXLVIHYGXMSRJEGXSVW
WXVIRKXL VIHYGXMSR JEGXSV {GETEGMX] VIHYGXMSR JEGXSV
MR WXVYGXYVEP HIWMKR E RYQFIV PIWW XLER  F] [LMGL XLI
RSQMREPWXVIRKXLSJEWXVYGXYVEPQIQFIVSVIPIQIRXMRXIVQW
SJPSEHQSQIRXWLIEVSVWXVIWWMWVIUYMVIHXSFIQYPXMTPMIH
XSHIXIVQMRIHIWMKRWXVIRKXLSVGETEGMX]
WXVIWW{MRXIRWMX]SJJSVGITIVYRMXEVIE
WXVIWW EPPS[EFPI{QE\MQYQ TIVQMWWMFPI WXVIWW YWIH MR
HIWMKRSJQIQFIVWSJEWXVYGXYVIERHFEWIHSREJEGXSVSJ
WEJIX]EKEMRWXJEMPYVI
WXVYGXYVEP GSRGVIXI{EPP GSRGVIXI YWIH JSV WXVYGXYVEP
TYVTSWIWMRGPYHMRKTVIWXVIWWIHERHVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXIERH
YRHIVWTIGMEPGMVGYQWXERGIWTPEMRGSRGVIXI
WXVYGXYVEP HMETLVEKQ{WXVYGXYVEP QIQFIV WYGL EW E
floor or roof slab, that transmits loads acting in the plane of
XLI QIQFIV XS XLI ZIVXMGEP IPIQIRXW SJ XLI WIMWQMGJSVGI
VIWMWXMRKW]WXIQ
XEROcontainer for the storage of water or other fluids.
8LIKYMHISRP]GSZIVWXEROWYWIHJSVWXSVEKISJTSXEFPI[EXIV
MRPSGEXMSRW[LIVIXLI[EXIVWYTTP]W]WXIQMWYRVIPMEFPI
XIQTSVEV]JEGMPMXMIW{FYMPHMRKWSVSXLIVWXVYGXYVIWXSFI
MR WIVZMGI JSV E PMQMXIH XMQI ERH LEZI E PMQMXIH I\TSWYVI
TIVMSHJSVIRZMVSRQIRXEPPSEHMRKW
XMI{PSSTSJVIMRJSVGMRKFEVSV[MVIIRGPSWMRKPSRKMXYHMREP
VIMRJSVGIQIRX % GSRXMRYSYWP] [SYRH FEV SV [MVI MR XLI
JSVQSJEGMVGPIVIGXERKPISVSXLIVTSP]KSRWLETI[MXLSYX
VIIRXVERXGSVRIVWMWEGGITXEFPI7IIEPWSWXMVVYT



XMIIPIQIRXW{IPIQIRXWXLEXWIVZIXSXVERWQMXMRIVXMEPSEHW
ERH TVIZIRX WITEVEXMSR SJ FYMPHMRK GSQTSRIRXW WYGL EW
JSSXMRKWERH[EPPW
XVERWZIVWI VIMRJSVGIQIRX{VIMRJSVGIQIRX PSGEXIH
TIVTIRHMGYPEV XS XLI PSRKMXYHMREP E\MW SJ XLI QIQFIV
GSQTVMWMRKWXMVVYTWXMIWERHWTMVEPVIMRJSVGIQIRX
[EPP{QIQFIVYWYEPP]ZIVXMGEPYWIHXSIRGPSWISVWITEVEXI
WTEGIW7IIEPWSVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI[EPP
[IF{XLMR ZIVXMGEP TSVXMSR SJ ER -WLETIH WIGXMSR XLEX
connects the flanges. See also flange, compression
[MVI{VIMRJSVGMRKFEVSJWQEPPHMEQIXIV
[MVIQIWL{[IPHIH[MVIVIMRJSVGIQIRX
[SVOthe entire construction or separately identifiable
TEVXW XLIVISJ XLEX EVI VIUYMVIH XS FI JYVRMWLIH YRHIV XLI
GSRXVEGXHSGYQIRXW
[SVOMRK WXVIWW{QE\MQYQ TIVQMWWMFPI HIWMKR WXVIWW
YWMRK[SVOMRKWXVIWWHIWMKRQIXLSHW
]MIPH WXVIRKXL J]specified minimum yield strength or
]MIPH TSMRX SJ VIMRJSVGIQIRX =MIPH WXVIRKXL SV ]MIPH TSMRX
WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH MR XIRWMSR EGGSVHMRK XS ETTPMGEFPI
%781WXERHEVHW
',%48)6{7869'896%07=78)10%=398
{(IWGVMTXMSRSJWXVYGXYVEPGSQTSRIRXW
8LIFYMPHMRKWXVYGXYVIWLSYPHFIHMZMHIHMRXSGSQTSRIRXW
EWHIWGVMFIHF]XLVSYKL
 *PSSV W]WXIQ{'SRWMWXW SJ WXVYGXYVEP QIQFIVW
that comprise the floor of a story in a building. 'LETXIV
describes different types of floor systems. The floor system
GER MRGPYHI KMVHIVW FIEQW NSMWXW ERH XLI WPEF XLEX WTERW
FIX[IIRXLIQSVXLIWPEFSRP][LIVIMXMWHMVIGXP]WYTTSVXIH
F]GSPYQRWEWMRWPEFGSPYQRW]WXIQW
 :IVXMGEP WYTTSVXMRK QIQFIVWSupport the floor
W]WXIQ EX IEGL WXSV] ERH GEVV] EGGYQYPEXIH KVEZMX] PSEHW
HS[RXSXLIJSYRHEXMSRSJXLIWXVYGXYVI:IVXMGEPWYTTSVXMRK
QIQFIVW WLSYPH FI IMXLIV GSPYQRW SV VIMRJSVGIH GSRGVIXI
[EPPW
 *SYRHEXMSR{'SQTVMWIWWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXWXLVSYKL
[LMGLXLIPSEHSJEWXVYGXYVIMWXVERWQMXXIHXSXLIIEVXL-X
MRGPYHIWQIQFIVWWYGLEWWTVIEHJSSXMRKWGSQFMRIHJSSXMRKW
JSYRHEXMSR QEXW FEWIQIRX ERH VIXEMRMRK [EPPW ERH KVEHI
FIEQW *SYRHEXMSR QIQFIVW EVI HIWGVMFIH MR 'LETXIV 
(IITJSYRHEXMSRWWYGLEWTMPIWGEMWWSRWTMPIJSSXMRKWERH
GETWEVIFI]SRHXLIWGSTISJXLIKYMHI
 0EXIVEPJSVGIVIWMWXMRK W]WXIQ{'SQTVMWIW XLI
WXVYGXYVEP QIQFIVW XLEX EGXMRK NSMRXP] VIWMWX ERH XVERWQMX
XSXLIKVSYRHXLIPEXIVEPPSEHWEVMWMRKJVSQWIMWQMGQSXMSRW
wind, and lateral earth pressure. The floor system acts as
EHMETLVEKQXLEXGEVVMIWMR MXW TPERIXLIPEXIVEP JSVGIJVSQ
XLIETTPMGEXMSRTSMRXXSXLIZIVXMGEPQIQFIVWSJXLIPEXIVEP
JSVGIVIWMWXMRK W]WXIQ :IVXMGEP QIQFIVW SJ XLI PEXIVEP
JSVGIVIWMWXMRKW]WXIQMRXYVRGSPPIGXXLIPSEHWEVMWMRKJVSQ
all floors and transmit them down to the foundation and
XLVSYKLXLIJSYRHEXMSRXSXLIYRHIVP]MRKWSMP*SVEVIEW[MXL
QSHIVEXI SV LMKL WIMWQMG VMWO XLI QEMR ZIVXMGEP QIQFIVW
SJ XLI PEXIVEPJSVGIVIWMWXMRK W]WXIQ WLSYPH FI VIMRJSVGIH
GSRGVIXI[EPPW

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

 3XLIV WXVYGXYVEP QIQFIVW{3XLIV TEVXW SJ XLI


FYMPHMRKWXVYGXYVIXLEXEVIGSZIVIHMRXLMWKYMHIEVIWXEMV[E]W
VEQTWWQEPPTSXEFPI[EXIVXEROWERHWPEFWSRKVSYRH
{+IRIVEP
 %VGLMXIGXYVEP TVSKVEQ{% KIRIVEP EVGLMXIGXYVEP
TVSKVEQ SJ XLI FYMPHMRK WLSYPH FI GSSVHMREXIH [MXL XLI
PMGIRWIH HIWMKR TVSJIWWMSREP FIJSVI XLI WXVYGXYVEP HIWMKR
FIKMRW8LIKIRIVEPEVGLMXIGXYVEPTVSKVEQWLSYPHMRGPYHIXLI
JSPPS[MRKMXIQWEWEQMRMQYQ
(1) Plan geometry and dimensions of all building floors;
 &YMPHMRKIPIZEXMSRERHXLIXIVVEMRMRGPYHMRKXLIFEWI
QIRXMJER]
 8]TISJVSSJMXWWLETIERHWPSTIWXLIX]TISJ[EXIV
proofing, the means to facilitate the runoff of water from
VEMRERHQIPXMRKWRS[SVLEMPERHXLIPSGEXMSRSJHVEMREKI
KYXXIVW
 9WISJMRXIVREPWTEGIWSJXLIFYMPHMRKMXWWYFHMZMWMSR
ERHQIERWSJWITEVEXMSRMREPPWXSVMIW
(5) Minimum architectural clear height in all floors;
  0SGEXMSR ERH HMQIRWMSRW SJ WXEMV[E]W VEQTW ERH
IPIZEXSVW
 8]TISJFYMPHMRKIRGPSWYVIMRXIVREPTEVXMXMSRWEVGLM
XIGXYVEPERHRSRWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXW
  0SGEXMSRW SJ HYGXW ERH WLEJXW JSV YXMPMXMIW WYGL EW
TS[IV WYTTP] PMKLXMRK XLIVQEP GSRXVSP ZIRXMPEXMSR [EXIV
WYTTP] ERH [EWXI[EXIV MRGPYHMRK IRSYKL MRJSVQEXMSR XS
HIXIGXMRXIVJIVIRGI[MXLXLIWXVYGXYVEPQIQFIVWERH
  %VGLMXIGXYVEP JIEXYVIW XLEX QE] VIHYGI IJJIGXMZI
GSRGVIXIGSZIVSJVIMRJSVGIQIRX
 7XVYGXYVEPTVSKVEQ{&EWIHSRXLIKIRIVEPEVGLMXIG
XYVEPTVSKVEQMRJSVQEXMSRXLIPMGIRWIHHIWMKRTVSJIWWMSREP
should define the general structural program for the building
FIMRKHIWMKRIH8LIKIRIVEPWXVYGXYVEPTVSKVEQMRGPYHIWXLI
JSPPS[MRKMXIQWEWEQMRMQYQ
 -RXIRHIHYWISJXLIFYMPHMRK
 2SQMREPPSEHWVIPEXIHXSXLIYWISJXLIFYMPHMRK
(3) Special loads defined by the owner;
  (IWMKR WIMWQMG PSEHW MJ XLI FYMPHMRK MW PSGEXIH MR E
WIMWQMG^SRI
 ;MRHPSEHWETTVSTVMEXIJSVXLIWMXI
 0SEHWJVSQWRS[LEMPSVVEMR
 *MVIVEXMRK
  8]TI SJ VSSJ ERH EWWSGMEXIHPSEHW [LIR RSX FYMPX SJ
VIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI
 7MXIMRJSVQEXMSRVIPEXIHXSWPSTIWERHWMXIHVEMREKI
  %PPS[EFPI WSMPFIEVMRK GETEGMX] ERH VIGSQQIRHIH
JSYRHEXMSRW]WXIQHIVMZIHJVSQXLIKISXIGLRMGEPMRZIWXMKE
XMSRERHEHHMXMSREPVIWXVMGXMSRWVIPEXIHXSI\TIGXIHWIXXPIQIRX
 )RZMVSRQIRXEPGSRHMXMSRWHIVMZIHJVSQPSGEPWIEWSREP
ERH HEMP] XIQTIVEXYVI ZEVMEXMSRW LYQMHMX] TVIWIRGI SJ
HIPIXIVMSYWGLIQMGEPWERHWEPXW
  %ZEMPEFMPMX] X]TI ERH UYEPMX] SJ QEXIVMEPW WYGL EW
VIMRJSVGMRKFEVWGIQIRXERHEKKVIKEXIW
 %ZEMPEFMPMX]SJJSVQ[SVOQEXIVMEPW
  %ZEMPEFMPMX] SJ E XIWXMRK PEF JSV GSRGVIXI QM\XYVI
TVSTSVXMSRMRKERHUYEPMX]GSRXVSPHYVMRKGSRWXVYGXMSR
(15) Availability of qualified work force; and

*MK{+IRIVEPWXVYGXYVEPPE]SYXMRTPER

Fig. 3.3.2Typical floor structural layout.


 +IRIVEPERHPSGEPWYWXEMREFPIGSRWXVYGXMSRTVEGXMGIW
{7XVYGXYVEPPE]SYX
 +IRIVEP WXVYGXYVEP PE]SYX{8LI PMGIRWIH HIWMKR
professional should define a general structural layout in plan,
MRGPYHMRKEPPMRJSVQEXMSRGSQQSRXSEPPWXVYGXYVIPIZIPWSJ
XLI WXVYGXYVI *MK   8LI KIRIVEP WXVYGXYVEP PE]SYX MR
TPERWLSYPHMRGPYHI
  % HMQIRWMSRIH E\MW KVMH SV GIRXIVPMRIW MR FSXL
TVMRGMTEP HMVIGXMSRW MR TPER PSGEXIH EX XLI MRXIVWIGXMSR SJ
XLI ZIVXMGEP WYTTSVXMRK QIQFIVW GSPYQRW ERH VIMRJSVGIH
GSRGVIXI[EPPW 
  0SGEXMSR MRTPER SJEPP ZIVXMGEP WYTTSVXMRK QIQFIVW
GSPYQRW ERH VIMRJSVGIH GSRGVIXI [EPPW 8LIWI ZIVXMGEP
WYTTSVXMRK QIQFIVW WLSYPH FI EPMKRIH ZIVXMGEPP] ERH FI
GSRXMRYSYWXSXLIJSYRHEXMSR6IMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI[EPPWEVI
TIVQMXXIHMJXLI]EVIGSRXMRYSYWXSXLIJSYRHEXMSRERHLEZI
RSSTIRMRKWJSV[MRHS[WSVHSSVW*YXYVIVIZMWMSRWSJ%'-
6QE]TVSZMHITEVEQIXIVWXLEX[SYPHEPPS[PMQMXIH
STIRMRKW

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



*MK{+IRIVEPWXVYGXYVEPPE]SYXMRIPIZEXMSR
 0SGEXMSRSJEPPHYGXWWLEJXWIPIZEXSVWERHWXEMV[E]W
that are continuous from floor to floor;
  ,SVM^SRXEP HMWXERGI FIX[IIR GIRXIVPMRIW W [LMGL
correspond to the center-to-center span lengths of the floor
W]WXIQERH
  0SGEXMSR ERH HMWXVMFYXMSR SJ EPP VIMRJSVGIH GSRGVIXI
[EPPW
 *PSSVPE]SYX{*SVIEGLJPSSVXLIPMGIRWIHHIWMKR
TVSJIWWMSREP WLSYPH HIZIPST E WXVYGXYVEP JPSSV PE]SYX
*MK 8LIWXVYGXYVEPJPSSVPE]SYXMRGPYHIW
(1) Location of the floor perimeter on the general axis grid;
  +MVHIV ERH FIEQ PSGEXMSRW SV GSPYQR ERH QMHHPI
WXVMTWJSVWPEFGSPYQRW]WXIQW
(3) All substantial architectural openings in the floor; and
(4) An approximate load path from all floor areas to the
WYTTSVXMRKFIEQWERHKMVHIVW
 :IVXMGEP PE]SYX{8LI PMGIRWIH HIWMKR TVSJIWWMSREP
should define a general structural layout in elevation (Fig. 3.3.3).
8LIKIRIVEPWXVYGXYVEPPE]SYXMRIPIZEXMSRMRGPYHIW
 2YQFIVSJWXSVMIW
(2) Story height for each floor, defined as the vertical
distance from floor finish to floor finish;
 7PSTIERHWLETISJXLIVSSJ
(4) Architectural clearance from floor finish to ceiling for
each floor;
 7TEGIRIGIWWEV]XSEGGSQQSHEXITS[IVHMWXVMFYXMSR
[EXIVWYTTP]ERHHVEMREKIERHLIEXMRKZIRXMPEXMSRERHEMV
GSRHMXMSRMRK
 7PSTISJXLIXIVVEMRERHMXWVIPEXMSRWLMTXSXLIKVSYRH
floor or basement; and
 7YTTSVXMRKWSMPWXVEXYQHITXLERH[EXIVXEFPIHITXL
{*IEWMFMPMX]SJKYMHIYWEKI
-JER]SJXLIGSRHMXMSRWWXEXIHMR'LETXIVEVIRSXQIXXLI
WXVYGXYVEPHIWMKRWLSYPHFITIVJSVQIHYWMRKXLIGSHIWERH
WXERHEVHWKMZIRMR
',%48)6{03%(7
{+IRIVEP
8LI PSEH MRJSVQEXMSR MR XLMW GLETXIV MW FEWIH SR XLI
VIUYMVIQIRXWSJXLIQSHIPGSHI -&' ERHXLIVIJIV
IRGIWXERHEVH %7') 

-R NYVMWHMGXMSRW [LIVI XLI PSGEP KSZIVRMRK EYXLSVMX] LEW


EHSTXIHSXLIVWXERHEVHWXLI]WLSYPHFIYWIHVEXLIVXLERXLI
PSEHMRJSVQEXMSRMRXLMWGLETXIV
{0SEHJEGXSVWERHPSEHGSQFMREXMSRW
8LI PEVKIWX VIUYMVIH JEGXSVIH WXVIRKXL 9, as defined in
 JSV XLI WXVYGXYVEP QIQFIV WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH F]
YWMRKPSEHJEGXSVWERHPSEHGSQFMREXMSRWSJXLMWWIGXMSR8LI
JSPPS[MRKETTP]
E  )EGL VIPIZERX WXVIRKXL PMQMX WXEXI WLSYPH FI MRZIW
XMKEXIH MRGPYHMRK IJJIGXW SJ SRI SV QSVI PSEHW RSX EGXMRK
WMQYPXERISYWP]
F  -R PSEH GSQFMREXMSRW[LIVIXLIW]QFSP MWYWIHMR
JEGXSVMRK EPXIVREXMRK PSEHW XLEX EGX MR SRI HMVIGXMSR SV XLI
STTSWMXIMXWLSYPHFIMRXIVTVIXIHEWXLIWMKRXLEXPIEHWXSXLI
QE\MQYQ TSWMXMZI SVQMRMQYQ RIKEXMZI ZEPYISJ9ERH
G  8LI QSWX YRJEZSVEFPI IJJIGXW JVSQ FSXL [MRH ERH
WIMWQMGPSEHWWLSYPHFIMRZIWXMKEXIHFYXXLI]RIIHRSXFI
GSRWMHIVIHXSEGXWMQYPXERISYWP]
 (IEHERHPMZIPSEH{6IUYMVIHJEGXSVIHWXVIRKXL 9
XSVIWMWXHIEHPSEH(ERHPMZIPSEH0WLSYPHFIXLIKVIEXIVSJ
9!(

E

9!(0

F

 6EMRPSEHWRS[PSEHERHWPSTMRKVSSJPMZIPSEH{
6IUYMVIHJEGXSVIHWXVIRKXL9XSVIWMWXVEMRPSEH6WRS[PSEH
7SVWPSTMRKVSSJPMZIPSEH0VWLSYPHFIIZEPYEXIHFEWIHSR
XLIJSPPS[MRKPSEHGSQFMREXMSRW
9 !(0  6SV7SV0V

 E

9 !(0  6SV7SV0V

F

 ;MRHPSEHW{6IUYMVIHJEGXSVIHWXVIRKXL9XSVIWMWX
[MRHPSEHW ;WLSYPH FIIZEPYEXIH FEWIH SRXLI JSPPS[MRK
PSEHGSQFMREXMSRW
9 !(0 ; 6SV7SV0V

E

9 !( ; 6SV7SV0V

 F

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

9 !( ;

G

Note: In ASCE 7-10, wind forces are defined at strength


PIZIP -R TVIZMSYW ZIVWMSRW SJ %7')  [MRH JSVGIW [IVI
defined at working stress level. In jurisdictions where the
PSGEP KSZIVRMRK EYXLSVMX] LEW EHSTXIH E WXERHEVH XLEX MW
different from ASCE 7-10, where wind forces are defined
EX[SVOMRKWXVIWWPIZIPXLIJEGXSVJSV;MR)U E ERH
G  WLSYPH FI  MRWXIEH SJ  ERH MR )U F 
WLSYPHFIMRWXIEHSJ
 7IMWQMG PSEHW{6IUYMVIH JEGXSVIH WXVIRKXL 9 XS
VIWMWX WIMWQMG PSEHW ) WLSYPH FI IZEPYEXIH FEWIH SR XLI
JSPPS[MRKPSEHGSQFMREXMSRW
9 !(07 )

E

9 !( )

F

 )EVXLTVIWWYVI{*SVQIQFIVWVIWMWXMRKPEXIVEPIEVXL
TVIWWYVI , XLI VIUYMVIH JEGXSVIH WXVIRKXL 9 WLSYPH FI EX
PIEWXIUYEPXS
9 !(0,



;LIR XLI FYMPHMRK WXVYGXYVI EW E [LSPI VIWMWXW TIVQERIRX


YRGSQTIRWEXIHLSVM^SRXEPPSEHWHYIXSPEXIVEPWSMPTVIWWYVI
,WLSYPHFIEHHIHXSXLIVMKLXWMHISJ)U G ERH
)U F 
 Weight and pressure of fluids{*SVQIQFIVWWYFNIGXIH
to weight and pressure of fluids with well-defined densities
ERHGSRXVSPPEFPIQE\MQYQLIMKLXW*MR)U E ERH
*MR)U F WLSYPHFIEHHIHXSXLIVMKLXWMHI
 3XLIVIJJIGXW{;LIVIWXVYGXYVEPIJJIGXW8SJHMJJIV
IRXMEP WIXXPIQIRX WLVMROEKI SV XIQTIVEXYVI GLERKI EVI
significant in design, the design should not be performed
YWMRK XLI KYMHI ERH XLI GSHIW ERH WXERHEVHW PMWXIH MR 
WLSYPHFIYWIH
{1EWWERH[IMKLX
% GPIEV HMWXMRGXMSR FIX[IIR QEWW ERH [IMKLX WLSYPH FI
QEHIF]XLIPMGIRWIHHIWMKRTVSJIWWMSREPMREPPGEPGYPEXMSRW
{;IMKLXSJQEXIVMEPW
-RHIXIVQMRMRKHIEHPSEHWXLIEGXYEP[IMKLXSJQEXIVMEPW
ERHGSRWXVYGXMSRWWLSYPHFIYWIH
In the absence of definite information, the approximated
ZEPYIWPMWXIHMR8EFPIQE]FIYWIH
{(IEHPSEHW
 Definition of dead loads{(IEH PSEHW GSRWMWX SJ
XLI [IMKLX SJ GSRWXVYGXMSR QEXIVMEP MRGSVTSVEXIH MRXS XLI
building, including, but not limited to: structure, walls, floors,
roofs, ceilings, stairways, ramps, finishes, cladding, other
incorporated architectural and structural systems, and fixed
WIVZMGIIUYMTQIRX;LIRHIXIVQMRMRKHIEHPSEHWJSVHIWMKR
TYVTSWIWXLIEGXYEP[IMKLXWSJQEXIVMEPWERHGSRWXVYGXMSRW
should be used. For design purposes, the weight of fixed
WIVZMGI IUYMTQIRX WYGL EW TPYQFMRK WXEGOW ERH VMWIVW

IPIGXVMGEP JIIHIVW ERH LIEXMRK ZIRXMPEXMRK ERH EMV GSRHM


XMSRMRKW]WXIQWWLSYPHFIMRGPYHIH[MXLXLIHIEHPSEHW
 7IPJ[IMKLX SJ GSRGVIXI{8LI YRMX [IMKLX SJ VIMR
JSVGIHGSRGVIXIWLSYPHFIXEOIREWPFJX OKQ 
 (IEH PSEHW JVSQ RSRWXVYGXYVEP IPIQIRXW{(IEH
PSEHW JVSQ RSRWXVYGXYVEP IPIQIRXW WLSYPH FI HMZMHIH MRXS
ZIVXMGEPERHLSVM^SRXEPRSRWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXW
 *PEXRSRWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXW{8LI]WLSYPHMRGPYHI
GSRWXVYGXMSR QEXIVMEP [MXL E ZIVXMGEP HMQIRWMSR XLEX MW
WYFWXERXMEPP] PIWW XLER XLI LSVM^SRXEP HMQIRWMSRW ERH EVI
either applied, supported, attached, fixed, or suspended from
XLI WPEFW SV VSSJ SJ XLI FYMPHMRK 8LIWI IPIQIRXW WLSYPH
MRGPYHIFYXEVIRSXPMQMXIHXSTIVQERIRXWPEFSVNSMWXJSVQW
floor topping, floor fills, floor finishes, roof slope fills, roof
coverings, tiles, waterproofing membranes, thermal insula
XMSRWO]PMKLXWGIMPMRKWJYVVMRKERHHYGXWJSVWIVZMGIW
For purposes of design, the dead loads due to flat nonstruc
XYVEP IPIQIRXW QE] FI GSRWMHIVIH YRMJSVQ ZIVXMGEP PSEHW
TIVYRMXEVIESJLSVM^SRXEPWYVJEGISVLSVM^SRXEPTVSNIGXMSR
applied to the corresponding zones or areas where the flat
RSRWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXWEVIPSGEXIH-RHIXIVQMRMRKXLIHIEH
loads of flat nonstructural elements, the actual weight of
QEXIVMEPW ERH GSRWXVYGXMSRW ERH VIEPMWXMG XLMGORIWW WLSYPH
FIYWIH%WEKYMHI8EFPIKMZIWQMRMQYQYRMX[IMKLX
1YPXMTP] XLI ZEPYIW TVSZMHIH F] XLI GSVVIWTSRHMRK XLMGO
RIWWMRJX?QAXSSFXEMRHIEHPSEHWMRPFJX?2QA -R8EFPIW
EXSHZEPYIWEVIKMZIRJSVHIEHPSEHWSJX]TMGEP
flat nonstructural element construction materials. The values
TVSZMHIHMR8EFPIWEXS HGSVVIWTSRHXSEZIVEKI
QMRMQYQ ZEPYIW 8LI PMGIRWIH HIWMKR TVSJIWWMSREP WLSYPH
GSRWMHIV XLI TSWWMFMPMX] SJ ZEVMEXMSR SJ XLIWI ZEPYIW JVSQ
HMJJIVIRXPSGEPQEXIVMEPWERHPSGEPGSRWXVYGXMSRTVEGXMGIW
 7XERHMRKRSRWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXW{7XERHMRKRSRWXVYG
XYVEP IPIQIRXW WLSYPH MRGPYHI GSRWXVYGXMSR QEXIVMEP [LSWI
ZIVXMGEP HMQIRWMSR MW WYFWXERXMEPP] KVIEXIV XLER XLI PIEWX
LSVM^SRXEPHMQIRWMSRERHEVIIMXLIVJVIIWXERHMRKWYTTSVXIH
F]ZIVXMGEP WXVYGXYVEP QIQFIVW SVEXXEGLIHXSXLIQSVWTER
vertically from floor to floor. These elements include, but
EVI RSX PMQMXIH XS JEEHIW RSRWXVYGXYVEP [EPPW TEVXMXMSRW
[EPP GSZIVMRKW ZIRIIV EVGLMXIGXYVEP SVREQIRXW [MRHS[W
doors, and vertical ducts for services. In office buildings or
SXLIVFYMPHMRKW[LIVITEVXMXMSRWGERFIIVIGXIHSVVIEVVERKIH
TVSZMWMSRW JSV TEVXMXMSR [IMKLX WLSYPH FI QEHI [LIXLIV SV
RSXTEVXMXMSRWEVIWLS[RSRXLIEVGLMXIGXYVEPHVE[MRKW(IEH
PSEHWLSYPHFIMRGPYHIHEWYRMJSVQZIVXMGEPPSEHWTIVYRMXEVIE
SJLSVM^SRXEPWYVJEGIMRPFJX O2Q 
(IEHPSEHWJVSQWXERHMRKRSRWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXWQE]FI
GSRWMHIVIHEWGSRGIRXVEXIHPSEHWSVEWYRMJSVQPMRIPSEHW
TIV YRMX SJ PIRKXL SJ RSRWXVYGXYVEP IPIQIRX %W E KYMHI
MR 8EFPI  QMRMQYQ YRMX [IMKLXW EVI KMZIR 1YPXMTP]
ZEPYIWF]XLIGSVVIWTSRHMRKXLMGORIWWMRJX Q ERHF]XLI
IPIQIRXLIMKLXMRJX Q XSSFXEMRYRMJSVQPMRIHIEHPSEHWMR
PFJX 2Q -R8EFPIWEXSIZEPYIWEVIKMZIR
JSV HIEH PSEHW SJ X]TMGEP WXERHMRK RSRWXVYGXYVEP IPIQIRXW
GSRWXVYGXMSR QEXIVMEPW MR PF O2  TIV YRMX ZIVXMGEP EVIE MR
JX Q 8SSFXEMRYRMJSVQPMRIHIEHPSEHWMRPFJX O2Q 
QYPXMTP]ZEPYIWWYKKIWXIHMR8EFPIWEXSIF]
XLI LIMKLX SJ XLI WXERHMRK RSRWXVYGXYVEP IPIQIRX MRJX Q 

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



8EFPI {1MRMQYQYRMX[IMKLX JSVIZEPYEXMSRSJHIEHERHPMZIPSEHWJVSQQEXIVMEPW


1EXIVMEP
%PYQMRYQ
&MXYQMRSYWTVSHYGXW
%WTLEPXERHXEV
+EWSPMRI
+VETLMXI
Paraffin
4IXVSPIYQ
&VEWW
&VSR^I
'IQIRXTSVXPERHPSSWI
'IVEQMGXMPI
'LEVGSEP
Cinder fill
'SEPTMPIH
'SRGVIXITPEMR
'SRGVIXIVIMRJSVGIH
'STTIV
'SVOGSQTVIWWIH
)EVXL
'PE]HV]
'PE]HEQT
'PE]ERHKVEZIPHV]
7MPXQSMWXTEGOIH
7MPXQSMWXPSSWI
7ERHERHKVEZIPHV]PSSWI
7ERHERHKVEZIPHV]TEGOIH
7ERHERHKVEZIP[IX
+PEWW
+VEZIPHV]
+]TWYQPSSWI
+]TWYQ[EPPFSEVH
-GI

9RMX[IMKLX
PFJX

1EWWHIRWMX]
OKQ



































































8LIZEPYIWTVSZMHIHMR8EFPIWERHEXSI
GSVVIWTSRHXSX]TMGEPEZIVEKIQMRMQYQZEPYIWXLIPMGIRWIH
HIWMKR TVSJIWWMSREP WLSYPH GSRWMHIV XLI ZEVMEXMSR SJ XLIWI
ZEPYIWHYIXSPSGEPQEXIVMEPWERHPSGEPGSRWXVYGXMSRTVEGXMGIW
(IEHPSEHSJMRXIVREPWXERHMRKRSRWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXWWYGL
EWMRXIVREP[EPPWERHTEVXMXMSRWQE]FIGSRWMHIVIHYRMJSVQ
ZIVXMGEPHIEHPSEHWTIVYRMXEVIE[LIRWIGSRHEV]WXVYGXYVEP
members of the floor system are capable of supporting the
VIWYPXMRKGSRGIRXVEXIHSVYRMJSVQPMRIPSEHW[MXLSYXMQTEMV
ment to strength and serviceability of the floor system or the
RSRWXVYGXYVEP IPIQIRX -J WXERHMRK RSRWXVYGXYVEP IPIQIRXW
EVI QSVI XLER SRI WXSV] XEPP XLIMV HIEH PSEHW WLSYPH FI
GSRWMHIVIHGSRGIRXVEXIHPSEHWSVPMRIPSEHW8LIHIEHPSEH
SJJEEHIWERHIPIQIRXWSJXLIFYMPHMRKIRGPSWYVIWLSYPHFI
GSRWMHIVIHPMRIPSEHWSRXLIWPEFIHKI
  %PXIVREXMZI QMRMQYQ ZEPYIW JSV HIEH PSEHW SJ
RSRWXVYGXYVEP IPIQIRXW{*SV FYMPHMRKW [MXL WXSV] LIMKLXW
RSXI\GIIHMRK JX  Q  XLI QMRMQYQ ZEPYIW MRPFJX
O2Q) of horizontal floor area given in 8EFPIJSV
XLI SGGYTERGMIW PMWXIH QE] FI YWIH MRWXIEH SJ E HIXEMPIH
EREP]WMWSJHIEHPSEHWGEYWIHF]RSRWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXW

1EXIVMEP
-VSR
'EWX
;VSYKLX
0IEH
0MQI
,]HVEXIHPSSWI
,]HVEXIHGSQTEGXIH
1EWSRV]FVMGO WSPMHTSVXMSR
1EWSRV]GSRGVIXI WSPMHTSVXMSR
1EWSRV]KVSYX
1EWSRV]WXSRI
1SVXEVGIQIRXSVPMQI
4EVXMGPIFSEVH
4P][SSH
7ERH
'PIERERHHV]
6MZIVHV]
7XIIP
7XSRI
&EWEPXKVERMXIKRIMWW
0MQIWXSRIQEVFPIUYEVX^
7ERHWXSRI
7LEPI
8IVVEGSXXE
Voids filled
Voids unfilled
8MR
;EXIV
*VIWL
7IE
;SSHWIEWSRIH
>MRGVSPPIHWLIIX

9RMX[IMKLX
PFJX

1EWWHIRWMX]
QOKQ

























































XS




XS


 *M\IH IUYMTQIRX{*M\IH IUYMTQIRX HIEH PSEH


WLSYPHFITVSZMHIHF]XLIIUYMTQIRXQERYJEGXYVIV
{0MZIPSEHW
0MZIPSEHWEVITVSHYGIHF]XLIYWIERHSGGYTERG]SJXLI
FYMPHMRKERHHSRSXMRGPYHIGSRWXVYGXMSRSVIRZMVSRQIRXEP
PSEHWWYGLEW[MRHPSEHWRS[PSEHVEMRPSEHWIMWQMGPSEH
SV HIEH PSEH 0MZI PSEHW WLSYPH FI XLI QE\MQYQ PSEHW
I\TIGXIHJSVXLIMRXIRHIHYWISVSGGYTERG]FYXWLSYPHRSX
FIPIWWXLERXLIQMRMQYQYRMJSVQP]HMWXVMFYXIHYRMXPSEHW
KMZIRMR8EFPIJSVXLISGGYTERGMIWPMWXIH
{6SSJPMZIPSEHW
6SSJPMZIPSEHWWLSYPHRSXFIPIWWXLERXLIQE\MQYQPMZI
PSEHYWIH JSV XLI VIWX SJ XLI FYMPHMRK ERH [LIRSJ QM\IH
SGGYTERG] XLI QE\MQYQ SJ XLI HMJJIVIRX SGGYTERGMIW
;LMPI XLMW VSSJ PMZI PSEH MW RSX VIUYMVIH F] XLI WXERHEVHW
MR FYMPHMRKWMRWSQIGSYRXVMIWGSQQSRP]EHHEREHHM
tional floor level during the life of the structure. This live
PSEHZEPYIEHHVIWWIWXLMWTSWWMFMPMX];LIRXLIVSSJMWERSR
GSRGVIXIVSSJ[MXLEWPSTIKVIEXIVXLERHIKVIIWWYTTSVXIH

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

8EFPI E{*PEXRSRWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXWQMRMQYQHIEHPSEHWGIMPMRKW
'SQTSRIRX
'IMPMRKW
Acoustical fiberboard
+]TWYQFSEVH
1IGLERMGEPHYGXEPPS[ERGI
7TVMROPIVW]WXIQEPPS[ERGI
0YQMREVMIWERHIPIGXVMGEPW]WXIQEPPS[ERGI
4PEWXIVSRXMPISVGSRGVIXI
4PEWXIVSR[SSHPEXL
7YWTIRHIHWXIIPGLERRIPW]WXIQ
7YWTIRHIHQIXEPPEXLERHGIQIRXTPEWXIV
7YWTIRHIHQIXEPPEXLERHK]TWYQTPEWXIV
;SSHJYVVMRKWYWTIRWMSRW]WXIQ

0SEH PFJX TIVJX of floor area

0SEH O2Q TIVQ of floor area


 TIVMRXLMGORIWW











 TIVQQXLMGORIWW










8EFPI 4.5.3.1bFlat nonstructural elements minimum dead loads: floor fill


'SQTSRIRX

0SEH PFJX TIVJX of floor area

0SEH O2Q TIVQ of floor area

Floor fill

TIVMRXLMGORIWW





TIVQQXLMGORIWW





'MRHIVGSRGVIXI
0MKLX[IMKLXGSRGVIXI
7ERH
7XSRIGSRGVIXI

8EFPI 4.5.3.1cFlat nonstructural elements minimum dead loads: floors


'SQTSRIRX
Floors and floor finishes
%WTLEPXFPSGO MR?QQA MR QQ QSVXEV
Cement finish (1 in. [25 mm]) on stone-concrete fill
'IVEQMGSVUYEVV]XMPI MR?QQA SRMR QQ QSVXEVFIH
'IVEQMGSVUYEVV]XMPI MR?QQA SRMR QQ QSVXEVFIH
Concrete fill finish
Hardwood flooring, 7/7 in. (25 mm)
0MRSPIYQSVEWTLEPXXMPIMR QQ
Marble and mortar on stone-concrete fill
7PEXI
Solid flat tile on 1 in. (25 mm) mortar base
Sub flooring, 3/4 in. (20 mm)
8IVVE^^SMR QQ HMVIGXP]SRWPEF
Terrazzo 1 in. (25 mm) on stone-concrete fill
8IVVE^^SMR QQ MR QQ WXSRIGSRGVIXI
Wood block 3 in. (75 mm) on mastic, no fill
;SSHFPSGOMR QQ SRMR QQ QSVXEVFEWI

SREWXIIPSV[SSHWXVYGXYVIMXMWTIVQMXXIHXSYWIEVSSJPMZI
PSEHSJPFJX O2Q 
{6EMRPSEH
)EGL TSVXMSR SJ XLI VSSJ WLSYPH FI HIWMKRIH XS WYWXEMR
XLI EGGYQYPEXIH VEMR[EXIV MJ XLI HVEMREKI W]WXIQ JSV XLEX
TSVXMSRMWFPSGOIH
{7RS[PSEH
;LIVIWRS[MWI\TIGXIHXLIPSEHWGEYWIHF]MXWEGGYQY
PEXMSRWLSYPHFIXEOIRMRXSEGGSYRX[LIRHIWMKRMRKXLIVSSJ

0SEH PFJX TIVJX of floor area

0SEH O2Q TIVQ of floor area





 TIVMRXLMGORIWW



 TIVMRXLMGORIWW












 TIVQQXLMGORIWW



 TIVQQXLMGORIWW








8LIPSEHWWLSYPHFIGEPGYPEXIHYWMRKXLIPSGEPGSHITVSZM
WMSRW-RXLIEFWIRGISJEKSZIVRMRKPSGEPGSHIXLIQMRMQYQ
WRS[PSEHEXPEXMXYHIWKVIEXIVXLERHIKVIIWMRPFJX O2Q
MWKMZIR MR *MK ;LIVI VIGSVHW SVI\TIVMIRGIRIEVXLI
WMXI MRHMGEXI XLEX XLI ZEPYI [MXL E  TIVGIRXERRYEP TVSFE
FMPMX]SJFIMRKI\GIIHIH ]IEVQIERVIGYVVIRGIMRXIVZEP 
I\GIIHW XLI ZEPYI JVSQ *MK  SV XLI FYMPHMRK MW WYFNIGX
to significant ice loads, the design should not be performed
YWMRK XLI KYMHI ERH XLI GSHIW ERH WXERHEVHW PMWXIH MR 
WLSYPHFIYWIH

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



8EFPI H{*PEXRSRWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXWQMRMQYQHIEHPSEHWVSSJGSZIVMRKW
'SQTSRIRX
6SSJGSZIVMRK
%WFIWXSWGIQIRXWLMRKPIW
%WTLEPXWLMRKPIW
'IQIRXXMPI
'PE]XMPIMRGPYHMRKQSVXEV
'STTIVSVXMR
Corrugated asbestos-cement roofing
(IGOQIXEPKEYKI QQRSQMREPXLMGORIWW
(IGOQIXEPKEYKI QQRSQMREPXLMGORIWW
(IGOMRKMR QQ [SSH
(IGOMRKMR QQ [SSH
*MFIVFSEVHMR QQ
+]TWYQWLIEXLMRKMR QQ
-RWYPEXMSRVSSJFSEVHW
*MFVSYWSVGIPPYPEVKPEWW
*MFIVFSEVH
4IVPMXI
4SP]WX]VIRIJSEQ
9VIXLERIJSEQ[MXLWOMR
4P][SSH TIVMR?QQAXLMGORIWW
7O]PMKLXQIXEPJVEQIMR QQ [MVIKPEWW
Waterproofing membranes:
&MXYQMRSYWKVEZIPGSZIVIH
&MXYQMRSYWWQSSXLWYVJEGI
0MUYMHETTPMIH
7MRKPITP]WLIIX
;SSHWLIEXLMRK
;SSHWLMRKPIW

0SEH PFJX TIVJX of floor area

0SEH O2Q TIVQ of floor area



























 TIVMRXLMGORIWW
 TIVMRXLMGORIWW
 TIVMRXLMGORIWW
 TIVMRXLMGORIWW
 TIVMRXLMGORIWW
 TIVMRXLMGORIWW


 TIVQQXLMGORIWW
 TIVQQXLMGORIWW
 TIVQQXLMGORIWW
 TIVQQXLMGORIWW
 TIVQQXLMGORIWW
 TIVQQXLMGORIWW






 TIVMRXLMGORIWW






 TIVQQXLMGORIWW


8EFPI E{7XERHMRKRSRWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXWQMRMQYQHIEHPSEHWGSZIVMRKWJSV[EPPW

'SQTSRIRX
'SZIVMRKJSV[EPPW
'IQIRXXMPI
*MFIVFSEVHMR QQ
+]TWYQWLIEXLMRKMR QQ
-RWYPEXMSR[EPPFSEVHW
*MFVSYWSVGIPPYPEVKPEWW
*MFIVFSEVH
4IVPMXI
4SP]WX]VIRIJSEQ
9VIXLERIJSEQ[MXLWOMR
4P][SSH TIVMR QQ XLMGORIWW
;SSHWLIEXLMRK

0SEH PFJX TIVJXSJZIVXMGEPWYVJEGI QYPXMTP]


F]XLILIMKLXSJIPIQIRXMRJXXSSFXEMRPMRIPSEHW
MRPFJX

0SEH O2Q TIVQSJZIVXMGEPWYVJEGI


QYPXMTP]F]XLILIMKLXSJIPIQIRXMRQXS
SFXEMRPMRIPSEHWMRO2Q









 TIVMRXLMGORIWW
 TIVMRXLMGORIWW
 TIVMRXLMGORIWW
 TIVMRXLMGORIWW
 TIVMRXLMGORIWW
 TIVMRXLMGORIWW
 TIVMRXLMGORIWW

 TIVQQXLMGORIWW
 TIVQQXLMGORIWW
 TIVQQXLMGORIWW
 TIVQQXLMGORIWW
 TIVQQXLMGORIWW
 TIVQQXLMGORIWW
 TIVQQXLMGORIWW

{;MRHPSEHW
 +IRIVEP{7IGXMSR  TVSZMHIW E QIXLSH XS
GEPGYPEXI[MRHPSEHWSREFYMPHMRKERHSRMRHMZMHYEPWXVYGXYVEP
QIQFIVWERHGPEHHMRK8LITVSGIHYVIWERHZEPYIWTVSZMHIH
F]EPSGEPFYMPHMRKGSHIWLSYPHFIYWIHXSSFXEMR[MRHPSEHW
-RXLIEFWIRGISJEPSGEPFYMPHMRKGSHIJSVFYMPHMRKW[MXL
VIKYPEVKISQIXVMGWLETIWVIWTSRWIGLEVEGXIVMWXMGWERHWMXI
PSGEXMSRWXLIJSPPS[MRKWLSYPHETTP]&YMPHMRKWXLEXHSRSX

GSQTP][MXLXLIWIJIEXYVIWWLSYPHFIGSRWMHIVIHSYXWMHIXLI
WGSTISJXLIKYMHI  
 4VSGIHYVI{;MRH TVIWWYVIW ERH [MRH PSEHW
EX WXVIRKXL PIZIP WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH MR EGGSVHERGI [MXL
7XITWXLVSYKLOIITMRKMRQMRHXLEXFYMPHMRK[MRHPSEHW
EVIFEWIHSRXLIKVSWWI\TSWIHEVIEWMRXLIHMVIGXMSRSJXLI
[MRH[LIVIEWGSQTSRIRXERHGPEHHMRK[MRHPSEHWEVIFEWIH
SRXLIIPIQIRXEVIEYRHIVWXYH]

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

8EFPI F{7XERHMRKRSRWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXWQMRMQYQHIEHPSEHWPMKLXTEVXMXMSRW

'SQTSRIRX

0SEH PFJX TIVJXSJZIVXMGEPWYVJEGI


QYPXMTP]F]XLILIMKLXSJIPIQIRXMR
JXXSSFXEMRPMRIPSEHWMRPFJX

0SEH O2Q TIVQSJZIVXMGEPWYVJEGI


QYPXMTP]F]XLILIMKLXSJIPIQIRXMRQ
XSSFXEMRPMRIPSEHWMRO2Q















0MKLXTEVXMXMSRW
1SZEFPIWXIIPTEVXMXMSRW RSRJYPPLIMKLX
1SZEFPIWXIIPTEVXMXMSRW JYPPLIMKLX
;SSHSVWXIIPWXYHWMR QQ K]TWYQFSEVHIEGLWMHI
;SSHWXYHW\MR \QQ YRTPEWXIVIH
;SSHWXYHW\MR \QQ TPEWXIVIHSRIWMHI
;SSHWXYHW\MR \QQ TPEWXIVIHX[SWMHIW

8EFPI G{7XERHMRKRSRWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXWQMRMQYQHIEHPSEHWZIRIIV

'SQTSRIRX

0SEH PFJX TIVJXSJZIVXMGEPWYVJEGI


QYPXMTP]F]XLILIMKLXSJIPIQIRXMRJXXSSFXEMR
PMRIPSEHWMRPFJX

0SEH O2Q TIVQSJZIVXMGEPWYVJEGI


QYPXMTP]F]XLILIMKLXSJIPIQIRXMRQXSSFXEMR
PMRIPSEHWMRO2Q

 TIVMRXLMGORIWW
 TIVMRXLMGORIWW
 TIVMRXLMGORIWW
 TIVMRXLMGORIWW

 TIVQQXLMGORIWW
 TIVQQXLMGORIWW
 TIVQQXLMGORIWW
 TIVQQXLMGORIWW

:IRIIV
+VERMXI
0MQIWXSRI
7ERHWXSRI
'IVEQMG

8EFPI H{7XERHMRKRSRWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXWQMRMQYQHIEHPSEHW[EPPW
0SEH PFJX
TIVJXSJZIVXMGEPWYVJEGI
QYPXMTP]F]XLILIMKLXSJIPIQIRXMRJXXS
SFXEMRPMRIPSEHWMRPFJX

0SEH O2Q
TIVQSJZIVXMGEPWYVJEGI
QYPXMTP]F]XLILIMKLXSJIPIQIRXMRQXS
SFXEMRPMRIPSEHWMRO2Q

\MR \QQ EXMR QQ MR


QQ K]TWYQMRWYPEXIHMR QQ WMHMRK





\MR \QQ EXMR QQ MR


QQ K]TWYQMRWYPEXIHMR QQ WMHMRK





'SQTSRIRX
;EPPW
)\XIVMSVWXYH[EPPW WXIIPSV[SSHWXYHW 

)\XIVMSVWXYH[EPPW[MXLFVMGOZIRIIV
'PE]WSPMHQEWSRV]YRMX[EPPW
9RTPEWXIVIH
'PE]XMPIQEWSRV]YRMX[EPPW
4PEWXIVMRFSXLJEGIW
9RTPEWXIVIH
,SPPS[GSRGVIXIQEWSRV]YRMX[EPPW
2SKVSYX
MRSG Q KVSYXWTEGMRK
MRSG Q KVSYXWTEGMRK
MRSG Q KVSYXWTEGMRK
MRSG Q KVSYXWTEGMRK
MRSG Q KVSYXWTEGMRK
*YPPKVSYX
7SPMHGSRGVIXIQEWSRV]YRMX[EPPW
9RTPEWXIVIH





;EPPXLMGORIWW
MRMRMRMR


;EPPXLMGORIWW QQ



;EPPXLMGORIWW
MRMRMRMRMR



;EPPXLMGORIWW QQ




;EPPXLMGORIWW
MRMRMRMRMR








;EPPXLMGORIWW QQ









;EPPXLMGORIWW
MRMRMRMRMR


;EPPXLMGORIWW QQ



%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



8EFPI I{7XERHMRKRSRWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXWQMRMQYQHIEHPSEHW[MRHS[W

'SQTSRIRX

0SEH PFJX TIVJXSJZIVXMGEPWYVJEGI


QYPXMTP]F]XLILIMKLXSJIPIQIRXMRJX
XSSFXEMRPMRIPSEHWMRPFJX

0SEH O2Q TIVQSJZIVXMGEPWYVJEGI


QYPXMTP]F]XLILIMKLXSJIPIQIRXMRQ
XSSFXEMRPMRIPSEHWMRO2Q







;MRHS[W
+PEWWGYVXEMR[EPPWKPEWWJVEQIERHWEWL
;MRHS[WKPEWWJVEQIERHWEWL

8EFPI {%PXIVREXMZIQMRMQYQZEPYIWJSVHIEHPSEHSJRSRWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXW[LIRRSHIXEMPIH
EREP]WMWMWTIVJSVQIH
*EEHIERH
TEVXMXMSRW
PFJX O2Q
TIVJX Q SJ
floor area

Floor finish and


GIMPMRK
PFJX O2Q
TIVJX Q SJ
floor area

&YMPHMRKLEZMRKEREWWIQFP]VSSQ[MXLGETEGMX]SJPIWWXLER
TIVWSRWERHRSXLEZMRKEWXEKI

 

 

1SZEFPIJYPPLIMKLXTEVXMXMSRW
*M\IHQEWSRV]TEVXMXMSRW
'PEWWVSSQW
0MKLXMRHYWXVMIW
6IWMHIRXMEPFSEVHERHGEVIJEGMPMXMIW
4VMWSRWNEMPWVIJSVQEXSVMIWHIXIRXMSRGIRXIVW
(E]GEVIJEGMPMXMIW
(MWTPE]ERHWEPISJQIVGLERHMWI
1EWSRV]JEEHIERHTEVXMXMSRW
0MKLXJEEHIERHTEVXMXMSRW
7XSVEKISJPMKLXQEXIVMEPW

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

+EVEKIWJSVZILMGPIW[MXLGEVV]MRKGETEGMX]YTXSPF OK

 

 

3GGYTERG]
+VSYT%{%WWIQFP]

%
%

+VSYT&{&YWMRIWW

&

+VSYT){)HYGEXMSREP
+VSYT*{*EGXSV]

+VSYT1{1IVGERXMPI

)
*
-
-
-
1

+VSYT6{6IWMHIRXMEP

+VSYT7{7XSVEKI

7

+VSYT9{9XMPMX]ERH
1MWGIPPERISYW

+VSYT-{-RWXMXYXMSREP

8EFPI {1MRMQYQYRMJSVQP]HMWXVMFYXIHPMZIPSEHW
3GGYTERG]SVYWI

+VSYT%{%WWIQFP]

+VSYT&{&YWMRIWW

+VSYT){
)HYGEXMSREP
+VSYT*{*EGXSV]
+VSYT-{
-RWXMXYXMSREP
+VSYT1{
1IVGERXMPI
+VSYT6{
6IWMHIRXMEP
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ERH1MWGIPPERISYW

&EPGSRMIW
'SVVMHSVWERHWXEMV[E]W
+]QREWMYQW
0SFFMIW
1SZEFPIWIEXW
6IGVIEXMSREPEVIEW
4PEXJSVQW
'SVVMHSVWERHWXEMV[E]W
Offices
6IWXEYVERXW
'PEWWVSSQW
'SVVMHSVWERHWXEMV[E]W
0MFVEVMIW
6IEHMRKVSSQW
7XEGOVSSQW
0MKLXMRHYWXVMIW
3TIVEXMRKVSSQWPEFSVEXSVMIW
;EVHWERHTVMZEXIVSSQW
'SVVMHSVWERHWXEMV[E]W
6IXEMP
;LSPIWEPI
&EPGSRMIW
4VMZEXIVSSQWERHGSVVMHSVWWIVZMRKXLIQ
4YFPMGVSSQWERHGSVVMHSVWWIVZMRKXLIQ
7XEMV[E]W
0MKLX
+EVEKIWJSVTEWWIRKIVGEVWSRP]

9RMJSVQPSEH PFJX TIVJXSJ 9RMJSVQPSEH O2Q TIVQ


of floor area
floor area
























































%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

8EFPI {8]TMGEPZEPYIWSJWXVIRKXLPIZIP
FEWMG[MRHWTIIH:

*MK{1MRMQYQWRS[PSEH
7XIT  :IPSGMX] TVIWWYVI UL WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH MR
EGGSVHERGI[MXLERH
7XIT  %TTVSTVMEXI 'WY pressure coefficients should
FI WIPIGXIH JVSQ  HITIRHMRK SR I\TSWIH FYMPHMRK
WYVJEGIW EWWYQMRK XLEX XLI [MRH EGXW MR XLI TSWMXMZI ERH
RIKEXMZI WIRWI MR FSXL TVMRGMTEP HMVIGXMSRW MR TPER SJ XLI
FYMPHMRK
7XIT:IPSGMX]TVIWWYVIUL affected by the force coefficients
ERHQYPXMTPMIHF]XLII\TSWIHEVIESJXLIWYVJEGI%WYWLSYPH
FIYWIHXSHIXIVQMRIXLIIUYMZEPIRXWXEXMG[MRHHIWMKRJSVGI
*WY XLEXEGXWMR EHMVIGXMSRRSVQEP XSXLI I\TSWIHFYMPHMRK
WYVJEGIW
7XIT  'SQTSRIRXW MR XLI HMVIGXMSR SJ XLI [MRH SJ XLI
WXEXMG[MRHPSEHWXLEXEGXSRXLIWYVJEGIW*WYWLSYPHFIEPKI
FVEMGEPP] EHHIH XS SFXEMR XLI [MRH FEWI WLIEV :[ JSV XLI
FYMPHMRKMRIEGLTVMRGMTEPHMVIGXMSRMRTPERMRFSXLWIRWIW
7XIT  7XEXMG [MRH PSEHW XLEX EGX SR XLI WXVYGXYVEP
QIQFIVW ERH GPEHHMRK WLSYPH FI YWIH XS HIWMKR XLI MRHM
ZMHYEPIPIQIRXWERHXLIMVEXXEGLQIRXWXSXLIWXVYGXYVI
7XIT7XEXMG[MRHPSEHWXLEXEGXSRXLIFYMPHMRKWLSYPH
FIYWIHXSHIWMKRXLIQIQFIVWSJXLIPEXIVEPPSEHVIWMWXMRK
W]WXIQERHXLISZIVEPPWXEFMPMX]SJXLIWXVYGXYVI
 %TTPMGEXMSR SJ TVIWWYVIW ERH PSEHW{7XEXMG
[MRHHIWMKRPSEHW*WYWLSYPHFIEWWYQIHXSEGXMREHMVIG
XMSR RSVQEP XS XLI WYVJEGI GSRWMHIVIH EX XLI GIRXVSMH SJ
MXW EVIE *WY YWIH MR GEPGYPEXMRK FYMPHMRK PSEHW WLSYPH FI
I\TVIWWIH EW XLI VIWYPXERX EPSRK XLI TVMRGMTEP E\MW SJ XLI
FYMPHMRK )U F 
 'EPGYPEXMSRSJXLI[MRHPSEHW
 :IPSGMX]TVIWWYVIGEPGYPEXMSR{:IPSGMX]TVIWWYVI
ULEXXLIQIERVSSJLIMKLXLVSZIVXLIXIVVEMRWLSYPHFIGEPGY
PEXIHJVSQ)U E ERH F 

qh

1 2 hr
V
400
33

2
7

ULMRPFJX  LVMRQERH:MRQTL E




ULMRO2Q LVMRQERH:MRQW

6IKMSR

:QTL

:QW

-WPERHWERHGSEWXEPVIKMSRWI\TSWIHXSXVSTMGEP
WXSVQW

XS


XS

-WPERHWERHGSEWXEPVIKMSRWI\TSWIHXS
WYFXVSTMGEPWXSVQW

XS


XS

-WPERHWERHGSEWXEPVIKMSRWRSXI\TSWIHXS
XVSTMGEPSVWYFXVSTMGEPWXSVQW

XS


XS

8SVREHSTVSRIVIKMSRW

XS


XS

'SRXMRIRXEPVIKMSRWQSVIXLERQMPIW
OQ JVSQXLIGSEWX

XS


XS

 7IPIGXMSRSJFEWMG[MRHWTIIH{&EWMG[MRHWTIIH
EX WXVIRKXL PIZIP : GSVVIWTSRHW XS E WIGSRH KYWX WTIIH
EXJX Q EFSZIKVSYRHQIEWYVIHEXSTIRXIVVEMR[MXL
WGEXXIVIHSFWXVYGXMSRWLEZMRKLIMKLXWPIWWXLERJX Q 
WYGLEWSTIRGSYRXV][MXLE]IEVQIERVIXYVRTIVMSH
8LITIVGIRXI\GIIHERGITVSFEFMPMX]MRE]IEVTIVMSH
SVXLIERRYEPTVSFEFMPMX]XLEXXLIFEWMG[MRHWTIIH[MPPFI
I\GIIHIHMW
8EFPI  KMZIW X]TMGEP ZEPYIW SJ FEWMG [MRH WTIIH
EX WXVIRKXL PIZIP KMZIR EW E KYMHI JSV VIKMSRW SYXWMHI SJ
XLI9RMXIH7XEXIWERHGSYRXVMIW[LIVI[MRHWTIIHZIPSGMX]
MRJSVQEXMSRMWRSXEZEMPEFPI8LIYWIVWLSYPHVIJIVXSLMWXSV
MGEPVIGSVHWSVPSGEPVIKYPEXMSRWJSVEGXYEPHIWMKRWTIIH%
HMWXMRGXMSRWLSYPHFIQEHIFIX[IIRXLIX]TISJFEWMG[MRH
WTIIH WIGSRHKYWXSVJEWXIWXQMPI XLIQIERVIXYVRTIVMSH
and the type of exposure where the wind velocity is defined.
+MZIR XLI PEXIVEPPSEHFYMPHMRK WXMJJRIWW SFXEMRIH JVSQ XLI
KYMHIEKYWXIJJIGXJEGXSVMWRSXMRGPYHIHMRXLITVSGIHYVI
 ;MRHPSEHWSREFYMPHMRK{8LIIUYMZEPIRXWXEXMG
WXVIRKXL PIZIP [MRH JSVGI XLEX EGXW MR XLI HMVIGXMSR RSVQEP
XS XLI [MRHI\TSWIH WYVJEGI WLSYPH FI GEPGYPEXIH YWMRK
)U E 6IKEVHPIWWSJXLISTIRRIWWSJXLII\TSWIH
WYVJEGIXLIKVSWWEVIEWLSYPHFIYWIH
*WY!UL%WY'WY

E

[LIVI %WYMWXLII\TSWIHWYVJEGIEVIEERH 'WYMWXLIZEPYI


KMZIRMR
% TSWMXMZI ZEPYI SJ *WY MRHMGEXIWXLEX XLIJSVGIMW EGXMRK
XS[EVHXLIWYVJEGIERHERIKEXMZIZEPYIMRHMGEXIW XLEXXLI
JSVGI MW EGXMRKE[E] JVSQ XLI WYVJEGI WYGXMSR  8LI [MRH
design force at floor level \ *\HYIXS[MRHMRETVMRGMTEP
HMVIGXMSRMRTPERWLSYPHFIGEPGYPEXIHEWXLIWYQSJEPP[MRH
I\TSWIHWYVJEGIWSJXLIWXSV]YWMRK)U F 

Fx

n
w 1

Fsu( w ) cos

cos

F

[LIVI [MWXLILSVM^SRXEPERKPIFIX[IIRXLIRSVQEPXSXLI
WYVJEGIERH XLITVMRGMTEPHMVIGXMSRMR TPER YRHIV GSRWMHIV
EXMSRERH [MWXLIZIVXMGEPERKPIFIX[IIRXLIRSVQEPXSXLI
WYVJEGIERHELSVM^SRXEPPMRI

F
%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



8EFPI 4.10.3.1Pressure coefficients for the building as a whole


8]TISJWYVJEGI
:IVXMGEPWYVJEGIW
4VMWQEXMGVIGXERKYPEVFYMPHMRKW
4EVXMEPP]STIRWYVJEGIW 'WYETTPMIWSZIVKVSWWEVIE
TIVGIRXXSTIVGIRXSTIR
"TIVGIRXSTIR
,SVM^SRXEPVSSJWYVJEGIW
)RGPSWIHFYMPHMRKW
&YMPHMRKW[MXLSRISVX[SSTIRWMHIW

'WY
8SXEPFYMPHMRK

'WY
;MRH[EVH

'WY
0II[EVH





z







z
z

z
z

z
z

z
z
z
z
z
z


z
z
z
z
z
z
z
z

'WYETTPMIWSZIVSJXLIVSSJEVIEJSV[MRH[EVH
'WYETTPMIWSZIVSJXLIVSSJEVIEJSVPII[EVH
7PSTMRKVSSJWYVJEGIW
6SSJERKPIQIEWYVIH[MXLVIWTIGXXSELSVM^SRXEPPMRI







5"

5

-R )U F , care should be used in defining the sign


XSFIYWIHJSV*WY[MXLVIWTIGXXSXLIHMVIGXMSRMR[LMGLXLI
JSVGIMWEGXMRK
8LI [MRH FEWI WLIEV :[ MR E TVMRGMTEP HMVIGXMSR MR TPER
GSVVIWTSRHWXSXLIWYQSJEPPWXSV][MRHPSEHW*\MRXLITVMR
GMTEPHMVIGXMSRMRTPERYRHIVWXYH]
 ;MRH PSEHW SR GSQTSRIRXW ERH GPEHHMRK{
'EPGYPEXMSRSJXLIWXVIRKXLPIZIP[MRHJSVGISRGSQTSRIRXW
ERHGPEHHMRKWLSYPHFITIVJSVQIHYWMRK)U  
*T[!UL%T'T



[LIVI %TMWXLIGSQTSRIRXI\TSWIHWYVJEGIEVIEERH'TMW
XLIGSQTSRIRXWYVJEGITVIWWYVI
 Pressure coefficients
 Pressure coefficients for a building{4VIWWYVI
coefficients in Table 4.10.3.1 should be used for the calcula
tion of the wind loads on a building. Note that coefficients
reflect the direction of the force relative to the direction of
XLIQIQFIVW-RXIVQWSJXLIFYMPHMRKXSXEPPSEHIJJIGXJSV
ZIVXMGEPWYVJEGIWXLIEFWSPYXIZEPYIWWLSYPHFIEHHIH
 Pressure coefficients for components and clad
HMRKPressure coefficients in Table 4.10.3.2 should be used
JSV XLI GEPGYPEXMSR SJ XLI WXVIRKXL PIZIP [MRH PSEHW SRXLI
GSQTSRIRXWERHGPEHHMRKTSWMXMZIJSVTVIWWYVIERHRIKEXMZI
JSVWYGXMSR
{7IMWQMGPSEHW
 +IRIVEP{6IWMWXERGI XS WIMWQMG PSEHW WLSYPH FI
provided by using a sufficient number of reinforced concrete
[EPPW GSRXMRYSYW JVSQ XLI VSSJ XS XLI JSYRHEXMSR MR FSXL
TVMRGMTEP HMVIGXMSRW MR TPER 6IMRJSVGIH GSRGVIXI [EPPW

8EFPI 4.10.3.2Pressure coefficients for


GSQTSRIRXWERHGPEHHMRK
8]TISJWYVJEGI
:IVXMGEPWYVJEGIW
)\XIVMSV[EPPWSJIRGPSWIHFYMPHMRKW
(SSVWERH[MRHS[W
)\XIVMSV[EPPWSJFYMPHMRKW[MXLSRISVQSVIWMHIWSTIR
,SVM^SRXEPWYVJEGIW
%[E]JVSQIHKIWERHGSVRIVW
)HKIWSJFYMPHMRKERHE[E]JVSQGSVRIVW
'SVRIVWSJFYMPHMRK

'T







)HKIHMWXERGIMWTIVGIRXSJPIRKXLSJWYVJEGIMRGSRWMHIVEXMSR

TVSHYGIWXMJJWXVYGXYVIW[MXLEWLSVXJYRHEQIRXEPTIVMSHSJ
vibration, and the seismic loads given in the guide reflect
XLMW X]TISJWXVYGXYVI 8LIGEPGYPEXMSRSJWIMWQMG PSEHW JSV
more flexible structures is beyond the scope of the guide.
%HHMXMSREPWIMWQMGMRJSVQEXMSRMWTVIWIRXIHMR'LETXIV
 7IMWQMGKVSYRHQSXMSRW
 7IMWQMGPSEHWERHWIMWQMGHIWMKR{-XMWMRXIRHIHXLEX
[LIVIXLIKSZIVRMRKEYXLSVMX]LEWEHSTXIHF]PSGEPSVHMRERGI
XLIQSHIPGSHI -&' ERHVIJIVIRGIWXERHEVH %7') 
WIMWQMGHIWMKRPSEHWERHWIMWQMGHIWMKRTVIWGVMFIHYRHIVXLI
QSHIPGSHI -&' ERHVIJIVIRGIWXERHEVH %7') 
WLSYPH FI YWIH QIIXMRK  ERH  ;LIVI XLIWI
WXERHEVHWLEZIRSXFIIREHSTXIHF]XLIKSZIVRMRKEYXLSVMX]
XLVSYKLWLSYPHFIYWIH
 (IWMKR WTIGXVEP EGGIPIVEXMSR TEVEQIXIVW{8LI
HIWMKR IEVXLUYEOI WTIGXVEP EGGIPIVEXMSR TEVEQIXIV EX WLSVX
TIVMSH 7(7 WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH JVSQ XLI TVSGIHYVI IWXEF

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

8EFPI 4.11.2.4.2Values of the site coefficient *E


7SMP
profile
7%
7&
7'
7(
7)

Site coefficient *EJSVWLSVXTIVMSHWSJZMFVEXMSR


%E 
%E!
%E!
%E!
%E 






























PMWLIHMRVIJIVIRGIWXERHEVH%7')8LIHIWMKRWTIGXVEP
SVHMREXIWJSVHIXIVQMRMRKWIMWQMGPSEHW7ESJXLIKYMHIEVI
IUYEPXS7(7
 7IMWQMG (IWMKR 'EXIKSVMIW{-R XLI KYMHI XLI
JSPPS[MRKHMWXMRGXMSRSJ7IMWQMG(IWMKR'EXIKSVMIWEWEWWS
GMEXIH[MXLWIMWQMGVMWOWLSYPHFIYWIHMRXLSWIGEWIW[LIVI
VIJIVIRGIWXERHEVH%7')LEWRSXFIIREHSTXIHF]PSGEP
EYXLSVMXMIW
E  0S[SVRSWIMWQMGVMWO^SRIWEVI[LIVIXLI7IMWQMG
(IWMKR 'EXIKSV] EWWMKRIH XS XLI WXVYGXYVI MR XLI TVSGI
HYVIMRXLIVIJIVIRGIHWXERHEVHWJSV7LSVX4IVMSH6IWTSRWI
%GGIPIVEXMSRMWIMXLIV%SV&
F  1SHIVEXI SV LMKL WIMWQMG VMWO ^SRIW EVI [LIVI XLI
7IMWQMG (IWMKR 'EXIKSV] EWWMKRIH XS XLI WXVYGXYVI MR XLI
TVSGIHYVI MR XLI VIJIVIRGIW WXERHEVHW JSV 7LSVX4IVMSH
6IWTSRWI%GGIPIVEXMSRMW'()SV*
 7IMWQMG PSEHW ERH WIMWQMG HIWMKR [LIR XLI
VIJIVIRGIH WXERHEVHW LEZI RSX FIIR EHSTXIH{;LIVI XLI
KSZIVRMRKEYXLSVMX]LEWRSXEHSTXIHXLIQSHIPGSHI -&' 
ERHVIJIVIRGIWXERHEVH %7') XLIKVSYRHQSXMSRWLSYPH
FI HIWGVMFIH XLVSYKL ER IJJIGXMZI TIEO KVSYRH LSVM^SRXEP
EGGIPIVEXMSR MR VSGO JSV WLSVX TIVMSHW SJ ZMFVEXMSR %E
I\TVIWWIHEWEJVEGXMSRSJKVEZMX]K8LIZEPYIWKMZIRMRXLI
KIRIVEPFYMPHMRKGSHILEZMRKNYVMWHMGXMSRWLEPPFIYWIHJSV
SFXEMRMRKXLIGSVVIWTSRHMRKZEPYIW  
Where the building code having jurisdiction defines a
QE\MQYQGSRWMHIVIHWIMWQMGKVSYRHQSXMSRFEWIHSRWTIG
XVEPVIWTSRWIEGGIPIVEXMSRWEXTIVGIRXSJGVMXMGEPHEQTMRK
XLIWLSVXTIVMSH WIGSRH ZEPYIW7WWLSYPHFIIQTPS]IH
ERHXLIZEPYISJ%EQE]FISFXEMRIHEW%E!7W;LIVI
the building code having jurisdiction defines a seismic zone
JEGXSV >XLIZEPYISJ%EWLSYPHFIXEOIRIUYEPXS>
 Soil profile types&EWIH SR XLI WSMP X]TI
present at the building site, the soil profile should be classified
EWSRISJXLIJSPPS[MRK
(a) Soil Profile 7%LEVHVSGO[MXLEQIEWYVIHWLIEV[EZI
ZIPSGMX] ZW "JXW QW 
(b) Soil Profile 7& VSGO [MXL QSHIVEXI JVEGXYVMRK ERH
[IEXLIVMRK[MXLEQIEWYVIHWLIEV[EZIZIPSGMX]MRXLIVERKI
JXW ZW "JXW?QW ZW "QWA 
(c) Soil Profile 7' WSJX [IEXLIVIH SV JVEGXYVIH VSGO SV
HIRWISVWXMJJWSMP[LIVIXLIQIEWYVIHWLIEV[EZIZIPSGMX]
MWMRXLIVERKI JXW ZW "JXW?QW ZW "
QWA SVMRXLIYTTIVJX Q XLI748VIWMWXERGILEW
EREZIVEKIZEPYISJ2 "SVEWLIEVWXVIRKXLJSVGPE]WWY
PFJX WY O4E 
(d) Soil Profile 7(TVIHSQMREXIP]QIHMYQHIRWIXSHIRWI
SVQIHMYQWXMJJXSWXMJJWSMP[LIVIXLIQIEWYVIHWLIEV[EZI
ZIPSGMX]MWMRXLIVERKI JXW ZW "JXW?QW

ZW "QWA SV[LIVIMRXLIYTTIVJX Q XLI748


VIWMWXERGILEWEREZIVEKIZEPYIMRXLIVERKI  2 c 
SVEWLIEVWXVIRKXLJSVGPE]WMRXLIVERKI PFJX c WY 
PFJX?O4Ec WY O4EA 
(e) Soil Profile 7) a soil profile where the measured shear
[EZIZIPSGMX]ZW JXW QW SVXLI748VIWMWXERGI
LEWEREZIVEKIZEPYI2 MRXLIYTTIVJX Q SV
LEWQSVIXLERJX Q SJTPEWXMG 4-" LMKLQSMWXYVI
GSRXIRX ["TIVGIRX ERHPS[WLIEVWXVIRKXL WY PF
JX?WY O4EA GPE]WERH
(f) Seismically vulnerable soils: sites where the soil profile
GSRXEMRWWSMPLEZMRKSRISVQSVISJXLIJSPPS[MRKGLEVEGXIV
MWXMGWEVIFI]SRHXLIWGSTISJXLIKYMHI M WSMPWZYPRIVEFPI
XSTSXIRXMEPJEMPYVISVGSPPETWIYRHIVWIMWQMGQSXMSRWWYGL
as liquefiable soils, quick and highly sensitive clays, collaps
MFPI[IEOP]GIQIRXIHWSMP MM TIEXWLMKLP]SVKERMGGPE]W
SVFSXL[MXLQSVIXLERJX Q SJXLMGORIWW MM ZIV]
LMKLTPEWXMGMX]GPE]W 4-" [MXLQSVIXLERJX Q SJ
XLMGORIWWERH MZ WSJXXSQIHMYQWXMJJGPE]W[MXLQSVIXLER
JX Q SJXLMGORIWW
When the soil profile and properties are not known well
enough in detail to determine the soil profile type, a soil
profile 7(WLSYPHFIYWIH
 7MXI IJJIGXW{7MXI IJJIGXW WLSYPH FI HIWGVMFIH
through the site coefficient for short periods of vibration, *E
Values of the site coefficient for short periods of vibration,
*EWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ8EFPIEWEJYRG
XMSRSJXLIIJJIGXMZITIEOKVSYRHLSVM^SRXEPEGGIPIVEXMSRMR
VSGOJSV WLSVX TIVMSHWSJZMFVEXMSR %E, and the soil profile
X]TIJVSQ0MRIEVMRXIVTSPEXMSRGERFIYWIHFIX[IIR
ZEPYIWSJ%EMR8EFPI
7MXI IJJIGX SJ WIMWQMGEPP] ZYPRIVEFPI WSMPW EW HIWGVMFIH
MR  MW FI]SRH XLI WGSTI SJ XLI KYMHI ERH HIWMKRW
WLSYPHRSXFIQEHIYRHIVXLIKYMHIJSVFYMPHMRKWPSGEXIHSR
WYGLWSMP
 7IMWQMG VMWO ^SRIW [LIR VIJIVIRGIH WXERHEVHW
LEZIRSXFIIREHSTXIH{8LIJSPPS[MRKHMWXMRGXMSRSJWIMWQMG
VMWOWLSYPHFIYWIH
E 0S[ERHRSWIMWQMGVMWO^SRIW^SRIW[LIVI%EMWPIWW
XLERSVIUYEPXSERH
F 1SHIVEXISVLMKLWIMWQMGVMWO^SRIW^SRIW[LIVI%E
I\GIIHW
 (IWMKRVIWTSRWIWTIGXVEPSVHMREXIW[LIRVIJIV
IRGIH WXERHEVHW LEZI RSX FIIR EHSTXIH{3VHMREXIW SJ XLI
IPEWXMGHIWMKRVIWTSRWIWTIGXVYQ7EJSVEHEQTMRKVEXMSSJ
TIVGIRXSJGVMXMGEPI\TVIWWIHEWEJVEGXMSRSJXLIEGGIPIVEXMSR
SJKVEZMX]WLSYPHFIGEPGYPEXIHEW
7E!%E*E



 7IMWQMGHIWMKRFEWIWLIEV
 7IMWQMGVIWMWXERXWXVYGXYVEPW]WXIQ{8LIWIMWQMG
resistant structural system used in this guide is classified as
EHYEPFYMPHMRKJVEQIW]WXIQ[LIVIERIWWIRXMEPP]GSQTPIXI
QSQIRXVIWMWXERX WTEGI JVEQI WYTTSVXW KVEZMX] PSEHW ERH
VIWMWXERGIXSPEXIVEPPSEHWMWTVSZMHIHF]VIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI
[EPPW [MXL XLI QSQIRXVIWMWXMRK WTEGI JVEQI TVSZMHMRK
E QMRMQYQ GSPPEXIVEP PEXIVEP PSEH VIWMWXERGI 6IMRJSVGIH

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

GSRGVIXI [EPPW VIWMWXMRK PEXIVEP PSEHW EVI RSX TIVQMXXIH XS


GEVV]ZIVXMGEPE\MEPPSEHWKVIEXIVXLEXXLIFEPERGIHTSMRXE\MEP
WXVIRKXL )U  
 )RIVK]HMWWMTEXMSRGETEGMX]SJXLIWIMWQMGVIWMW
XERXWXVYGXYVEPW]WXIQ{8LIIRIVK]HMWWMTEXMSRGETEGMX]MR
XLIMRIPEWXMGVERKISJXLIWIMWQMGVIWMWXERXWXVYGXYVEPW]WXIQ
described by the response modification factor, should have
EZEPYISJ6W !
 'EPGYPEXMSR SJ XLI WIMWQMG HIWMKR FEWIWLIEV{
8LI WIMWQMG HIWMKR FEWI WLIEV :FW IUYMZEPIRX XS XLI XSXEP
LSVM^SRXEPMRIVXMEPIJJIGXWGEYWIHF]WIMWQMGKVSYRHQSXMSRW
WLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHYWMRK)U  
a

bs



[LIVI 7EWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ)U   6WMWXLI


response modification factor determined from 4.11.3.2; and
;WGSVVIWTSRHWXSXLIXSXEP[IMKLXSJXLIFYMPHMRK;WWLSYPH
MRGPYHIXLIXSXEP[IMKLXSJXLIWXVYGXYVITPYWXLI[IMKLXSJEPP
RSRWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXWWYGLEW[EPPWERHTEVXMXMSRWTIVQE
RIRXIUYMTQIRXXEROWERHXLIGSRXEMRIHPMUYMHMRWXSVEKIERH
SGGYTERGMIW ;W WLSYPH EPWS MRGPYHI  TIVGIRX SJ XLI PMZI
PSEHERHXLIWRS[PSEH[LIRXLIWRS[PSEHI\GIIHWPF
JX O4E 
 :IVXMGEP HMWXVMFYXMSR SJ HIWMKR WIMWQMG PSEHW{
8SXEPWIMWQMGHIWMKRFEWIWLIEVWLSYPHFIHMWXVMFYXIHSZIV
XLIFYMPHMRKLIMKLXYWMRK)U E ERH)U F %X
each floor level designated as \ *\WLSYPHFIETTPMIHSZIV
XLIFYMPHMRKEVIEMREGGSVHERGI[MXLXLIQEWWHMWXVMFYXMSRW
EXIEGLPIZIP
*\!'Z\:FW

Cvx

w x hx
n
i 1

wi hi

E



QMRIHF]%[MRHFEWIWLIEV:SERHMXWHMWXVMFYXMSR
SZIVXLIFYMPHMRKLIMKLXWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHJSVFSXLQEMR
HMVIGXMSRWMRTPEREWHIXIVQMRIHF]8LISZIVXYVRMRK
QSQIRX 1SXGEYWIHF]XLI[MRHPSEHWMRFSXLQEMRHMVIG
XMSRWMRTPERWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHEWHIXIVQMRIHF]
The application of the resultant wind loads on each floor and
TVMRGMTEP HMVIGXMSR WLSYPH FI GEPGYPEXIH ERH XLI XSVWMSREP
QSQIRXWSRXLIWXVYGXYVI8MEFSYXEZIVXMGEPE\MWWLSYPHFI
IZEPYEXIHEWHIXIVQMRIHF]JSVIEGLWXSV]
 7IMWQMG PSEHW{7IMWQMG PSEHW WLSYPH FI HIXIV
QMRIHF],SVM^SRXEPWIMWQMGPSEHW*\EXIEGLPIZIP\
ERHMRIEGLQEMRHMVIGXMSRMRTPERWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHF]
%PEXIVEPFEWIWLIEV:SERHMXWHMWXVMFYXMSRSZIVXLI
FYMPHMRKLIMKLXWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHF]ERH
JSV FSXL QEMRHMVIGXMSRW MR TPER 8LI SZIVXYVRMRK QSQIRX
1SXHYIXSXLIWIMWQMGPSEHWMRFSXLQEMRHMVIGXMSRWMRTPER
WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH F]  %TTPMGEXMSR TSMRX SJ XLI
seismic force at each floor should be the center of mass of the
floor diaphragm. The effect of an eccentricity between the
center of mass of the floor diaphragm and the center of stiff
RIWW GSVVIWTSRHMRK XS XLI PEXIVEPJSVGIVIWMWXMRK WXVYGXYVEP
QIQFIVW WLSYPH FI GEPGYPEXIH ERH XLI XSVWMSREP QSQIRXW
SRXLIWXVYGXYVI8MEFSYXEZIVXMGEPE\MWWLSYPHFIIZEPYEXIH
F] JSVIEGLWXSV]
 7SMPPEXIVEPPSEHW{0EXIVEPPSEHWHYIXSWSMPTVIW
WYVIWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHF]'LETXIV(YIXSXLIVIWXVMG
XMSRWSJERHVIXEMRMRK[EPPWPEXIVEPP]WYTTSVXIH
F]XLIFYMPHMRKWLSYPHFISRP]SRIWXSV]MRLIMKLX8LIVIEG
tion from the lateral soil pressure on the first story per unit
LSVM^SRXEPPIRKXLSJVIXEMRMRK[EPPWLSYPHFIGSQTYXIHF]
)U  
R p1

pz hs3
6h p 1



F

{7SMP[IMKLXERHPEXIVEPTVIWWYVI
8LIHIWMKRSJFEWIQIRX[EPPWERHWMQMPEVZIVXMGEPIPIQIRXW
FIPS[KVEHIWLSYPHMRGPYHIXLIPEXIVEPTVIWWYVISJEHNEGIRX
WSMPJSPPS[MRK
{0EXIVEPPSEHW
 +IRIVEP{%PPETTPMGEFPIPEXIVEPPSEHWEWHIWGVMFIH
MR 'LETXIVWLSYPHFIYWIHMRXLIHIWMKR8LIWMQYPXERISYW
SGGYVVIRGISJPEXIVEPPSEHW[MXLSXLIVPSEHWWLSYPHFIIZEPY
EXIHYWMRKXLIPSEHGSQFMREXMSRSJ%GSRXMRYSYWPSEH
TEXLJVSQ XLI PEXIVEP JSVGI ETTPMGEXMSR TSMRX XSXLI PEXIVEP
force-resisting structural elements should be identified
ERHEPPIPIQIRXWEPSRKXLIPSEHTEXLWLSYPHLEZIEHIUYEXI
WXVIRKXL
 %TTPMGEXMSRSJPEXIVEPPSEHW
 ;MRHPSEHW{;MRHPSEHW WLSYPHFI HIXIVQMRIH
F]  ,SVM^SRXEP WXVIRKXL PIZIP [MRH PSEHW *\ EX IEGL
PIZIP \ERHMRIEGLQEMRHMVIGXMSRMRTPERWLSYPHFIXLIWYQ
SJ XLI [MRH[EVH ERH PII[EVH [MRH GSQTSRIRXW EW HIXIV

[LIVI T^MWXLIPEXIVEPTVIWWYVIEXHITXLSJWSMPLW  


ERH LT is the first-story height (*MK 
8[SHMJJIVIRXGEWIWWLSYPHFIGSRWMHIVIH[LIRHIWMKRMRK
XLIWXVYGXYVIEWE[LSPIJSVXLIIJJIGXWSJPEXIVEPWSMPTVIWWYVI
1. Case 1A building located in flat or nearly flat terrain
HSIW RSX RIIH E PEXIVEP EREP]WMW SJ XLI SZIVEPP WXVYGXYVI
HYI XS WSMP TVIWWYVI FIGEYWI PEXIVEP VIEGXMSRW HYI XS WSMP
TVIWWYVI SR FEWIQIRX [EPPW MR STTSWMXI WMHIW EVI ETTVS\M
QEXIP]IUYEPGSQTIRWEXIIEGLSXLIVERHMRXVSHYGIERIEVP]
uniform in-plane compression on the first-floor slab. In this
GEWI PEXIVEP WSMPTVIWWYVI WLSYPHFI GSRWMHIVIHSRP][LIR
HIWMKRMRKXLIWSMPVIXEMRMRKJSYRHEXMSRQIQFIVWEWRSXIHMR
'LETXIVERHXLIQIQFIVWJVEQMRKMRXSMX
'EWI{%FYMPHMRKPSGEXIHMRWPSTMRKXIVVEMRWYTTSVXW
YRGSQTIRWEXIH PEXIVEP PSEHW [LIVI PEXIVEP VIEGXMSR HYI
XS WSMP TVIWWYVIW SR FEWIQIRX [EPPW MR STTSWMXI WMHIW EVI
HMJJIVIRX-RXLMWGEWIEPEXIVEPFEWIWLIEV:SWLSYPHFIHIXIV
QMRIHF]JSVFSXLQEMRHMVIGXMSRWMRTPERJVSQXLI
first-floor reaction. The overturning moment 1SXHYIXSWSMP
PEXIVEP TVIWWYVI MR FSXL QEMR HMVIGXMSRW MR TPER WLSYPH FI
HIXIVQMRIHF]8LIPSGEXMSRMRTPERSJXLIVIWYPXERX

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

*MK{3ZIVXYVRMRKQSQIRXGEPGYPEXMSR
*MK{0EXIVEPVIHYGXMSRHYIXSWSMPTVIWWYVI

 *EGXSVIH SZIVXYVRMRK QSQIRX{8LI SZIVXYVRMRK


QSQIRX HYIXS[MRH WIMWQMGJSVGI ERHPEXIVEPWSMPTVIWWYVI
WLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHMRHITIRHIRXP]JSVXLIX[SQEMRHMVIG
XMSRW MR TPER 8LI WXSV] SZIVXYVRMRK QSQIRXEXPIZIP \JSV
IEGL PEXIVEP JSVGI [MRH WIMWQMG ERH WSMP  GSVVIWTSRHWXS
XLI WYQ SJ XLI QSQIRXW HYI XS PEXIVEP PSEHW EX XLEX WXSV]
JVSQPIZIP\XSXLIVSSJEW HIXIVQMRIHJVSQ)U E 
*MK 
E

*MK{7XSV]WLIEVERHFEWIWLIEVGEPGYPEXMSR
lateral soil loads on the first floor should be calculated and
XLIXSVWMSREPQSQIRXWSRXLIWXVYGXYVI8MEFSYXEZIVXMGEP
E\MWWLSYPHFIIZEPYEXIHF]8LISGGYVVIRGISJ[MRH
SVWIMWQMGPSEHWWMQYPXERISYWP][MXLXLMWWSMPTVIWWYVITIVQE
RIRXPEXIVEPJSVGIWLSYPHFIIZEPYEXIHYWMRKPSEHGSQFMRE
XMSRWTVIWGVMFIHJSVXLMWGEWIMR
 *PYMHTVIWWYVI{%Y\MPMEV]WXVYGXYVIWWYFNIGXIHXS
fluid pressure, such as water tanks, should be self-contained
and fluid pressure should be compensated within the auxiliary
WXVYGXYVI8LIQEMRFYMPHMRKWXVYGXYVIWLSYPHRSXFIYWIHXS
VIWMWX PEXIVEP PSEHW HIVMZIH JVSQ GSRXEMRIH PMUYMHW ;IMKLX
JVSQEY\MPMEV]XEROERHPMUYMHGSRXIRXWLSYPHFIGSRWMHIVIH
MRXLIGEPGYPEXMSRSJ[IMKLXMRXLIVSSJPIZIP
 *EGXSVIHWXSV]WLIEVERHFEWIWLIEV{&EWIWLIEV
HYIXS[MRHWIMWQMGJSVGIERHPEXIVEPWSMPTVIWWYVIWLSYPH
FIHIXIVQMRIHMRHITIRHIRXP]JSVXLIX[SQEMRHMVIGXMSRWMR
TPER8LIWXSV]WLIEVEXPIZIP\JSVIEGLPEXIVEPJSVGI [MRH
WIMWQMGERHWSMP GSVVIWTSRHWXSXLIWYQSJXLIPEXIVEPPSEHW
ETTPMIHXSXLIWXVYGXYVIMRXLIQEMRHMVIGXMSRYRHIVGSRWMHIV
EXMSRJVSQWXSV]\XSXLIVSSJEWHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ)U  
*MK 

Vx

n
i x

Fi



8LIFEWIWLIEV:SJSVIEGLPEXIVEPJSVGI [MRHWIMWQMGERH
WSMP GSVVIWTSRHWXSXLIWYQSJXLIPEXIVEPPSEHWETTPMIHXS
XLIWXVYGXYVIMRXLIQEMRHMVIGXMSRYRHIVWXYH] *MK 
*EGXSVIHWXSV]WLIEV:\YERHJEGXSVIHFEWIWLIEV:SYWLSYPH
FIHIXIVQMRIHF]QYPXMTP]MRK:\ERH:SF]XLIETTVSTVMEXI
PSEHJEGXSVJVSQ

&EWISZIVXYVRMRKQSQIRX1SXJSVIEGLPEXIVEPJSVGI [MRH
WIMWQMG ERH WSMP  GSVVIWTSRHW XS XLI WYQ SJ XLI TVSHYGX
of the floor level lateral loads by the height to floor level
QIEWYVIH JVSQ XLI FEWI SJ XLI WXVYGXYVI *MK   EW
defined by Eq. (4.13.4b).

M ot

n
i 1

Fi hi

F

*EGXSVIH WXSV] SZIVXYVRMRK QSQIRX 1\Y ERH JEGXSVIH FEWI


SZIVXYVRMRK QSQIRX 1SXY WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH F] QYPXM
TP]MRK 1\ERH1SXF]XLIETTVSTVMEXIPSEHJEGXSVJVSQ
 8SVWMSREP QSQIRXW{*SV IEGL WXSV] ERH MR IEGL
TVMRGMTEP HMVIGXMSR XLI YRJEGXSVIH XSVWMSR 8M WLSYPH FI
GSQTYXIHEWXLITVSHYGXSJXLIWXSV]PEXIVEPJSVGI*MXMQIW
ERIGGIRXVMGMX]IUYEPXSXLIXVERWZIVWIHMWXERGIFIX[IIRXLIPMRI
SJEGXMSRSJXLIPEXIVEPJSVGIERHXLIWXSV]PEXIVEPWXMJJRIWWGIRXIV
*MK 8LIWXSV]WXMJJRIWWGIRXIVWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIH
F] *SV[MRHERHWIMWQMGPSEHW8MWLSYPHFIXEOIREW
XLIKVIEXIVZEPYIHIXIVQMRIHJSVFSXLTVMRGMTEPHMVIGXMSRW*SV
PEXIVEPWSMPTVIWWYVI8MWLSYPHFIXEOIREWXLIEPKIFVEMGWYQSJ
XLIZEPYIWHIXIVQMRIHJSVFSXLTVMRGMTEPHMVIGXMSRW
8LIWXSV]XSXEPYRJEGXSVIHXSVWMSREXPIZIP\JSVIEGLPEXIVEP
JSVGI [MRH WIMWQMG ERH WSMP  GSVVIWTSRHW XS WYQ SJ XLI
WXSV]YRJEGXSVIHXSVWMSRETTPMIHXSXLIWXVYGXYVIJVSQWXSV]\
XSXLIVSSJEWHIXIVQMRIHF])U  

Tx

n
i x

Ti



&EWI XSXEP YRJEGXSVIH XSVWMSR 8S JSV IEGL PEXIVEP JSVGI


[MRH WIMWQMG ERH WSMP  GSVVIWTSRHW XS WYQ SJ XLI WXSV]
YRJEGXSVIHXSVWMSRETTPMIHXSXLIWXVYGXYVI

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



*MK{7XSV]XSVWMSR

*EGXSVIH WXSV] XSVWMSREP QSQIRX 8MY ERH JEGXSVIH FEWI


XSVWMSREPQSQIRX8SYWLSYPHFIGSQTYXIHF]QYPXMTP]MRK8M
ERH 8SF]XLIETTVSTVMEXIPSEHJEGXSVJVSQ
{0EXIVEPJSVGIVIWMWXMRKW]WXIQ
 +IRIVEP{8LI PEXIVEPJSVGIVIWMWXMRK W]WXIQ MW
GSQTSWIH SJ WXVYGXYVEP QIQFIVW EGXMRK NSMRXP] XLEX VIWMWX
ERH XVERWQMX PEXIVEP PSEHW VIWYPXMRK JVSQ WIMWQMG QSXMSRW
[MRHERHPEXIVEPIEVXLTVIWWYVIXSXLIKVSYRH *MK 
The floor system should act as a diaphragm that carries
MR MXW TPERI XLI PEXIVEP JSVGI JVSQ XLI ETTPMGEXMSR TSMRX XS
XLI ZIVXMGEP QIQFIVW SJ XLI PEXIVEPJSVGIVIWMWXMRK W]WXIQ
:IVXMGEP QIQFIVW SJ XLI PEXIVEPJSVGIVIWMWXMRK W]WXIQ
in turn, collect loads arising from all floors affected and
XVERWQMXXLIQHS[RXSXLIJSYRHEXMSRERHXSXLIYRHIVP]MRK
WSMP8LIQEMRZIVXMGEPQIQFIVWSJXLIPEXIVEPJSVGIVIWMWXMRK
W]WXIQWLSYPHFIERYQFIVSJVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI[EPPWMR
FSXLTVMRGMTEPHMVIGXMSRWMRTPER8LIWIVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI
[EPPWWLSYPHLEZIRSSTIRMRKWJSV[MRHS[WSVHSSVW
 6IWXVMGXMSRW SR WXVYGXYVEP W]WXIQ JSV WIMWQMG
VIWMWXERGI
 +IRIVEP{8LI JSPPS[MRK VIWXVMGXMSRW ETTP] XS
structural systems used for the seismic risk zones as defined
MR 
 >SRIWSJPS[ERHRSWIMWQMGVMWO{8LIVIEVIRS
VIWXVMGXMSRWSR[LMGLWXVYGXYVEPW]WXIQWGERFIYWIHMR^SRIW
of low or no seismic risk, as defined in  -R XLIWI
^SRIWWXVYGXYVEP[EPPWJSVVIWMWXERGIXSIEVXLUYEOIWIMWQMG
PSEHWQE]RSXFIRIIHIHFYXXLIMVRIIHXSVIWMWX[MRHERH
soil pressure lateral loads should be verified.
 1SHIVEXI SV LMKL WIMWQMG VMWO ^SRI{0EXIVEP
JSVGIVIWMWXERGIWLSYPHFITVSZMHIHF]VIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI
[EPPWGSRXMRYSYWJVSQ XLI JSYRHEXMSR XS XLI VSSJ MR FSXL
TVMRGMTEP HMVIGXMSRW MR TPER 8LI WTIGMEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX
HIXEMPWSJ'LETXIVWLSYPHFIYWIH
 (METLVEKQIJJIGX
 +IRIVEP{8S SFXEMR TVSTIV PEXIVEP JSVGI VIWMW
XERGI XLI FYMPHMRK WXVYGXYVI WLSYPH EGX EW E WMRKPI YRMX
through the diaphragm effect of the floor slabs. The lateral
PSEHW WLSYPH FI XVERWJIVVIH JVSQ XLI ETTPMGEXMSR TSMRX XS
XLI PEXIVEPJSVGIVIWMWXMRK WXVYGXYVEP QIQFIVW WXVYGXYVEP

*MK{0EXIVEPJSVGIVIWMWXMRKWXVYGXYVEPW]WXIQ
[EPPWERHQSQIRXVIWMWXMRKJVEQIW EWMRTPERIPSEHWMRXLI
HMETLVEKQ
 (METLVEKQ{8LI HMETLVEKQ WLSYPH GSQTP]
[MXL E XLVSYKL I 
(a) The shape in plan of the floor slab diaphragm should be
EWVIKYPEVERHW]QQIXVMGEPEWTVEGXMGEFPI4VIJIVVIHJSVQW
WLSYPH FI WUYEVI SV VIGXERKYPEV 6IGXERKYPEV HMETLVEKQW
WLSYPHLEZIEQE\MQYQVEXMSSJWLSVXIVXSPSRKIVWMHISJ
F *PSSVWPEFWXVYGXYVEPQIQFIVWWLSYPHGSQTP][MXLXLI
QMRMQYQXLMGORIWWSJ'LETXIV
G 2SSTIRMRKMRXLIWPEFWLSYPHFIKVIEXIVXLERTIVGIRX
of the floor area, and the sum of all openings in the slab
should not exceed 50 percent of the floor area;
H (METLVEKQGSPPIGXSVIPIQIRXWWLSYPHFITVSZMHIHEW
MRHMGEXIH MR  ERH FI GETEFPI SJ XVERWQMXXMRK PEXIVEP
loads from the floor slab system to the lateral-force-resisting
WXVYGXYVEP[EPPWERH
I  (METLVEKQ QIQFIVW GER FI EX E WPSTI FYX WLSYPH
GSQTP][MXL
 *PSSV QEWW GIRXVSMHThe floor mass centroid
should correspond to the centroid of the area of the floor
slab. The area for computing each floor mass centroid should
FIFSYRHIHF]WPEFFSVHIVWQMRYWXLIEVIESJEPPSTIRMRKW
LEZMRKEWMHIKVIEXIVXLERJX Q 8LIPEXIVEPWIMWQMG

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

\M MW XLI HMWXERGI JVSQ SVMKMR  XS XLI [EPP GVSWWWIGXMSREP
GIRXVSMHQIEWYVIHMREHMVIGXMSRTEVEPPIPXS]ERH
H 8SXEPWXSV]VSXEXMSREPWXMJJRIWWEFSYXXLIWXSV]PEXIVEP
WXMJJRIWWGIRXIVWLSYPHFIGSQTYXIHYWMRK)U G 

*MK{'EPGYPEXMSRSJXLIWXSV]PEXIVEPWXMJJRIWWGIRXIV
loads should be applied at the floor mass centroid for each
WXSV]
 7XSV]PEXIVEPWXMJJRIWWGIRXIV{7XSV]PEXIVEPWXMJJRIWW
center corresponds to the point where the floor diaphragm
[MPP XIRH XS VSXEXI EFSYX EZIVXMGEP E\MW [LIR WYFNIGXIH XS
E WXSV] XSVWMSREPQSQIRX 8LI PSGEXMSR SJXLIWXSV]PEXIVEP
WXMJJRIWWGIRXIVMRTPERWLSYPHFIGEPGYPEXIHYWMRKXLIPEXIVEP
WXMJJRIWWSJXLI[EPPWSRP]HMWVIKEVHMRKXLIWXMJJRIWWGSRXVM
FYXMSRSJXLIGSPYQRWSJXLIWXVYGXYVI-JXLIPSGEXMSRSJXLI
WXVYGXYVEP [EPPW MW W]QQIXVMG [MXL VIWTIGX XS XLI GIRXIV SJ
QEWWSJ IZIV] WXSV]MR XLI WXVYGXYVI MXWLSYPH FI EWWYQIH
XLEXXLIPEXIVEPWXMJJRIWWGIRXIVJSVEPPWXSVMIWMWPSGEXIHEXXLI
GIRXIVSJQEWW;LIVIXLI[EPPWEVIRSXW]QQIXVMGTVSGI
HYVIW E XLVSYKL H WLSYPHFIYWIHXSGEPGYPEXIXLIPSGEXMSR
SJXLIWXSV]PEXIVEPWXMJJRIWWGIRXIV *MK 
E %REVFMXVEV]SVMKMRPSGEXMSRMWEWWYQIHEXTSMRX
F 0EXIVEPWXMJJRIWWIWO\ERHO]SJWXVYGXYVEP[EPPWWLSYPH
FI GSQTYXIH YWMRK )U E E  ERH E F  JSV
FSXLTVMRGMTEPHMVIGXMSRW\ERH]
*SVWXVYGXYVEP[EPPW[MXLPIRKXLWTEVEPPIPXSXLI\E\MW
kx

bw3 w
ERH k y
hpi

3
w w

b
h pi

E E

2
i

2
i

2
y

G

{1MRMQYQEQSYRXSJVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI
WXVYGXYVEP[EPPW
 +IRIVEP{% QMRMQYQ EQSYRX SJ VIMRJSVGIH
GSRGVIXI WXVYGXYVEP [EPPW WLSYPH FI TVSZMHIH JSV JEGXSVIH
PEXIVEPJSVGIVIWMWXERGI8LIWIWXVYGXYVEP[EPPWWLSYPHGSQTP]
[MXL E XLVSYKL K 
E 7XVYGXYVEP[EPPWWLSYPHLEZIVIGXERKYPEVGVSWWWIGXMSRW
3XLIVGVSWWWIGXMSRWEVIFI]SRHXLIWGSTISJXLMWKYMHI
F 7XVYGXYVEP[EPPWWLSYPHFIZIVXMGEPP]GSRXMRYSYWJVSQ
JSYRHEXMSRXSVSSJI\GITX[LIVI[EPPWEVIRIIHIHSRP]JSV
VIWMWXERGIJSVYRFEPERGIHPEXIVEPWSMPTVIWWYVIMREFEWIQIRX
In this case, the wall may be stopped at the first story level;
G  7XVYGXYVEP [EPPW WLSYPH FI EPMKRIH ZIVXMGEPP] ;LIVI
WIGXMSRVIHYGXMSRWSGGYVXLI[EPPGVSWWWIGXMSRYRHIVRIEXL
WLSYPHFIKVIEXIVXLERXLISRIEFSZIERHXLIGIRXVSMHSJXLI
[EPPGVSWW WIGXMSR EFSZI WLSYPH FI MR XLI QMHHPI XLMVH MR
FSXLHMVIGXMSRWSJXLISRIFIPS[
H 7XVYGXYVEP[EPPWWLSYPHRSXLEZISTIRMRKWJSV[MRHS[W
SVHSSVW
I -RFSXLTVMRGMTEPHMVIGXMSRWMRTPERXLIVIWLSYPHFIEX
PIEWXX[S TEVEPPIP [EPPWMR HMJJIVIRX TPERIW ERH XLI TPERIW
WLSYPH FI EW JEV ETEVX EW TVEGXMGEFPI 8LI [EPPW WLSYPH FI
TPEGIHEWGPSWIXSXLITIVMTLIV]SJXLIFYMPHMRKEWTVEGXMGEFPI
J ;EPPWWLSYPHFIPSGEXIHEWW]QQIXVMGEPP]EWTSWWMFPI
[MXL VIWTIGX XS XLI GIRXIVW SJ QEWW ERH WXMJJRIWW SJ IEGL
floor; and
K 7XVYGXYVEP[EPPHMQIRWMSRWWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL
ERH
 1MRMQYQ [EPP EVIE JSV WLIEV WXVIRKXL{%X ER]
floor MJSVXLIX[STVMRGMTEPHMVIGXMSRW\ERH]XLIQMRMQYQ
GVSWWWIGXMSREP EVIE %K! [F[ JSVEPP VIMRJSVGIH GSRGVIXI
[EPPW EGXMRK MR XLI TVMRGMTEP HMVIGXMSR YRHIV GSRWMHIVEXMSR
WLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ)U  

SVJSVWXVYGXYVEP[EPPW[MXLPIRKXLWTEVEPPIPXSXLI]E\MW
kx

3
w w

b
ERH k y
hpi

bw3 w
h pi

[LIVI F[MWXLI[IF[MHXLSJWIGXMSRSV[EPP[MHXL [MWXLI


LSVM^SRXEPPIRKXLSJXLI[EPPERHLTMMWXLIWXSV]LIMKLX
G  8LIWXSV] PEXIVEP WXMJJRIWW GIRXIV GSSVHMREXIW \ ERH]
[MXLVIWTIGXXSSVMKMRWLSYPHFI
x

k y xi
ky

ERH y

k x yi
kx

w w

E F

F

9Viu
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(SI)



-R)U  SRP][EPPW[LIVIXLILSVM^SRXEPPIRKXLSJ


[EPP [MWTEVEPPIPXSXLIHMVIGXMSRYRHIVGSRWMHIVEXMSRWLSYPH
FI MRGPYHIH F[ GSVVIWTSRHW XS XLI [EPPXLMGORIWW ERH :MY
WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH JVSQ  %W RSXIH F]  I 
IEGLTVMRGMTEPHMVIGXMSRWLSYPHLEZIEXPIEWXX[S[EPPW
 1MRMQYQ [EPP HMQIRWMSRW JSV PEXIVEP WXMJJRIWW{
7PIRHIVRIWW VEXMS L[ [ JSV ER] MRHMZMHYEP [EPP WLSYPH
GSQTP][MXL)U  ERHXLI[EPPXLMGORIWWF[WLSYPH
GSQTP][MXL'LETXIV

[LIVI \M MW XLI HMWXERGI JVSQ SVMKMR  XS XLI [EPP GVSWW
WIGXMSREPGIRXVSMHQIEWYVIHMREHMVIGXMSRTEVEPPIPXS\ERH
%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



*MKE{'SPYQRPEXIVEPWLIEVWERHQSQIRXWMRJVEQIW

hw



*MKF{+MVHIVPEXIVEPJSVGIQSQIRXWMRJVEQIW

[LIVI L[MWXLI[EPPLIMKLXJVSQXLIJSYRHEXMSRXSXLIVSSJ
ERH [MWXLILSVM^SRXEPPIRKXLSJ[EPP
 0EXIVEPWXVIRKXLMRZIVXMGEPWXVYGXYVEPQIQFIVW
 7XVYGXYVEP [EPPW{%X ER] WXSV] M XLI JEGXSVIH
PEXIVEPWLIEV:YXLEXE[EPPWLSYPHWYWXEMRMWHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ
)U E 8LIWYQQEXMSRMR)U E WLSYPHFI
TIVJSVQIHJSVEPP[EPPW[MXL [TEVEPPIPXS:MY

bw

3
w

G 8LIJVEGXMSRSJXLIWXSV]WLIEV:MYEWHIWGVMFIHF] E SV
F GEVVMIHF]ERMRHMZMHYEPGSPYQRMRSRITPERHMVIGXMSRJSV
ER]WXSV]MWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ)U E JSV
MRXIVMSVGSPYQRWERHF])U F JSVIHKIGSPYQRW
%RMRXIVMSVGSPYQRMWEGSPYQR[LSWIIRHWJVEQIMRXSX[S
KMVHIVW TEVEPPIPXSXLIHMVIGXMSR YRHIVWXYH][LIVIEWIHKI
GSPYQRWJVEQIMRXSSRIKMVHIVSRSRIWMHISRP]

E

Vu

2Viu
ne 2 nc

E

[LIVI :MY MW XLI JEGXSVIH WXSV] WLIEV  MR XLI HMVIG
XMSR TEVEPPIP XS [ F[ ERH [ EVI XLI [EPP GVSWWWIGXMSREP
HMQIRWMSRWERH :YXMWXLIMRGVIEWIMRWLIEVHYIXSXSVWMSR
HIXIVQMRIHJVSQ)U F 8LIZEPYISJ :YXJVSQ)U
F TEVEPPIPXS [WLSYPHFIYWIHMR)U E 

Vu

Viu
ne 2 nc

F

Vu

Vutx

Tiu

Viu

bw

3
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ykx
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kr

Vut

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xk y
kr

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[LIVI 8MYMWHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ \ERH]EVIHIXIVQMRIH


JVSQ)U F  O\ERHO]EVIHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ)U E 
ERH O]MWHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ)U G 
 *VEQIW{8LI JSPPS[MRK TVSGIHYVI WLSYPH FI
YWIHXSEWWMKRJEGXSVIHWXSV]WLIEVWXSXLIWXVYGXYVIvWJVEQI
XLVSYKLXLIGSPYQRW
E -R^SRIWSJPS[ERHRSWIMWQMGVMWO[LIVIVIMRJSVGIH
GSRGVIXI[EPPWEVIRSXQERHEXSV]  XSXEPPEXIVEPWXSV]
WLIEVEXER]WXSV]WLSYPHFIHMWXVMFYXIHXSXLIJVEQIWXLVSYKL
XLIGSPYQRW
F  -R QSHIVEXI SVLMKL WIMWQMGVMWO ^SRIW  TIVGIRX
SJ JEGXSVIH PEXIVEP PSEHW WLSYPH FI VIWMWXIH F] VIMRJSVGIH
GSRGVIXI [EPPW *VEQIW WLSYPH FI TVSTSVXMSRIH XS VIWMWX E
QMRMQYQ PEXIVEP JSVGI IUYEP XS TIVGIRX SJ XLI JEGXSVIH
PEXIVEPJSVGIMRIEGLHMVIGXMSRMRTPERXSEGGSYRXJSVIJJIGXW
WYGLEWFEWIVSXEXMSRSJXLI[EPPWSVEHIGVIEWIMRWXMJJRIWW
ERHWXVIRKXLHYIXSMRIPEWXMGVIWTSRWI

-R )U E  ERH F  RI ERH RG EVI XLI XSXEP
RYQFIVSJIHKIERHGIRXVEPGSPYQRWVIWTIGXMZIP]MRWXSV]M
JSVXLIHMVIGXMSRYRHIVGSRWMHIVEXMSR
H  8LI JEGXSVIH GSPYQR QSQIRX HYI XS PEXIVEP PSEHW
*MKE WLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ)U G 
pi
u

G

[LIVI LTM corresponds to the story height of floor MERH:YMW


XLIGSVVIWTSRHMRKZEPYIHIXIVQMRIHMR G 
 I *SVGSPYQRWPEFW]WXIQWXLIKMVHIVSVWPEFQSQIRX
HYIXSPEXIVEPPSEHWWLSYPHFIXEOIREWIUYEPXSXLIJEGXSVIH
GSPYQR QSQIRX JSV MRXIVMSV GSPYQR NSMRXW ERH X[MGI XLI
JEGXSVIHGSPYQRQSQIRXJSVIHKIGSPYQRNSMRXW8LMWVIWYPXW
MRXLIQSQIRXWEXEPPKMVHIVWEXXLIJEGISJXLIGSPYQRKMVHIV
NSMRXW8LMWQSQIRX EGXWMRFSXL XLITSWMXMZIERHRIKEXMZI
WIRWIMRXLIHMVIGXMSRYRHIVWXYH]ERHMXWLSYPHFIXEOIREW
ERMRGVIEWISVHIGVIEWISJXLIKVEZMX]PSEHJEGXSVIHQSQIRXW
*MKF 
 'SPPIGXSVIPIQIRXW{'SPPIGXSVIPIQIRXW[MXLMRXLI
HMETLVEKQYWYEPP]GSRWMWXMRKSJFIEQWSVKMVHIVWXVERWQMX
PEXIVEPPSEHWMRXLIWXSV]JVSQETTPMGEXMSRTSMRXXSXLIPEXIVEP
JSVGIVIWMWXMRKWXVYGXYVEPQIQFIVW'SPPIGXSVIPIQIRXPSRKM

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

tudinal reinforcement should be confined by closed stirrups


XLEXGSQTP][MXLXLIPMQMXWJSVXMIHGSPYQRWSJ8LI
JSVGI TYXSFIXVERWJIVVIHF]XLIGSPPIGXSVIPIQIRXGSRRIGXIH
XSE[EPPWLSYPHFIXLIHMJJIVIRGIMRWLIEVFIX[IIRXLI[EPP
EFSZI ERH FIPS[ XLI GSPPIGXSV IPIQIRX 8LI [EPP WLIEV
HMJJIVIRGIMWSFXEMRIHJVSQ)U E 
8LI PSRKMXYHMREP VIMRJSVGIQIRX EVIE MR XLI GSPPIGXSV
IPIQIRX %WXWLSYPHFIIUYEPXSSVKVIEXIVXLERXLIEVIEMRHMGEXIH
F] )U   ERH )U   *SV ETTPMGEXMSR SJ )U
  %KWLSYPHFIXLIKVSWWGVSWWWIGXMSREPEVIESJXLI
GSPPIGXSVIPIQIRX
',%48)6{+)2)6%06)-2*36')(
'32'6)8)-2*361%8-32
{7GSTI
'LETXIV  GSRXEMRW KIRIVEP MRJSVQEXMSR JSV VIMRJSVGIH
GSRGVIXI WXVYGXYVEP QIQFIVW MRGPYHMRK EPPS[EFPI QEXIVMEPW
concrete cover to reinforcement, and procedures for defining
design strength of members subjected to flexure, axial loads
with or without flexure, and shear. Additional information for
IEGLMRHMZMHYEPQIQFIVX]TIMWTVIWIRXIHMR'LETXIVWXS
{1EXIVMEPWJSVVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI
 1EXIVMEPWXERHEVHW{%PPQEXIVMEPWYWIHMRGSRWXVYG
XMSR SJ E WXVYGXYVI HIWMKRIH JSPPS[MRK XLI KYMHI WLSYPH
GSRJSVQXSXLI%781WXERHEVHWPMWXIHMR'LETXIV
 'IQIRX{'IQIRX WLSYPH GSRJSVQ XS SRI SJ XLI
following: Specification for Portland Cement (ASTM
C150/C150M-11) and Specification for Blended Hydraulic
'IQIRXWx %781 ''1  I\GPYHMRK 8]TIW 7
ERH7%%781''18]TIW7ERH7%EVIRSX
MRXIRHIH EW TVMRGMTEP GIQIRXMRK GSRWXMXYIRXW SJ WXVYGXYVEP
GSRGVIXI
 %KKVIKEXIW{%KKVIKEXIWWLSYPHGSRJSVQXS%781
''1 'SRGVIXI [MXL PMKLX[IMKLX EKKVIKEXIW EVI
RSX[MXLMRXLIWGSTISJXLMWKYMHI
 ;EXIV{;EXIV WLSYPH GSRJSVQ XS %781 '
'
 7XIIPVIMRJSVGIQIRX{7XIIPVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFI
HIJSVQIH VIMRJSVGIQIRX [MXL I\GITXMSRW RSXIH MR 
GSRJSVQ XS  XLVSYKL  ERH GSQTP] [MXL XLI
GSVVIWTSRHMRK %781 WXERHEVHW ;IPHIH [MVI VIMRJSVGI
QIRXWLSYPHFIGSRWMHIVIHHIJSVQIHVIMRJSVGIQIRX
 (IJSVQIH VIMRJSVGIQIRXMaximum specified
]MIPHWXVIRKXLJSVHIJSVQIHVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFI
TWM 14E (IJSVQIHVIMRJSVGMRKFEVWWLSYPHGSRJSVQ
XS%781%%1SV%781%%1
%781 %%1 GSZIVW +VEHIW   ERH 
[MXL]MIPHWXVIRKXLWSJERHTWM 
 ERH  14E  VIWTIGXMZIP] [LIVIEW %781 %
%1GSZIVW+VEHIW  ERH  [MXL]MIPH
WXVIRKXLW SJ  ERH  TWM  ERH  14E 
9RHIVXLMWKYMHISRP]]MIPHWXVIRKXLSJERHTWM
ERH14E EVITIVQMXXIH
&SXLWXERHEVHWGSZIVXLIRSQMREPHMEQIXIVWWLS[RMR8EFPI
9RHIVXLMWKYMHIXLIQE\MQYQRSQMREPHMEQIXIVSJ
HIJSVQIHVIMRJSVGMRKFEVWMW2S MR  QQ 6IJIVXS

8EFPI {2SQMREPGLEVEGXIVMWXMGWJSV
VIMRJSVGMRKFEVW
2SQMREP
&EV
HIRSQMREXMSR

(MEQIXIV
MR QQ

%VIEMR
QQ

;IMKLXPFJX
OKQ

2S  j
2S 
2S 
2S 
2S 
2S 
2S 
2S  k
2S  k
2S  k
2S  k
2S  k

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


&EV2SMRHMGEXIWXLIRYQFIVSJMR QQ GSVVIWTSRHMRKXSXLIFEVHMEQIXIVERH
XLIQIXVMGHIRSQMREXMSRWSJXLIVSYRHIHFEVHMEQIXIVMRQQEWHIWMKREXIHF]%781
j

2S MR?QQA FEVWEVIRSXQERYJEGXYVIHVSYXMRIP]MRXLI9RMXIH7XEXIW

8LIQE\MQYQRSQMREPFEVHMEQIXIVTIVQMXXIHF]XLMWKYMHIMW2S MR?QQA 

%781%%1ERH%%1WXERHEVHW
HSRSXMRGPYHI2S MR  QQ HMEQIXIVFEVW
 ;IPHIH[MVIVIMRJSVGIQIRXMaximum specified
]MIPHWXVIRKXLJSV[MVIWMR[IPHIH[MVIVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPH
FITWM 14E ;IPHIH[MVIVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPH
GSRJSVQXS%781%%19RHIVXLIKYMHIXLI
QE\MQYQRSQMREPHMEQIXIVSJ[MVIJSV[IPHIH[MVIVIMRJSVGI
QIRXMWMR QQ  7IGXMSR 
 4PEMRVIMRJSVGIQIRX{4PEMRVIMRJSVGIQIRXQE]FI
YWIH SRP] JSV WXMVVYTW XMIW WTMVEPW ERH [LIR MX MW TEVX SJ
[IPHIH[MVIVIMRJSVGIQIRXERHWLSYPHGSRJSVQXSXLIWTIG
ifications listed in 5.2.5.1. Maximum specified yield strength
JSVTPEMRVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFITWM 14E ERH
YRHIV XLMWKYMHI XLI QE\MQYQ RSQMREP HMEQIXIV SJ TPEMR
VIMRJSVGMRK FEVW MW  MR  QQ  7IGXMSR   4PEMR
VIMRJSVGIQIRXMWRSXEPPS[IHJSVYWIMRXLI9RMXIH7XEXIW
 %HQM\XYVIW{%HQM\XYVIW WLSYPH GSRJSVQ XS XLI
%781WXERHEVHWMR8EFPI
%HHMXMSREP EHQM\XYVIW QE] FI YWIH MJ ETTVSZIH F] E
PMGIRWIH HIWMKR TVSJIWWMSREP 'EPGMYQ GLPSVMHI SV EHQM\
XYVIW GSRXEMRMRK GLPSVMHIW WLSYPH RSX FI YWIH MR GSRGVIXI
LEZMRKTVIWXVIWWIHWXIIPSVMRGSRGVIXIXLEXMWMRGSRXEGX[MXL
KEPZERM^IHWXIIP
8LIYWI SJ EHQM\XYVIW MR GSRGVIXI GSRXEMRMRK I\TERWMZI
cement, as specified by ASTM C845-04, should be used
[MXL GEYXMSR 8LI EHQM\XYVI WLSYPH FI TVSZIR GSQTEXMFPI
[MXLXLIGIQIRX[MXLSYXTVSHYGMRKLEVQJYPIJJIGXW
 7XSVEKI SJ QEXIVMEPW{-X MW MQTSVXERX XLEX GIQIRX
ERHEKKVIKEXIWFIWXSVIHXSTVIZIRXGSRXEQMREXMSRHIXIVMS
VEXMSRERHMRXVYWMSRSJJSVIMKRQEXXIV%R]QEXIVMEPXLEXLEW
HIXIVMSVEXIH SV LEW FIIR GSRXEQMREXIH WLSYPH RSX FI YWIH
JSVGSRGVIXI

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

8EFPI {%781WXERHEVHVIJIVIRGIWJSV
EHQM\XYVIW
4YVTSWI

7XERHEVH

;EXIVVIHYGXMSRERHWIXXMRKXMQI
modification

%781'1

Produce flowing concrete


%MVIRXVEMRQIRX

%781'1
%781''1

8EFPI {1MRMQYQERHQE\MQYQVIMRJSVGMRKFEV
HMEQIXIVWYWIHMRWXVYGXYVIW
6IMRJSVGIQIRXX]TI
VIJIVIRGIWIGXMSR

1MRMQYQFEV
HMEQIXIV HF

1E\MQYQFEV
HMEQIXIV HF

E (IJSVQIHVIMRJSVGMRKFEVW


MR
QQ

MR
QQ

F ;MVIJSV[IPHIH[MVI
VIMRJSVGIQIRX 

MR
QQ

MR
QQ

G *SVWXMVVYTWERHXMIW 

MR
QQ

MR
QQ

H 4PEMRVIMRJSVGMRKFEVW 

MR
QQ

MR
QQ



{1MRMQYQERHQE\MQYQVIMRJSVGMRKFEV
HMEQIXIV
6IMRJSVGIQIRX YWIH MR WXVYGXYVIW HIWMKRIH YRHIV XLMW
KYMHIWLSYPHLEZIERSQMREPHMEQIXIV HFRSXPIWWXLERXLI
QMRMQYQHMEQIXIVRSVKVIEXIVXLERXLIQE\MQYQHMEQIXIV
KMZIRMR8EFPI
{'SRGVIXIGSZIVJSVVIMRJSVGIQIRX
 1MRMQYQ GSRGVIXIGSZIV{8LIQMRMQYQGSRGVIXI
GSZIVXSVIMRJSVGIQIRXXLEXWLSYPHFITVSZMHIHMWWLS[RMR
8EFPI
 Special fire protection of the structure{;LIR XLI
designated fire rating, in hours, for the building is greater
XLERLSYVXLIGSRGVIXIGSZIVSJWLSYPHFIMRGVIEWIH
by 1/4 in. (6 mm) per each additional hour of fire rating.
 %HHMXMSREPGSVVSWMSRTVSXIGXMSR{-RZIV]EKKVIWWMZI
IRZMVSRQIRXWWYGLEWHMVIGXGSRXEGX[MXLWIE[EXIVGLIQMGEP
JEGMPMXMIW SV WI[EKI [EXIV JEGMPMXMIW EHHMXMSREP GSVVSWMSR
protection of the reinforcement should be specified, such as
VIHYGIH [EXIVGIQIRXMXMSYW QEXIVMEP VEXMS [GQ  ITS\]
GSEXIH FEVW EMVIRXVEMRIH GSRGVIXI ERH SXLIV QIERW 8LMW

8EFPI {1MRMQYQGSRGVIXIGSZIVXSVIMRJSVGIQIRX

E 1IQFIVWGEWXEKEMRWXERHTIVQERIRXP]I\TSWIHXSIEVXL

1MRMQYQGSRGVIXIGSZIVMR QQ

F 1IQFIVWI\TSWIHXS[IEXLIVSVIEVXL

1MRMQYQGSRGVIXIGSZIVMR QQ

G +MVHIVWFIEQWSVGSPYQRW[LIRRSXI\TSWIHXS[IEXLIVSVMRGSRXEGX
[MXLKVSYRH

1MRMQYQGSRGVIXIGSZIVMR QQ
H 7SPMHWPEFWVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI[EPPWSVNSMWXW[LIRRSXI\TSWIHXS
[IEXLIVSVMRGSRXEGX[MXLKVSYRH
1MRMQYQGSRGVIXIGSZIVMR QQ

I 7SPMHWPEFWSRKVEHI
1MRMQYQGSRGVIXIGSZIVMR QQ
%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

8EFPI {&IRHHMEQIXIVQMRMQYQZEPYIW
6IMRJSVGIQIRXX]TI

(MEQIXIVSJFIRH

E (IJSVQIHVIMRJSVGMRKFEVW

HF

F 4PEMRVIMRJSVGMRKFEVW

HF

G *SVWXMVVYTWERHXMIW

HF

H ;MVIJSV[IPHIH[MVIVIMRJSVGIQIRX[MXLHF"MR QQ

HF

I ;MVIJSV[IPHIH[MVIVIMRJSVGIQIRX[MXLHF cMR QQ

HF

*MK{1E\MQYQRSQMREPGSEVWIEKKVIKEXIWM^I

X]TISJTVSXIGXMSRMWFI]SRHXLIWGSTISJXLMWKYMHIERHXLI
WXERHEVHWSJ WLSYPHFIYWIHJSVHIWMKRMRXLEXGEWI
{1MRMQYQVIMRJSVGIQIRXFIRHHMEQIXIV
&IRHHMEQIXIVQIEWYVIHSRXLIMRWMHISJXLIFEVWLSYPH
RSXFIPIWWXLERXLIZEPYIWWLS[RMR8EFPI
{7XERHEVHLSSOHMQIRWMSRW
8LIXIVQwWXERHEVHLSSOxQIERWSRISJXLIJSPPS[MRKMR
8EFPI
{1E\MQYQEKKVIKEXIWM^I
1E\MQYQ RSQMREP GSEVWI EKKVIKEXI WM^I WLSYPH RSX FI
PEVKIVXLER    SV   *MK 
 XLIREVVS[IWXHMQIRWMSRFIX[IIRWMHIWSJJSVQW
 XLIHITXLSJWPEFWERH
   XLI QMRMQYQ GPIEV WTEGMRK FIX[IIR TEVEPPIP
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KMZIRMR  XLVSYKL  
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PEXMSRJSVWTPMGIPIRKXL *MK 
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compression, flexural-induced tension and compression,

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8EFPI {7XERHEVHLSSOHIWGVMTXMSRERHHMQIRWMSRW
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E LSSO

%FIRHTPYWQMRMQYQHFI\XIRWMSREXJVIIIRH
SJFEV

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%FIRHTPYWQMRMQYQHFI\XIRWMSREXJVIIIRH
SJFEV

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FEVSV
G *SVWXMVVYTERHXMILSSOW
%FIRHTPYWQMRMQYQHFI\XIRWMSREXJVIIIRH
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(d) For hoops (confinement stirrups and ties) in


WIMWQMG^SRIW

%FIRHTPYWQMRMQYQHFI\XIRWMSREXJVIIIRHSJ
FEVFYXRSXPIWWXLERMR QQ

%FIRHTPYWQMRMQYQHFI\XIRWMSREXSRIJVII
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%FIRHTPYWQMRMQYQHF
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 I *SVGVSWWXMIWMRWIMWQMG^SRIW

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ERH WXVIWWIW MRHYGIH F] XIQTIVEXYVI ZEVMEXMSR ERH HV]MRK


WLVMROEKISJGSRGVIXI
8LIEVIESJPSRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGIQIRXTPEGIHMRVIMRJSVGIH
concrete members should be sufficient to resist the factored
PSEHWFYXRSXPIWWXLERXLIQMRMQYQZEPYIRSVKVIEXIVXLER
XLIQE\MQYQZEPYI

;LIR XLI GEPGYPEXIH EVIE SJ PSRKMXYHMREP VIMRJSVGIQIRX


MWPIWWXLERXLIQMRMQYQZEPYIRSPIWWXLERXLIQMRMQYQ
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QE\MQYQ PMQMX VIMRJSVGIH GSRGVIXI QIQFIV HMQIRWMSRW
should be appropriately modified.

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

{8VERWZIVWIVIMRJSVGIQIRX
8VERWZIVWIVIMRJSVGIQIRXMRVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXIQIQFIVW
resists shear and torsion loads, confines compression bars
EKEMRWXFYGOPMRKSYXSJXLIGSRGVIXIERHTVIZIRXWHMWTPEGI
QIRX SJ PSRKMXYHMREP VIMRJSVGIQIRX HYVMRK GSRWXVYGXMSR
STIVEXMSRW -R WIMWQMG ^SRIW XVERWZIVWI VIMRJSVGIQIRX
provides concrete confinement in special regions subjected
XSPEVKIWXVEMRW8LIEVIESJXVERWZIVWIVIMRJSVGIQIRXTPEGIH
in members should be sufficient to resist factored loads but
RSXPIWWXLERXLIQMRMQYQZEPYIW
;LIR XLI GEPGYPEXIH EVIE SJ XVERWZIVWI VIMRJSVGIQIRX MW
PIWW XLER XLI QMRMQYQ ZEPYI RS PIWW XLER XLI QMRMQYQ
ZEPYIWLSYPHFITPEGIH-JXLIGEPGYPEXIHEVIESJXVERWZIVWI
VIMRJSVGIQIRXI\GIIHWXLIQE\MQYQPMQMXQIQFIVHMQIR
sions should be appropriately modified.
{*PI\YVI
 +IRIVEP{8LIHIWMKRQSQIRXWXVIRKXLSJWIGXMSRW
WLSYPHFIGSQTYXIHF];LIVIXLIJEGXSVIHE\MEPPSEH
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XIRWMSRHIWMKRWXVIRKXLWLSYPHFIGSQTYXIHF]

 6IUYMVIHQSQIRXWXVIRKXL{8LIJEGXSVIHQSQIRX
1Y VIUYMVIHQSQIRXWXVIRKXL HYIXSXLIETTPMIHJEGXSVIH
PSEHWWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHJSVXLITEVXMGYPEVQIQFIVX]TI
JVSQ 'LETXIVWXS 
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FIKVIEXIVXLERSVIUYEPXSXLIVIUYMVIHQSQIRXWXVIRKXL1Y
1R 1Y



0SRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFITPEGIHRIEVXLIQIQFIV
face where flexural moment creates tension (*MK 
 (IWMKR QSQIRX WXVIRKXL JSV VIGXERKYPEV WIGXMSRW
[MXLXIRWMSRVIMRJSVGIQIRXSRP]
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XMSRXLEXXLIWXIIP]MIPHWJSVEWIGXMSR[MXLXIRWMSRVIMRJSVGI
QIRXSRP]XLIHIWMKRQSQIRXWXVIRKXLWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIH
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Mn

As f y d

a
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2

As f y



0.85 fc b

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 *PI\YVEPXIRWMSRVIMRJSVGIQIRXEVIE{8LIVEXMS
of flexural reinforcement, !%W FH WLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIH
YWMRKXLIJEGXSVIHQSQIRX1YEW

*MK{(IZIPSTQIRXPIRKXLJSV[IPHIH[MVIVIMRJSVGIQIRX

As
bd

2
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Mu 2 f
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fc
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FEVW

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VIMRJSVGIQIRX

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MR 'LETXIVWXS %WWLSYPHRSXFIPIWWXLERXLIQMRMQYQ
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appropriately modified. For girders, beams, and joists, when
XLI GSQTYXIH  MW KVIEXIV XLER QE\ 8EFPI   YWI SJ
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%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

HMWXVMFYXIHPSEHWMRPFJXSVPSEHWTIVYRMXEVIEMRPFJX ERH
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8LI]WLSYPHFIGSRZIVXIHXS2QQ O2Q!2QQ 
JSVYWI[MXLJ]MR14E 14E!2QQ  HERHFMRQQ
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5.12Axial loads with or without flexure
 +IRIVEP{'EPGYPEXMSR SJ XLI HIWMKR WXVIRKXL SJ
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loads alone or axial loads accompanied by flexure should be
MREGGSVHERGI[MXL
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flexure{)UYEXMSR   WLSYPH FI YWIH XS HIXIVQMRI
the design axial strength without flexure, 4SR



[LIVI !JSVGSPYQRW[MXLXMIWERHVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI
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flexure, should not exceed the following:
E 'SPYQRW[MXLXMIWERHVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI[EPPW
n (max)

on

 [MXL ! E

F 'SPYQRW[MXLWTMVEPVIMRJSVGIQIRX
n (max)

on

 [MXL ! F

 Balanced design strength for axial load with flexure


 7UYEVIERHVIGXERKYPEVXMIHGSPYQRWERHVIMR
JSVGIH GSRGVIXI [EPPW{:EPYIW JSV HIWMKR E\MEP GSQTVIW
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FEPERGIHHIWMKRWXVIRKXLTSMRXWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHYWMRK
)U E ERH )U F VIWTIGXMZIP] [MXL !

Pbn

M bn

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0.42 fc hb

0.6 Ase

0.15 Ass f y

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h
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st

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:EPYIW JSV HIWMKR E\MEP GSQTVIWWMSR WXVIRKXL 4FR ERH
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WXVIRKXLTSMRXWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHYWMRK)U E 
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*MK{(IWMKRHMQIRWMSRWJSVHIWMKRQSQIRXWXVIRKXL

Pbn

*MK{*PI\YVEPRSQMREPQSQIRXWXVIRKXL
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0.5 fc Acs

E



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

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*MK {(MQIRWMSRW JSV GEPGYPEXMSR SJ FEPERGIH


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Mbn

Pbn 0.2h

0.6 Ast f y

h
2

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F
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 Design strength for axial tension without flexure{


The design axial tension strength without flexure, 4XR
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tn

st y



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HIWMKRQSQIRXWXVIRKXLEXXLIWIGXMSR 1REXXLIPIZIPSJ
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Mn

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WLEHIHTSVXMSRMR*MK
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1YERH4YXLEXEGXSRXLIGSPYQRWIGXMSR

*SVZEPYIWSJ4Y
Mu

F

n (max)

G

4FR
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Pon
Pon

Pu
M bn
Pbn

H

Pu
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Ptn
Mbn
Ptn

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Mu

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 9WISJMRXIVEGXMSRHMEKVEQW{-RXIVEGXMSRHMEKVEQW
JSVGSPYQRWJVSQEYXLSVMXEXMZIWSYVGIWGERFIYWIHLS[IZIV
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 &ME\MEP QSQIRX WXVIRKXL{'SVRIV GSPYQRW ERH
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%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

Mu
Mn

x
x

Mu
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1.0



[LIVI 1Y \ ERH 1Y ] EVI XLI JEGXSVIH QSQIRXW XLEX EGX


EFSYX E\MW \ ERH ] *MK   WMQYPXERISYWP] [MXL XLI
JEGXSVIH E\MEP PSEH 4Y 1R \ ERH 1R ] GSVVIWTSRH XS
ZEPYIW SJ XLI HIWMKR QSQIRX WXVIRKXL HIXIVQMRIH JVSQ
)U H SV)U I JSVXLIJEGXSVIHE\MEPPSEH4Y
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{7LIEV
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(a) Beam-action shear that accompanies flexural moments
ERHSGGYVWMRKMVHIVWFIEQWNSMWXWWSPMHWPEFWERHVIMRJSVGIH
GSRGVIXI[EPPWMRXLIZMGMRMX]SJWYTTSVXWERHGSRGIRXVEXIH
PSEHWERH
F 4YRGLMRKWLIEVSVX[S[E]EGXMSRWLIEV[LMGLSGGYVW
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PSEHW
3XLIV X]TIW SJ WLIEV IJJIGXW WYGL EW WTIGMEP IJJIGXW MR
deep flexural members, shear-friction used when designing
FVEGOIXWERHGSVFIPWERH WXVYXERHXMIQSHIPWEVI FI]SRH
XLIWGSTISJXLMWKYMHIERHXLI WXERHEVHW SJ WLSYPHFI
YWIHJSVHIWMKRMRXLSWIGEWIW



 6IUYMVIHWLIEVWXVIRKXL{8LIJEGXSVIHWLIEVJSVGI
:Y VIUYMVIHWLIEVWXVIRKXL HYIXSXLIETTPMIHJEGXSVIHPSEHW
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VIUYMVIHWLIEVWXVIRKXL:YEWWLS[RMR)U  
Vn

Vu

 

[LIVI !
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 0SGEXMSRSJGVMXMGEPWIGXMSR{;LIVIXLIWYTTSVX
VIEGXMSR MR XLI HMVIGXMSR SJ XLI ETTPMIH WLIEV MRXVSHYGIW
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Vn

Vc

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*MK{&IEQEGXMSRWLIEVERHTYRGLMRKWLIEV
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+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

 8[S[E]EGXMSR TYRGLMRK HIWMKRWLIEVWXVIRKXL


MRWSPMHWPEFWERHJSSXMRKW
 0SGEXMSR SJ GVMXMGEP WIGXMSR{8LI HIWMKR WLIEV
WXVIRKXLJSVTYRGLMRKWLIEVSVX[S[E]EGXMSRWLIEVWLSYPH
FIMRZIWXMKEXIHMRWPEFWEXGSPYQRIHKIWGSRGIRXVEXIHPSEHW
WYTTSVXW XLMGORIWW GLERKIW WYGL EW IHKIW SJ GETMXEPW ERH
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 8[S[E] EGXMSR HIWMKR WLIEV WXVIRKXL{8LI
HIWMKR WLIEV WXVIRKXL :R WLSYPH FI GSQTYXIH YWMRK )U
 

:R! :G


Fig. 6.1.2.1Slab-on-girder floor system.

[LIVI :G!
-R )U   :GMWXLIGSRGVIXIGSRXVMFYXMSRXSXLI
HIWMKR WLIEV WXVIRKXL 4VSGIHYVIW JSV HIWMKR SJ XVERWZIVWI
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YWIHJSVHIWMKRMRXLEXGEWI
 8SVWMSR{(IWMKRJSVXSVWMSRMWFI]SRHXLIWGSTISJ
XLIKYMHIERHXSVWMSRIJJIGXWWLSYPHFIRIKPIGXIH[LIRXLI
GEPGYPEXIHVIUYMVIHXSVWMSRWXVIRKXL8YMWPIWWXLERXLIZEPYI
HIXIVQMRIHJVSQ)U  
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h 2 b2
h b

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h2b2
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 7- 

[LIVI !
-RQIQFIVW[LIVIXSVWMSRMWWQEPPIVXLERXLIZEPYIKMZIR
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HFSJMR QQ WLSYPHFITVSZMHIHRIEVXLIWYTTSVXW
8LI WTEGMRK SJ XLIWI GPSWIH WXMVVYTW QIEWYVIH EPSRK XLI
QIQFIV PIRKXL WLSYPH RSX FI KVIEXIV XLER XLI WQEPPIV SJ
FSVHJSVEHMWXERGIIUYEPXSSJXLIGPIEVWTERSJXLI
QIQFIV%X PIEWX SRIPSRKMXYHMREPFEV [MXLHMEQIXIV HFSJ
MR QQ SVKVIEXIVWLSYPHFIPSGEXIHEXIEGLMRXIVREP
GSVRIVSJXLIWIWXMVVYTW
{&IEVMRK
8LIJEGXSVIHGSQTVIWWMSRRSVQEPPSEH4YETTPMIHGSRGIR
XVMGEPP]SREREVIE%GFWLSYPHRSXI\GIIHXLIHIWMKRFIEVMRK
WXVIRKXLSRGSRGVIXI 4RHIXIVQMRIHYWMRK)U  
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[LIVI !
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6.1Types of floor systems
 +IRIVEPThe floor system used by a building
HIWMKRIH YRHIV XLI KYMHI WLSYPH FI SRI SJ XLI W]WXIQW
GSZIVIHMRSVXLIMVTIVQMXXIHZEVMEXMSRW

The selection of an appropriate floor system should be


QEHIEJXIVWXYH]MRKWIZIVEPEPXIVREXMZIW
 7PEFSRKMVHIVW]WXIQ
 (IWGVMTXMSR{8LMW W]WXIQ GSRWMWXW SJ E KVMH SJ
KMVHIVW MR FSXL TPER HMVIGXMSRW [MXL E WSPMH WPEF WTERRMRK
FIX[IIR KMVHIVW 8LIWI KMVHIVW EVI PSGEXIH SR XLI GSPYQR
PMRIWSVE\MWWTERRMRKXLIHMWXERGIFIX[IIRGSPYQRW8LI
WSPMHWPEFMWWLEPPS[IVXLERXLIKMVHIVWERHMWWYTTSVXIHF]
XLIQ *MK 8LIWPEFGERGERXMPIZIVSYXSZIVXLIIHKI
KMVHIV 8LMW W]WXIQ WLSYPH GSQTP] [MXL XLI WXVYGXYVEP
MRXIKVMX]SJ
 9WI SJ MRXIVQIHMEXI FIEQW{3RI SJ XLI QEMR
W]WXIQZEVMEXMSRWMWXLIYWISJMRXIVQIHMEXIFIEQWWYTTSVXIH
SRXLIKMVHIVW3RISVWIZIVEPFIEQWQE]FIYWIHTIVKMVHIV
WTER8LIMRXIVQIHMEXIFIEQWQE]FISJXLIWEQIHITXLSJ
XLIKMVHIVWSVWLEPPS[IV8LIWIMRXIVQIHMEXIFIEQWQE]FI
YWIHMRSRIHMVIGXMSREWWLS[RMR*MKESVMRX[S
HMVIGXMSRW EW WLS[R MR *MK F 8LI YWI SJ QER]
MRXIVQIHMEXI FIEQW [MPP QEOI XLI W]WXIQ KVEZMXEXI XS XLI
NSMWXW]WXIQHIWGVMFIHMR
 %HZERXEKIW SJ WPEFSRKMVHIV W]WXIQ{*SV XLI
WPEFSRKMVHIVW]WXIQIEGLGSQTSRIRXLEWXLIETTVSTVMEXI
QMRMQYQHITXLERH[MHXLXSGSQTP][MXLHIWMKRWXVIRKXLSV
WIVZMGIEFMPMX]XLIVIJSVILEZMRKEVIPEXMZIP]PS[WIPJ[IMKLX
8LIW]WXIQGEREGGSQQSHEXIWTERWSJER]WM^IGERIEWMP]
FIEHETXIHXSER]TPERWLETIERHPEVKITIVJSVEXMSRWHYGXW
ERHWLEJXWGERFIPSGEXIH[MXLSYXQENSVTVSFPIQW
 (MWEHZERXEKIW SJ WPEFSRKMVHIV W]WXIQ{*SV
XLIWPEFSRKMVHIVW]WXIQXLIHITXLSJXLIKMVHIVWFIEQW
ERHXLIWPEFGERFIPEVKIMJXLIQMRMQYQRYQFIVSJQIQFIVW
MWYWIHLS[IZIVXV]MRKXSVIHYGIMXGEYWIWQSVIQIQFIVW
XS FI YWIH ERH XLI JSVQ[SVO FIGSQIW QSVI IPEFSVEXI %
suspended ceiling may be needed for apartment and office
SGGYTERGMIW
 .SMWXW]WXIQW
 (IWGVMTXMSR ERH VIWXVMGXMSRW{8LI NSMWX W]WXIQ
GSRWMWXW SJ E WIVMIW SJ TEVEPPIP VMFW SV NSMWXW WYTTSVXIH F]
KMVHIVW 8LI KMVHIVW EVI PSGEXIH SR XLI GSPYQR PMRIW ERH
WTERFIX[IIRGSPYQRW.SMWXWEVIYWYEPP]XLIWEQIHITXLEW
XLIKMVHIVWFYXGERFIWLEPPS[IV%WSPMHWPEFWTERWFIX[IIR
NSMWXW *MK E  8LMW W]WXIQ WLSYPH GSQTP] [MXL XLI
WXVYGXYVEPMRXIKVMX]SJ8LIXSTWPEFWLSYPHRSXGERXMPIZIV

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



Fig. 6.1.3.1aJoist floor system.


*MKE{9WISJSRIHMVIGXMSRMRXIVQIHMEXIFIEQWMR
the slab-on-girder floor system.

*MKF{.SMWXHMQIRWMSREPPMQMXW

*MKF{9WISJX[SHMVIGXMSRMRXIVQIHMEXIFIEQWMR
the slab-on-girder floor system.

SYXSZIVXLIIHKINSMWX8LIGPIEVWITEVEXMSRFIX[IIRTEVEPPIP
NSMWXW QIEWYVIH EX XLI YRHIVWMHI SJ XLI WPEF WLSYPH RSX
I\GIIHMR QQ .SMWX[IF[MHXLWLSYPHRSXFIPIWW
XLERMR QQ QIEWYVIHEXXLIYRHIVWMHISJXLIWPEFRSV
MR QQ QIEWYVIHEXMXWXLMRRIWXWIGXMSR'PIEVHITXLSJ
XLINSMWXWLSYPHRSXI\GIIHXMQIWMXWQMRMQYQ[MHXL
*MKF 8LIXSTWPEFWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL
 8]TISJJSVQ[SVO{;LIRNSMWXWLEZIXLIWEQI
depth as the girders, a flat formwork decking supported on
WLSVIW GER FI YWIH .SMWXW WLEPPS[IV XLER XLI KMVHIVW QE]
VIWYPXMRQSVIGSQTPI\JSVQ[SVO8SGVIEXIZSMHWTIVQERIRX
ERHVIQSZEFPITERWSVHSQIWSJHMJJIVIRXWLETIERHQEXIVMEP
EVIYWIH%QSRKXLSWIGSQQSRP]YWIHEVITIVQERIRXERH
removable wood pans; removable metal, fiberglass, plastic,
PMKLXTSP]WX]VIRITPEWXMGTERWSVTIVQERIRXGIQIRXGMRHIV
or clay filler blocks.
 (MWXVMFYXMSR VMFW{8S MQTVSZI PSEH HMWXVMFYXMSR
ERH EZSMH GVIEXMRK E GSRGIRXVEXIH PSEH SR E WSPMXEV] NSMWX
MRSRI[E]NSMWXW]WXIQWXVERWZIVWIVMFWTEGMRKWLSYPHRSX
I\GIIHXLIWQEPPIVSJXMQIWXLIXSXEPNSMWXHITXLLERHJX
Q  *MK 
 8[S[E] NSMWX W]WXIQW{*SV WTERW ETTVS\M
QEXIP] IUYEP MR FSXL HMVIGXMSRW MX QE] FI EHZERXEKISYW
to use two-way joists. For the system to be classified as a
NSMWXW]WXIQNSMWXWWLSYPHFIWYTTSVXIHSRKMVHIVW8LMWMW
called a waffle-slab-on-beams system (Fig. 6.1.3.3). When

*MK{(MWXVMFYXMSRVMFW

Fig. 6.1.3.3Two-way joist system or waffle-slab-on-beams


W]WXIQ
the beams are omitted, the system is called the waffle-slab
W]WXIQHIWGVMFIHMR
 %HZERXEKIW SJ NSMWX W]WXIQW{8LI NSMWX W]WXIQ
GEREGGSQQSHEXIQIHMYQXSPEVKIWTERW[MXLVIPEXMZIP]PS[
WIPJ[IMKLX-XMWIEW]XSPSGEXIWQEPPTIVJSVEXMSRWHYGXWERH

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

*MK{4YRGLMRKWLIEVJEMPYVI

*MKE{(VSTTERIPW

*MKF{'SPYQRGETMXEP

*MK{*PEXTPEXIW]WXIQ
WLEJXW *SV LIEZ] PMZI PSEHW SV PEVKI TIVQERIRX PSEHW XLI
serviceability deflection limits can be readily met because
SJ XLI VIPEXMZIP] PEVKI HITXL SJ XLI W]WXIQ 'PIEV WTEGMRK
FIX[IIRNSMWXWMWEXVEHISJJFIX[IIREXLMRRIVXSTWPEFERH
E PEVKIVRYQFIVSJ NSMWXW XLYW EPPS[MRK XLIHIWMKRIVKVIEX
JVIIHSQMRGLSSWMRKETTVSTVMEXIHMQIRWMSRW
 (MWEHZERXEKIW SJ NSMWX W]WXIQW{8LI NSMWX
W]WXIQHIQERHWQSVI[SVOQERWLMTXLERSXLIVW]WXIQW*SV
WOI[TPERPE]SYXWFSXLHIWMKRERHGSRWXVYGXMSRTVSGIHYVIW
EVIQSVIGSQTPI\XLERJSVSXLIVW]WXIQW*SVETEVXQIRXERH
office occupancies, the system may need a false ceiling or an
underneath concrete soffit, which in turn requires permanent
TERWSVHSQIW0EVKITIVJSVEXMSRWHYGXWSVWLEJXWMRXIVVYTX
WIZIVEPNSMWXW[LSWIXVMFYXEV]PSEHWLSYPHFIXVERWJIVVIHXS
SXLIVNSMWXWXLYWQEOMRKHIWMKRERHGSRWXVYGXMSRQSVIMRXVM
GEXI-JXLINSMWXHITXLMWHMJJIVIRXXLERXLIKMVHIVHITXLXLI
advantage of a flat formwork decking is lost.
 7PEFGSPYQRW]WXIQW
 (IWGVMTXMSR{-RXLIWPEFGSPYQRW]WXIQXLIWPEF
MW WYTTSVXIH HMVIGXP] F] XLI GSPYQRW [MXLSYX FIEQW SV
KMVHIVW8LI W]WXIQ LEWWIZIVEPZEVMEXMSRWPMWXIHMR 
XS  %TVSFPIQ EWWSGMEXIH [MXL XLMWX]TISJ W]WXIQ
ORS[RWMRGIIEVP]HIZIPSTQIRXSJVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXIMWXLI
TYRGLMRKWLIEVJEMPYVISJXLIWPEFHIWGVMFIHMR*MK
 %HZERXEKIW SJ WPEFGSPYQR W]WXIQW{7PEF
GSPYQR W]WXIQW KIRIVEPP] TVSZMHI E WLEPPS[IV HITXL 8LI
system provides flexibility in column location, because
WSQIHIZMEXMSRJVSQXLILSVM^SRXEPE\MWSVPMRISJGSPYQRW
MW EPPS[IH -R KIRIVEP XLIWI W]WXIQW HS RSX RIIH E JEPWI
ceiling. Having a flat formwork decking simplifies construc
XMSR6IMRJSVGIQIRXTPEGIQIRXMWIEWMIVFIGEYWIMXHSIWRSX

require stirrups (except in waffle-slabs), thus allowing more


efficient construction. Perforations, ducts, and shafts can be
PSGEXIHMRXLIGIRXVEPTEVXSJXLIWPEFTERIP
 (MWEHZERXEKIW SJ WPEFGSPYQR W]WXIQW{8LI
QEMR HMWEHZERXEKI SJ XLIWI W]WXIQW MW ZYPRIVEFMPMX] XS
TYRGLMRK WLIEV JEMPYVI 8S EGGSYRX JSV XLMW JEMPYVI QSHI
WPEF HITXL QE] LEZI XS FI MRGVIEWIH XLYW QEOMRK XLI
WPEF LIEZMIV 9WMRK HVST TERIPW ERH GSPYQR GETMXEPW LIPT
MRGVIEWI TYRGLMRKWLIEV VIWMWXERGI FYX GSQTPMGEXI HIWMKR
ERHGSRWXVYGXMSR7TERWEVIWLSVXIVXLERJSVSXLIVW]WXIQW
HYI XS KVIEXIV WIPJ[IMKLX ERH PIWW HITXL %W XLI WTER MW
increased, significant long-term deflections caused by the
large permanent load are possible. These deflections can
EHZIVWIP]EJJIGX[EPPWERHTEVXMXMSRWIWTIGMEPP]MJXLI]EVI
QEWSRV][EPPW4IVJSVEXMSRWHYGXWERHWLEJXWWLSYPHRSXFI
PSGEXIH RIEV GSPYQRW FIGEYWI XLIWI STIRMRKW VIHYGI WPEF
TYRGLMRKWLIEVWXVIRKXL8LIWIMWQMGTIVJSVQERGISJWPEF
GSPYQRW]WXIQW[LIRRSXPEXIVEPP]WXMJJIRIHF]VIMRJSVGIH
GSRGVIXI[EPPWLEZIEXXMQIWRSXTIVJSVQIHEW[IPPEWSXLIV
WXVYGXYVEPW]WXIQWHYVMRKWIMWQMGIZIRXW
 *PEXTPEXI{%WPEFSJYRMJSVQXLMGORIWWWYTTSVXIH
by columns is called a flat plate (Fig. 6.1.4.2).
 *PEX WPEFW{8S MRGVIEWI VIWMWXERGI XS TYRGLMRK
shear (Fig. 6.1.4.1) and to increase the overall flexural
WXVIRKXLXLIWPEFGERFIXLMGOIRIHEVSYRHXLIGSPYQRW8LMW
system is called a flat-slab system.
8LIXLMGOIVVIGXERKYPEVWPEFEVSYRHXLIGSPYQRMWGEPPIH
EHVSTTERIPEWWLS[RMR*MKE;LIREHVSTTERIP
MWYWIHXLITYRGLMRKWLIEVWXVIRKXLEXXLIGSPYQRERHEXXLI
IHKISJXLIHVSTTERIPRIIHWXSFIGLIGOIH
%RSXLIVSTXMSRMWXSMRGVIEWIXLIGSRXEGXEVIEFIX[IIRXLI
GSPYQRERHXLIWPEFF]JSVQMRKEGSPYQRGETMXEPEWWLS[R
MR*MKF
-R WSQI MRWXERGIW FSXL E GETMXEP ERH E HVST TERIP EVI
GSQFMRIH EW WLS[R MR *MK G ,IVI X[S TSXIRXMEP

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



*MKG{'SPYQRGETMXEPERHHVSTTERIP

Fig. 6.1.4.4Waffle-slab.

*MKH{1MRMQYQHMQIRWMSRWJSVHVSTTERIPW
^SRIW SJ TYRGLMRK WLIEV JEMPYVI I\MWX ERH FSXL WLSYPH FI
GLIGOIHMRHIWMKR
(VST TERIPW WLSYPH TVSNIGX FIPS[ XLI WPEF EX PIEWX SRI
JSYVXLSJXLIWPEFHITXLFI]SRHXLIHVSTERHWLSYPHI\XIRH
MRIEGLHMVIGXMSRJVSQXLIGSPYQRGIRXIVPMRIEHMWXERGIRSX
PIWWXLERSRIWM\XLXLIWTERPIRKXLQIEWYVIHJVSQGIRXIVXS
GIRXIVSJWYTTSVXWMRXLEXHMVIGXMSR *MKH 
 Waffle-slabs{*SVPSRKIVWTERWZSMHWEVIJSVQIH
in the bottom of a flat-plate, away from the columns. This
system is called a waffle-slab, as shown in Fig. 6.1.4.4. The
rib dimensions (joists) in waffle-slabs should comply with
XLIQMRMQYQHMQIRWMSRWJSVNSMWXWKMZIRMR
8LMWW]WXIQMWZIV]WMQMPEVXSX[S[E]NSMWXW8LIQEMR
HMJJIVIRGI MW XLEX JSV X[S[E] NSMWXW FIEQW EVI PSGEXIH MR
the column lines, whereas for waffle slabs, all members are
joists and the voids surrounding the column are filled, thus
JSVQMRKEGSPYQRGETMXEP8LIWSPMHGETMXEPWLSYPHIRKEKI
EX PIEWX XLVII NSMWXW MR IEGL HMVIGXMSR JSV MRXIVMSV GSPYQRW
ERHEXPIEWXX[SNSMWXWTEVEPPIPXSXLIIHKIMRIHKIERHGSVRIV
columns. Domes or pans for waffle-slabs can be permanent,
QEHISJGSRGVIXIFPSGOSVVIQSZEFPI[LIRQEHISJ[SSH
fiberglass, or plastic, as described for the joist system in

6.2Selection of floor system
The licensed design professional should select a floor
W]WXIQJVSQXLIW]WXIQWGSZIVIHF]XLIKYMHIEWTVIWIRXIH
MR. Several alternatives should be studied, and the final
WIPIGXMSRWLSYPHGSRWMHIV
E 1EKRMXYHISJHIEHERHPMZIPSEHWMRGPYHMRKWIPJ[IMKLX
F +ISQIXV]SJXLIWXVYGXYVEPTPERPE]SYXMRGPYHMRKWTER
PIRKXLWMRFSXLTPERHMVIGXMSRWERHXLIVEXMSFIX[IIRXLIQ

G 4VIWIRGISJGERXMPIZIVWERHXLIMVQE\MQYQWTERERH
HMVIGXMSR
H 3GGYTERG]X]TI
I  %ZEMPEFPI GSRGVIXI ERH VIMRJSVGMRK WXIIP QEXIVMEP
WXVIRKXLW
J )\TIGXIHFILEZMSVSJXLIWPEFW]WXIQERHXLIEFMPMX]XS
comply with the serviceability and deflection criteria;
K %QSYRXSJQEXIVMEPWJSVGSRGVIXIWXIIPERHJSVQ[SVO
that are required to build the floor system, which contains
QSWXSJXLIQEXIVMEPWRIIHIHXSGSRWXVYGXXLIFYMPHMRK
L  0SGEP TVIJIVIRGIW XS WMQTPMJ] GSRWXVYGXMSR
GSSVHMREXMSR
(i) Worker training and proficiency, as some systems
require more training and proficiency than what local
[SVOIVWGERGSQTP][MXLERH
N 6IPEXMZIGSWXSJEPXIVREXMZIW[MXLIGSRSQMGEHZERXEKIW
IZEPYEXIHSRP]EJXIVTVSZMHMRK EHIUYEXII\TIGXIHFILEZMSV
ERHWEJIX]SJXLIW]WXIQ
{7XVYGXYVEPMRXIKVMX]
 +IRIVEP{7IGXMSRWXLVSYKLGSRWXMXYXIXLI
HIXEMPMRKGSRGITXWJSVWXVYGXYVEPMRXIKVMX]
7XVYGXYVEP MRXIKVMX] WLSYPH MQTVSZI VIHYRHERG] ERH
HYGXMPMX]SJXLIWXVYGXYVIEWE[LSPIJSVMXXSJYRGXMSRMRXLI
IZIRXSJHEQEKIXSEQENSVWYTTSVXMRKQIQFIVSVEREFRSVQEP
loading event by confining the damage to a relatively small
EVIEERHQEMRXEMRMRKSZIVEPPWXEFMPMX]
 4IVMQIXIV FIEQW MR WPEFERHKMVHIV ERH NSMWX
W]WXIQW{&IEQW WLSYPH PMRO EPP TIVMQIXIV GSPYQRW ERH
VIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI[EPPWSJXLIWXVYGXYVI8LIWITIVMQIXIV
FIEQWSVKMVHIVWWLSYPHLEZIEQMRMQYQEVIESJGSRXMRYSYW
XSTERHFSXXSQPSRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGIQIRXERHGPSWIHWXMVVYTW
EW MRHMGEXIH MR  8LMW VIMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH FI PET
WTPMGIHYWMRKXLIPETWTPMGIPIRKXLSJ
 2SRTIVMQIXIV FIEQW ERH KMVHIVW{%PP FIEQW ERH
KMVHIVWRSXGSZIVIHMRWLSYPHLEZIGPSWIHWXMVVYTWERHE
QMRMQYQEVIESJGSRXMRYSYWFSXXSQPSRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGI
QIRXEWMRHMGEXIHMRERH8LMWPSRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGI
QIRXWLSYPHFIPETWTPMGIHEXSVGPSWIXSXLIWYTTSVXWYWMRK
XLIPETWTPMGIPIRKXLSJ

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

8EFPI {1MRMQYQHITXLLJSVSRI[E]
solid slabs supporting deflection-insensitive
RSRWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXW

8EFPI {1MRMQYQHITXLLJSVSRI[E]
solid slabs supporting deflection-sensitive
RSRWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXW

'SRXMRYMX]EGVSWWXLIWYTTSVXW

1MRMQYQHITXLL

'SRXMRYMX]EGVSWWXLIWYTTSVXW

1MRMQYQHITXLL

7MQTP]WYTTSVXIH
3RIIRHGSRXMRYSYW
&SXLIRHWGSRXMRYSYW
'ERXMPIZIV

W

7MQTP]WYTTSVXIH
3RIIRHGSRXMRYSYW
&SXLIRHWGSRXMRYSYW
'ERXMPIZIV

W

W
W
W

 .SMWXW{-RNSMWXWEXPIEWXSRIFSXXSQFEVWLSYPHFI
GSRXMRYSYWSVWTPMGIHSZIVXLIWYTTSVXYWMRKXLIPETWTPMGI
PIRKXL SJ  %X RSRGSRXMRYSYW WYTTSVXW EX PIEWX SRI
FSXXSQFEVWLSYPHFIXIVQMREXIH[MXLEWXERHEVHLSSO  
 7PEFGSPYQR W]WXIQW{-R WPEFGSPYQR W]WXIQW
QMRMQYQ GSRXMRYSYW WXVYGXYVEP MRXIKVMX] VIMRJSVGIQIRX
WLSYPHFITVSZMHIHEWMRHMGEXIHF]'LETXIV
{3RI[E]ERHX[S[E]PSEHTEXLW
 +IRIVEPLoad path of the floor system should be
classified either as one-way or two-way. The actual load
TEXLJVSQXLIETTPMGEXMSRTSMRXXSXLIWYTTSVXWHITIRHWSR
TPERHMQIRWMSRWERHWXMJJRIWWSJXLIWYTTSVXMRKQIQFIVW
 3RI[E]{% WPEF WLSYPH FI GSRWMHIVIH SRI[E]
[LIRMXLEW
E 8[SSTTSWMRKJVIIIHKIW[MXLSYXZIVXMGEPWYTTSVXERH
LEWZIVXMGEPWYTTSVXWYGLEWFIEQWSV[EPPWMRXLISXLIVX[S
STTSWMRKIHKIW
F  % VIGXERKYPEV TPER WLETI LEW ZIVXMGEP WYTTSVX EX EPP
IHKIW ERH XLI PSRKIV WPEF WTER MW KVIEXIV XLER X[MGI XLI
WLSVXIVWPEFWTERSV
G .SMWXWI\GITXXLIHMWXVMFYXMSRVMFWMRSRP]SRIHMVIGXMSR
 8[S[E]{% WPEF WLSYPH FI GSRWMHIVIH X[S[E]
[LIR
E  8LI WPEF TERIP LEW E VIGXERKYPEV TPER WLETIERHLEW
ZIVXMGEP WYTTSVX WYGL EW FIEQW SV [EPPW EX EPP IHKIW ERH
XLIPSRKIVWPEFWTERMWPIWWXLERSVIUYEPXSX[MGIXLIWLSVXIV
WPEFWTERSV
F  -R WPEFGSPYQR W]WXIQW XLI TERIP LEW E VIGXERKYPEV
TPERWLETI ERH XLI PSRK WPEF WTER MW PIWW XLER SV IUYEPXS
X[MGIXLIWLSVXWPEFWTER
 *PSSVW]WXIQPSEHTEXL{%RETTVS\MQEXIPSEHTEXL
(one-way or two-way) should be identified and used to
EWWMKRXVMFYXEV]PSEHXSEPPWPEFWYTTSVXMRKQIQFIVWERHHIXIV
QMRITVIPMQMREV]HMQIRWMSRWSJXLIWPEFERHXLIWYTTSVXMRK
QIQFIVW 8LI PSEH TEXL ERH XLI XVMFYXEV] PSEH WLSYPH FI
verified as members are dimensioned and designed, and
GSVVIGXIHEWRIIHIH
6.5Minimum depth for floor system members
 +IRIVEPMinimum depth for floor system members
KMZIR MR  XS  WLSYPH FI GSRWMHIVIH XS QIIX XLI
serviceability limit state, providing sufficient stiffness to
avoid excessive member deflections caused by dead and live
PSEHW
 7SPMHSRI[E]WPEFW
 7PEFFIX[IIRNSMWXW{7PEFWWLSYPHLEZIEQMRMQYQ
HITXLSJ WFYXWLSYPHRSXFIPIWWXLERMR QQ 

W
W
W

8EFPI {1MRMQYQHITXLLJSVKMVHIVW
FIEQWERHSRI[E]NSMWXWWYTTSVXMRK
deflection-insensitive nonstructural elements
'SRXMRYMX]EGVSWWXLIWYTTSVXW
7MQTP]WYTTSVXIH
3RIIRHGSRXMRYSYW
&SXLIRHWGSRXMRYSYW
'ERXMPIZIV

1MRMQYQHITXLL
W
W
W
W

when permanent concrete or clay filler blocks are used as


JSVQWRSVPIWWXLERMR QQ MREPPSXLIVGEWIW
 Deflection-insensitive nonstructural elements{
;LIVI XLI WPEF WYTTSVXW RSRWXVYGXYVEP IPIQIRXW FYMPX SJ
materials that will not be damaged by large deflections, slab
HITXL LWLSYPHRSXFIPIWWXLERXLIZEPYIWMR8EFPI
[LIVIXLIWTERPIRKXL WMWXLIHMWXERGIGIRXIVXSGIRXIVSJ
WYTTSVXW;LIVIXLIGPIEVWTERMWPIWWXLERJX Q  WMW
XLIGPIEVWTER
 Deflection-sensitive nonstructural elements{
;LIVI XLI WPEF WYTTSVXW RSRWXVYGXYVEP IPIQIRXW FYMPX SJ
materials that will be damaged by large deflections, slab
HITXL LWLSYPHRSXFIPIWWXLERXLIZEPYIWMR8EFPI
[LIVI WWLSYPHFIXEOIREWXLIHMWXERGIGIRXIVXSGIRXIVSJ
WYTTSVXW;LIVIXLIGPIEVWTERMWPIWWXLERJX Q  WMW
XLIGPIEVWTER
 +MVHIVWFIEQWERHSRI[E]NSMWXW
 Deflection-insensitive nonstructural elements{
;LIVIEKMVHIVFIEQSVSRI[E]NSMWXWYTTSVXWRSRWXVYG
XYVEP IPIQIRXW FYMPX SJ QEXIVMEPW XLEX [MPP RSX FI HEQEKIH
by large deflections, L WLSYPH RSX FI PIWW XLER XLI ZEPYIW
MR 8EFPI  [LIVI W WLSYPH FI XEOIR EW XLI HMWXERGI
GIRXIVXSGIRXIVSJWYTTSVXW*SVNSMWXW[LIVIXLIGPIEVWTER
MWPIWWXLERJX Q  WMWXLIGPIEVWTER
 Deflection-sensitive nonstructural elements{
;LIVIXLIKMVHIVFIEQSVSRI[E]NSMWXWYTTSVXWRSRWXVYG
XYVEP IPIQIRXW FYMPX SJ QEXIVMEPW XLEX [MPP FI HEQEKIH
by large deflections, L WLSYPH RSX FI PIWW XLER XLI ZEPYIW
MR 8EFPI  [LIVI W WLSYPH FI XEOIR EW XLI HMWXERGI
GIRXIVXSGIRXIVSJWYTTSVXW*SVNSMWXW[LIVIXLIGPIEVWTER
MWPIWWXLERJX Q  WMWXLIGPIEVWTER
 8[S[E] WPEFW WYTTSVXIH EX EPP IHKIW{8LI
QMRMQYQHITXLSJX[S[E]WPEFWMRGPYHMRKX[S[E]NSMWX
and waffle-on-beams systems, supported by girders, beams,
SVVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI[EPPWSREPPTERIPIHKIWMWKMZIRMR
)U  8LIWYTTSVXMRKKMVHIVWSVFIEQWWLSYPHLEZIE
HITXLRSXPIWWXLERXLVIIXMQIWXLIWPEFHITXL  (ITXL
SJWSPMHWPEFWWLSYPHFIRSXPIWWXLERMR QQ JSV R

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

8EFPI {1MRMQYQHITXLLJSVKMVHIVW
FIEQWERHSRI[E]NSMWXWWYTTSVXMRK
deflection-sensitive nonstructural elements



8EFPI E{1MRMQYQHITXLSJWPEFGSPYQR
systems supporting deflection-insensitive
RSRWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXW

'SRXMRYMX]EGVSWWXLIWYTTSVXW

1MRMQYQHITXLL

7MQTP]WYTTSVXIH
3RIIRHGSRXMRYSYW
&SXLIRHWGSRXMRYSYW
'ERXMPIZIV

W
W

8]TISJWPEFGSPYQR
W]WXIQ
;MXLSYXHVSTTERIPW

W
W

;MXLHVSTTERIPW

0SGEXMSRSJ
TERIP

1MRMQYQHITXLSJ
WPEF L

)\XIVMSV
-RXIVMSV
)\XIVMSV
-RXIVMSV

R
R
R
R

2SXI RGSVVIWTSRHWXSXLIPSRKIVWTER

KVIEXIV XLER  JX Q ERHWLSYPHRSX FIPIWWXLERMR


QQ JSV RPIWWXLERSVIUYEPXSJX Q 
n



[LIVI R MW XLI GPIEV WTER MR XLI PSRK HMVIGXMSR QIEWYVIH
JEGIXSJEGISJXLI WYTTSVXMRK FIEQW ERH MW XLI VEXMSSJ
PSRKIVGPIEVWTERXSWLSVXIVGPIEVWTERSJXLIWPEFTERIP
 7PEFGSPYQR W]WXIQW{*SV WPEFW [MXLSYX MRXIVMSV
beams spanning between supports, including waffle-slabs,
ERHLEZMRKEVEXMSSJPSRKIVXSWLSVXIVWTERRSXKVIEXIVXLER
E  *SV WPEFW WYTTSVXMRK RSRWXVYGXYVEP IPIQIRXW FYMPX SJ
materials that will not be damaged by large deflections,
QMRMQYQHITXLMWKMZIRF]8EFPIE
F  *SV WPEFW WYTTSVXMRK RSRWXVYGXYVEP IPIQIRXW FYMPX
of materials that will be damaged by large deflections,
QMRMQYQHITXLMWKMZIRF]8EFPIFERH
G 1MRMQYQWPEFHITXLWLSYPHRSXFIPIWWXLERXLIZEPYIW
KMZIRMR  ERH  JSVWSPMHWPEFW
 7PEFW[MXLSYXHVSTTERIPW{MR QQ
  7PEFW [MXL HVST TERIPW [LIVI HVST TERIP HMQIR
WMSRWGSRJSVQXS{MR QQ 
6.6Trial dimensions for floor system
Initial trial dimensions for floor system members should
be defined using the minimum depth as indicated in 'LETXIV
8VMEP HMQIRWMSRW WLSYPH FI EWWMKRIH YWMRK LKMZIR MR
8VMEP[MHXLF[JSVEFIEQMWSRILEPJSJLFYXRSXPIWWXLER
 MR  QQ  ERH F[ JSV NSMWXW EVI XLI QMRMQYQ [MHXL
HMQIRWMSRWKMZIRMR8LIWIXVMEPHMQIRWMSRWQIIXXLI
WIVZMGIEFMPMX] PMQMX WXEXI ERH EW XLI HIWMKR TVSGIIHW XLI]
should be modified as needed by the strength limit state. The
WIPJ[IMKLX GEPGYPEXIH YWMRK XLI XVMEP HMQIRWMSR WLSYPH FI
corrected because modifications to the dimensions occur
HYVMRKXLIHIWMKRTVSGIWW
6.7Floor finish
A floor finish should not be included as part of a structural
member unless placed monolithically with the floor slab. It
is permitted to consider all concrete and mortar floor finishes
EWTEVXSJXLIGSZIV
{(YGXWWLEJXWSTIRMRKWERHIQFIHHIH
TMTMRK
 (YGXWWLEJXWERHSTIRMRKWMRWPEFW]WXIQW
 7PEFSRKMVHIVW]WXIQ{-RWPEFSRKMVHIVW]WXIQW
QMRSVSTIRMRKWWLSYPHRSXMRXIVVYTXKMVHIVWSVFIEQW8LI

8EFPI F{1MRMQYQHITXLSJWPEFGSPYQR
systems supporting deflection-sensitive
RSRWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXW
8]TISJWPEFGSPYQR
W]WXIQ
;MXLSYXHVSTTERIPW
;MXLHVSTTERIPW

0SGEXMSRSJTERIP
)\XIVMSV
-RXIVMSV
)\XIVMSV
-RXIVMSV

1MRMQYQHITXL
SJWPEFL
R
R
R
R

2SXI RGSVVIWTSRHWXSXLIPSRKIVWTER

XSXEPEVIESJVIMRJSVGIQIRXJSVXLIWPEF[MXLSYXERSTIRMRK
WLSYPH FI QEMRXEMRIH 3TIRMRKW [MXL TPER HMQIRWMSRW
KVIEXIVXLER RRIIHFIEQWSREPPIHKIW
 .SMWX GSRWXVYGXMSR{-R NSMWX GSRWXVYGXMSR QMRSV
STIRMRKWWLSYPHFIPSGEXIHFIX[IIRNSMWXW;LIRERSTIRMRK
MRXIVVYTXWSRISVX[SNSMWXWMXWLSYPHFIWYVVSYRHIHF]NSMWXW
ERH HMWXVMFYXMSR VMFW 8LI NSMWXW EX XLI IHKI SJ ER STIRMRK
WLSYPHFIGSRXMRYSYWERHTVSTSVXMSRIHXSVIWMWXHSYFPIXLI
HIWMKR ZIVXMGEP PSEH (MWXVMFYXMSR VMFW EX XLI IHKI SJ XLI
STIRMRKWLSYPHI\XIRHXSEFIEQSVKMVHIVSRFSXLWMHIWSJ
XLISTIRMRK;LIRQSVIXLERX[SNSMWXWEVIMRXIVVYTXIHXLI
STIRMRKWLSYPHLEZIFIEQWSREPPWMHIW
 3TIRMRKWMRWPEFGSPYQRW]WXIQW{-R 'LETXIV
WPEFSTIRMRKWEVITIVQMXXIHMRWSQIEVIEW  TVSZMHIH
XLITYRGLMRKWLIEVWXVIRKXLMWRSXHMQMRMWLIHERHXLIXSXEP
EVIE SJ VIMRJSVGIQIRX RIIHIH JSV XLI TERIP [MXLSYX XLI
STIRMRKMWQEMRXEMRIH
 )QFIHHIHGSRHYMXWERHTMTIW
 +IRIVEP{'SRHYMXWERHTMTIWSJEPYQMRYQWLSYPH
RSXFIIQFIHHIHMRWXVYGXYVEPQIQFIVW'SRHYMXWERHTMTIW
SJER]QEXIVMEPWLSYPHRSXFIIQFIHHIH[MXLMREGSPYQR
 'SRHYMXW ERH TMTIW TEWWMRK XLVSYKL KMVHIVW
FIEQW ERH NSMWXW{% GSRHYMX SV TMTI TEWWMRK XLVSYKL E
KMVHIVFIEQSVNSMWXWLSYPHRSXFIPEVKIVMRSYXWMHIHMEQIXIV
XLER L [LIR TEWWMRK LSVM^SRXEPP] RSV KVIEXIV XLER F[
[LIRTEWWMRKZIVXMGEPP]'SRHYMXWSVTMTIWWLSYPHFIPSGEXIH
MRTPERRSGPSWIVXSXLIWYTTSVXJEGIXLER WSVJEVXLIVE[E]
XLER W'SRHYMXWERHTMTIWTEWWMRKLSVM^SRXEPP]XLVSYKLXLI
QIQFIVWLSYPHFIPSGEXIHMRXLIQMHHPIXLMVHSJXLIQIQFIV
LIMKLX 'SRHYMXW ERH TMTIW TEWWMRK ZIVXMGEPP] XLVSYKL XLI
QIQFIVWLSYPHFIPSGEXIHMRXLIQMHHPIXLMVHSJXLIQIQFIV
[MHXL4MTIWERHGSRHYMXWWLSYPHFIWTEGIHLSVM^SRXEPP]EX
PIEWXXLVIIHMEQIXIVWGIRXIVXSGIRXIV *MK 6IMR
JSVGMRKFEVWWLSYPHRSXFIEPPS[IHXSFIGYXSVHEQEKIHHYI

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

*MK{0SGEXMSRSJGSRHYMXWERHTMTIWTEWWMRKLSVM^SRXEPP]XLVSYKLKMVHIVWFIEQW
ERHNSMWXW

XSTMTITIRIXVEXMSRWEXER]PSGEXMSRYRPIWWETTVSZIHF]XLI
PMGIRWIHHIWMKRTVSJIWWMSREP
 'SRHYMXWERHTMTIWPSGEXIHPSRKMXYHMREPP][MXLMR
KMVHIVW FIEQW ERH NSMWXW{'SRHYMXW ERH TMTIW IQFIHHIH
PSRKMXYHMREPP][MXLMRKMVHIVWFIEQWSVNSMWXWWLSYPHRSXFI
PEVKIVMRSYXWMHIHMEQIXIVXLER F[ERHWLSYPHFIPSGEXIH
ZIVXMGEPP] [MXLMR XLI QMHHPI XLMVH SJ XLI QIQFIV HITXL
'SRHYMXW SV TMTIW WLSYPH RSX FI WTEGIH GPSWIV XLER XLVII
HMEQIXIVWGIRXIVXSGIRXIV
 'SRHYMXWERHTMTIWIQFIHHIHMRWPEFW{'SRHYMXW
ERH TMTIW IQFIHHIH [MXLMR WSPMH WPEFW WLSYPH FI TPEGIH
FIX[IIRXSTERHFSXXSQVIMRJSVGIQIRX8LIMVSYXWMHIHMEQIXIV
WLSYPH RSX FI KVIEXIVXLER  MR  QQ  SV TIVGIRX SJ
XLIWPEFXLMGORIWWERHWLSYPHFIWTEGIHRSPIWWXLERXLVII
HMEQIXIVWGIRXIVXSGIRXIV
 4MTIWIQFIHHIHMRXLIXSTWPEFMRNSMWXW{;LIVI
GSRHYMXWSVTMTIWEVIIQFIHHIH[MXLMRXLIXSTWPEFMRNSMWXW
HITXLSJXLIXSTWPEFWLSYPHFIEXPIEWXMR QQ KVIEXIV
XLERXLIXSXEPSZIVEPPLIMKLXSJXLIGSRHYMXWSVTMTIWERHXLI
GSRGVIXIGSZIVEXER]TSMRXWLSYPHRSXFIPIWWXLERMR
QQ 
',%48)6{730-(70%&77944368)(32
+-6()67&)%17.3-787366)-2*36')(
'32'6)8);%007
{+IRIVEP
(IWMKRSJSRI[E]ERHX[S[E]WSPMHWPEFWWYTTSVXIHEX
XLIMVIHKIWF]KMVHIVWFIEQWSVVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI[EPPW
WLSYPHFIMREGGSVHERGI[MXL'LETXIV8LIXSTWSPMHWPEFW
XLEXWTERFIX[IIRNSMWXWEVIEPWSMRGPYHIH
{0SEHW
 0SEHWXSFIMRGPYHIH{(IWMKRPSEHWJSVWSPMHWPEFW
WYTTSVXIH SRKMVHIVW FIEQW NSMWXW SV VIMRJSVGIH GSRGVIXI
[EPPWWLSYPHFIMREGGSVHERGI[MXL'LETXIV+VEZMX]PSEHW
XLEXWLSYPHFIMRGPYHIHMRXLIHIWMKREVI
(a) Dead loads: Member self-weight, flat nonstructural
elements, standing nonstructural elements, and any fixed
IUYMTQIRXPSEHW
F 0MZIPSEHWERH
G 6SSJPMZIPSEHVEMRPSEHERHWRS[PSEHWLSYPHFIYWIH
MJXLIWPEFMWTEVXSJXLIVSSJW]WXIQ

 (IEHPSEHERHPMZIPSEH{8LIZEPYISJUHJSVHIEH
PSEHWLSYPHMRGPYHIWPEFWIPJ[IMKLXERHXLI[IMKLXSJXLI
flat and standing nonstructural elements as defined in 
8LIZEPYISJU JSVPMZIPSEHWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHF] 
;LIVI XLI WPEF MW TEVX SJ XLI VSSJ W]WXIQ VSSJ PMZI PSEH
KMZIRMRVEMRPSEHMRERHWRS[PSEHWMRWLSYPH
FIMRGPYHIHEWETTVSTVMEXI
 *EGXSVIH HIWMKR PSEH{8LI ZEPYI SJ XLI JEGXSVIH
HIWMKR PSEH UY WLSYPH FI XLI KVIEXIV ZEPYI HIXIVQMRIH
GSQFMRMRK UHERHU YWMRKXLIPSEHJEGXSVWERHPSEHGSQFM
REXMSRWKMZIRMR
{6IMRJSVGIQIRXHIXEMPW
 +IRIVEP{6IMRJSVGIQIRXSJWPEFWSRKMVHIVWWLSYPH
GSQTP][MXLXS
 1MRMQYQGPIEVWTEGMRKFIX[IIRTEVEPPIPFEVWMRE
PE]IV{-RWPEFWXLIQMRMQYQGPIEVWTEGMRKFIX[IIRTEVEPPIP
FEVW MR EPE]IVWLSYPH FIXLI PEVKIWX RSQMREPFEVHMEQIXIV
HFFYXRSXPIWWXLERMR QQ 'PIEVHMWXERGIPMQMXEXMSR
FIX[IIRFEVWWLSYPHETTP]EPWSXSXLIGPIEVHMWXERGIFIX[IIR
EGSRXEGXPETWTPMGIERHEHNEGIRXWTPMGIWSVFEVW
 7LVMROEKIERHXIQTIVEXYVIVIMRJSVGIQIRX
 (IWGVMTXMSR{6IMRJSVGIQIRX JSV WLVMROEKI ERH
temperature effects normal to flexural reinforcement of the
slab should be provided in slabs-on-girders where flexural
VIMRJSVGIQIRXI\XIRHWMRSRIHMVIGXMSRSRP]
 0SGEXMSR{*SV JPSSV WPEFW WLVMROEKI ERH
XIQTIVEXYVIVIMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPHFITPEGIHSRXSTSJXLI
positive flexural reinforcement perpendicular to it. For roof
WPEFWMXWLSYPHFITPEGIHYRHIVXLIRIKEXMZIQSQIRXVIMR
JSVGIQIRXTIVTIRHMGYPEVXSMXXSPMQMXXLIWM^IERHWTEGMRKSJ
cracking and thus reduce possible water infiltration.
 1E\MQYQWTEGMRK{-RWSPMHWPEFWWLVMROEKIERH
XIQTIVEXYVIVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFIWTEGIHRSJEVXLIVETEVX
XLER JSYV XMQIW XLI WPEF XLMGORIWW RSV  MR  QQ 
6IJIVXS*MK 
 1MRMQYQEVIE{8LIQMRMQYQVEXMSSJWLVMROEKI
ERHXIQTIVEXYVIVIMRJSVGIQIRXEVIEXSKVSWWGSRGVIXIEVIE
X !%WX FL WLSYPHFI
 7TPMGMRK{-X MW TIVQMXXIH XS PETWTPMGI WLVMROEKI
ERHXIQTIVEXYVIVIMRJSVGIQIRXEXER]PSGEXMSR7TPMGIPIRKXL
WLSYPHGSQTP][MXL

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

*MK {1E\MQYQ WTEGMRK FIX[IIR WLVMROEKI ERH


XIQTIVEXYVIVIMRJSVGIQIRXMRWPEFW
 )RH ERGLSVEKI{%X WPEF IHKIW WLVMROEKI ERH
XIQTIVEXYVI VIMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH IRH MR E WXERHEVH LSSO
;LIVIGSRWXVEMRIHF]WPEFKISQIXV]XLIIRHLSSORIIHRSX
FITPEGIHZIVXMGEPP]
 *PI\YVEPVIMRJSVGIQIRX+IRIVEP
 Maximum spacing of flexural reinforcement in
WSPMH WPEFWIn solid slabs, primary flexural reinforcement
*MK   WLSYPH FI WTEGIHRS JEVXLIV ETEVX XLER XLVII
XMQIWXLIWPEFXLMGORIWWRSVMR QQ 
 Minimum area of tension flexural reinforcement{
The minimum area of tension flexural reinforcement in solid
WPEFWWLSYPHFIXLIEVIERIIHIHJSVWLVMROEKIERHXIQTIVE
XYVIIJJIGXW%W
X FL ERH*MK 
 Maximum area of tension flexural reinforcement{
The tension flexural reinforcement ratio, ! %W FH MRWSPMH
WPEFWWLSYPHRSXI\GIIH QE\MR8EFPI-RWSPMHWPEFW
compression flexural reinforcement should not be taken into
EGGSYRX[LIRGSQTYXMRKHIWMKRQSQIRXWXVIRKXL
 (IWMKR QSQIRX WXVIRKXL{*SV WSPMH WPEFW XLI
HIWMKR QSQIRX WXVIRKXL SJ  GER FI ETTVS\MQEXIH
YWMRK)U  [MXL !

 Obtaining flexural reinforcement ratio{*PI\YVEP
XIRWMSR VIMRJSVGIQIRX VEXMS  ! %W FH  WLSYPH FI HIXIV
QMRIHJVSQ)U  

As
bd

Mu
0.85 f y bd 2



;LIR  MW PIWW XLER QMR EW KMZIR MR  MRGVIEWI %W
;LIR MWKVIEXIVXLER QE\EWKMZIRMRMRGVIEWIWPEF
XLMGORIWWERHGSVVIGXXLIWIPJ[IMKLX
 4SWMXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRX
 (IWGVMTXMSR{4SWMXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX EW
MRHMGEXIHMR'LETXIVWLSYPHGSQTP][MXLERH
XSJSVIEGLWPEFX]TI8LIHIWMKRQSQIRXWXVIRKXL
SJEWIGXMSRFEWIHSRXLITVSZMHIHEVIESJTSWMXMZIQSQIRX
VIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFIIUYEPXSSVKVIEXIVXLERXLIVIUYMVIH
flexural strength.
 0SGEXMSR{4SWMXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPH
FITVSZMHIHTEVEPPIPXSXLIWLSVXIVWTERMRSRI[E]WPEFWERH



Fig. 7.3.4.1Maximum spacing between flexural reinforce


QIRXMRWSPMHWPEFW

*MK{7PEFWIGXMSR
8EFPI 7.3.4.3Maximum flexural reinforcement
VEXMS QE\JSVWSPMHWPEFW
J]TWM 14E

JG TWM
14E

 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 

2SXI-XWLSYPHFITIVQMXXIHXSMRXIVTSPEXIJSVHMJJIVIRXZEPYIWSJJ]ERHJG 

MRFSXLHMVIGXMSRWMRX[S[E]WPEFW4SWMXMZIQSQIRXVIMR
JSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFIPSGEXIHEWGPSWIXSXLIFSXXSQWYVJEGI
SJ GSRGVIXI EW GSZIV TIVQMXW   -R X[S[E] W]WXIQW
XLI WLSVXIV WTER TSWMXMZI QSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFI
PSGEXIH FIPS[ XLI PSRKIV WTER TSWMXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGI
QIRX FIGEYWI XLI TSWMXMZI QSQIRX MR XLI WLSVXIV WTER MW
PEVKIV
 'YXSJJTSMRXW{2SQSVIXLERSRILEPJSJXLITSWMXMZI
moment reinforcement needed to obtain the required flexural
WXVIRKXLEXQMHWTERQE]FIGYXSJJEXXLIPSGEXMSRWMRHMGEXIH
MR XS JSVIEGLWPEFX]TI
 6IMRJSVGIQIRX WTPMGMRK{8LI VIQEMRMRK TSWMXMZI
QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX QE] FI PET WTPMGIH FIX[IIR XLI
GYXSJJTSMRXERHXLISTTSWMXIJEGISJXLIWYTTSVX
 )QFIHQIRX EX MRXIVMSV WYTTSVXW{4SWMXMZI
QSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXGYXSJJEXERMRXIVMSVWYTTSVXWLSYPH
FII\XIRHIHXSXLISTTSWMXIJEGISJXLIWYTTSVX
 )RH ERGLSVEKI SJ VIMRJSVGIQIRX{4SWMXMZI
QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX TIVTIRHMGYPEV XS E HMWGSRXMRYSYW
IHKIWLSYPHI\XIRHXSXLIWPEFIHKIERHWLSYPHIRH[MXLE
WXERHEVHLSSO
 2IKEXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRX
 (IWGVMTXMSR{2IKEXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX
WLSYPH FI TVSZMHIH MR XLI EQSYRXW ERH PIRKXLW MRHMGEXIH

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

*MK{7PEFGSVRIVVIMRJSVGIQIRX

*MK {;IPHIH [MVI VIMRJSVGIQIRX MR WLSVX SRI[E]


WTERW
MR'LETXIVERHWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL ERH
XS  JSV IEGL WPEF X]TI 8LI HIWMKR QSQIRX WXVIRKXL SJ
E WIGXMSR FEWIH SR XLI TVSZMHIH EVIE SJ RIKEXMZI QSQIRX
VIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFIIUYEPXSSVKVIEXIVXLERXLIVIUYMVIH
flexural strength.
 0SGEXMSR{2IKEXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPH
FITVSZMHIHTIVTIRHMGYPEVXSWYTTSVXMRKKMVHIVWFIEQWERH
VIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI[EPPW2IKEXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRX
WLSYPHFIPSGEXIHEWGPSWIXSXLIXSTWYVJEGISJGSRGVIXIEW
GSZIVTIVQMXW  -RX[S[E]W]WXIQWXLIWLSVXIVWTER
RIKEXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH FI PSGEXIH EFSZI
XLIPSRKIVWTERRIKEXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXFIGEYWIXLI
RIKEXMZIQSQIRXMRXLIWLSVXIVWTERMWPEVKIV
 'YXSJJ TSMRXW{)\GITX JSV GERXMPIZIVW EPP RIKEXMZI
QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX QE] FI GYX SJJ EX XLI PSGEXMSRW
MRHMGEXIH MRXS JSV IEGL WPEFX]TI ;LIVI EHNEGIRX
WTERW EVI YRIUYEP RIKEXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX GYXSJJ
TSMRXWWLSYPHFIFEWIHSRXLIPSRKIVWTER
 6IMRJSVGIQIRX WTPMGMRK{2IKEXMZI QSQIRX
VIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHRSXFIPETWTPMGIHFIX[IIRXLIGYXSJJ
TSMRXERHXLIWYTTSVX
 )RH ERGLSVEKI SJ VIMRJSVGIQIRX{2IKEXMZI
QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX TIVTIRHMGYPEV XS E HMWGSRXMRYSYW
IHKIWLSYPHIRHMREWXERHEVHLSSOEXXLIIHKIGSQTP]MRK
[MXL  %X XLI I\XIVREP IHKI SJ GERXMPIZIVW RIKEXMZI
QSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXTIVTIRHMGYPEVXSXLIIHKIWLSYPHIRH
MREWXERHEVHLSSO;LIVIGSRWXVEMRIHF]WPEFKISQIXV]XLI
IRHLSSORIIHRSXFITPEGIHZIVXMGEPP]
 7LIEV VIMRJSVGIQIRX{4VSGIHYVIW JSV HIWMKR SJ
WLIEVSVXVERWZIVWIVIMRJSVGIQIRXMRWSPMHWPEFWEVIFI]SRH

XLIWGSTISJXLMWKYMHIERHXLIWXERHEVHWSJWLSYPHFI
YWIHMJWPEFWLIEVVIMRJSVGIQIRXMWRIIHIH
 'SVRIV VIMRJSVGIQIRX{8ST ERH FSXXSQ GSVRIV
VIMRJSVGIQIRXMREHHMXMSRXSSXLIVVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFI
TVSZMHIHEXI\XIVMSVWYTTSVXIHWPEFGSVRIVW JSVGERXMPIZIVW
VIJIVXS ) for a distance equal to one-fifth of the longer
GPIEVWTERSJXLIWPEFTERIP *MK 8LIEVIESJXSTERH
bottom corner reinforcement should be sufficient to resist a
moment equal to the required positive flexural strength, per
YRMXSJ[MHXLMRXLIWPEFTERIPMREGGSVHERGI[MXL
ERH
 8ST GSVRIV VIMRJSVGIQIRX{'SVRIV VIMRJSVGI
QIRXTEVEPPIPXSXLIHMEKSREPSJXLITERIPWLSYPHFITPEGIH
at the slab top, directly below the flexural reinforcement.
'SVRIV VIMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH IRH [MXL E WXERHEVH LSSO EX
XLIWYTTSVX
 &SXXSQGSVRIVVIMRJSVGIQIRX{'SVRIVVIMRJSVGIQIRX
TIVTIRHMGYPEVXSXLIHMEKSREPSJXLITERIPWLSYPHFITPEGIH
at the slab bottom, directly above the flexural reinforcement.
'SVRIVVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHIRH[MXLEWXERHEVHLSSOEXXLI
IHKIWYTTSVX
 ;IPHIH [MVI VIMRJSVGIQIRX YWIH MR WLSVX SRI[E]
WTERWPEFW{-RSRI[E]WPEFW[MXLEGPIEVWTERRSXI\GIIHMRK
JX Q [IPHIH[MVIVIMRJSVGIQIRXQE]EGXEWFSXLRIKEXMZI
ERH TSWMXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX -X WLSYPH FI GSRXMR
YSYWPSGEXIHRIEVXLIWPEFXSTSZIVXLIWYTTSVXERHRIEVXLI
WPEFFSXXSQEXQMHWTERTVSZMHIHMXIMXLIVGSRXMRYIWSZIVSV
MWERGLSVIHEXXLIWYTTSVXW8LIPSRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGIQIRX
EVIEWLSYPHFIEHIUYEXIXSVIWMWXXLIVIUYMVIHTSWMXMZIERH
negative flexural strength (Fig. 7.3.9). The wire area in the
TIVTIRHMGYPEVHMVIGXMSRWLSYPHGSQTP][MXLXLIEVIERIIHIH
JSVWLVMROEKIERHXIQTIVEXYVIVIMRJSVGIQIRX
 :EPYISJHGERHHMRWSPMHWPEFW{8LIHMWXERGIJVSQ
extreme tension fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement,
HGWLSYPHGSRWMHIVXLIGSRGVIXIGSZIVMRFEVHMEQIXIV
ERH VIMRJSVGIQIRX MR XLI TIVTIRHMGYPEV HMVIGXMSR TPEGIH
FIX[IIR XLI VIMRJSVGIQIRX YRHIV WXYH] ERH XLI GSRGVIXI
WYVJEGI
8LIJSPPS[MRKZEPYIWSJHGGERFIYWIHXSGSQTYXIHEWH!
LzHG*SVSRI[E]WPEFWERHJSVVIMRJSVGIQIRXMRXLIWLSVX
HMVIGXMSRMRX[S[E]WPEFWHG!MR QQ JSVMRXIVMSV
I\TSWYVIERHHG!MR QQ JSVI\XIVMSVI\TSWYVI*SV
VIMRJSVGIQIRXMRXLIPSRKIVHMVIGXMSRSJX[S[E]WPEFWHG!
MR QQ JSVMRXIVMSVI\TSWYVIERHHG!MR QQ 
JSVI\XIVMSVI\TSWYVI
{7LIEVWXVIRKXL
8LIHIWMKRWLIEVWXVIRKXLSJWSPMHWPEFWWLSYPHFIHIXIV
QMRIHMREGGSVHERGI[MXLERH
 6IUYMVIH WLIEV WXVIRKXL{8LI JEGXSVIH WLIEV :Y
VIUYMVIH WLIEV WXVIRKXL  GEYWIH F] JEGXSVIH PSEHW ETTPMIH
XSXLIWPEFWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHEXXLIPSGEXMSRWMRHMGEXIHMR
XSJSVIEGLWPEFX]TI
 (IWMKR WLIEV WXVIRKXL{8LI HIWMKR WLIEV WXVIRKXL
:R JSV WSPMH WPEFW WLSYPH FI FEWIH SRP] SR XLI GSRGVIXI
WLIEV WXVIRKXL ERH WLSYPH FI IUYEP XS SV KVIEXIV XLER XLI
VIUYMVIHWLIEVWXVIRKXL:YEWWLS[RMR)U E [MXL !
 *MK 

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

Vn

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{7PEFFIX[IIRNSMWXW
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(YGXWWLEJXWERHWPEFSTIRMRKWWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL%
XSTWSPMHWPEFMRNSMWXGSRWXVYGXMSRWLSYPHRSXGERXMPIZIVTEWX
XLIIHKINSMWX  
 6IUYMVIHQSQIRXWXVIRKXL{8LIJEGXSVIHQSQIRX1Y
VIUYMVIHQSQIRXWXVIRKXL JSVRIKEXMZIERHTSWMXMZIQSQIRX
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[LIVI RMWXLIGPIEVWTEGMRKFIX[IIRNSMWXW *MK 
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 6IMRJSVGIQIRX{*PI\YVEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX VEXMS


TIVTIRHMGYPEV XS XLI NSMWX HMVIGXMSR WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH
YWMRK 1YJVSQ)U  ERHYWMRKHEWSRILEPJXLIXLMGO
RIWWSJXLIXSTWSPMHWPEFERHWLSYPHRSXFIPIWWXLER QMR
*MK 8LIWPEFVIMRJSVGIQIRXEVIETEVEPPIPXSXLINSMWX
HMVIGXMSRWLSYPHQIIXXLEXRIIHIHJSVWLVMROEKIERHXIQTIV
EXYVIVIMRJSVGIQIRX
 7LIEV WXVIRKXL{8LI JEGXSVIH WLIEV :Y VIUYMVIH
WLIEV WXVIRKXL  TIV YRMX WPEF [MHXL WLSYPH FI GEPGYPEXIH
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*MK 

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8LI ZEPYI SJ H JSV GSQTYXMRK HIWMKR WLIEV WXVIRKXL TIV


YRMXWPEF[MHXL :RWLSYPHFISRILEPJXLIWPEFXLMGORIWW
 'EPGYPEXMSRSJWPEFVIEGXMSRW{7PEFVIEGXMSRWSRXLI
WYTTSVXMRKNSMWXWVYWLSYPHFIXLIZEPYIWHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ
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u s



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{'ERXMPIZIVWSJWPEFWWYTTSVXIHSRKMVHIVW
FIEQWSV[EPPW
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FI]SRHXLIIHKISJKMVHIVFIEQSVVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI[EPP
WLSYPHGSQTP][MXLXLIQMRMQYQHITXLSJ8LIGERXM
PIZIVWTERWLSYPHRSXI\GIIHXLIPMQMXKMZIRMR2SWPEF
STIRMRKWJSVHYGXWSVWLEJXWWLSYPHFIPSGEXIHFIX[IIRXLI
WYTTSVXERHSRILEPJXLIGERXMPIZIVWTER8LIWPEFQE]GERXM
PIZIVMRX[SHMVIGXMSRWEXGSVRIVW[MXLXLIWEQIPMQMXEXMSRW
MRIEGLHMVIGXMSRXLEXETTP]JSVWMRKPIGERXMPIZIVW
 2IGIWWEV]QSQIRXWXVIRKXL{8LIJEGXSVIHQSQIRX
1Y VIUYMVIHQSQIRXWXVIRKXL JSVEGERXMPIZIVWPEFWLSYPH
FI GEPGYPEXIH EWWYQMRK XLEX SRILEPJ SJ XLI HMWXVMFYXIH
JEGXSVIHPSEHUYEGXWEWEGSRGIRXVEXIHPSEHEXXLIGERXMPIZIV
XMT ERH XLISXLIV LEPJEGXW EW E YRMJSVQP] HMWXVMFYXIH PSEH
SZIVXLIJYPPWTERYWMRK)U  [LIVI RMWXLIGPIEVWTER
SJXLIGERXMPIZIV6IUYMVIHRIKEXMZIQSQIRXWXVIRKXLJSVXLI
GERXMPIZIVWLSYPHRSXFIPIWWXLERXLIWXVIRKXLVIUYMVIHEXXLI
exterior support of the first interior span, or one-third of the
required positive moment strength of the first interior span,
MRXLIWEQIHMVIGXMSR *MK 
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*MK{'SRXVMFYXMSRSJGSRGVIXIXSFIEQEGXMSRWLIEV
WXVIRKXLMRGSRGVIXIWPEFW



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 6IMRJSVGIQIRX
 2IKEXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX{2IKEXMZI
QSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXVEXMS MRXLIHMVIGXMSRSJXLIGERXM
PIZIVWLSYPHFIFEWIHSR1YJVSQ)U  8LMWVIMRJSVGI
ment should extend beyond the first support not less than the
HMWXERGIMRHMGEXIHJSVRIKEXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXSJXLI
MRXIVMSVWPEFTERIPEXXLIIHKIWYTTSVXERHRSXPIWWXLER HJSV
XLIVIMRJSVGMRKFEVYWIH *MK 

*MK{6IMRJSVGIQIRXSJXSTWSPMHWPEFXLEXWTERWFIX[IIRNSMWXW
%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

*MK{'EPGYPEXMSRSJRIKEXMZIQSQIRXEXWPEFGERXMPIZIVW

*MK{6IMRJSVGIQIRXJSVWPEFGERXMPIZIVW

*MK{2IKEXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXMRX[S[E]WPEFGERXMPIZIVW

 4SWMXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRX{4SWMXMZIQSQIRX
VIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFIEXPIEWX%WQMR-XMWTVSZMHIHMRXLI
direction of the cantilever to reduce time-dependent deflec
XMSRWERHXSWEXMWJ]VIUYMVIHQSQIRXWXVIRKXL *MK 
 7LVMROEKI ERH XIQTIVEXYVI VIMRJSVGIQIRX{8LI
VIMRJSVGIQIRXEVIETEVEPPIPXSXLIGERXMPIZIVIHKIWLSYPHRSX
FIPIWWXLERXLEXRIIHIHJSVWLVMROEKIERHXIQTIVEXYVIVIMR
JSVGIQIRX *MK 

 6IMRJSVGIQIRX SJ X[S[E] GERXMPIZIVW{%X GSVRIVW


[LIVIXLIWPEFGERXMPIZIVWMRX[SHMVIGXMSRWRIKEXMZIQSQIRX
VIMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH FI FEWIH SR XLI PSRKIV GERXMPIZIV 8LMW
VIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFITVSZMHIHMRFSXLHMVIGXMSRW *MK
  1MRMQYQ VIMRJSVGIQIRX PIRKXL QIEWYVIH JVSQ XLI
GSVRIVMWIUYEPXSXLIGERXMPIZIVGPIEVWTERTPYWX[SXMQIW
XLIPSRKIVGERXMPIZIVFYXRSXPIWWXLERXLIHMWXERGIMRHMGEXIH
for the negative moment reinforcement of the first interior

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

WTERTPYWXLIGERXMPIZIV4SWMXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXEW
MRHMGEXIHF] WLSYPHFITPEGIHMRFSXLHMVIGXMSRW
 7LIEV WXVIRKXL{8LI JEGXSVIH WLIEV :Y VIUYMVIH
WLIEV WXVIRKXL TIVYRMX WPEF [MHXLEX XLI WYTTSVXSJGERXM
PIZIVWPEFWWLSYPHFIGEPGYPEXIHYWMRK)U  [LIVI RMW
XLIGPIEVWTERSJXLIGERXMPIZIV
:Y!UY



*SV X[S[E] GERXMPIZIVW XLI ZEPYI SJ :Y TIV YRMX WPEF
[MHXLWLSYPHFIXEOIREWX[MGIXLIZEPYIHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ
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 'EPGYPEXMSRSJWYTTSVXVIEGXMSRW{6IEGXMSRWEXXLI
WYTTSVXW VYWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ)U  [LIVI
:YMWXLIJEGXSVIHWLIEVTIVYRMXWPEF[MHXLJVSQ WMW
XLI GERXMPIZIV WTER QIEWYVIH JVSQ XLI WYTTSVX GIRXIVPMRI
ERH RMWXLIGERXMPIZIVGPIEVWTER
ru

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;LIVI E X[S[E] GERXMPIZIV I\MWXW VY MW HIXIVQMRIH JVSQ


)U  JSVXLIPEVKIVGERXMPIZIVWTER[MXLSYXYWMRKXLI
JEGXSVSJ
{3RI[E]WMRKPIWTERWSPMHWPEFWWTERRMRK
FIX[IIRKMVHIVWFIEQWSVVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI
[EPPW
 (MQIRWMSREP PMQMXW{3RI[E] WMRKPIWTER WSPMH
WPEFW WLSYPH GSQTP] [MXL XLI QMRMQYQ HITXLSJ  -R
EHHMXMSRXSXLIWIWPEFWWLSYPHGSQTP][MXLXLIKIRIVEP
8EFPI {6IUYMVIHQSQIRXWXVIRKXLJSV
SRI[E]WMRKPIWTERWPEFW
4SWMXMZIQSQIRX

Mu

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8

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2IKEXMZIQSQIRXEXWYTTSVXW

M ue

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24



HMQIRWMSREPPMQMXW SJERHXLITEVXMGYPEVPMQMXWSJ 


JSVWPEFSRKMVHIVW]WXIQW(YGXWWLEJXWERHWPEFSTIRMRKW
WLSYPHGSQTP][MXL
 6IUYMVIH QSQIRX WXVIRKXL{4SWMXMZI ERH RIKEXMZI
JEGXSVIHWPEFQSQIRX1Y VIUYMVIHQSQIRXWXVIRKXL WLSYPH
FIGEPGYPEXIHYWMRKXLIIUYEXMSRWKMZIRMR8EFPI
 Primary flexural reinforcement
 4SWMXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRX{4SWMXMZIQSQIRX
VIMRJSVGIQIRXVEXMS MRXLIHMVIGXMSRSJXLIWTER RWLSYPH
FIFEWIHSR1YHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ )U E ;LIVIXLI
WPEF MWQSRSPMXLMG [MXL XLI WYTTSVX ERH XLI WYTTSVX LEW E
HITXLEXPIEWXXLVIIXMQIWKVIEXIVXLERXLIWPEFHITXLYTXS
SRILEPJSJXLITSWMXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXQE]FIGYX
SJJEXEHMWXERGIIUYEPXS RQIEWYVIHJVSQXLIMRXIVREPJEGI
SJXLIWYTTSVXMRXSXLIWTER *MK 
 2IKEXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX{2IKEXMZI
QSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXVEXMS MRXLIHMVIGXMSRSJXLIWTER
z
RWLSYPHFIFEWIHSR1Y HIXIVQMRIHJVSQ)U F %PP
RIKEXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXQE]FIGYXSJJEXEHMWXERGI
IUYEPXS RQIEWYVIHJVSQXLIMRXIVREPJEGISJXLIWYTTSVX
MRXSXLIWTER6IJIVXS*MK
 7LVMROEKI ERH XIQTIVEXYVI VIMRJSVGIQIRX{
6IMRJSVGIQIRXTIVTIRHMGYPEVXSXLIWTERWLSYPHRSXFIPIWW
XLER XLEX RIIHIH JSV WLVMROEKI ERH XIQTIVEXYVI VIMRJSVGI
QIRX *MK 
 7LIEV WXVIRKXL{8LI JEGXSVIH WLIEV :Y VIUYMVIH
WLIEV WXVIRKXL  TIV YRMX WPEF [MHXL JSV XLI WMRKPIWTER
SRI[E]WPEFWLSYPHFIGEPGYPEXIHEXXLIJEGISJXLIWYTTSVXW
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 'EPGYPEXMSRSJWYTTSVXVIEGXMSRW{7PEFVIEGXMSRWEX
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ZEPYIWHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ)U  TPYWXLIGERXMPIZIVVIEG
XMSR[LIVIETTPMGEFPI-R)U  :YMWXLIJEGXSVIHWLIEV
TIVYRMXWPEF[MHXLJVSQ WMWXLIGIRXIVXSGIRXIVWTER
SJXLIWPEFERH R MWXLIGPIEVWTERSJXLIWPEF

F

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*MK{6IMRJSVGIQIRXJSVWMRKPIWTERSRI[E]WPEFW
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+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

8EFPI {6IUYMVIHQSQIRXWXVIRKXLJSV
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4SWMXMZIQSQIRXEX
)RHWTERW

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11

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-RXIVMSVWTERW

2IKEXMZIQSQIRXEXWYTTSVXWEX
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Exterior face of first internal support, only two spans:

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M ue

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I\GIIHMRKJX Q 

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{3RI[E]WSPMHWPEFWWYTTSVXIHSRKMVHIVW
FIEQWSV[EPPW[MXLX[SSVQSVIWTERW
 (MQIRWMSREP PMQMXW{-R EHHMXMSR XS  SRI[E]
WSPMHWPEFW[MXLX[SSVQSVIWTERWWLSYPHGSQTP][MXLXLI
QMRMQYQ HITXL SJ  XLI KIRIVEP HMQIRWMSREP PMQMXW
SJ  ERH XLI TEVXMGYPEV PMQMXWSJ  JSV WPEFSRKMVHIV
W]WXIQW (YGXW WLEJXW ERH WPEF STIRMRKW WLSYPH GSQTP]
[MXL 
8LI JSPPS[MRK VIWXVMGXMSRW WLSYPH FI MR IJJIGX JSV WPEFW
HIWMKRIHYRHIV
E 8LIVIEVIEXPIEWXX[SWTERW
F 7TERPIRKXLWWLSYPHFIETTVS\MQEXIP]IUYEPERHXLI
WLSVXIVSJX[SEHNEGIRXWTERWWLSYPHRSXFIWQEPPIVXLER
TIVGIRXSJXLIPSRKIVWTER  
G 0SEHWEVIYRMJSVQP]HMWXVMFYXIH
H 9RMXPMZIPSEHU HSIWRSXI\GIIHWXLVIIXMQIWYRMXHIEH
PSEH UHERH
I *SVRIKEXMZIQSQIRXIZEPYEXMSREXMRXIVREPWYTTSVXW R
WLSYPHGSVVIWTSRHXSXLIPEVKIWXEHNEGIRXWTER
 6IUYMVIH QSQIRX WXVIRKXL{4SWMXMZI ERH RIKEXMZI
JEGXSVIHQSQIRX1Y VIUYMVIHQSQIRXWXVIRKXL JSVXLIWPEF
WLSYPHFIGEPGYPEXIHYWMRKXLIIUYEXMSRWMR8EFPI
 Longitudinal flexural reinforcement
 4SWMXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRX{4SWMXMZIQSQIRX
VIMRJSVGIQIRXVEXMS MRXLIHMVIGXMSRSJXLIWTER RWLSYPH
FIFEWIHSR1YHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ)U E SV F %X
MRXIVREPWYTTSVXWEXEHMWXERGI RQIEWYVIHJVSQWYTTSVX
JEGI MRXS XLI WTER YT XS SRILEPJ SJ XLI TSWMXMZI QSQIRX
VIMRJSVGIQIRXQE]FIGYXSJJ *MKEERHF 
 2IKEXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX{2IKEXMZI
QSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXVEXMS MRXLIHMVIGXMSRSJXLIWTER
z
RWLSYPHFIFEWIHSR1Y HIXIVQMRIHJVSQ)U G XS
J %PPRIKEXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXQE]FIGYXSJJ

EXEHMWXERGI RJVSQXLIMRXIVREPWYTTSVXW[LIVI RWLSYPH


GSVVIWTSRHXSXLIPSRKIWXEHNEGIRXWTERQIEWYVIHJVSQXLI
WYTTSVX JEGI MRXS XLI WTER &IGEYWI XLI RIKEXMZI QSQIRX
EX MRXIVMSV WYTTSVXW HVSTW SJJ UYMGOP] XLI HIWMKRIV QE]
want to provide two cutoff distances. In this case, the first
GYXSJJHMWXERGIMW RQIEWYVIHJVSQXLIMRXIVREPJEGISJXLI
WYTTSVXMRXSXLIWTER
%XI\XIVREPWYTTSVXWEPPRIKEXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRX
QE]FIGYXSJJ *MKEERHF EXEHMWXERGI R
QIEWYVIHJVSQXLIMRXIVREPJEGISJXLIWYTTSVXMRXSXLIWTER
 7LVMROEKI ERH XIQTIVEXYVI VIMRJSVGIQIRX{
6IMRJSVGIQIRXTIVTIRHMGYPEVXSXLIWTERWLSYPHRSXFIPIWW
XLER XLEX RIIHIH JSV WLVMROEKI ERH XIQTIVEXYVI VIMRJSVGI
QIRX *MKEERHF 
 7LIEV WXVIRKXL{8LI JEGXSVIH WLIEV :Y VIUYMVIH
WLIEVWXVIRKXL TIVYRMXWPEF[MHXLWLSYPHFIGEPGYPEXIHEXXLI
JEGISJXLIWYTTSVXYWMRKXLIIUYEXMSRWMR8EFPI[LIVI
RMWXLIGPIEVWTER *MKEERHF 8LIHIWMKR
WLIEVWXVIRKXL :RTIVYRMXWPEF[MHXLWLSYPHFIGEPGYPEXIH
EXXLIWYTTSVXJEGI
 'EPGYPEXMSRSJWYTTSVXVIEGXMSRW{7PEFWYTTSVXVIEG
XMSRW VYWLSYPH FIXLIZEPYIW HIXIVQMRIH JVSQ)U  
[LIVI :YMWXLIJEGXSVIHWLIEV VIUYMVIHWLIEVWXVIRKXL TIV
YRMX WPEF [MHXL JVSQ  W MW XLI GIRXIVXSGIRXIV WTER
ERH R MWXLIGPIEVWTER
ru

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8LII\XIVREPWYTTSVXVIEGXMSRMWIUYEPXSXLIWTERVIEGXMSR
VYHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ)U  EXXLIWYTTSVXTPYWGERXMPIZIV
VIEGXMSR[LIVIETTPMGEFPI6IEGXMSREXERMRXIVREPWYTTSVXMW
XLIWYQSJVIEGXMSRWVYHIXIVQMRIHYWMRK)U  JSVFSXL
EHNEGIRXWTERWEXXLEXWYTTSVX
{8[S[E]WSPMHWPEFWWTERRMRKFIX[IIR
KMVHIVWFIEQWSVVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI[EPPW
 (MQIRWMSREPPMQMXW{8[S[E]WSPMHWPEFWWYTTSVXIH
SR EPP IHKIW WLSYPH GSQTP] [MXL XLI QMRMQYQ HITXL SJ
-REHHMXMSRXSX[S[E]WPEFWWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL
XLIKIRIVEPHMQIRWMSREPPMQMXWSJERHXLITEVXMGYPEVPMQMXW
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{+IRIVEP
 7GSTI{+MVHIVW FIEQW ERH NSMWXW WLSYPH FI
HIWMKRIH EGGSVHMRK XS 'LETXIV  8LI GLETXIV ETTPMIW XS
MWSPEXIHFIEQWKMVHIVWFIEQWERHNSMWXWXLEXEVITEVXSJE
floor system and girders that are part of a moment-resisting
JVEQI WYTTSVXIH SR GSPYQRW SV GSRGVIXI WXVYGXYVEP [EPPW
*SYRHEXMSR FIEQW KVEHI FIEQW  WLSYPH FI HIWMKRIH
JSPPS[MRK 'LETXIV
 8LIYWISJJVEQIEREP]WMW{*VEQIEREP]WMWXLEXQIIXW
E XLVSYKL K QE]FIYWIHXSSFXEMRJEGXSVIHQSQIRXWERH
WLIEVWEWEWYFWXMXYXIJSVZEPYIWTVIWGVMFIHMR'LETXIV
E  %REP]WMW TVSGIHYVI WLSYPH FI FEWIH SR IWXEFPMWLIH
TVMRGMTPIWSJWXVYGXYVEPQIGLERMGW

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

F  4VSGIHYVI WLSYPH GSRWMHIV IUYMPMFVMYQ HIJSVQEXMSR


GSQTEXMFMPMX] KIRIVEP WXEFMPMX] ERH WLSVX ERH PSRKXIVQ
QEXIVMEPTVSTIVXMIW
(c) Analysis procedure should consider support flexibility
and the interaction between flexure and torsion of supported
ERHWYTTSVXMRKQIQFIVW
H  'SRGVIXI QSHYPYW SJ IPEWXMGMX] WLSYPH FI XEOIR EW

c TWM
c
c
I 6IMRJSVGMRKWXIIPQSHYPYWSJIPEWXMGMX]WLSYPHFIXEOIR
EW )W!TWM?)W!14EA
J 6IEWSREFPIEWWYQTXMSRWWLSYPHFIYWIHJSVGSQTYXMRK
relative flexural and torsional stiffness of structural members.
8LI EWWYQTXMSRW EHSTXIH WLSYPH FI GSRWMWXIRX XLVSYKLSYX
EREP]WMW
K  7TER PIRKXL WLSYPH FI XEOIR EW XLI GIRXIVXSGIRXIV
HMWXERGIFIX[IIRWYTTSVXWFYXJEGXSVIHQSQIRXWERHWLIEVW
QE]FISFXEMRIHEXJEGIWSJWYTTSVXWERH
L 8LIEVVERKIQIRXSJPMZIPSEHQE]FIPMQMXIHXSPSEH
GSQFMREXMSRW SJ JEGXSVIH HIEH PSEH SR EPP WTERW [MXL JYPP
JEGXSVIHPMZIPSEHSRX[SEHNEGIRXWTERWERHJEGXSVIHHIEH
PSEH SR EPP WTERW [MXL JYPP JEGXSVIH PMZI PSEH SR EPXIVREXI
WTERW
c

{0SEHW
 0SEHWXSFIMRGPYHIH{0SEHWJSVKMVHIVWFIEQWERH
NSMWXWWLSYPHFIIWXEFPMWLIHJVSQ 'LETXIV+VEZMX] PSEHW
WLSYPHFIXLIWYQSJXLIVIEGXMSRWJVSQWYTTSVXIHQIQFIVW
ERH PSEHW ETTPMIH HMVIGXP] SR XLI QIQFIV 0EXIVEP PSEHW
WLSYPHGSRJSVQXS'LETXIV
 6IEGXMSRW{8LIKVEZMX]VIEGXMSRWJVSQWYTTSVXIH
QIQFIVWWLSYPHGSRWMHIV
E  (IEH PSEHW MRGPYHMRK WIPJ[IMKLX SJ WYTTSVXIH
members, loads due to flat and standing nonstructural
elements, and loads from any fixed equipment carried by
XLIWIWYTTSVXIHQIQFIVWERH
F 0MZIPSEHWETTPMIHSRWYTTSVXIHQIQFIVW
 1IQFIVPSEHW{0SEHW GEVVMIH HMVIGXP] F] FIEQ
KMVHIVSVNSMWXWLSYPHMRGPYHI
(a) Dead loads, including member self-weight, and flat
and standing nonstructural elements, and fixed equipment
PSEHWETTPMIHHMVIGXP]SRXLIQIQFIVERH
F 0MZIPSEHWETTPMIHHMVIGXP]SRXLIQIQFIV
 (IEHERHPMZIPSEHWGEVVMIHF]XLIQIQFIV
 9RMJSVQP] HMWXVMFYXIH PSEHW{8LI JSPPS[MRK
WLSYPHFIYWIHXSSFXEMRZEPYIWSJ[H JSVHIEHPSEHERH[
JSVPMZIPSEH
E [H WLSYPH MRGPYHI XLI WIPJ[IMKLX TIV QIQFIV YRMX
PIRKXL
F [H should include the weight of the flat and standing
nonstructural elements directly supported, as defined in
TIVQIQFIVYRMXPIRKXL
(c) For girders, beams, or joists located at the edge of floor
WPEFW [HWLSYPHMRGPYHIHMWXVMFYXIHPSEHHYIXSXLI[IMKLX
SJJEEHIWERHFYMPHMRKIRGPSWYVIIPIQIRXWEWMRHMGEXIHF]

H [  WLSYPH MRGPYHI PMZI PSEH HMVIGXP] ETTPMIH SR XLI
QIQFIVEWMRHMGEXIHF]ERH

I *SVEVSSJQIQFIVXLIHMVIGXP]ETTPMIHVSSJPMZIPSEHW
KMZIRMRVEMRPSEHWMRERHWRS[PSEHWMR WLSYPH
FIMRGPYHIHEWETTVSTVMEXI
 'SRGIRXVEXIH PSEHW{8LI JSPPS[MRK WLSYPH FI
YWIHXSSFXEMRZEPYIWSJTHJSVHIEHPSEHERHT JSVPMZIPSEH
JSVEPPPSGEXMSRW[LIVIGSRGIRXVEXIHPSEHWEVIETTPMIHXSXLI
QIQFIV
E TH WLSYPH MRGPYHI XLI GSRGIRXVEXIH PSEHW TVSHYGIH
F] XLI [IMKLX SJ XLI LSVM^SRXEP ERH ZIVXMGEP RSRWXVYGXYVEP
elements directly supported by the member, as defined in

(b) For girders, beams, or joists located at the edge of floor
WPEFW THWLSYPHMRGPYHIGSRGIRXVEXIHPSEHWHYIXSXLI[IMKLX
SJIPIQIRXWSJXLIJEEHIERHXLIFYMPHMRKIRGPSWYVIERH
G T  WLSYPHMRGPYHIER]GSRGIRXVEXIHPMZIPSEHHMVIGXP]
ETTPMIHSRXLIQIQFIV
 *EGXSVIHPSEH
 *EGXSVIHVIEGXMSRW
E  *SV YRMJSVQP] HMWXVMFYXIH VIEGXMSRW GEVVMIH F] XLI
QIQFIVXLIPEVKIWXZEPYISJVYWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHERH
F  *SV GSRGIRXVEXIH PSEHW GEVVMIH F] XLI QIQFIV XLI
PEVKIWXZEPYISJ6YWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHJSVEPPGSRGIRXVEXIH
PSEHPSGEXMSRW
 *EGXSVIHQIQFIVPSEHW
E  *SV YRMJSVQP] HMWXVMFYXIH PSEHW GEVVMIH HMVIGXP] F]
XLIQIQFIV[YWLSYPHFIXLIKVIEXIWXZEPYIHIXIVQMRIHF]
GSQFMRMRK [HERH[ YWMRKPSEHJEGXSVWERHPSEHGSQFMRE
tions specified in ERH
F  *SV EPP GSRGIRXVEXIH PSEHW GEVVMIH HMVIGXP] F] XLI
QIQFIV TY WLSYPH FI XLI KVIEXIWX ZEPYI HIXIVQMRIH F]
GSQFMRMRK TH ERH T YWMRKPSEH JEGXSVW ERH PSEH GSQFMRE
tions specified in JSVIEGLGSRGIRXVEXIHPSEH
 *EGXSVIHXSXEPPSEH
E *EGXSVIHYRMJSVQP]HMWXVMFYXIHXSXEPPSEH;YWLSYPHFI
XLIWYQSJ[YHIXIVQMRIHJVSQERHVYHIXIVQMRIH
JVSQERH
F *EGXSVIHGSRGIRXVEXIHXSXEPPSEH4YWLSYPHFIXLIWYQ
SJ TY HIXIVQMRIH JVSQ  ERH 6Y HIXIVQMRIH JVSQ

{6IMRJSVGIQIRXX]TIW
 +IRIVEP{6IMRJSVGIQIRX SJ KMVHIVW FIEQW ERH
NSMWXWWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL'LETXIVERHWLSYPHFIHMZMHIH
MRXSPSRKMXYHMREPERHXVERWZIVWIVIMRJSVGIQIRX0SRKMXYHMREP
ERH XVERWZIVWI VIMRJSVGIQIRX MR KMVHIVW FIEQW ERH NSMWXW
LEZI ETTPMGEXMSRW PMWXIH MR 8EFPIW E ERH F ERH
WLSYPH GSQTP] [MXL XLI WIGXMSRW PMWXIH *MKYVI  MPPYW
XVEXIWXLITVMRGMTEPX]TIWSJVIMRJSVGIQIRX
 7IMWQMG{-R KMVHIVW ERH FIEQW WYTTSVXIH HMVIGXP]
SRGSPYQRWERHVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI[EPPWXLEXEVITEVXSJE
QSQIRXVIWMWXMRKJVEQIMREHYEPW]WXIQPSGEXIHMRWIMWQMG
^SRIWVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHEPWSGSQTP][MXL'LETXIV.SMWXW
ERHFIEQWRSXTEVXSJEJVEQIEVII\IQTXJVSQ'LETXIV
 8SVWMSR{;LIRKMVHIVWERHFIEQWEVIWYFNIGXIHXS
XSVWMSREPQSQIRXWEQMRMQYQEQSYRXSJXVERWZIVWIVIMR
forcement as specified in WLSYPHFITVSZMHIH

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



8EFPI E{8]TIWSJPSRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGIQIRXMRKMVHIVWFIEQWERHNSMWXW
*PI\YVEP
0SRKMXYHMREP
VIMRJSVGIQIRX
3XLIV

4SWMXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRX
2IKEXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRX
7XVYGXYVEPMRXIKVMX]
7OMRVIMRJSVGIQIRX
6IMRJSVGIQIRXJSVWYTTSVXSJWXMVVYTW
T-beam flange reinforcement
0SRKMXYHMREPXSVWMSRVIMRJSVGIQIRX

7IGXMSR
7IGXMSR
7IGXMSR
7IGXMSR
7IGXMSR
7IGXMSR
7IGXMSR

8EFPI F{8]TIWSJXVERWZIVWIVIMRJSVGIQIRXMRKMVHIVWFIEQWERHNSMWXW
8VERWZIVWI
VIMRJSVGIQIRX

7XMVVYTW

,SSTW

7LIEVVIMRJSVGIQIRX
8VERWZIVWIWYTTSVXSJGSQTVIWWMSRVIMRJSVGIQIRX
,ERKIVVIMRJSVGIQIRX
8VERWZIVWIXSVWMSRVIMRJSVGIQIRX
Confinement in seismic zones

7IGXMSR
7IGXMSR
7IGXMSR
7IGXMSR
7IGXMSR

8EFPI {1E\MQYQRYQFIVSJPSRKMXYHMREP
FEVWMREPE]IVJSVKMVHIVWERHFIEQW
&IEQSVKMVHIV[IF[MHXLF[
MR QQ

1E\MQYQRYQFIVSJ
PSRKMXYHMREPFEVW

F[ MR QQ


MR QQ c F[ MR QQ 
MR QQ  F[ MR QQ 

7IGXMSRRSXTIVQMXXIH
8[SFEVW
8LVIIFEVW

MR QQ c F[

*MK{1EMRX]TIWSJVIMRJSVGIQIRXJSVKMVHIVWFIEQW
ERHNSMWXW

*MK {1MRMQYQ GPIEV WTEGMRK FIX[IIR FEVW MR E


PE]IVERHGPIEVHMWXERGIFIX[IIRPE]IVWSJVIMRJSVGIQIRX
{0SRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGIQIRX
 +IRIVEP{7IGXMSR  WLSYPH ETTP] XS EPP X]TIW SJ
PSRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGIQIRXYWIHMRKMVHIVWFIEQWERHNSMWXW
 1MRMQYQWTEGMRK
 0SRKMXYHMREP FEVW MR E PE]IV{-R KMVHIVWFIEQW
ERH NSMWXW XLI QMRMQYQ GPIEV WTEGMRK FIX[IIR TEVEPPIP
PSRKMXYHMREP FEVW MR E PE]IV WLSYPH FI XLI RSQMREP FEV
HMEQIXIV HFSJXLIPEVKIWXFEVFYXRSXPIWWXLERMR QQ 
*MK 'PIEVHMWXERGIPMQMXEXMSRFIX[IIRFEVWWLSYPH
ETTP]EPWSXSXLIGPIEVHMWXERGIFIX[IIREGSRXEGXPETWTPMGI
ERHEHNEGIRXWTPMGIWSVFEVW
 4EVEPPIP PE]IVW{-R KMVHIVW FIEQW ERH NSMWXW
[LIVITEVEPPIPPSRKMXYHMREPFEVWEVITPEGIHMRX[SSVQSVI

bw
e3
2

bw
e 3 (SI) FEVW
50

PE]IVW FEVW MR XLI YTTIV PE]IV WLSYPH FI TPEGIH HMVIGXP]
EFSZI FEVW MR XLI PS[IV PE]IV [MXL GPIEV HMWXERGI FIX[IIR
PE]IVWSJEXPIEWXMR QQ  *MK 
 1E\MQYQRYQFIVSJFEVWMREPE]IV{8LIQE\MQYQ
RYQFIVSJPSRKMXYHMREPFEVWMREPE]IVWLSYPHFIGSQTYXIH
GSRWMHIVMRK PSRKMXYHMREP ERH XVERWZIVWI FEV HMEQIXIVW
GSRGVIXI GSZIV   QE\MQYQ RSQMREP GSEVWI EKKVIKEXI
WM^I ERH QMRMQYQ GPIEV WTEGMRK FIX[IIR FEVW  
;LIRXLIWIGEPGYPEXMSRWEVIRSXTIVJSVQIH7IGXMSRW
XS QE]FIYWIH
 +MVHIVWERHFIEQW[MXLF[ MR QQ {
*SVKMVHIVWERHFIEQW[LSWI[MHXLF[MWIUYEPXSSVKVIEXIV
XLER  MR  QQ  XLI QE\MQYQ RYQFIV SJ FEVW MR E
PE]IVQE]FIHIXIVQMRIHYWMRK)U   8EFPI 
QE\MQYQRYQFIVSJFEVWMREPE]IV


[LIVI F[MWMRMRGLIW QQ 
 +MVHIVWERHFIEQW[MXLF[ MR QQ {9T
XSXLVIIPSRKMXYHMREPFEVWQE]FIYWIHMRKMVHIVWERHFIEQW
[LSWI[MHXLF[MWIUYEPXSSVKVIEXIVXLERMR QQ 
ERHPIWWXLERMR QQ 8[SPSRKMXYHMREPFEVWWLSYPH
FIYWIHJSVF[PIWWXLERMR QQ  8EFPI 

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

8EFPI 8.4.5Minimum flexural reinforcement ratio


QMRJSVKMVHIVWFIEQWERHNSMWXW
J]TWM 14E
 
 
QMR

 

 

-XMWTIVQMXXIHXSMRXIVTSPEXIJSVHMJJIVIRXZEPYIWSJJ]

8EFPI 8.4.6Maximum flexural reinforcement ratio


QE\JSVKMVHIVWFIEQWERHNSMWXW
J]TWM 14E
 
 

*MKE{6IGXERKYPEVWIGXMSRERH8WLETIHWIGXMSR[MXL
flange in compression.
JG TWM
14E

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 

-XMWTIVQMXXIHXSMRXIVTSPEXIJSVHMJJIVIRXZEPYIWSJJ]ERHJG 

QMRMQYQRYQFIVSJFEVWMREPE]IV
Fig. 8.4.5bT-shaped section with flange in tension.

c
 .SMWXW{-R NSMWXW [MXL [IF [MHXLW F[ PIWW XLER
SV IUYEPXS  MR QQ  IMXLIV SRI PSRKMXYHMREP FEV SV
E X[SFEV FYRHPI MR GSRXEGX PSGEXIH SRI EFSZI XLI SXLIV
MW TIVQMXXIH *SV [IF [MHXLW KVIEXIV XLER  MR  QQ 
ERH PIWW XLER  MR  QQ  IMXLIV SRI PSRKMXYHMREP FEV
SVX[SFEVWMREWMRKPIPE]IVEVITIVQMXXIHFYXFYRHPMRKSJ
VIMRJSVGIQIRXMWRSXTIVQMXXIH*SV[IF[MHXLWIUYEPXSSV
KVIEXIVXLERMR QQ XLIQE\MQYQRYQFIVSJFEVW
MREWMRKPIPE]IVWLSYPHFISRIQSVIXLERXLSWIEPPS[IHJSV
MR 8EFPI
 1MRMQYQRYQFIV SJ FEVW MR E PE]IV{8SQMRMQM^I
the number and width of flexural cracks at points of maximum
QSQIRXEPEVKIRYQFIVSJWQEPPIVHMEQIXIVFEVWWLSYPHFI
TVSZMHIHVEXLIVXLEREWQEPPRYQFIVSJPEVKIHMEQIXIVFEVW
*SVNSMWXWXLIQMRMQYQRYQFIVSJPSRKMXYHMREPFEVWWLSYPH
FISRI*SVKMVHIVWERHFIEQW[MXLF[PIWWXLERMR QQ 
XLIQMRMQYQRYQFIVSJPSRKMXYHMREPFEVWWLSYPHFIX[S*SV
KMVHIVWERHFIEQW[LSWI[MHXLF[MWIUYEPXSSVKVIEXIVXLER
MR QQ ERHWLSYPHFIQIXEXWIGXMSRW
SJQE\MQYQTSWMXMZIERHRIKEXMZIQSQIRX
 )\XIVMSV I\TSWYVI{8LI QMRMQYQ RYQFIV SJ
PSRKMXYHMREPFEVWMREPE]IVJSVKMVHIVWERHFIEQWI\TSWIHXS
IEVXLSV[IEXLIVWLSYPHFIXLIZEPYIKMZIRF])U 
QMRMQYQRYQFIVSJFEVWMREPE]IV

bw
4

bw
100

(SI)

bw
8

bw
200

(SI)



[LIVI F[MWMRMRGLIW QQ 
 Minimum area of flexural tension reinforcement{
;LIVI 'LETXIV  indicated that tension flexural reinforce
QIRX MW RIIHIH %WQMR WLSYPH FI GSQTYXIH F] E  SV F 
[LIVI QMRMWXLIZEPYIKMZIRMR8EFPI
E  *SV VIGXERKYPEV WIGXMSRW ERH JSV 8WLETIH WIGXMSRW
where the flange is in compression (Fig. 8.4.5a):
%WQMR!

QMRHF[

E

(b) For cantilevers having a T-section where the flange


MWMRXIRWMSR *MKF %WQMRWLSYPHFIXLIWQEPPIVZEPYI
GSQTYXIHJVSQ)U F ERH G 
%WQMR!
%WQMR!

QMRHF[

F

QMRHFJ

G

6IJIVXS7IGXMSRJSVFJGEPGYPEXMSRJSV8WIGXMSR
 Maximum flexural reinforcement ratio{8LIVEXMSSJ
tension flexural reinforcement, WLSYPHFIGSQTYXIHF] E 
ERH F ERHWLSYPHRSXI\GIIHXLIZEPYIWSJ QE\EWKMZIRMR
8EFPI
(a) In girders, beams, and joists having only tension flexural
VIMRJSVGIQIRX



[LIVI F[MWMRMRGLIW QQ 
 -RXIVMSV I\TSWYVI{8LI QMRMQYQ RYQFIV SJ
PSRKMXYHMREPFEVWMREPE]IVJSVKMVHIVWERHFIEQWRSXI\TSWIH
XSIEVXLSV[IEXLIVWLSYPHFIXLIZEPYIKMZIRF])U 

As
bd

max

E

F  -R KMVHIVW FIEQW ERH NSMWXW LEZMRK XIRWMSR ERH


compression flexural reinforcement (*MK 

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

As e As
bd

max



F

 1MRMQYQ HIWMKR QSQIRX WXVIRKXL{8LI WIGXMSR


HIWMKRQSQIRXWXVIRKXL 1RWLSYPHFIIUYEPXSSVKVIEXIV
XLERXLIVIUYMVIHQSQIRXWXVIRKXL1Y
1R 1Y



*MK {7IGXMSR [MXL XIRWMSR ERH GSQTVIWWMSR


VIMRJSVGIQIRX

 (IWMKR QSQIRX WXVIRKXL JSV VIGXERKYPEV WIGXMSRW


[MXLXIRWMSRVIMRJSVGIQIRXSRP]
 (IWMKRQSQIRXWXVIRKXL{*SVKMVHIVWFIEQWERH
NSMWXWXLIHIWMKRQSQIRXWXVIRKXLSJQE]FIETTVS\M
QEXIHYWMRK)U  [MXL ! *MK 

 *PI\YVEPXIRWMSRVIMRJSVGIQIRXEVIEThe flexural
XIRWMSRVIMRJSVGIQIRXEVIEMWETTVS\MQEXIP]GSQTYXIHJVSQ
)U  

As

Mu
0.85 f y d

*MK {(IWMKR HMQIRWMSRW JSV QSQIRX WXVIRKXL


XIRWMSRVIMRJSVGIQIRXSRP]



The flexural reinforcement ratio,  ! %WFH WLSYPH FI


GSQTYXIH;LIR MWPIWWXLER QMREWIWXEFPMWLIHMR
%W WLSYPH FI MRGVIEWIH -J  MW KVIEXIV XLER QE\ EW IWXEF
PMWLIH MR  QIQFIV HMQIRWMSRW WLSYPH FI MRGVIEWIH
QEOMRKXLIETTVSTVMEXIGSVVIGXMSRJSVWIPJ[IMKLXSVXLIYWI
SJGSQTVIWWMSRVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFIMRZIWXMKEXIH
%RSXISRIQTPS]QIRXSJ97GYWXSQEV]YRMXW'SQTYXIH
QSQIRXW KIRIVEPP] EVI MR YRMXW SJ PFJX FIGEYWI XLI] EVI
HIXIVQMRIHJVSQGSRGIRXVEXIHPSEHWMRPFHMWXVMFYXIHPSEHW
MRPFJXERHWTERWMRJX8LI]WLSYPHFIGSRZIVXIHXSPFMR
PFMR!PFJX JSVYWI[MXLJ]MRTWMHERHFMRMRERH
%WMRMR
%RSXISRIQTPS]QIRXSJ7-YRMXW8LIGSQTYXIHQSQIRXW
KIRIVEPP]EVIMRYRMXWSJO2QFIGEYWIXLI]EVIHIXIVQMRIH
JVSQ GSRGIRXVEXIHPSEHW MR O2 HMWXVMFYXIH PSEHWMRO2Q
ERHWTERWMRQ8LI]WLEPPFIGSRZIVXIHXS2QQ O2Q!
2QQ JSVYWI[MXLJ]MR14E 14E!2QQ  H
ERH FMRQQERH%WMRQQ
 'SQTVIWWMSRVIMRJSVGIQIRXMRKMVHIVWFIEQWERH
NSMWXW
 8IRWMSR VIMRJSVGIQIRX PIWW XLER QE\MQYQ{*SV
QSQIRXWXVIRKXLGEPGYPEXMSRWGSQTVIWWMSRVIMRJSVGIQIRXMW
RSXRIGIWWEV][LIRXLIXIRWMSRVIMRJSVGIQIRXVEXMS MWPIWW
XLER QE\
 7LEPPS[HSYFP]VIMRJSVGIHWIGXMSRW{*SVQSQIRX
WXVIRKXL GEPGYPEXMSRW GSQTVIWWMSR VIMRJSVGIQIRX MW RSX
RIGIWWEV][LIRXLIZEPYISJVEXMSHH MWPIWWXLERXLIZEPYIW
KMZIRMR8EFPI
 (IWMKR QSQIRX WXVIRKXL [MXL GSQTVIWWMSR VIMR
JSVGIQIRX{*SVQSQIRXWXVIRKXLGEPGYPEXMSRW[MXLGSQTVIW
WMSRVIMRJSVGIQIRXYWI)U   *MK 

*MK {(IWMKR HMQIRWMSRW JSV QSQIRX WXVIRKXL


WIGXMSRW[MXLGSQTVIWWMSRVIMRJSVGIQIRX
8EFPI {1MRMQYQZEPYIWSJHH JSV
GSQTVIWWMSRVIMRJSVGIQIRXXSFIIJJIGXMZI
J]TWM 14E
HH

 


Mn

As f y d

0.85 As

 


As f y d d



[LIVI !
)UYEXMSR   EWWYQIW XLI GSQTVIWWMSR VIMRJSVGI
ment yields, which should be verified.
 *PI\YVEP XIRWMSR ERH GSQTVIWWMSR VIMRJSVGIQIRX
EVIEThe area of flexural tension reinforcement, %W ERH
GSQTVIWWMSRVIMRJSVGIQIRX%W WLSYPHFIGSQTYXIHYWMRK
1YEWJSPPS[W
As

Mu
fy d d
As

As

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

0.85 max bd 2
d d

max

bd

E

F



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

Fig. 8.4.10.1Effective flange width for T-beams with slab


SRFSXLWMHIW

Fig. 8.4.10.2Effective flange width for T-beams with slab


SRSRIWMHISRP]

Fig. 8.4.10.3Effective flange width for isolated T-beams.


8LIVEXMS QE\WLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ[LIRXLI
QMRMQYQ HH  MW QIX %JXIV VIMRJSVGMRK FEVW EVI WIPIGXIH
QE\EWKMZIRMR)U F WLSYPHFIGLIGOIH
 Transverse reinforcement where flexural compres
WMSRVIMRJSVGIQIRXMWTVIWIRXLongitudinal flexural compres
WMSR VIMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH FI IRGPSWIH F] XMIW SV WXMVVYTW
WEXMWJ]MRKXLIWM^IERHWTEGMRKPMQMXEXMSRWSJGSPYQRXMIWMR
7YGLXMIWSVWXMVVYTWWLSYPHFITVSZMHIHXLVSYKLSYX
XLIHMWXERGI[LIVIGSQTVIWWMSRVIMRJSVGIQIRXMWRIIHIH
 8FIEQIJJIGX{;LIVIEFIEQMWQSRSPMXLMG[MXL
E WPEF ERH E QSQIRX MRHYGIW GSQTVIWWMSR MRXLIWPEFXLI
slab may be assumed to act as a beam flange, and the design
WLSYPHGSQTP][MXLXS
 Effective flange width for beams with slab on
FSXLWMHIWThe effective flange width FWLSYPHRSXI\GIIH
XLIPIEWXSJ E  F ERH G  *MK 
E 3RIUYEVXIVXLIFIEQWTERPIRKXL
F 7M\XIIRXMQIWXLIWPEFXLMGORIWWLJTPYWXLI[IFXLMGO
RIWW F[SV
G 8LIGPIEVHMWXERGIFIX[IIR[IFWTPYWXLI[IFXLMGO
RIWW F[
 Effective flange width for beams with slab on one
WMHISRP]The effective flange width FWLSYPHRSXI\GIIH
XLIPIEWXSJ E  F ERH G  *MK 

*MK {)JJIGXMZI GVSWW WIGXMSR JSV QSQIRX WXVIRKXL


GEPGYPEXMSRSJ8FIEQW
E 3RIX[IPJXLXLIFIEQWTERPIRKXLTPYWXLI[IFXLMGO
RIWW F[
(b) Six times the flange thickness LJTPYWXLI[IFXLMGORIWW
F[SV
G  3RILEPJ XLI GPIEV HMWXERGI XS XLI RI\X [IF TPYW XLI
[IFXLMGORIWWF[
 -WSPEXIH8FIEQW{*PERKIXLMGORIWWLJMRMWSPEXIH
8FIEQW WLSYPH FI EX PIEWX SRILEPJ SJ XLI [IF XLMGORIWW
F[, and the effective flange width FWLSYPHRSXI\GIIH XLI
WQEPPIVSJF[ERHFJ *MK 
 (IWMKR QSQIRX WXVIRKXL SJ 8FIEQW{8LI
HIWMKRQSQIRXWXVIRKXLWLSYPHFIGEPGYPEXIHYWMRKJSV
sections where the flange is in compression (Fig. 8.4.10.4),
ERHXLIHITXLSJXLIIUYMZEPIRXYRMJSVQWXVIWWFPSGO EPMIW
within the flange thickness LJEWGSQTYXIHF])U  

hf

a ERH a

As f y
0.85 fc b



 *PI\YVEPXIRWMSRVIMRJSVGIQIRXVEXMS{;LIRXLI
ZEPYI KMZIRF])U  MWRSXI\GIIHIHXLIJPI\
YVEPVIMRJSVGIQIRXVEXMS !%W FH JSV8FIEQWWLSYPHFI
GSQTYXIHYWMRK%WJVSQ)U  
0.85 fc h f
fy d



;LIVI XLI ZEPYI SJ  MW WQEPPIV XLER QMR JVSQ  %W
WLSYPH FI MRGVIEWIH ;LIVI XLI ZEPYI SJ  MW KVIEXIV XLER
QE\ JVSQ  QIQFIV HMQIRWMSRW WLSYPH FI MRGVIEWIH
GSVVIGXMRKXLIWIPJ[IMKLX
 Reinforcement in T-beam flanges{8LIQMRMQYQ
T-beam flange reinforcement of 8.4.11.1 and 
WLSYPHETTP]XSKMVHIVWERHFIEQWFYXRSXXSNSMWXGSRWXVYG
XMSR*PERKIVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHRSXFIPIWWXLERRIIHIHF]
XLIWPEFW]WXIQ
 (MWXVMFYXMSRSJRIKEXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRX{
Where T-beam flanges are in tension, negative moment beam
VIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFIHMWXVMFYXIHSZIVE[MHXLIUYEPXSXLI
smaller of the effective flange width as defined in 8.4.10,
SVSRIXIRXLSJXLIFIEQWTER8LITSVXMSRSJXLIIJJIGXMZI
flange width that exceeds one-tenth of the beam span should

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



Fig. 8.4.11.1Reinforcement in T-beam flanges.

LEZI E QMRMQYQ SJ WLVMROEKI ERH XIQTIVEXYVI VIMRJSVGI


QIRX  MR XLI FIEQ HMVIGXMSR 6IJIV XS *MK 
8LIVIWXVMGXMSRWSJWLSYPHRSXETTP]XSXLMWMXIQ
 Transverse flange reinforcement{-R XLI WPEF
VIMRJSVGIQIRX TIVTIRHMGYPEV XS XLI FIEQ WLSYPH VIWMWX E
factored negative moment computed assuming the flange
[MHXLEGXWEWEGERXMPIZIVWYTTSVXIHF]XLIFIEQ *MK 
ERH JSV MWSPEXIH 8FIEQW XLI JYPP [MHXL SJ XLI SZIVLERKMRK
flange. This reinforcement should also comply with 
 7OMR VIMRJSVGIQIRX{;LIVI XLI LIMKLX L SJ E
KMVHIVFIEQSVNSMWXI\GIIHWMR QQ PSRKMXYHMREP
WOMRVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFITVSZMHIHEPSRKFSXLWMHIJEGIW
SJXLIQIQFIVJSVEZIVXMGEPHMWXERGIIUYEPXSLRIEVIWXXLI
flexural tension reinforcement. Vertical spacing WWOFIX[IIR
FEVWWLSYPHRSXI\GIIHXLIPIEWXZEPYISJ)U   H
ERHMR QQ  *MK 

ssk
ssk

900,000
2.5cc
fy
159,600
2.5cc
fy

720,000
fy
126,000
(SI)
fy



 :EPYI SJ HG ERH H XS YWI MR KMVHIVW FIEQW ERH
NSMWXW{'EPGYPEXMSRSJHGXLIHMWXERGIJVSQI\XVIQIXIRWMSR
fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement, should consider
GSRGVIXI GSZIVJVSQ FEVHMEQIXIVW ERHVIMRJSVGIQIRX
PE]IVW
8LIJSPPS[MRKZEPYIWSJ HGGERFIYWIHXSGSQTYXIHEW
H!LzHGJSVGEWIW[LIVISRP]SRIVIMRJSVGIQIRXPE]IVMW
YWIH*SVKMVHIVWERHFIEQWHG!MR QQ JSVMRXIVMSV
I\TSWYVIERHHG!MR QQ JSVI\XIVMSVI\TSWYVI*SV
NSMWXW HG!MR QQ JSVMRXIVMSVI\TSWYVIERHHG!MR
QQ JSVI\XIVMSVI\TSWYVI
 4SWMXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRX
 (IWGVMTXMSR{4SWMXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX
WLSYPHFITVSZMHIHMRXLIKMVHIVFIEQSVNSMWXWIGXMSREW
MRHMGEXIHMR'LETXIVERHWLSYPHGSQTP][MXLERHXLI
TEVXMGYPEVPMQMXEXMSRWJSVIEGLQIQFIVX]TIMRSV
 0SGEXMSR{4SWMXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX
WLSYPHFITPEGIHPSRKMXYHMREPP]MRXLIKMVHIVFIEQSVNSMWX
4SWMXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH FI PSGEXIH EW GPSWI XS
XLIFSXXSQWYVJEGISJXLIKMVHIVFIEQWSVNSMWXEWTVEGXMGEFPI
JSPPS[MRKXLIGSRGVIXIGSZIVSJ;LIVIKMVHIVWFIEQW
SVNSMWXWWYTTSVXSXLIVKMVHIVWFIEQWSVNSMWXWXLITSWMXMZI

*MK {7OMR VIMRJSVGIQIRX JSV KMVHIVW FIEQW ERH


NSMWXW[MXLL"MR QQ 
QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX SJ XLI WYTTSVXIH QIQFIV WLSYPH
FITPEGIHEFSZIXLITSWMXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXSJXLI
WYTTSVXMRKQIQFIV
 'YXSJJEQSYRX{2SQSVIXLERSRILEPJXLITSWMXMZI
QSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXEXQMHWTERQE]FIGYXSJJEXXLI
PSGEXMSRWMRHMGEXIHMRSV
 6IMRJSVGIQIRXWTPMGMRK{8LIVIQEMRMRKTSWMXMZI
QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX JVSQ  QE] FI PET WTPMGIH
FIX[IIRXLIGYXSJJTSMRXERHXLISTTSWMXIJEGISJXLIWYTTSVX
 )QFIHQIRX EX MRXIVMSV WYTTSVXW{4SWMXMZI
QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX XIVQMREXIH EX ER MRXIVMSV WYTTSVX
WLSYPHFIGSRXMRYIHXSXLISTTSWMXIJEGISJXLIWYTTSVXTPYW
XLIPETWTPMGIHMWXERGISJ
 )RHERGLSVEKISJVIMRJSVGIQIRX{%XXLIIRHSJ
XLIKMVHIVFIEQSVNSMWXXLITSWMXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRX
WLSYPHI\XIRHXSXLIIHKIERHIRHMREWXERHEVHLSSO
 2IKEXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRX
 (IWGVMTXMSR{2IKEXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX
WLSYPHFITVSZMHIHMRXLIKMVHIVFIEQSVNSMWXWIGXMSREX
IHKIW ERH WYTTSVXW EW MRHMGEXIH MR 'LETXIV  ERH WLSYPH
GSQTP][MXLERHXLITEVXMGYPEVTVSZMWMSRWSJSV
 0SGEXMSR{2IKEXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX
WLSYPH FI TVSZMHIH EX EPP WYTTSVXW ERH PSGEXIH EW GPSWI XS
XLIYTTIVWYVJEGISJXLIKMVHIVFIEQSVNSMWXEWTVEGXMGEFPI
JSPPS[MRKGSRGVIXIGSZIVSJ%XWYTTSVXW[LIVIKMVHIVW
SV FIEQW MRXIVWIGX XLI RIKEXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX SJ
XLIQIQFIV[MXLXLIPSRKIVWTERWLSYPHFIPSGEXIHSRXST
 'YXSJJ EQSYRX{2IKEXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGI
QIRXEXXLIPSGEXMSRWMRHMGEXIHMRSVQE]FIGYX
SJJI\GITXGERXMPIZIVRIKEXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXMWRSX
EPPS[IH XS FI GYX SJJ ;LIVI EHNEGIRX WTERW EVI YRIUYEP

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

*MKF{8]TMGEPWXMVVYT
WLETIJSVNSMWXWMREHHMXMSR
XS*MKE

*MKE{8]TMGEPWXMVVYTWLETIWJSVKMVHIVWERHFIEQW

*MK{8]TMGEPWXMVVYTWTEGMRKEPSRKXLIKMVHIVFIEQSVNSMWX

RIKEXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX GYXSJJ TSMRXW WLSYPH FI


FEWIHSRXLIPSRKIVWTER
 6IMRJSVGIQIRX WTPMGMRK{2IKEXMZI QSQIRX
VIMRJSVGIQIRXFIX[IIRGYXSJJTSMRXERHXLIWYTTSVXWLSYPH
RSXFIPETWTPMGIH
 )RH ERGLSVEKI{2IKEXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGI
QIRX EX XLI IRH SJ E KMVHIV FIEQ SV NSMWX WLSYPH IRH MR
E WXERHEVH LSSO EX XLI JEV IHKI SJ XLI WYTTSVXMRK KMVHIV
FIEQGSPYQRSVVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI[EPPGSQTP]MRK[MXL
ERGLSVEKIHMWXERGIHIWGVMFIHF]%XXLII\XIVREPIHKI
SJ GERXMPIZIVW RIKEXMZIQSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH IRH
MREWXERHEVHLSSO
 7XMVVYT WYTTSVX{-R EVIEW [LIVI RS RIKEXMZI
VIMRJSVGIQIRX MW RIIHIH XST FEVW WLSYPH FI TVSZMHIH JSV
EXXEGLQIRXERHERGLSVEKISJWXMVVYTW8LIHMEQIXIVSJXLIWI
XST FEVW WLSYPH FIIUYEP XS SV KVIEXIV XLER XLI WXMVVYT FEV
HMEQIXIV 1MRMQYQ PET PIRKXLSJ XLIWI XST FEVW WLSYPH
FIMR QQ 
{8VERWZIVWIVIMRJSVGIQIRX
 (IWGVMTXMSR{8VERWZIVWIVIMRJSVGIQIRXJSVKMVHIVW
FIEQWERHNSMWXWWLSYPHGSRWMWXSJWXMVVYTWXLEXIRGPSWIXLI
PSRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGIQIRXERHEVITPEGIHTIVTIRHMGYPEVXS
XLIPSRKMXYHMREPE\MWSJXLIQIQFIVEXZEV]MRKMRXIVZEPW
8LI QEMR JYRGXMSRW JSV XVERWZIVWI VIMRJSVGIQIRX MR
KMVHIVWFIEQWERHNSMWXWEVI
E 'SRXVMFYXIXSQIQFIVWLIEVWXVIRKXL
F 4VSZMHIPEXIVEPWYTTSVXJSVPSRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGIQIRX
WYFNIGXIHXSGSQTVIWWMSRWXVIWWIW
G  %GX EW LERKIV VIMRJSVGIQIRX MR KMVHIVW WYTTSVXMRK
FIEQWERHNSMWXW
H 'SRXVMFYXIXSQIQFIVXSVWMSRWXVIRKXLERH

(e) Provide confinement to the concrete in seismic zones


EXWIPIGXIHPSGEXMSRW[MXLMRXLIQIQFIV
 7XMVVYT WLETI{% WXMVVYT WLSYPH GSRWMWX SJ WMRKPI
SV QYPXMTPI ZIVXMGEP PIKW )EGL ZIVXMGEP PIK WLSYPH IRKEKI
E PSRKMXYHMREP FEV IMXLIV F] FIRHMRK EVSYRH MX [LIR XLI
WXMVVYTGSRXMRYIWSVF]YWMRKEWXERHEVHWXMVVYTLSSO  XS
WYVVSYRHXLIPSRKMXYHMREPFEVEXXLIWXMVVYTIRH *MKE
ERHF 
 4IVQMXXIHWXMVVYTWLETIJSVKMVHIVWERHFIEQW{
%PPWXMVVYTWMRKMVHIVWERHFIEQWWLSYPHFIGPSWIHWXMVVYTW
[MXLHIKVIILSSOWEWWLS[RMR*MKE E 8LISXLIV
WXMVVYTWLETIWEVIMRGSQQSRYWIFYXEVIWLS[RXSGPEVMJ]
XLEXXLI]EVIRSXXSFIYWIH[MXLXLMWKYMHI-RWIMWQMGEVIEW
XLIWXMVVYTWLETIMWJYVXLIVPMQMXIH
 4IVQMXXIH WXMVVYT WLETI JSV NSMWXW{%PP WXMVVYT
X]TIWWLS[RMR*MKEERHFQE]FIYWIHMRNSMWXW
 1MRMQYQGPIEVWTEGMRKFIX[IIRWXMVVYTWPIKW{-R
KMVHIVWFIEQWERHNSMWXWXLIQMRMQYQGPIEVWTEGIFIX[IIR
WXMVVYTWSVTEVEPPIPPIKWMREWXMVVYTWLSYPHFIMR QQ 
 7XMVVYT WYTTSVX{7XMVVYTW WLSYPH FI EXXEGLIH
XSPSRKMXYHMREPFEVW WSXLEXWXMVVYTW HSRSXHMWTPEGIHYVMRK
GSRGVIXITPEGIQIRX  
 7XMVVYTPIKWTPMGMRK{7XMVVYTFEVWWLSYPHRSXFIPET
WTPMGIH
 0SGEXMSR SJ XVERWZIVWI VIMRJSVGIQIRX{7XMVVYT
WTEGMRKMRXIVZEPWWWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL *MK 
 'SRXVMFYXMSR SJ XVERWZIVWI VIMRJSVGIQIRX XS WLIEV
WXVIRKXL
 +IRIVEPBeam-action shear accompanies flex
YVEPQSQIRXWERHSGGYVWMRKMVHIVWFIEQWERHNSMWXWEPSRK
XLIMVPIRKXL ERH MW SJ KVIEXIV QEKRMXYHIMRXLIZMGMRMX]SJ
WYTTSVXWERHGSRGIRXVEXIHPSEHW

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



8EFPI {7LIEVVIMRJSVGIQIRXMRKMVHIVWFIEQWERHNSMWXWQE\MQYQWTEGMRKW
:EPYISJJEGXSVIH
VIUYMVIHWLIEVWXVIRKXL
:Y

1MRMQYQEVIESJWLIEV
VIMRJSVGIQIRX %Z[MXLMRE
HMWXERGI W

0MQMXMRKZEPYISJ :W

2SXRIIHIH

Vc

Av

Vc
2

Vu

Av

0.75 fc
0.062 fc

Av

 :G" :W

Vu

1E\MQYQWTEGMRKW

Vc
4 Vc

Vs

Vs

Av

2 Vc

4 Vc

Vu

bw s
fyt

bw s
(SI)
fyt
Vc s

f yt d

Vu

Vc s
f yt d

d 2
s c min. of
d24 in. (600 mm)
d 2
f24 in. (600 mm)
f
s c min. of A f 50 b
w
f v yt
f A f 0.35b (SI)
w
d v yt
d 4
f24 in. (600 mm)
f
s c min. of A f 50 b
w
f v yt
f
d Av fyt 0.35bw (SI)

2SXTIVQMXXIH

 (IWMKR WLIEV WXVIRKXL{(IWMKR WLIEV WXVIRKXL


:RSJEKMVHIVFIEQSVNSMWXWIGXMSRWLSYPHFIGSQTYXIH
JSPPS[MRKXLITVSGIHYVIMRJSVFIEQEGXMSRWLIEVEW
Vn

Vc

Vs



[LIVI :GMW XLI GSRGVIXI GSRXVMFYXMSR XS XLI HIWMKR WLIEV


WXVIRKXL :WMWXLIWLIEVVIMRJSVGIQIRXGSRXVMFYXMSRXSXLI
HIWMKRWLIEVWXVIRKXLERH !
 'SRXVMFYXMSR SJ GSRGVIXI XS WLIEV WXVIRKXL{%X
IEGLPSGEXMSRXSFIMRZIWXMKEXIH *MK XLIGSRGVIXI
GSRXVMFYXMSRSJXLI[IFSJXLIKMVHIVFIEQSVNSMWXWLSYPH
FIXEOIRMRXSEGGSYRX *MK ERHWLSYPHFIGSQTYXIH
YWMRK)U  [MXL !

Vc

2 fc bw d



 'SRXVMFYXMSRSJXVERWZIVWIVIMRJSVGIQIRXXSWLIEV
WXVIRKXL{*SV VIMRJSVGIQIRX TIVTIRHMGYPEV XS XLI QIQFIV
E\MWMXWGSRXVMFYXMSRXSHIWMKRWLIEVWXVIRKXLWLSYPHFI
v

yt

E

[LIVI %ZMWXLIEVIESJWLIEVVIMRJSVGIQIRXTIVTIRHMGYPEVXS
XLIQIQFIVE\MW XLI WXMVVYT FEVEVIE%FQYPXMTPMIHF] XLI
RYQFIVSJZIVXMGEPWXMVVYTPIKW [MXLMREHMWXERGIW J]XMWXLI
]MIPHWXVIRKXLSJXLIWLIEVVIMRJSVGIQIRXWXIIPERH !
6IMRJSVGIQIRX GSRXVMFYXMSR XS XLI HIWMKR WLIEV WXVIRKXL
WLSYPHRSXFIXEOIRKVIEXIVXLER

*MK{'SRXVMFYXMSRSJGSRGVIXIXSFIEQEGXMSRWLIEV
WXVIRKXLMRKMVHIVWFIEQWERHNSMWXW
 (IWMKRSJWLIEVVIMRJSVGIQIRX{7LIEVVIMRJSVGI
QIRXMRKMVHIVWFIEQWERHNSMWXWWLSYPHFITVSZMHIHYWMRK
WXMVVYTWTIVTIRHMGYPEVXSXLIQIQFIVE\MW[MXLEQE\MQYQ
WTEGMRKWQIEWYVIHEPSRKQIQFIVE\MW
E ;LIVIXLIJEGXSVIHWLIEV:YMWPIWWXLER :GXLIYWI
SJWLIEVVIMRJSVGIQIRXQE]FI[EMZIH
F  ;LIVI :Y I\GIIHW :G ERH MW PIWW XLER :G E
QMRMQYQEVIESJWLIEVVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFITVSZMHIHEW
specified by Eq. (8.5.4.5). The spacing W EPSRKXLIQIQFIV
E\MWWLSYPHRSXI\GIIHXLIWQEPPIVSJHERHMR QQ 
*MK 
Av

0.062 fc

bw s
(SI)
f yt



[LIVI %ZMW%FQYPXMTPMIHF]XLIRYQFIVSJWXMVVYTPIKWERH
G ;LIVI:YI\GIIHW :GXLIHMJJIVIRGI :Yz :G WLSYPH
FITVSZMHIHJSVF]WLIEVVIMRJSVGIQIRXYWMRK)U  
ERH E  ERH XLI PMQMXEXMSRW   XLVSYKL   WLSYPH
ETTP] 8EFPI 

F
%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

*MK{1MRMQYQWLIEVVIMRJSVGIQIRXMRKMVHIVWFIEQWERHNSMWXW[LIR :G  c
:Y
:G 

*MK{'EPGYPEXMSRSJXLIWLIEVHMEKVEQSJEKMVHIV
FIEQSVNSMWX

  1MRMQYQ WLIEV VIMRJSVGIQIRX EVIE WLSYPH RSX FI


PIWWXLERXLEXHIXIVQMRIHYWMRK)U  
  ;LIVI XLI ZEPYI SJ :W GEPGYPEXIH YWMRK )U
E  MW PIWW XLER  :G XLI WTEGMRK PMQMXW SJ F 
WLSYPHFIYWIH
 ;LIVIXLIZEPYISJ :WGEPGYPEXIHYWMRK)U E 
MWKVIEXIVXLER :GWTEGMRKPMQMXWWLSYPHFILEPJXLI
values specified in (b); and
  8LI ZEPYI SJ :W GEPGYPEXIH YWMRK )U E 
WLSYPHRSXFIXEOIRKVIEXIVXLER :G
 7LIEV HMEKVEQ{8LI ZEPYI SJ :Y EX XLI WYTTSVX
JEGIWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHMRGSRJSVQERGI[MXLSV%
HMEKVEQWLS[MRKXLIWLIEVZEVMEXMSR[MXLMRXLIWTERWLSYPH
FIGSRWXVYGXIH[MXLXLIZEPYISJ:YEXXLIPIJXWYTTSVXJEGI
XEOIREWTSWMXMZI8LIWLIEVJVSQXLMWTSMRXTVSGIIHMRKXSXLI
VMKLXWLSYPHFIHIGVIEWIHEXEVEXIIUYEPXS
Vu

left supp.

Vu

right supp.

Pu

0MQMXW JSV :R, as defined in 8EFPI  WLSYPH FI


QEVOIHMR XLIWLIEV HMEKVEQERHWXMVVYTWTEGMRK W WLSYPH
be defined for different regions within the shear diagram.
The first stirrup should be placed not further than WJVSQ
XLIJEGISJXLIWYTTSVXMRKQIQFIV[MXLWFIMRKXLIWXMVVYT
WTEGMRKEXXLIWYTTSVX8LIQMRMQYQWXMVVYTWTEGMRKWLSYPH
GSQTP][MXL-JXLIGSQTYXIHWMWPIWWXLERMR
QQ YWMRKWXMVVYTW[MXLQSVIZIVXMGEPPIKWSVEPEVKIV
FEVHMEQIXIVWLSYPHFIMRZIWXMKEXIH
 ,ERKIV WXMVVYTW{;LIVI E FIEQ MW WYTTSVXIH F]
E KMVHIV SJ WMQMPEV HITXL LERKIV VIMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH FI
TVSZMHIHMRXLINSMRX8LIVIEGXMSRJVSQXLIWYTTSVXIHFIEQ
XIRHWXSTYWLHS[RXLIFSXXSQSJXLIWYTTSVXMRKKMVHIV8LMW
VIEGXMSRWLSYPHFIVIWMWXIHF]LERKIVVIMRJSVGIQIRXMRXLI
JSVQSJGPSWIHWXMVVYTWTPEGIHMRFSXLQIQFIVW,ERKIVWXMVVYTW
EVIMREHHMXMSRXSWXMVVYTWRIIHIHJSVWLIEV *MK ERH
WLSYPHGSQTP][MXLERH
 ,ERKIVWXMVVYTEVIE
E 4VSZMHILERKIVWXMVVYTW[LIVI :YJVSQXLIWYTTSVXIH
FIEQEXXLIMRXIVJEGIMWIUYEPXSSVKVIEXIVXLER 3 fc bw d
[LIVI !
c w
F 4VSZMHILERKIVWXMVVYTW[LIVILFMWIUYEPXSSVPIWWXLER
SRILEPJXLI XSXEP HITXLSJ XLI WYTTSVXMRKKMVHIV [LIVI LF
MWXLIZIVXMGEPHMQIRWMSRJVSQXLIFSXXSQSJXLIWYTTSVXMRK
KMVHIVXSXLIFSXXSQSJXLIWYTTSVXIHFIEQ *MK 
G 8LIEVIESJLERKIVVIMRJSVGIQIRX%MWLSYPHFIHIXIV
QMRIHJVSQ)U  

Ai

1 e hb hg Vu
f yt





[LIVI 4YGSVVIWTSRHW XS XLI WYQ SJ EPP JEGXSVIH GSRGIR


XVEXIHPSEHWSRXLIWTER%XXLITSMRX[LIVIEGSRGIRXVEXIH
PSEHMWETTPMIHXLIZEPYISJ4YWLSYPHFIWYFXVEGXIHJVSQXLI
ZEPYISJWLIEVEXXLIPIJXSJXLIPSEHTSMRX*SVFIEQW[MXL
TSMRXPSEHWTVSGIIHMRKXSXLIVMKLXEXXLIJEGISJXLIVMKLX
WYTTSVXXLIRIKEXMZIZEPYISJ:YMWVIEGLIH *MK %X
EPPWIGXMSRW[MXLMRXLIWTERXLIZEPYISJ :REWHIXIVQMRIH
JVSQ )U   WLSYPH FI IUYEP XS SV KVIEXIV XLER XLI
EFWSPYXIZEPYISJ:Y \ EWWLS[RMR*MK

[LIVI :YMWXLIFIEQJEGXSVIHWLIEVEXXLIWYTTSVXJEGI%MMW
XLIXSXEPEVIESJLERKIVWXMVVYTWLKMWXLIKMVHIVLIMKLXJ]XMW
the stirrup specified yield strength; and !
 ,ERKIVWXMVVYTTPEGIQIRX{%XPIEWXX[SXLMVHWSJ
%MWLSYPHFIIZIRP]HMWXVMFYXIH[MXLMRXLIWYTTSVXIHFIEQ
[MHXL F[TPYWLFEXIEGLWMHI8LIVIQEMRMRKEVIESJLERKIV
WXMVVYTW RSX QSVI XLER SRIXLMVH SJ %M WLSYPH FI IZIRP]
HMWXVMFYXIH[MXLMRHJVSQXLIWYTTSVXMRKKMVHIVJEGI[LIVI
HMWXLIWYTTSVXIHFIEQIJJIGXMZIHITXL&IEQFSXXSQPSRKM
XYHMREPFEVWWLSYPHFITPEGIHEFSZIXLIKMVHIVFSXXSQPSRKM
XYHMREPFEVW

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



*MK{,ERKIVVIMRJSVGIQIRX
{.SMWXWERHFIEQWWYTTSVXIHF]KMVHIVW
 +IRIVEP{7IGXMSR  ETTPMIW XS NSMWXW ERH FIEQW
QSRSPMXLMG [MXL ERH WYTTSVXIH F] KMVHIVW 8[S[E] NSMWX
systems or waffle-on-beams systems as described in
should also comply with 8.6. Waffle-slab systems without
FIEQW WTERRMRK FIX[IIR GSPYQRW EW HIWGVMFIH MR 
WLSYPHFIHIWMKRIHYWMRK'LETXIVJSVWPEFGSPYQRW]WXIQW
 (MQIRWMSREPPMQMXW
 .SMWXW{-R EHHMXMSR XS 'LETXIV  NSMWXW WLSYPH
GSQTP] [MXLXLI HMQIRWMSREP PMQMXW SJERH XLI VIWXVMG
XMSRWSJ(YGXWWLEJXWERHSTIRMRKWWLSYPHGSQTP]
[MXL  1MRMQYQ HITXL WLSYPH GSQTP] [MXL  JSV
SRI[E]NSMWXWERHJSVX[S[E]NSMWXW
 &IEQW{-REHHMXMSRXS'LETXIVFIEQWWYTTSVXIH
F]KMVHIVWWLSYPHGSQTP][MXLXLIHMQIRWMSREPPMQMXWSJ
ERH XLI VIWXVMGXMSRW SJ  (YGXW WLEJXW ERH STIRMRKW
WLSYPH GSQTP] [MXL  1MRMQYQ HITXL WLSYPH GSQTP]
[MXL &IEQ[IF[MHXLF[WLSYPHRSXFIPIWWXLERMR
 QQ  1E\MQYQ WTEGMRK FIX[IIR PEXIVEP WYTTSVXW SJ
MWSPEXIHFIEQWWLSYPHFIXMQIWXLIPIEWX[MHXL FSJXLI
compression flange.
 'ERXMPIZIVW{%PP GERXMPIZIVW SJ NSMWXW SV FIEQW
WLSYPH FI GSRXMRYSYW [MXL EX PIEWX SRI MRXIVMSV WTER %
HSYFPIGERXMPIZIV[MXLSYXERMRXIVMSVWTERMWRSXTIVQMXXIH
 6IUYMVIHQSQIRXWXVIRKXL
 'ERXMPIZIVW{8LI JEGXSVIH RIKEXMZI QSQIRX 1Y
VIUYMVIH QSQIRX WXVIRKXL  JSV FIEQ ERH NSMWX GERXMPIZIVW
WYTTSVXIH F] KMVHIVW FIEQW SV VIMRJSVGIH GSRGVIXI [EPPW
WLSYPHFIGEPGYPEXIHYWMRK)U  EWWYQMRK
E 3RILEPJSJXLIHMWXVMFYXIHJEGXSVIHPSEH;YEGXWEWE
GSRGIRXVEXIHPSEHEXXLIGERXMPIZIVXMTEPSRK[MXLEPPGSRGIR
XVEXIHPSEHWXLEXEGXSRXLIGERXMPIZIVWTER 4YERH
F  3RILEPJ ;Y EGXW EW YRMJSVQP] HMWXVMFYXIH PSEH SZIV
XLIJYPPWTER
e
u

2
u n
n



8LI GERXMPIZIV VIUYMVIH RIKEXMZI QSQIRX WXVIRKXL EX XLI


WYTTSVX WLSYPH IUYEP SV I\GIIH XLI QE\MQYQ RIKEXMZI
factored moment at the first interior support and one-third
the positive factored moment of the first interior span.
 7MRKPIWTERNSMWXWERHFIEQWWYTTSVXIHF]FIEQW
KMVHIVW SV VIMRJSVGIH GSRGVIXI [EPPW{*EGXSVIH TSWMXMZI
ERH RIKEXMZI QSQIRX 1Y VIUYMVIH QSQIRX WXVIRKXL  JSV

8EFPI {*EGXSVIHQSQIRXJSVWMRKPIWTER
FIEQWERHNSMWXW
4SWMXMZIQSQIRX

Mu

Wu n2
8

Pu

E

Pu

F

2IKEXMZIQSQIRXEXWYTTSVXW

Mue

Wu n2
24

16

WMRKPIWTERFIEQWERHWMRKPIWTERSRI[E]NSMWXWWLSYPHFI
GEPGYPEXIHYWMRK8EFPI[LIVI 4YMWXLIWYQSJEPP
JEGXSVIHGSRGIRXVEXIHPSEHWXLEXEGXSRXLIWTER
 1YPXMWTERNSMWXWERHFIEQWWYTTSVXIHF]FIEQW
KMVHIVWSV[EPPW{*EGXSVIHTSWMXMZIERHRIKEXMZIQSQIRX
1Y VIUYMVIH QSQIRX WXVIRKXL  JSV FIEQW ERH SRI[E]
NSMWXW[MXLX[SSVQSVIWTERWWYTTSVXIHF]FIEQWKMVHIVW
SV VIMRJSVGIH GSRGVIXI [EPPW WLSYPH FI GEPGYPEXIH YWMRK
8EFPI[LIVI 4YMWXLIWYQSJEPPJEGXSVIHGSRGIR
XVEXIHPSEHWXLEXEGXSRXLIWTER
 9WI SJ JVEQI EREP]WMW{*VEQI EREP]WMW [LMGL
QIIXW  QE] FI YWIH XS HIXIVQMRI JEGXSVIH QSQIRXW
ERHWLIEVWEWEWYFWXMXYXIJSVZEPYIWMRXS
 8[S[E] NSMWXW WYTTSVXIH F] FIEQW KMVHIVW
SV [EPPW{6IUYMVIH QSQIRX WXVIRKXL JSV X[S[E] NSMWXW
WYTTSVXIH F] FIEQW KMVHIVW SV WXVYGXYVEP [EPPW QE] FI
SFXEMRIHYWMRKERHMKRSVMRKXLIQMRMQYQHITXL
SJXLIWYTTSVXMRKFIEQWSVKMVHIVWEWKMZIRF] G ERH

 6IUYMVIHWLIEVWXVIRKXL
 'ERXMPIZIVW SJ NSMWXW ERH FIEQW WYTTSVXIH F]
FIEQWKMVHIVWSV[EPPW{*EGXSVIHWLIEV:YEXXLIGERXMPIZIV
WYTTSVXWLSYPHFIGEPGYPEXIHYWMRK)U  
Vu

Wu

Pu



[LIVI 4YMWXLIWYQSJEPPJEGXSVIHGSRGIRXVEXIHPSEHWXLEX
EGXSRXLIWTER
 7MRKPIWTERNSMWXWERHFIEQWWYTTSVXIHF]FIEQW
KMVHIVWSV[EPPW{*EGXSVIHWLIEV:YJSVWMRKPIWTERFIEQW
ERH WMRKPIWTER SRI[E] NSMWXW WLSYPH FI GEPGYPEXIH YWMRK
)U  

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

8EFPI {*EGXSVIHQSQIRXJSVFIEQWERH
SRI[E]NSMWXW[MXLX[SSVQSVIWTERW
4SWMXMZIQSQIRXEX
)RHWTERW
Mu

Wu n2
11

Wu n2
16

 E

Pu

-RXIVMSVWTERW

Mu

Pu

2IKEXMZIQSQIRXEX
-RXIVMSVJEGISJI\XIVREPWYTTSVX
Wu n2
n
Mue
Pu
24 16
Exterior face of first internal support, only two spans:
Wu n2
n
M ue
Pu
9
6
*EGIWSJMRXIVREPWYTTSVXWQSVIXLERX[SWTERW
Wu n2
n
M ue
Pu
10
7
*EGIWSJEPPWYTTSVXWJSVNSMWXW[MXLWTERWRSX
I\GIIHMRKJX
Wu n2
n
M ue
Pu
12
8

F

 G

H

I

J

8EFPI {*EGXSVIHWLIEVJSVFIEQWERH
SRI[E]NSMWXW[MXLX[SSVQSVIWTERWEX
Exterior face of first interior support

Vu

1.15

Wu n
2

0.8 Pu

E

HMWXERGIIUYEPXS RQIEWYVIHJVSQXLIJEGISJXLIWYTTSVXW
MRXSXLIWTERYTXSSRILEPJXLITSWMXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGI
QIRXQE]FIGYXSJJMJXLIVIEVIRSGSRGIRXVEXIHPSEHW[MXLMR
XLEXHMWXERGI *MK *SVWMRKPIWTERFIEQWERHNSMWXW
TSWMXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHRSXFIGYXSJJ
 2IKEXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX{8LI RIKEXMZI
QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX EVIE WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH JSV XLI
PEVKIVZEPYISJ1YzGEPGYPEXIHJSVFSXLWMHIWSJXLIWYTTSVX
8LMWVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL;LIREWPEF
MWTVIWIRXMRXLIYTTIVTEVXSJXLIWIGXMSRSV[LIRXLIFIEQ
SVNSMWXMW8WLETIHRIKEXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPH
GSQTP][MXL%XEHMWXERGIIUYEPXS RJSVI\XIVREP
WYTTSVXW ERH R JSVMRXIVREP WYTTSVXW QIEWYVIH JVSQXLI
MRXIVREPJEGISJXLIWYTTSVXMRXSXLIWTEREPPRIKEXMZIQSQIRX
VIMRJSVGIQIRX QE] FI GYX SJJ *MK   2IKEXMZI
QSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHRSXFIGYXSJJMRGERXMPIZIVW
 8VERWZIVWI VIMRJSVGIQIRX{:EPYIW SJ :Y EX XLI
VMKLX ERH PIJX WYTTSVX JEGIW WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH F] XLI
ETTVSTVMEXI IUYEXMSR JVSQ  8LI XVERWZIVWI VIMRJSVGI
QIRXWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL
 6IEGXMSRWSRFIEQWERHKMVHIVW
 3RI[E] NSMWXW{*EGXSVIH VIEGXMSR SR XLI NSMWX
W]WXIQ WYTTSVX QE] FI GSRWMHIVIH EW YRMJSVQP] HMWXVMFYXIH
*EGXSVIH VIEGXMSR SR XLI WYTTSVXW VY TIV YRMX PIRKXL
WLSYPHFIXLIZEPYIHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ)U  TPYWXLI
YRMJSVQP]HMWXVMFYXIHVIEGXMSRJVSQER]GERXMPIZIVWTERRMRK
JVSQXLEXWYTTSVX

*EGIWSJEPPSXLIVWYTTSVXW

Vu

Wu n
2

Vu

0.75 Pu

Wu n
2

0.8 Pu

F



[LIVI 4YMWXLIWYQSJEPPJEGXSVIHGSRGIRXVEXIHPSEHWXLEX
EGXSRXLIWTER
 .SMWXWERHFIEQWWYTTSVXIHF]FIEQWKMVHIVWSV
[EPPW[MXLX[SSVQSVIWTERW{*EGXSVIHWLIEV:YJSVFIEQW
ERH SRI[E] NSMWXW [MXL X[S SV QSVI WTERW WYTTSVXIH F]
FIEQWKMVHIVWSVWXVYGXYVEP[EPPWWLSYPHFIGEPGYPEXIHYWMRK
IUYEXMSRWKMZIRMR8EFPI[LIVI 4YGSVVIWTSRHWXS
XLIWYQSJEPPJEGXSVIHGSRGIRXVEXIHPSEHWSRXLIWTER
 9WI SJ JVEQI EREP]WMW{*VEQI EREP]WMW QIIXMRK
QE]FIYWIHXSHIXIVQMRIJEGXSVIHWLIEVEWEWYFWXMXYXI
JSVXLIZEPYIWHIXIVQMRIHJVSQXS
 8[S[E] NSMWXW WYTTSVXIH F] FIEQW KMVHIVW
SV [EPPW{*EGXSVIH WLIEV JSV X[S[E] NSMWXW WYTTSVXIH
F] FIEQW KMVHIVW SV WXVYGXYVEP [EPPW QE] FI HIXIVQMRIH
YWMRK  ERH  MKRSVMRK XLI QMRMQYQ HITXL SJ XLI
WYTTSVXMRKFIEQWSVKMVHIVWMRHMGEXIHMR G ERH
 6IMRJSVGIQIRX
 4SWMXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX{8LI TSWMXMZI
QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX EVIE WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH JSV XLI
GEPGYPEXIHZEPYISJ1Y;LIREWPEFMWTVIWIRXMRXLIYTTIV
TEVX SJ XLI WIGXMSRSV [LIR XLI FIEQSV NSMWX MW 8WLETIH
XLI8FIEQIJJIGXQE]FIYWIH4SWMXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGI
QIRXWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL%XMRXIVREPWYTTSVXWEXE

ru

Vu
sj



[LIVI :YMWXLIJEGXSVIHWLIEVJVSQ WMWXLIGIRXIVXS


GIRXIVWTERSJXLINSMWX RMWXLIGPIEVWTERSJXLINSMWXERHWN
MWXLIGIRXIVXSGIRXIVWTEGMRKFIX[IIRTEVEPPIPNSMWXW
 8[S[E] NSMWXW WYTTSVXIH F] FIEQW KMVHIVW SV
[EPPW{*EGXSVIHVIEGXMSRWJSVX[S[E]NSMWXWWYTTSVXIHF]
FIEQWKMVHIVWSVWXVYGXYVEP[EPPWQE]FIGEPGYPEXIHYWMRK
ERHMKRSVMRKQMRMQYQHITXLSJXLIWYTTSVXMRK
FIEQWSVKMVHIVWKMZIRMR G ERH
 &IEQW{*EGXSVIHVIEGXMSRWSRXLIWYTTSVXW6YWLSYPH
FI XLI ZEPYIW HIXIVQMRIH JVSQ )U   TPYW XLI JEGXSVIH
VIEGXMSRJVSQER]GERXMPIZIVWTERRMRKJVSQXLEXWYTTSVX
Ru

Vu



[LIVI :YMWXLIJEGXSVIHWLIEVJVSQ WMWXLIGIRXIVXS


GIRXIVWTERERH RMWXLIGPIEVWTERSJXLIFIEQ
{+MVHIVWXLEXEVITEVXSJEJVEQI
 +IRIVEP{7IGXMSRETTPMIWXSKMVHIVWXLEXEVITEVX
SJ E QSQIRXVIWMWXMRK JVEQI [LIVI XLI KMVHIVW EVI QSRS
PMXLMG ERH EVI HMVIGXP] WYTTSVXIH F] GSPYQRW SV VIMRJSVGIH
GSRGVIXI[EPPW
 (MQIRWMSREPPMQMXW
 +IRIVEP{-R EHHMXMSR XS 'LETXIV  KMVHIVW XLEX
EVI TEVX SJ E JVEQI WLSYPH GSQTP] [MXL XLI HMQIRWMSREP

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



*MK{6IMRJSVGIQIRXJSVFIEQWERHNSMWXWWYTTSVXIHF]FIEQWSVKMVHIVW
PMQMXWWIXJSVXLMR)QFIHHIHGSRHYMXWERHTMTIWWLSYPH
GSQTP][MXL
 +MVHIVHITXLERH[MHXL{8LIKMVHIVWLSYPHFITVMW
QEXMG[MXLSYXLEYRGLIWFVEGOIXWSVGSVFIPW8LILIMKLXL
WLSYPHGSQTP][MXLXLIQMRMQYQHITXLSJ'PIEVWTER
SJXLIQIQFIVWLSYPHRSXFIPIWWXLERJSYVXMQIWMXWLIMKLXL
8LI[MHXLXSLIMKLXVEXMSF[LWLSYPHRSXFIPIWWXLER8LI
[MHXL F[WLSYPHRSXFIPIWWXLERMR QQ RSVI\GIIHXLI
GSVVIWTSRHMRK[MHXLSJXLIWYTTSVXMRKGSPYQRTPYWLSR
IEGLWMHISJXLIWYTTSVXMRKGSPYQR *MK 
 +MVHIVWWYTTSVXIHF]VIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI[EPPW{
+MVHIVWWYTTSVXIHF]EVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI[EPPPSGEXIHMR
XLITPERISJXLIJVEQIWLSYPHGSRXMRYIEPSRKXLIJYPPLSVM
^SRXEP[EPPPIRKXL+MVHIV[MHXLWLSYPHRSXFIPIWWXLER[EPP
XLMGORIWW;LIVIKMVHIVWEVIWYTTSVXIHF][EPPWTIVTIRHMG
YPEVXSXLIPSRKMXYHMREPE\MWSJXLIKMVHIVEFIEQWLSYPHVYR
EPSRKXLIJYPPLSVM^SRXEP[EPPPIRKXLEXXLIWEQIPIZIPERH
LEZIXLIWEQILIMKLXEWXLIKMVHIV&IEQ[MHXLWLSYPHRSX
FI PIWW XLER [EPP XLMGORIWW SV  MR  QQ  :IVXMGEP
VIMRJSVGIQIRXSJXLI[EPPWLSYPHTEWWXLVSYKLXLIKMVHIVSV
FIEQEWMRHMGEXIHMR'LETXIV
 0EXIVEP WYTTSVX{*SV KMVHIVW RSX GSRXMRYSYWP]
laterally supported by the floor slab or secondary beams, the
GPIEVHMWXERGIFIX[IIRPEXIVEPWYTTSVXWWLSYPHRSXI\GIIH
XMQIWXLIPIEWX[MHXLF of compression flange or face.
 6IWXVMGXMSRW{8LIJSPPS[MRKVIWXVMGXMSRWWLSYPHFI
MRIJJIGXJSVKMVHIVWSJJVEQIWHIWMKRIHYRHIV
E 8LIVIEVIX[SSVQSVIWTERW
F  7TERW EVI ETTVS\MQEXIP] IUYEP [MXL XLI WLSVXIV SJ
X[SEHNEGIRXWTERWKVIEXIVXLERSVIUYEPXSTIVGIRXSJXLI
PEVKIVWTER  
G  0SEHW EVI YRMJSVQP] HMWXVMFYXIH ERH EHNYWXQIRXW JSV
GSRGIRXVEXIHPSEHWEVITIVJSVQIH
H  9RJEGXSVIH YRMX PMZI PSEH [  HSIW RSX I\GIIH XLVII
XMQIWYRJEGXSVIHYRMXHIEHPSEH[HERH
I +MVHIVWWLSYPHRSXLEZIEWPSTII\GIIHMRKHIKVIIW
 6IUYMVIHQSQIRXWXVIRKXL
 *EGXSVIHTSWMXMZIERHRIKEXMZIQSQIRX{*EGXSVIH
TSWMXMZIERHRIKEXMZIQSQIRX1Y VIUYMVIHQSQIRXWXVIRKXL 
JSVKMVHIVWERHFIEQWXLEXEVITEVXSJEJVEQI[LSWIZIVXMGEP

*MK{0MQMXWSRKMVHIVHITXLERH[MHXL
QIQFIVWEVIGSPYQRWERHGSRGVIXIWXVYGXYVEP[EPPWWLSYPHFI
GEPGYPEXIHYWMRKIUYEXMSRWMR8EFPI[LIVI 4YMWXLI
WYQSJEPPJEGXSVIHGSRGIRXVEXIHPSEHWXLEXEGXSRXLIWTER
 +MVHIVW TEVEPPIP XS SRI[E] NSMWX W]WXIQW{*SV
KMVHIVWTEVEPPIPXSNSMWXWXLIEWWYQIHXVMFYXEV][MHXLJSVXLI
GEPGYPEXMSRSJKMVHIVJEGXSVIHPSEHWWLSYPHFIX[MGIXLINSMWX
WTEGMRKTPYWXLIKMVHIV[MHXL
 9WI SJ JVEQI EREP]WMW{*VEQI EREP]WMW QIIXMRK
QE]FIYWIHXSHIXIVQMRIJEGXSVIHQSQIRXWERHWLIEVW
EWEWYFWXMXYXIJSVZEPYIWGSQTYXIHJVSQERH
 6IUYMVIHWLIEVWXVIRKXL
 *EGXSVIH WLIEV{+MVHIV :Y WLSYPH FI GEPGYPEXIH
EXWYTTSVXJEGIWYWMRKIUYEXMSRWSJ8EFPI[LIVI 4Y
MWXLIWYQSJEPPJEGXSVIHGSRGIRXVEXIHPSEHWXLEXEGXSRXLI
WTER6IJIVXSJSVEWWYQIHXVMFYXEV][MHXL
 9WI SJ JVEQIEREP]WMW{*VEQI EREP]WMWQIIXMRK
QE]FIYWIHXSHIXIVQMRIJEGXSVIHWLIEVEWEWYFWXM
XYXIJSVZEPYIWGSQTYXIHJVSQ
 6IMRJSVGIQIRX
 4SWMXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX{8LI TSWMXMZI
QSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXEVIEWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHYWMRKXLI
GEPGYPEXIH ZEPYI SJ 1Y -J E WPEF I\MWXW MR XLI YTTIV TEVX

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

8EFPI {*EGXSVIHQSQIRXJSVKMVHIVWSJ
JVEQIW
4SWMXMZIQSQIRXEX
)RHWTERW

Mu

Wu n2
14

Pu

E

-RXIVMSVWTERW

Wu n2
n
Pu
16
7
2IKEXMZIQSQIRXEXWYTTSVXWEX
-RXIVMSVJEGISJI\XIVREPGSPYQRSVTIVTIRHMGYPEV
WXVYGXYVEP[EPP
Wu n2
n
M ue
Pu
16
10
Exterior face of first internal column or perpendicular
WXVYGXYVEP[EPPSRP]X[SWTERW
Wu n2
n
M ue
Pu
9
6
*EGIWSJMRXIVREPGSPYQRWSVTIVTIRHMGYPEVWXVYGXYVEP
[EPPWQSVIXLERX[SWTERW
Wu n2
n
M ue
Pu
10
6.5
*EGIWSJWXVYGXYVEP[EPPWTEVEPPIPXSXLITPERISJXLI
JVEQI
Wu n2
n
M ue
Pu
12
7
7YTTSVXSJKMVHIVGERXMPIZIVW
3Wu n2
M ue
Pu
n
4
Mu

F

G

H

I

Ru
J

K

8EFPI {*EGXSVIHWLIEVJSVKMVHIVWSJ
JVEQIW
At exterior face of first interior column:

Vu

1.15

Wu n
2

0.8 Pu

 E

%XJEGIWSJEPPSXLIVGSPYQRW

Wu n
2

Vu

0.75 Pu

F

%XWYTTSVXWSJKMVHIVGERXMPIZIVW

Vu

Wu

Pu

[MXL  *SV TIVMQIXIV FIEQW EW MRHMGEXIH MR 


SRIUYEVXIV SJ XLI RIKEXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH
IMXLIV FI GSRXMRYSYW SV WTPMGIH EX QMHWTER *MK F 
2IKEXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX MR GERXMPIZIVW WLSYPH RSX
FIGYXSJJ*SVSXLIVFIEQWEPPRIKEXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGI
QIRXQE]FIGYXSJJEXEHMWXERGIIUYEPXS RJSVMRXIVREP
WYTTSVXWERHEXEHMWXERGIIUYEPXS RJSVI\XIVREPWYTTSVXW
QIEWYVIHJVSQXLIWYTTSVXJEGIMRXSXLIWTER *MKE 
 8VERWZIVWI VIMRJSVGIQIRX{:EPYIW SJ :Y EX XLI
VMKLX ERH PIJX JEGIW SJ XLI WYTTSVXW WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH
YWMRKXLIETTVSTVMEXIIUYEXMSRJVSQ8VERWZIVWIVIMRJSVGI
QIRXWLSYPHQIIX
 ,ERKIVWXMVVYTW{;LIVIEFIEQMWWYTTSVXIHF]E
KMVHIVSJWMQMPEVHITXLXLIYWISJLERKIVWXMVVYTWEWMRHMGEXIHF]
WLSYPHFIMRZIWXMKEXIH
 6IEGXMSRWSRGSPYQRWERHVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI[EPPW
 :IVXMGEPVIEGXMSRWEXGSPYQRWERH[EPPW{*EGXSVIH
VIEGXMSRWEXXLIWYTTSVXW6YWLSYPHFIXLIZEPYIWHIXIVQMRIH
JVSQ)U  TPYWXLIJEGXSVIHVIEGXMSRJVSQER]GERXM
PIZIVWTERRMRKJVSQXLEXWYTTSVX

G

SJXLIKMVHIVXLI8FIEQIJJIGXQE]FIXEOIRMRXSEGGSYRX
4SWMXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL
%X MRXIVREP WYTTSVXW EX E HMWXERGI IUYEP XS R QIEWYVIH
JVSQ XLI WYTTSVX JEGI MRXS XLI WTER YT XS SRILEPJ SJ XLI
TSWMXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXQE]FIGYXSJJMJXLIVIEVI
RSGSRGIRXVEXIHPSEHW[MXLMRXLEXHMWXERGI *MKEERH
F 
 2IKEXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX{8LI RIKEXMZI
QSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXEVIEWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHYWMRKXLI
PEVKIVZEPYISJ1YzGSQTYXIHEXFSXLWMHIWSJXLIWYTTSVX
8LMWVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL;LIREWPEF
MWTVIWIRXMRXLIYTTIVTEVXSJXLIWIGXMSRSV[LIRXLIKMVHIV
MW8WLETIHRIKEXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHGSQTP]

Vu



[LIVI :YMWXLIJEGXSVIHWLIEVJVSQ WMWXLIGIRXIVXS


GIRXIVWTERERH RMWXLIGPIEVWTERSJXLIKMVHIV
 9RFEPERGIH QSQIRX JVSQ ZIVXMGEP PSEHMRK{
1SQIRXVIEGXMSRSRGSPYQRWWLSYPHFIIZEPYEXIHYWMRKXLI
YRFEPERGIH JEGXSVIH QSQIRX 1Y GEYWIH F] XLI JEGXSVIH
ZIVXMGEP PSEHW SR KMVHIVW XLEX WTER JVSQ XLI GSPYQR MR XLI
TPERI SJ XLI JVEQI 8LI YRFEPERGIH QSQIRX WLSYPH FI
HMWXVMFYXIH XS XLI GSPYQR EFSZI ERH FIPS[ XLI KMVHIV MR
TVSTSVXMSRXSXLIMVVIPEXMZIWXMJJRIWW8SGEPGYPEXIXLIYRFEP
ERGIH QSQIRX E  F  ERH G  WLSYPH ETTP] SV E JVEQI
EREP]WMWGSQTP]MRK[MXLWLSYPHFITIVJSVQIH
E 8LIYRFEPERGIHQSQIRX 1YMWXLIPEVKIWXHMJJIVIRGI
MR KMVHIV JEGXSVIH RIKEXMZI QSQIRXW EX XLI GSPYQR [LIR
PSEHGEWIWMR F ERH G EVIIZEPYEXIH
(b) In the first case ('EWI % SJ *MK   XLI IRXMVI
KMVHIV WLSYPH FI PSEHIH [MXL XLI JEGXSVIH HIEH PSEH ERH
EPXIVREXISHHWTERWWLSYPHFIPSEHIH[MXLXLIJEGXSVIHPMZI
PSEHERH
G -RXLIWIGSRHGEWI 'EWI&SJ*MK XLIIRXMVI
KMVHIVWLSYPHFIPSEHIH[MXLXLIJEGXSVIHHIEHPSEHERHXLI
EPXIVREXIIZIRWTERWWLSYPHFIPSEHIH[MXLXLIJEGXSVIHPMZI
PSEH
 9RFEPERGIH QSQIRX HMWXVMFYXMSR{8S HMWXVMFYXI
XLI YRFEPERGIH QSQIRX XS GSPYQRW SV [EPPW EFSZI ERH
FIPS[XLIKMVHIV E ETTPMIWXSVSSJNSMRXWERH F ERH G
ETTP] XS NSMRXW [MXL GSPYQRWv XST ERH FSXXSQ SV E JVEQI
EREP]WMWGSQTP]MRK[MXLWLSYPHFITIVJSVQIH
E *SVVSSJNSMRXW 8]TIW()ERH*SJ*MK XLI
GSPYQRJEGXSVIHQSQIRXWLSYPHGSVVIWTSRHXS 1Y
F *SVNSMRXW[MXLGSPYQRWXSTERHFSXXSQ 8]TIW%&
ERH ' SJ *MK   XLI YRFEPERGIH QSQIRX WLSYPH FI
HMWXVMFYXIHXSXLIGSPYQRSV[EPPEFSZIYWMRK)U E 

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

*MK E{6IMRJSVGIQIRX MR KMVHIVW XLEX EVI TEVX SJ E QSQIRXVIWMWXMRK JVEQI
WYTTSVXIHF]GSPYQRWSVVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI[EPPW

*MKF{6IMRJSVGIQIRXMRKMVHIVWXLEXEVITEVXSJXLITIVMQIXIVJVEQI

*MK{+MVHIVYRFEPERGIHQSQIRXXSFIXVERWJIVVIHXSGSPYQRW
%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK





+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

 (IEH PSEH ERH PMZI PSEH{:EPYIW SJ UH JSV HIEH
PSEHWLSYPHMRGPYHIWPEFWIPJ[IMKLXERHXLI[IMKLXSJXLI
horizontal and vertical nonstructural elements as defined in
 8LI ZEPYI U  JSV PMZI PSEH WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH F]
;LIVIXLIWPEFMWTEVXSJXLIVSSJW]WXIQVSSJPMZIPSEH
KMZIRMRVEMRPSEHMRERHWRS[PSEHWMRWLSYPH
FIMRGPYHIHEWETTVSTVMEXI
 *EGXSVIH PSEHW{*EGXSVIH PSEH UY WLSYPH FI XLI
PEVKIWXZEPYIHIXIVQMRIHYWMRKPSEHJEGXSVWERHPSEHGSQFM
REXMSRWMR

*MK{.SMRXX]TIWJSVHIXIVQMREXMSRSJGSPYQRQSQIRXW

Mu

up

Mu

I c hpi
I c hpi

up

I c hpi

up

E
down

G *SVNSMRXW[MXLGSPYQRWXSTERHFSXXSQ 8]TIW%&ERH
'SJ*MK XLIYRFEPERGIHQSQIRXWLSYPHFIHMWXVMFYXIH
XSXLIGSPYQRSV[EPPFIPS[YWMRK)U F 

Mu

down

Mu

I c hpi
I c hpi

down

I c hpi

up

F
down

H -R)U E ERH F -GWLSYPHFIIZEPYEXIH


YWMRK)U G  *MK 
3
c c
c

G

[LIVI FG MW XLI GSPYQR HMQIRWMSR SV [EPP WIGXMSR MR XLI
HMVIGXMSRTIVTIRHMGYPEVXSXLIKMVHIVWTERLGMWXLIGSPYQR
HMQIRWMSR SV [EPP WIGXMSR MR XLI HMVIGXMSR TEVEPPIP XS XLI
KMVHIVWTERERHLTMMWXLIGSPYQRSV[EPPWXSV]LIMKLX
',%48)6{70%&'309127=78)17
{+IRIVEP
7PEFWMRWPEFGSPYQRW]WXIQWEWHIWGVMFIHMRWLSYPH
be designed using Chapter 9. The design of waffle-slabs as
HIWGVMFIHMRMWMRGPYHIH
{0SEHW
 0SEHWXSFIMRGPYHIH{7IVZMGIPSEHWJSVWPEFWXLEX
EVITEVXSJWPEFGSPYQRW]WXIQWWLSYPHFIIWXEFPMWLIHJVSQ
'LETXIV  +VEZMX] PSEHW XLEX WLSYPH FI MRGPYHIH MR XLI
HIWMKREVI
(a) Dead loads: Slab self-weight, flat nonstructural
elements, standing nonstructural elements, and fixed equip
QIRXPSEHWMJER]
F 0MZIPSEHWERH
G  ;LIVI XLI WPEF MW TEVX SJ XLI VSSJ W]WXIQ ETTVSTVMEXI
ZEPYIWSJVSSJPMZIPSEHVEMRPSEHERHWRS[PSEHWLSYPHFIYWIH

{(MQIRWMSREPPMQMXW
 +IRIVEP{-REHHMXMSRXS'LETXIVXLIWPEFMRWPEF
GSPYQRW]WXIQWWLSYPHGSQTP][MXLXLIHMQIRWMSREPPMQMXW
MRERHXLIVIWXVMGXMSRWSJJSVWPEFGSPYQRW]WXIQW
 'SPYQRWXVMT{%GSPYQRWXVMTMWEHIWMKRWXVMT[MXL
E [MHXL SR IEGL WMHI SJ E GSPYQR GIRXIVPMRI IUYEP XS 
SV [LMGLIZIVMWPIWW *MK ;LIVIXLIWXVMTMWEHNE
GIRXERHTEVEPPIPXSERIHKIXLIGSPYQRWXVMT[MHXLSRXLI
I\XIVREPWMHIWLSYPHFIXLIHMWXERGIJVSQXLIGSPYQRGIRXIV
PMRIXSXLIIHKI[MXLSYXI\GIIHMRKXLI[MHXLSJXLIMRXIVREP
side. For waffle-slabs, the column strip comprises all joists
XLEX IRKEKI XLI GSPYQR GETMXEP 6IJIV XS  JSV XLI
QMRMQYQRYQFIVSJNSMWXWXLEXWLSYPHIRKEKIXLIGETMXEP
 1MHHPI WXVMT{% QMHHPI WXVMT MW E HIWMKR WXVMT
FSYRHIHF]X[SGSPYQRWXVMTW *MK 
 Definition of a panel{%TERIPMWFSYRHIHF]GSPYQR
SV[EPPGIRXIVPMRIWSREPPWMHIW *MK 
 1MRMQYQWPEFXLMGORIWW{1MRMQYQWPEFXLMGORIWW
XSQIIXXLIWIVZMGIEFMPMX]PMQMXWXEXISJWPEFGSPYQRW]WXIQW
WLSYPHGSRJSVQXS
 6IWXVMGXMSRSRGSPYQRHMQIRWMSRW{-RWPEFGSPYQR
W]WXIQW XLI VEXMS SJ PSRKXSWLSVX GVSWWWIGXMSREP GSPYQR
HMQIRWMSRWWLSYPHRSXI\GIIH
 7YTTSVXHMQIRWMSRWERHGPIEVWTER{*SVEWPEFW]WXIQ
WYTTSVXIHF]GSPYQRWSV[EPPWXLIGPIEVWTER RWLSYPHI\XIRH
JVSQJEGIXSJEGISJGSPYQRWGETMXEPWFVEGOIXWSV[EPPW
 3XLIV VIWXVMGXMSRW{7PEFGSPYQR W]WXIQW WLSYPH
GSQTP][MXL E XLVSYKL J 
E 8LIVIWLSYPHFIEQMRMQYQSJXLVIIGSRXMRYSYWWTERW
MRIEGLHMVIGXMSR
F 4ERIPWWLSYPHFIVIGXERKYPEV[MXLEVEXMSSJPSRKIVXS
WLSVXIVWTERGIRXIVXSGIRXIVSJWYTTSVXW[MXLMRETERIPRSX
KVIEXIVXLER
G  7YGGIWWMZI WTER PIRKXLW QIEWYVIH GIRXIVXSGIRXIV SJ
WYTTSVXWMRIEGLHMVIGXMSRWLSYPHRSXFIWQEPPIVXLERTIVGIRX
SJ XLI EHNEGIRX PEVKIV WTER I\GITX MR IPIZEXSV ERH WXEMV GSVIW
 
H 'SPYQRWQE]FISJJWIXF]EQE\MQYQSJTIVGIRX
SJXLIWTER MRHMVIGXMSRSJSJJWIX JVSQIMXLIVE\MWFIX[IIR
GIRXIVPMRIWSJWYGGIWWMZIGSPYQRW
I %PPPSEHWWLSYPHFIHYIXSKVEZMX]SRP]ERHFIYRMJSVQP]
HMWXVMFYXIHSZIVERIRXMVITERIPERH
J  9RJEGXSVIH PMZI PSEH U  WLSYPH RSX I\GIIH X[MGI XLI
YRJEGXSVIHHIEHPSEHUH
 (YGXWWLEJXWERHSTIRMRKW
 +IRIVEP (YGXW WLEJXW ERH STIRMRKW MR XLI WPEF
WLSYPHGSQTP][MXL ERH

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



*MK{'SPYQRERHQMHHPIWXVMTW
 3TIRMRKWMRQMHHPIWXVMTW{3TIRMRKWSJER]WM^I
EVI TIVQMXXIH MR XLI EVIE GSQQSR XS MRXIVWIGXMRK QMHHPI
WXVMTW TVSZMHIH XSXEP EVIE SJ VIMRJSVGIQIRX MR XLI TERIP
[MXLSYXXLISTIRMRKMWQEMRXEMRIH
 3TIRMRKWMRGSPYQRWXVMTW{-RXLIEVIEGSQQSR
XSMRXIVWIGXMRKGSPYQRWXVMTWRSXQSVIXLERSRIIMKLXLXLI
GSPYQRWXVMT[MHXLMRIMXLIVWTERWLSYPHFIMRXIVVYTXIHF]
STIRMRKW%REVIESJVIMRJSVGIQIRXIUYMZEPIRXXSXLEXMRXIV
VYTXIH F] ER STIRMRK WLSYPH FI EHHIH SRXLI WMHIW SJ XLI
STIRMRK;LIRERSTIRMRKMWPSGEXIHMRXLIGSPYQRWXVMTSV
EXEHMWXERGIPIWWXLERXMQIWXLIWPEFXLMGORIWWJVSQXLI
support face, or within the capital zone in waffle-systems,
XLIGVMXMGEPWIGXMSRTIVMQIXIVFS defined in  WLSYPHFI
modified by removing that part of the perimeter enclosed by
WXVEMKLXPMRIWTVSNIGXMRKJVSQXLIGIRXVSMHSJXLIWYTTSVXERH
XERKIRXXSXLIFSYRHEVMIWSJXLISTIRMRK *MK 
 3TIRMRKWMR^SRIWGSQQSRXSGSPYQRERHQMHHPI
WXVMTW{-R XLI EVIE GSQQSR XS SRI GSPYQR WXVMT ERH SRI
QMHHPIWXVMTRSXQSVIXLERSRIUYEVXIVSJXLIVIMRJSVGIQIRX
MRIMXLIVWXVMTWLSYPHFIMRXIVVYTXIHF]STIRMRKW%REVIESJ
VIMRJSVGIQIRXIUYMZEPIRXXSXLEXMRXIVVYTXIHF]ERSTIRMRK
WLSYPHFIEHHIHSRXLIWMHIWSJXLISTIRMRK
 (VSTTERIPW{(VSTTERIPWWLSYPHGSQTP][MXLXLI
HMQIRWMSREP PMQMXW SJ  *MK H  -R WPEF VIMR
JSVGIQIRXGEPGYPEXMSRWXLIHVSTTERIPXLMGORIWWFIPS[XLI
WPEF WLSYPH RSX FI EWWYQIH KVIEXIV XLER SRIUYEVXIV XLI
HMWXERGIJVSQHVSTTERIPIHKIXSIHKISJGSPYQRSVGSPYQR
GETMXEP
 Waffle-slab systems{.SMWXWWPEFWWTERRMRKFIX[IIR
joists, and capitals of two-way waffle-slab systems should
GSQTP][MXLXLIHMQIRWMSREPPMQMXWSJERH
{6IMRJSVGIQIRXHIXEMPW
 +IRIVEP{7PEF VIMRJSVGIQIRX SJ WPEFGSPYQR
W]WXIQWWLSYPHFISJXLIX]TIWHIWGVMFIHERHWLSYPHGSQTP]
[MXLMREHHMXMSRXS E XLVSYKL J  *MK 
E  7PEF VIMRJSVGIQIRX EVIE MR IEGL HMVIGXMSR WLSYPH FI
HIXIVQMRIH JVSQ QSQIRXW EX GVMXMGEP WIGXMSRW FYX WLSYPH
RSXFIPIWWXLERWLVMROEKIERHXIQTIVEXYVIVIMRJSVGIQIRXMR


*MK{)JJIGXSJSTIRMRKWMRXLIWPEF
F *PI\YVEPVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL
(c) Slab reinforcement in waffle-slabs over cellular spaces
WLSYPHGSQTP][MXL
(d) Joists in waffle-slab systems should comply with 
flexural reinforcement, and XVERWZIVWIVIMRJSVGIQIRX
(e) Reinforcement in joists of waffle-slabs should meet
 JSVNSMWXWPSGEXIHMRXLIQMHHPI WXVMTERHSJ JSV
NSMWXWPSGEXIHMRXLIGSPYQRWXVMTERH
(f) Reinforcement in waffle-slabs need not comply with
XS
 4SWMXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRX
 (IWGVMTXMSR{4SWMXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX
WLSYPHFITVSZMHIHMRXLIPS[IVTEVXSJXLIWPEFWIGXMSREW
MRHMGEXIHMR'LETXIVERHWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL
 0SGEXMSR{4SWMXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPH
FITVSZMHIHMRFSXLHMVIGXMSRW4SWMXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGI
QIRX WLSYPH FI PSGEXIH EW GPSWI XS XLI FSXXSQ WYVJEGI SJ
XLIWPEFEWTVEGXMGEFPIJSPPS[MRK 7LSVXWTERTSWMXMZI
moment flexural reinforcement should be located below the
long-span positive moment flexural reinforcement.
 1MRMQYQ VIMRJSVGIQIRX EVIE{4SWMXMZI QSQIRX
VIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHLEZIEREVIEEXPIEWXIUYEPXSXLIEVIE
HIXIVQMRIHF]
 1E\MQYQ VIMRJSVGIQIRXEVIE{4SWMXMZIQSQIRX
VIMRJSVGIQIRXEVIEWLSYPHRSXI\GIIHZEPYIWMR
 1E\MQYQ VIMRJSVGIQIRX WTEGMRK{4SWMXMZI
QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX EX GVMXMGEP WIGXMSRW WLSYPH RSX FI
WTEGIHJYVXLIVETEVXXLERX[MGIXLIWPEFXLMGORIWW
 'YXSJJTSMRXW{%PPFSXXSQFEVW[MXLMRXLIGSPYQR
WXVMT MR IEGL HMVIGXMSR WLSYPH FI GSRXMRYSYW SV WTPMGIH
GSQTP]MRK[MXLEXPSGEXMSRWWLS[RMR*MK%X

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

*MK{7PEFVIMRJSVGIQIRXHIXEMP
PIEWXX[SGSPYQRWXVMTFSXXSQFEVWMRIEGLHMVIGXMSRWLSYPH
TEWW[MXLMRXLIGSPYQRGSVI-RXLIQMHHPIWXVMTEXMRXIVMSV
WYTTSVXW YTXSSRILEPJSJ XLITSWMXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGI
QIRX RIIHIH XS VIWMWX XLI GSVVIWTSRHMRK JEGXSVIH TSWMXMZI
QSQIRXEXQMHWTERQE]FIGYXSJJEXXLIPSGEXMSRWMRHMGEXIH
MR *MK
 6IMRJSVGIQIRX WTPMGMRK{'SRXMRYSYW TSWMXMZI
QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX QE] FI PETWTPMGIH FIX[IIR XLI
GYXSJJTSMRXERHXLISTTSWMXIJEGISJXLIWYTTSVX
 )QFIHQIRXEXMRXIVMSVWYTTSVXW{4SWMXMZIQSQIRX
VIMRJSVGIQIRXGYXSJJEXERMRXIVMSVWYTTSVXWLSYPHI\XIRHXS
XLISTTSWMXIJEGISJXLIWYTTSVX
 )RH ERGLSVEKI SJ VIMRJSVGIQIRX{4SWMXMZI
QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX TIVTIRHMGYPEV XS E HMWGSRXMRYSYW
IHKI WLSYPH I\XIRH XS XLI WPEF IHKI ERH WLSYPH IRH MR E
WXERHEVHLSSO
 2IKEXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRX
 (IWGVMTXMSR{2IKEXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX
WLSYPHFITVSZMHIHMRXLIEQSYRXWERHPIRKXLWGSRJSVQMRK
XS 'LETXIVERHWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL
 0SGEXMSR{2IKEXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX
WLSYPHFITVSZMHIHMRFSXLHMVIGXMSRWEXWYTTSVXW2IKEXMZI
moment flexural reinforcement should be located as close
XSXLIYTTIVWYVJEGISJXLIWPEFEWTVEGXMGEFPIJSPPS[MRKXLI
GSRGVIXI GSZIV SJ . Short-span negative moment flex
YVEPVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFIPSGEXIHEFSZIPSRKWTERRIKE
tive moment flexural reinforcement.
 1MRMQYQVIMRJSVGIQIRXEVIE{2IKEXMZIQSQIRX
VIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHLEZIEREVIEEXPIEWXIUYEPXSXLIEVIE
HIXIVQMRIHF]
 1E\MQYQVIMRJSVGIQIRXEVIE{2IKEXMZIQSQIRX
VIMRJSVGIQIRXEVIEWLSYPHRSXI\GIIHXLIZEPYIWMR
 1E\MQYQ VIMRJSVGIQIRX WTEGMRK{2IKEXMZI
QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX EX GVMXMGEP WIGXMSRW WLSYPH RSX FI
WTEGIHJYVXLIVETEVXXLERX[MGIXLIWPEFXLMGORIWW
 'YXSJJ TSMRXW{%PP RIKEXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGI
QIRXI\GITXJSVGERXMPIZIVWQE]FIGYXSJJEXXLIPSGEXMSRW
MRHMGEXIHMR*MK;LIVIEHNEGIRXWTERWEVIYRIUYEP
negative moment flexural reinforcement cutoff points should
FIFEWIHSRXLIPSRKIVWTER
 6IMRJSVGIQIRXWTPMGMRK{-XMWRSXTIVQMXXIHXSPET
WTPMGI RIKEXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX FIX[IIR XLI GYXSJJ
TSMRXERHXLIWYTTSVX

 )RH ERGLSVEKI SJ VIMRJSVGIQIRX{2IKEXMZI


QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX TIVTIRHMGYPEV XS E HMWGSRXMRYSYW
IHKIWLSYPHFIERGLSVIH[MXLEWXERHEVHLSSOMRXSXLIIHKI
At the external edge of cantilevers, negative moment flex
YVEPVIMRJSVGIQIRXTIVTIRHMGYPEVXSXLIIHKIWLSYPHIRHMR
E WXERHEVH LSSO ;LIVI GSRWXVEMRIH F] KISQIXV] XLI IRH
LSSORIIHRSXFITPEGIHZIVXMGEPP]
 7LIEV VIMRJSVGIQIRX{(IWMKR TVSGIHYVIW JSV WSPMH
WPEFWHSRSXMRGPYHIXLIYWISJWLIEVVIMRJSVGIQIRXMRWPEFW
4VSGIHYVIWJSVHIWMKRSJWLIEVVIMRJSVGIQIRXMRWSPMHWPEFW
EVIFI]SRHXLIWGSTISJXLMWKYMHIERHXLIWXERHEVHWSJ
WLSYPHFIYWIHJSVHIWMKRMRXLEXGEWI8LIYWISJWLIEVVIMR
forcement for beam-action shear in joists of waffle-slabs is
TIVQMXXIH
 :EPYIWSJHGERHHXSYWIMRWPEFGSPYQRW]WXIQW{
Calculation of the distance from extreme tension fiber
XS GIRXVSMH SJ XIRWMSR VIMRJSVGIQIRX HG WLSYPH GSRWMHIV
GSRGVIXIGSZIVJVSQFEVHMEQIXIVWERHXLII\MWXIRGISJ
VIMRJSVGIQIRXMRXLITIVTIRHMGYPEVHMVIGXMSRTPEGIHFIX[IIR
XLI VIMRJSVGIQIRX YRHIV GSRWMHIVEXMSR ERH XLI GSRGVIXI
WYVJEGI
8LIJSPPS[MRKZEPYIWSJHGGSYPHFIYWIHJSVGSQTYXMRKH
EW H ! L zHG*SVVIMRJSVGIQIRXMRXLIPSRKHMVIGXMSRSJXLI
WPEFTERIPHG!MR QQ JSVMRXIVMSVI\TSWYVIERH
HG!MR QQ JSVI\XIVMSVI\TSWYVI*SVVIMRJSVGIQIRX
MRXLIWLSVXHMVIGXMSRSJXLIWPEFTERIPHG!MR QQ 
JSVMRXIVMSVI\TSWYVIERHHG!MR QQ JSVI\XIVMSV
exposure. For joists that are part of waffle-slabs, HG!MR
QQ JSVMRXIVMSVI\TSWYVIERHHG!MR QQ JSV
I\XIVMSVI\TSWYVI6IJIVXSJSVWPEF^SRIW[LIVIHVST
TERIPWI\MWX
 7PEFVIMRJSVGIQIRXMRWIMWQMG^SRIW{%WPEFGSPYQR
W]WXIQWLSYPHRSXFIYWIHMRWIMWQMG^SRIWYRPIWWXLIWXVYG
XYVEP W]WXIQ MW WXMJJIRIH F] VIMRJSVGIH GSRGVIXI WXVYGXYVEP
[EPPWEGXMRKMRFSXLTVMRGMTEPHMVIGXMSRW-RWIMWQMG^SRIW
WPEFVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHEPWSGSQTP][MXL'LETXIV
{7LIEVWXVIRKXL
 +IRIVEP{-RWPEFGSPYQRW]WXIQWGEPGYPEXMSRSJXLI
HIWMKRWXVIRKXLSJWPEFWWYFNIGXIHXSWLIEVPSEHWWLSYPHFI
TIVJSVQIHYWMRK8[SX]TIWSJWLIEVJSVGIIJJIGXWSGGYV
MRXLIZMGMRMX]SJWYTTSVXWERHGSRGIRXVEXIHPSEHW
E 4YRGLMRKWLIEVSVX[S[E]EGXMSRWLIEVERH
(b) Beam-action shear that accompanies flexural moments.
 6IUYMVIH WLIEV WXVIRKXL{*EGXSVIH WLIEV :Y
VIUYMVIH WLIEV WXVIRKXL  MR XLI WPEF HYI XS JEGXSVIH PSEHW
ETTPMIHXSXLIWXVYGXYVIWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHJVSQERH

 (IWMKRWLIEVWXVIRKXL{8LIHIWMKRWLIEVWXVIRKXLEX
XLIQIQFIVWIGXMSR :RWLSYPHFIIUYEPXSSVKVIEXIVXLER
XLIJEGXSVIHWLIEV:YEWWLS[RMR)U  [MXL !

Vn

Vc

Vu



 8[S[E] EGXMSR WLIEV TYRGLMRK WLIEV  MR WSPMH


WPEFWERHJSSXMRKW

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



*MK{1MRMQYQPIRKXLSJWPEFVIMRJSVGIQIRXMRWPEFGSPYQRW]WXIQW
 +IRIVEP{7LIEV WXVIRKXL JSV X[S[E] EGXMSR
WLIEVSVTYRGLMRKWLIEVWLSYPHFIMRZIWXMKEXIHEXIHKIWSJ
GSPYQRWGSRGIRXVEXIHPSEHWERHWYTTSVXWERHEXGLERKIW
SJXLMGORIWWWYGLEWIHKIWSJGETMXEPWERHHVSTTERIPW
 Definition of critical section for two-way shear{
)EGLSJXLIGVMXMGEPWIGXMSRWMRZIWXMKEXIHWLSYPHFIPSGEXIH
WSXLEXXLITIVMQIXIVFS is as defined in *MKFYXRIIH
RSXETTVSEGLGPSWIVXLEREHMWXERGIHXSIHKIWSVGSVRIVW
SJGSPYQRWERHXSGLERKIWMRWPEFXLMGORIWWWYGLEWIHKIW
SJGETMXEPWSVHVSTTERIPW

 8[S[E] EGXMSR WLIEV WXVIRKXL{7LIEV WXVIRKXL


WLSYPH FI XLI ZEPYI HIXIVQMRIH JVSQ )U   [MXL
!
Vn
Vn

Vc

ps

Vc

[LIVI TWWLSYPHFIXEOIREW
JSVFSH c

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

4 fc bo d
fc

ps

bo d (SI)





+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

Fig. 9.5.4.2Definition of FS


JSV FSH c
JSV FSH
 )JJIGXW SJ QSQIRX XVERWJIV XS XLI WPEFGSPYQR
NSMRXTransfer of unbalanced moment defined in 
MRGVIEWIWXLITYRGLMRKWLIEVEGXMRKSRXLIWPEF8LIMRGVIEWI
MRTYRGLMRKWLIEVHYIXSQSQIRXXVERWJIVEFSYXER]TVMRGMTEP
E\MWSJXLIWYTTSVXWLSYPHFIHMWVIKEVHIH[LIVIXLIVEXMSSJ
XLIYRFEPERGIHJEGXSVIHQSQIRXXSXLIJEGXSVIHWLIEVHSIW
RSXI\GIIHH[LIVIHMWXLIWPEFIJJIGXMZIHITXL;LIVI
XLMWVEXMSMWI\GIIHIH E  F ERH G WLSYPHFIQIX
E *SVGSVRIVGSPYQRGSRRIGXMSRWXVERWJIVVMRKQSQIRXW
MR FSXL TVMRGMTEP HMVIGXMSRW ERH JSV IHKI GSPYQR GSRRIG
XMSRW XVERWJIVVMRK YRFEPERGIH QSQIRXW SRP] TIVTIRHMGYPEV
XSXLIWPEFIHKIXLIGSRRIGXMSRWLSYPHFIEWWYQIHXSLEZI
EHIUYEXI TYRGLMRK WLIEV WXVIRKXL [LIR XLI JEGXSVIH WLIEV
JSVGI :YHSIWRSXI\GIIH :G[MXL :GHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ
)U  
F *SVMRXIVMSVERHIHKIGSPYQRGSRRIGXMSRWXVERWJIVVMRK
QSQIRXW WMQYPXERISYWP] MR XLI X[S TVMRGMTEP HMVIGXMSRW E
JEGXSVIHWLIEVHYIXSXLIYRFEPERGIHQSQIRX :YMWEHHIH
XS XLI JEGXSVIH WLIEV :Y :Y WLSYPH FI GSQTYXIH F] )U
 YWMRKXLIYRFEPERGIHQSQIRXWMRFSXLHMVIGXMSRW
Vu

M u1
sh

Mu 2
bo



-RXIVMSVERHIHKIGSPYQRGSRRIGXMSRWWLSYPHFIEWWYQIH
XS LEZI EHIUYEXI TYRGLMRK WLIEV WXVIRKXL [LIR XLI XSXEP
JEGXSVIHWLIEV :Y  :Y HSIWRSXI\GIIH :GHIXIVQMRIH
JVSQ )U   [MXL :Y JVSQ )U   GSQTYXIH
YWMRK LW!JSVMRXIVMSVGSPYQRGSRRIGXMSRWERH WL!
JSVIHKIGSPYQRGSRRIGXMSRW

*SVIHKIGSPYQRGSRRIGXMSRWQSQIRXWTIVTIRHMGYPEVXS
XLIWPEFIHKIQE]FIXEOIRIUYEPXS^IVSMR)U  MJ
:YHSIWRSXI\GIIH :G[MXL :GHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ)U
 ERH
G  8LI HIXEMPW SJ  JSV XLI PSRKMXYHMREP VIMRJSVGI
QIRXVIWMWXMRKXLIYRFEPERGIHQSQIRXWLSYPHFIQIX
 &IEQEGXMSR WLIEV{7IGXMSRW FIX[IIR XLI WYTTSVX
JEGIERHEHMWXERGIHJVSQXLIWYTTSVXWLSYPHFIHIWMKRIH
JSV XLI JEGXSVIH WLIEV :Y GSQTYXIH EX H 7LIEV WXVIRKXL EX
IEGLGVMXMGEPPSGEXMSRXSFIMRZIWXMKEXIHWLSYPHFIGSQTYXIH
YWMRK)U  [MXL ! *MK 
Vc

2 f c bd

Vc

fc
6

bd (SI)



{1MRMQYQWPEFXLMGORIWWEWVIUYMVIHF]
TYRGLMRKWLIEV
 6IUYMVIH TYRGLMRKWLIEV WXVIRKXL{*EGXSVIH
TYRGLMRKWLIEV :YWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHEWXLIZEPYISJXLI
XSXEP JEGXSVIH PSEH UY QYPXMTPMIH F] XLI EVIE FSYRHIH F]
panel centerlines around the column, less the area defined by
XLIGVMXMGEPWLIEVTIVMQIXIV *MK 
 1MRMQYQ WPEF XLMGORIWW{4YRGLMRKWLIEV WXVIRKXL
WLSYPHRSXFIPIWWXLERXLIZEPYIHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ)U 
modified for unbalanced moment transfer as indicated by
8LIWPEFIJJIGXMZIHITXLWLSYPHFIGEPGYPEXIHJVSQ
)U E XS H [MXLLGJSVXLIPSRKHMQIRWMSRERHFG
JSVXLIWLSVXGSPYQRHMQIRWMSRERH !-JHVSTTERIPW
EVIYWIHFSXLLGERHFGETTP]XSXLITPERHVSTTERIPHMQIR

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



*MK{&IEQEGXMSRWLIEVWXVIRKXLMRWSPMHWPEFW
*MK{8VMFYXEV]EVIEWJSVTYRGLMRKWLIEV
sions. In waffle-slab systems, calculations for punching
WLIEVEVIRIIHIHSRP]MRXLIGVMXMGEP^SRI[MXLMRXLIGETMXEP
*SVMRXIVMSVGSPYQRW
hc

bc

Vu

4
bc

2Vu

bc
4

6 fc

hc

hc

E
hc

bc
4

fc

(SI)

WLSYPH FI MRZIWXMKEXIH EX E HMWXERGI H JVSQ XLI JEGI SJ


GSPYQRWGSRGIRXVEXIHPSEHWERHWYTTSVXW
 6IUYMVIHWLIEVWXVIRKXL{*EGXSVIHFIEQEGXMSRWLIEV
:YWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHEWXLIXSXEPJEGXSVIHPSEHUYQYPXMTPMIH
F]XLIEVIEFSYRHIHF]TERIPGIRXIVPMRIWSJXLIGSPYQRERHE
PMRIEXEHMWXERGIHJVSQXLIJEGISJXLIGSPYQR *MK 
 1MRMQYQWPEFXLMGORIWWEWVIUYMVIHF]FIEQEGXMSR
WLIEV
 7SPMHWPEFW{1MRMQYQIJJIGXMZIHITXLHEWVIPEXIH
XS FIEQEGXMSR WLIEV WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH F] GSQFMRMRK
)U  [MXL)U  ERHWSPZMRKJSVH

*SVIHKIGSPYQRW[MXLLGTEVEPPIPXSIHKI
hc

2bc
4

hc

Vu

hc

6 fc
2

2bc
4

2Vu

hc

2 bc
4

fc

2hc

bc

Vu

F

bc

2Vu

bc

2hc

G
bc

fc

(SI)

*SVGSVRIVGSPYQRW
d

hc

bc

Vu

2
hc

4Vu

bc
2

3 fc
bc

hc

hc

fc

fc


(SI)

[LIVI  !  8LI PEVKIWX ZEPYI SJ H HIXIVQMRIH JSV EPP


HMVIGXMSRWEXEPPGSPYQRW MRXIVMSVIHKIERHGSVRIV WLSYPH
FIYWIH-JXLIGVMXMGEPWIGXMSRGYXWEGVSWWE^SRI[MXLEHVST
TERIPERHE^SRI[MXLSYXEHVSTTERIPXLI[IMKLXIHEZIVEKI
ZEPYISJHWLSYPHFIYWIH
 Waffle-slabsIn waffle-slabs, the transverse
HMQIRWMSR SJ XLI GETMXEP WLSYPH FI YWIH MR )U  
MRWXIEHSJ %REHHMXMSREPGVMXMGEPWIGXMSRMWEXXLIJEGISJ
XLIGETMXEPYWMRKXLITVSZMWMSRWJSVNSMWXWMRERH [MXL
E GPIEV WTER IUYEP XS XLI GPIEV HMWXERGI FIX[IIR JEGIW SJ
GETMXEPW'SRXVMFYXMSRSJXLINSMWXWLIEVVIMRJSVGIQIRXQE]
FIMRGPYHIHMR XLI FIEQEGXMSRWLIEVWXVIRKXLSJ XLI NSMWXW
XLEXIRKEKIXLIGSPYQRGETMXEP

H
bc

6Vu

(SI)

6 fc

2hc

2hc

2 fc

*SVIHKIGSPYQRW[MXLFGTEVEPPIPXSIHKI

Vu

2bc
4

(SI)

{1MRMQYQWPEFXLMGORIWWEWVIUYMVIHF]FIEQ
EGXMSR
 +IRIVEP{8LIHIWMKRJSVFIEQEGXMSRWLIEVWXVIRKXL
SJEWPEFWIGXMSRWLSYPHFIIZEPYEXIHF]FIJSVIHIWMKRMRK
the slab for flexure. Shear strength for beam-action shear

{*PI\YVI
 6IUYMVIHQSQIRXWXVIRKXL
 +IRIVEP{8LI JEGXSVIH QSQIRXW WLSYPH FI
GSQTYXIHJSPPS[MRK  XLVSYKL  
 8LIWPEFMWHMZMHIHMRXSHIWMKRWXVMTWMRFSXLHMVIGXMSRW
 )EGLWXVMTMRGPYHIWEGSPYQRSVWYTTSVXGIRXIVPMRIERH
MWFSYRHIHF]TERIPGIRXIVPMRIWSRIEGLWMHI *MKE 
  ;LIVIXLIWXVMTMWEHNEGIRXXSERHTEVEPPIP[MXLEWPEF
IHKIMXWLSYPHMRGPYHIXLIIHKIGSPYQRSVWYTTSVXGIRXIVPMRI

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

*MK{8VMFYXEV]EVIEJSVFIEQEGXMSRWLIEV
ERHWLSYPHFIFSYRHIHF]XLIWPEFIHKISRSRIWMHIERHXLI
TERIPGIRXIVPMRISRXLISXLIVWMHI *MKE 
 8SXEPJEGXSVIHQSQIRXWWLSYPHFIGEPGYPEXIHEGGSVHMRK
XS  *MK F ERH G  JSV EPP WTERW SJ EPP
WXVMTWMRFSXLHMVIGXMSRW
  8SXEPJEGXSVIHQSQIRXWWLSYPHFIHMZMHIHMRXSTSWM
XMZIERHRIKEXMZIQSQIRXWYWMRK *MKFERH
G ERH
  4SWMXMZI ERH RIKEXMZI QSQIRXW HIXIVQMRIH JVSQ
 WLSYPH FI HMWXVMFYXIH XS XLI GSPYQR WXVMT YWMRK
ERHXSXLIX[SSRILEPJQMHHPIWXVMTWYWMRK
*MKFERH G 
 8SXEP JEGXSVIH QSQIRXW{8LI EFWSPYXI WYQ SJ
TSWMXMZI ERH EZIVEKI RIKEXMZI JEGXSVIH QSQIRXW MR E WTER
WLSYPHFIGEPGYPEXIHJVSQ)U  
2
u 2 n
o



-R)U   E XLVSYKL J WLSYPHFIJSPPS[IH


E ;LIVIXVERWZIVWIWTERSJTERIPWSRIMXLIVWMHISJXLI
GIRXIVPMRI SJ WYTTSVXW ZEVMIW  MR )U   WLSYPH FI
XEOIREWXLIEZIVEKISJEHNEGIRXXVERWZIVWIWTERW
F ;LIRXLIWTERMWEHNEGIRXERHTEVEPPIPXSEWPEFIHKI
XLI HMWXERGI JVSQ XLI IHKI XS TERIP GIRXIVPMRI WLSYPH FI
WYFWXMXYXIHJSV MR)U  
G  'PIEV WTER R WLSYPH I\XIRH JVSQ JEGI XS JEGI SJ
GSPYQRWGETMXEPWFVEGOIXWSV[EPPW
H :EPYISJ RWLSYPHRSXFIPIWWXLER 
I 'MVGYPEVSVVIKYPEVTSP]KSRWLETIHWYTTSVXWWLSYPHFI
XVIEXIHEWWUYEVIWYTTSVXW[MXLXLIWEQIEVIEERH
J  6IHMWXVMFYXMSR SJ RIKEXMZI ERH TSWMXMZI JEGXSVIH
QSQIRXWF]TIVGIRXMWTIVQMXXIHTVSZMHIHXLEXXLIWYQ
VIQEMRWXLIWEQI
 2IKEXMZIERHTSWMXMZIJEGXSVIHQSQIRXW{2IKEXMZI
JEGXSVIH QSQIRXW WLSYPH FI PSGEXIH EX XLI JEGI SJ VIGXER
KYPEV WYTTSVXW 'MVGYPEVWLETIH WYTTSVXW WLSYPH FI XVIEXIH
EWWUYEVIWYTTSVXW[MXLXLIWEQIEVIE
-RERMRXIVMSVWTERXLIXSXEPJEGXSVIHQSQIRX1SWLSYPH
FIHMWXVMFYXIHEWJSPPS[W
E 2IKEXMZIJEGXSVIHQSQIRX 1S

Fig. 9.8.1.1aDefinition of design strips.


F 4SWMXMZIJEGXSVIHQSQIRX1S
-RERIRHWTERXLIXSXEPJEGXSVIHQSQIRX 1SWLSYPHFI
HMWXVMFYXIHEWJSPPS[W
G -RXIVMSVRIKEXMZIJEGXSVIHQSQIRX 1S
H 4SWMXMZIJEGXSVIHQSQIRX1S
I )\XIVMSVRIKEXMZIJEGXSVIHQSQIRX 1S
2IKEXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH FI HIWMKRIH XS
VIWMWX XLI PEVKIV SJ XLI X[S RIKEXMZI JEGXSVIH QSQIRXW
HIXIVQMRIHJSVWTERWJVEQMRKMRXSEGSQQSRWYTTSVX
 *EGXSVIH QSQIRXW MR GSPYQR WXVMTW{'SPYQR
WXVMTWWLSYPHFITVSTSVXMSRIHXSVIWMWXXLIJSPPS[MRKTSVXMSRW
SJXLIQSQIRXWHIXIVQMRIHMR
E -RXIVMSVRIKEXMZIJEGXSVIHQSQIRXWTIVGIRX
F 4SWMXMZIJEGXSVIHQSQIRXWTIVGIRX
G )\XIVMSVRIKEXMZIJEGXSVIHQSQIRXW TIVGIRX
;LIVI GSPYQR[MHXL SV [EPP WYTTSVXI\XIRHW E HMWXERGI
IUYEPXSSVKVIEXIVXLERXLVIIUYEVXIVWSJXLIWTERPIRKXL 
YWIH XS GSQTYXI 1S RIKEXMZI QSQIRXW WLSYPH FIGSRWMH
IVIHYRMJSVQP]HMWXVMFYXIHEGVSWW 
 *EGXSVIHQSQIRXWMRQMHHPIWXVMTW{8LITSVXMSR
SJ RIKEXMZI ERH TSWMXMZI JEGXSVIHQSQIRXWRSX VIWMWXIH F]
GSPYQRWXVMTWWLSYPHFIEWWMKRIHXSXLIGSVVIWTSRHMRKSRI
LEPJQMHHPIWXVMTW)EGLQMHHPIWXVMTWLSYPHFITVSTSVXMSRIH
XSVIWMWXXLIWYQSJXLIX[SQSQIRXWEWWMKRIHXSMX%QMHHPI
WXVMTEHNEGIRXXSERHTEVEPPIP[MXLERIHKIERHWYTTSVXIHF]
E [EPP WLSYPH FI TVSTSVXMSRIH XS VIWMWX X[MGI XLI QSQIRX
assigned to the adjacent one-half middle strip of the first row
SJMRXIVMSVWYTTSVXW
 'ERXMPIZIVW{'ERXMPIZIVWSJWSPMHWPEFWWLSYPHFI
HIWMKRIHMREGGSVHERGI[MXL and joists of waffle-systems
WLSYPHFIHIWMKRIHMREGGSVHERGI[MXL
 9RFEPERGIHQSQIRXW{*EGXSVIHYRFEPERGIHQSQIRX
1YWLSYPHFIXEOIREW1SEXIHKIWYTTSVXWERHJSVMRXIVMSV
WYTTSVXWMXWLSYPHFIXEOIREWXLIHMJJIVIRGISJXLIGSPYQRWXVMT
RIKEXMZIQSQIRXWSJXLIEHNEGIRXMRXIVMSVWTERWTPYWEREHHM
XMSREPZEPYI 1YEHHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ)U 
2
2 n
u e ad

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



*MKF{*EGXSVIHQSQIRXWMRXIVMSVWTERW

*MKG{*EGXSVIHQSQIRXWI\XIVMSVWTERW
[LIVI RMWXLIPEVKIVSJXLIEHNEGIRXGPIEVWTERWERHU MWXLI
WIVZMGIPMZIPSEH
 8VERWJIV SJ YRFEPERGIH QSQIRXW EX WYTTSVXW{
8VERWJIVSJXLIYRFEPERGIHQSQIRXW 1YJVSQ EXXLI
slab-column joints should be solely through flexure in the
WPEFTVSZMHIH E XLVSYKL H EVIQIX  
E  8VERWJIV [MHXL JSV VIWMWXMRK YRFEPERGIH QSQIRXW MR
flexure should be assumed to be one and one-half slab or
HVST TERIP XLMGORIWW L SYXWMHI STTSWMXI JEGIW SJ XLI
GSPYQRSVGETMXEP
F 2IKEXMZIQSQIRX GSPYQRWXVMTVIMRJSVGIQIRX[MXLMR
XLIXVERWJIV[MHXLWLSYPHFIEHIUYEXIXSVIWMWX 1YF]IMXLIV
GPSWIVFEVWTEGMRKSVEHHMXMSREPVIMRJSVGIQIRX

G 2IKEXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXVEXMS MRXLIXVERWJIV
[MHXLWLSYPHRSXI\GIIHXLVIIUYEVXIVWSJ QE\SJERH
H 8LIMRGVIEWISJXLITYRGLMRKWLIEVJSVGIEGXMRKSRXLI
WPEFMWIZEPYEXIHYWMRKXLITVSGIHYVISJ  
 Longitudinal flexural reinforcement in solid slabs of
WPEFGSPYQRW]WXIQW
 4SWMXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX{-R FSXL HMVIG
XMSRWHIXIVQMRIXLITSWMXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXVEXMS
YWMRKXLIZEPYIWSJ1YHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ *MKFERH
G JSVXLIWXVMTYRHIVGSRWMHIVEXMSR*SVTSWMXMZIQSQIRXW
MRXLIGSPYQR WXVMT XLI WXVMT [MHXLF should be as defined in
 *SV TSWMXMZI QSQIRXW MR XLI SRILEPJ QMHHPI WXVMTW SR
IEGLWMHIXLIWXVMT[MHXLWLSYPHFIGSRWMWXIRX[MXLXLI[MHXL

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

YWIH XS HMWXVMFYXI QSQIRXW EW MRHMGEXIH F]  4SWMXMZI


QSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL *MK 
 2IKEXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX{-R FSXL HMVIG
XMSRW XLI RIKEXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX VEXMS  MR XLI
HMVIGXMSR SJ XLI WTER WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH YWMRK ZEPYIW
SJ 1YzHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ  *MK F ERH G
JSVXLIWXVMTYRHIVGSRWMHIVEXMSR*SVRIKEXMZIQSQIRXWMR
XLIGSPYQRWXVMTXLIWXVMT[MHXL F should be as defined in
 *SV RIKEXMZI QSQIRXW MR XLI SRILEPJ QMHHPI WXVMTW
SRIEGLWMHIXLIWXVMT[MHXLWLSYPHFIGSRWMWXIRX[MXLXLI
[MHXL YWIH XS HMWXVMFYXI QSQIRXW EW MRHMGEXIH F] 
2IKEXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL 
*MK -RXLIGSPYQRWXVMTEXWYTTSVXWXLIYRFEPERGIH
QSQIRXXVERWJIVSJ ERH WLSYPHFIQIX*SV
YRIUYEPWXVMT[MHXLWQIIXMRKEXEWYTTSVXXLIVIMRJSVGIQIRX
JVSQIEGLWMHIPIEHMRKXSXLIPEVKIVRIKEXMZIQSQIRXVIMR
JSVGIQIRXVEXMS WLSYPHFIYWIH
 Joist reinforcement of waffle-slab systems
 Positive moment reinforcement in joists of waffleWPEFW{4SWMXMZI QSQIRXW YWIH XS GEPGYPEXI VIMRJSVGIQIRX JSV
IEGLNSMWXWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHYWMRKZEPYIWSJ1YJVSQ
HMZMHIHF]XLIRYQFIVSJNSMWXW[MXLMRXLIWXVMTYRHIVGSRWMH
IVEXMSR 8FIEQ IJJIGX EW MRHMGEXIH MR  QE] FI YWIH
4SWMXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL
I\GITXXLEXXLIVIMRJSVGIQIRXGYXSJJWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL
 Negative moment reinforcement in joists of waffleWPEFW{2IKEXMZI QSQIRXW YWIH XS GEPGYPEXI VIMRJSVGI
QIRX JSV IEGL NSMWX WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH YWMRK ZEPYIW SJ
1YzJVSQHMZMHIHF]XLIRYQFIVSJNSMWXW[MXLMRXLI
WXVMT YRHIV GSRWMHIVEXMSR 2IKEXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX
WLSYPH GSQTP] [MXL  I\GITX XLEX XLI VIMRJSVGIQIRX
GYXSJJWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL
 Shear reinforcement in joists of waffle-slabs{
:EPYIW SJ :Y EX XLI WYTTSVXW WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH YWMRK
7LIEVVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL 
ERH  7XMVVYT WTEGMRK W should be defined for the
HMJJIVIRXVIKMSRW[MXLMRXLIWTER1MRMQYQWXMVVYTWTEGMRK
EW MRHMGEXIH F]  should be used. The first stirrup
WLSYPHRSXFITPEGIHJYVXLIVXLERWJVSQXLIWYTTSVXJEGI
[MXL WFIMRKXLIWXMVVYTWTEGMRKEXXLIWYTTSVX

ERH PEXIVEP XMIW ERH QIQFIVW VIMRJSVGIH [MXL PSRKMXYHMREP


FEVWERHEGSRXMRYSYWWTMVEPVIMRJSVGIQIRX6IGXERKYPEVERH
GMVGYPEVWIGXMSRWEVITIVQMXXIH
{0SEHW
 0SEHWXSFIMRGPYHIH{*SVGSPYQRWFIPSRKMRKXS
JVEQIW SV WPEFGSPYQR W]WXIQW XLI XVMFYXEV] PSEHW JVSQ
each floor plus self-weight of the column should be included.
8VMFYXEV]PSEHWWLSYPHGSRJSVQXS'LETXIVERHXLITEVXMG
YPEVPSEHWSJIEGLXVMFYXEV]QIQFIVX]TI *MKEERH
*MKF 
 (IEH PSEH ERH PMZI PSEH{:EPYIW SJ 4H JSV HIEH
PSEH ERH 4  JSV PMZI PSEH WLSYPH FI EGGYQYPEXIH MRHITIR
dently and combined at each floor. 4HWLSYPHMRGPYHIWIPJ
[IMKLXSJXLIGSPYQR7IPJ[IMKLXWLSYPHYWIXLIHIEHPSEH
JEGXSV SJ XLI GSVVIWTSRHMRK PSEH GSQFMREXMSR IUYEXMSRW MR
7IPJ[IMKLXWLSYPHFIETTPMIHEXXLIPS[IVTEVXSJXLI
GSPYQRMRXLEXWXSV] *MKF 
 6IUYMVIHWXVIRKXL{:EPYIWSJXLIJEGXSVIHPSEH4Y
ERHJEGXSVIHQSQIRX1YWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHEXXLIYTTIV
and lower part of each column at each floor. The direction
MRTPEREPSRK[LMGLXLIQSQIRXW1Y\ERH1Y]EGXWLSYPHFI
RSXIH *MKF 
{(MQIRWMSREPPMQMXW
 +IRIVEP{-R EHHMXMSR XS 'LETXIV  GSPYQRW
WLSYPHGSQTP][MXLXLIKIRIVEPHMQIRWMSREPPMQMXWWIXJSVXL
MR 'SPYQRWWLSYPHFIZIVXMGEPERHWLSYPHFIGSRXMRYSYW
HS[R XS XLI JSYRHEXMSR 'SPYQR WIGXMSR WLETI WLSYPH FI
IMXLIVVIGXERKYPEVSVGMVGYPEV
 (MQIRWMSREPPMQMXW
 1MRMQYQGVSWWWIGXMSREPHMQIRWMSRWJSVVIGXER
KYPEVGSPYQRW{'VSWWWIGXMSREPHMQIRWMSRWJSVVIGXERKYPEV
GSPYQRWWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL E ERH F  *MK 
E 8LIPIEWXGVSWWWIGXMSREPHMQIRWMSRWLSYPHRSXFIPIWW
XLERMR QQ ERH
F  6EXMS SJ XLI PSRK GVSWWWIGXMSREP HMQIRWMSR XS XLI
WLSVXHMQIRWMSRWLSYPHRSXI\GIIHI\GITXMRWPEFGSPYQR
W]WXIQW[LIVIMXWLSYPHRSXI\GIIH  

{'EPGYPEXMSRSJWYTTSVXVIEGXMSRW
 :IVXMGEP VIEGXMSRW EX GSPYQRW ERH [EPPW{:IVXMGEP
VIEGXMSRW SJ XLI WYTTSVXMRK QIQFIVW 6Y WLSYPH FI HIXIV
QMRIH EW XLI XSXEP JEGXSVIH HIWMKR PSEH UY QYPXMTPMIH F]
XLIEVIE FSYRH F] TERIP GIRXIVPMRIWEVSYRHXLI WYTTSVXMRK
QIQFIV *MK 
 'SPYQRERH[EPPQSQIRXWJVSQZIVXMGEPPSEHMRK{
'SPYQRWERH[EPPWFYMPXMRXIKVEPP][MXLEWPEFW]WXIQWLSYPH
VIWMWXYRFEPERGIHQSQIRXWHYIXSJEGXSVIHPSEHWSRXLIWPEF
W]WXIQ 9RFEPERGIH QSQIRXW 1Y WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH
JVSQ ERHWLSYPHFIHMWXVMFYXIHXSXLIGSPYQRWEFSZI
ERHFIPS[XLIWPEFYWMRKXLITVSGIHYVISJ
',%48)6{'309127
{+IRIVEP
'SPYQRW WLSYPH FI HIWMKRIH YWMRK 'LETXIV  8LMW
GLETXIVETTPMIWXSQIQFIVWVIMRJSVGIH[MXLPSRKMXYHMREPFEVW

*MK E{*EGXSVIH GSPYQR PSEHW ERH QSQIRXW JVSQ


single floor and in one direction.

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



Fig. 10.2.1bFactored column loads and moments from multiple floors.

 1MRMQYQGVSWWWIGXMSREPHMQIRWMSRJSVGMVGYPEV
GSPYQRW{'SPYQRW [MXL E GMVGYPEV GVSWW WIGXMSR WLSYPH
LEZIEHMEQIXIVSJEXPIEWXMR QQ  *MK 
 (MWXERGIFIX[IIRPEXIVEPWYTTSVXW
 +IRIVEPIt should be assumed that the floor
W]WXIQTVSZMHIWGSPYQRPEXIVEPVIWXVEMRXMRFSXLLSVM^SRXEP
HMVIGXMSRWEXEPPWYTTSVXIHPIZIPW *MK 
 -RXIVMSV GSPYQRW{*SV MRXIVMSV GSPYQRW XLI
GSPYQRGVSWWWIGXMSRHMQIRWMSRTEVEPPIPXSXLIHMVIGXMSRSJ
XLIWYTTSVXWLSYPHRSXFIPIWWXLERSJXLIGPIEVZIVXMGEP
HMWXERGIFIX[IIRPEXIVEPWYTTSVXWLR *MK 
 )HKIGSPYQRW{*SVIHKIGSPYQRWGSPYQRGVSWW
WIGXMSRHMQIRWMSRTIVTIRHMGYPEVXSXLIIHKIWLSYPHRSXFI
PIWW XLER SRIRMRXL SJ XLI GPIEV ZIVXMGEP HMWXERGI FIX[IIR
PEXIVEPWYTTSVXWLR *MK 
 'SVRIVGSPYQRW{*SVGSVRIVGSPYQRWQMRMQYQ
GSPYQRGVSWWWIGXMSRHMQIRWMSRWLSYPHFISRIIMKLXLSJXLIGPIEV
ZIVXMGEPHMWXERGIFIX[IIRPEXIVEPWYTTSVXWLR *MK 
 'SPYQRFYMPXQSRSPMXLMGEPP][MXL[EPP{)JJIGXMZI
GVSWWWIGXMSRSJEXMIHSVWTMVEPP]VIMRJSVGIHGSPYQRXLEXMW
QSRSPMXLMG[MXLEGSRGVIXI[EPPWLSYPHFIXEOIRRSXKVIEXIV
XLERMR QQ SYXWMHIXLIXMISVWTMVEPVIMRJSVGIQIRX
SVXLIPEXIVEP[EPPJEGIW *MK 
{6IMRJSVGIQIRXHIXEMPW
 +IRIVEP{'SPYQR VIMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH FI SJ
XLIX]TIWHIWGVMFIHMR'LETXIVERHWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL
XS

*MK {1MRMQYQ GVSWWWIGXMSREP HMQIRWMSRW JSV


VIGXERKYPEVGSPYQRW

*MK {1MRMQYQ GVSWWWIGXMSREP HMQIRWMSR JSV


GMVGYPEVGSPYQRW
 0SRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGIQIRX
 (IWGVMTXMSR ERH PSGEXMSR{0SRKMXYHMREP VIMR
JSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFITVSZMHIHEXXLITIVMTLIV]SJXLIGSPYQR
WIGXMSR 0SRKMXYHMREP VIMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH FI PSGEXIH EW
GPSWIXSXLIGSPYQRPEXIVEPWYVJEGIWEWTVEGXMGEFPIJSPPS[MRK
XVERWZIVWI VIMRJSVGIQIRX ERH GSRGVIXI GSZIV  ERH
  8LI EVIE SJ PSRKMXYHMREP VIMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH
FIEHIUYEXIXSVIWMWXXLIWMQYPXERISYWEGXMSRSJEJEGXSVIH
E\MEPPSEHERHJEGXSVIHQSQIRXWEGXMRKEFSYXXLIX[SQEMR
GSPYQRE\IW *MKF 

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

*MK{0EXIVEPVIWXVEMRXJSVGSPYQRW

 1MRMQYQ ERH QE\MQYQ EVIE SJ PSRKMXYHMREP


VIMRJSVGIQIRX{8SXEPEVIESJGSPYQRPSRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGI
QIRX %WX WLSYPH RSX FI PIWW XLER  SV QSVI XLER 
XMQIWXLIKVSWWEVIE%KSJWIGXMSR
0.01

Ast
Ag

0.06



8LMW KYMHI PMQMXW XLI GSPYQRPSRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGIQIRX


VEXMS XS  TIVGIRX FIGEYWI SJ VIMRJSVGIQIRX GSRKIWXMSR
GSRGIVRW
 1MRMQYQ HMEQIXIV SJ PSRKMXYHMREP FEVW{
1MRMQYQHMEQIXIVSJPSRKMXYHMREPFEVWMRGSPYQRWWLSYPH
FIMR QQ 
 1MRMQYQ RYQFIV SJ PSRKMXYHMREP FEVW{-R
WUYEVIERHVIGXERKYPEVGSPYQRW[MXLXMIWXLIVIWLSYPHFIE
QMRMQYQSJJSYVFEVW EXPIEWXSRIPSRKMXYHMREPFEVMRIEGL
GSVRIV ERHMRVSYRHGSPYQRW[MXLWTMVEPWEQMRMQYQSJ
WM\PSRKMXYHMREPFEVW
 (MWXVMFYXMSR SJ PSRKMXYHMREP FEVW{'SPYQR
PSRKMXYHMREP FEV WTEGMRK EPSRK EPP GSPYQR JEGIW WLSYPH FI
ETTVS\MQEXIP]IUYEP
 1MRMQYQ GPIEV WTEGMRK FIX[IIR PSRKMXYHMREP
FEVW{'PIEV WTEGMRK FIX[IIR PSRKMXYHMREP FEVW WLSYPH RSX
FIPIWWXLERHFRSVMR QQ  *MK 
 'PIEV WTEGMRK FIX[IIR TEVEPPIP PET WTPMGIW{
'PIEVWTEGMRKPMQMXEXMSRFIX[IIRFEVWWLSYPHEPWSETTP]XS
XLIGPIEVHMWXERGIFIX[IIREGSRXEGXPETWTPMGIERHEHNEGIRX
WTPMGIWSVFEVW
 6IMRJSVGMRK FEV WTPMGMRK{9T XS SRILEPJ XLI
PSRKMXYHMREPFEVWEXER]KMZIRWIGXMSRQE]FIPETWTPMGIHEW
PSRKEWSRP]EPXIVREXIFEVWEPSRKXLIGVSWWWIGXMSRTIVMQIXIVEVI
PETWTPMGIH *MKEERHF 8LMWTVEGXMGIVIHYGIW
GSRKIWXMSRERHTVSZMHIWXLIGSPYQR[MXLKSSHHYGXMPMX]EXPET
PSGEXMSRW0ETWTPMGIWSJPSRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPH
GSQTP][MXL

 )RHERGLSVEKISJVIMRJSVGIQIRX{0SRKMXYHMREP
VIMRJSVGIQIRXEXXLIYTTIVIRHSJGSPYQRWERHEXXLIJSYR
HEXMSR WLSYPH I\XIRH EW GPSWI XS XLI IHKI EW TVEGXMGEFPI
GSRWMHIVMRKGSRGVIXIGSZIVERHIRH[MXLEWXERHEVHLSSO
 0SRKMXYHMREP FEV SJJWIX{3JJWIX FIRX PSRKMXY
HMREPFEVWWLSYPHGSRJSVQXS E XLVSYKL K 
E  7PSTISJMRGPMRIH TSVXMSRSJERSJJWIXFEVWLSYPHRSX
I\GIIHMR *MK 
F 4SVXMSRWSJFEVEFSZIERHFIPS[ERSJJWIXWLSYPHFI
TEVEPPIPXSGSPYQRE\MW
G  0EXIVEP XMIW SV WTMVEPW WLSYPH FI TVSZMHIH EX SJJWIX
FIRHW
H 3JJWIXFIRHPEXIVEPXMIWSVWTMVEPWWLSYPHVIWMWXXMQIW
XLI LSVM^SRXEP JSVGI GSQTSRIRX SJ ER SJJWIX FEVGSQTYXIH
EWWYQMRKEWXVIWWIUYEPXSJ]
I 0EXIVEPXMIWSVWTMVEPWWLSYPHFITPEGIHRSXQSVIXLERMR
QQ JVSQFIRHTSMRXW
J  3JJWIX FEVW WLSYPH FI FIRX FIJSVI TPEGIQIRX MR XLI
JSVQWERH
K ;LIVIEGSPYQRJEGIMWSJJWIXJVSQXLIGSPYQRFIPS[
MXF]QSVIXLERSRIWM\XLSJXLIHITXLSJXLIKMVHIVSVWPEF
SVMR QQ PSRKMXYHMREPFEVWWLSYPHRSXFISJJWIXFIRX
7ITEVEXIHS[IPWPETWTPMGIH[MXLXLIPSRKMXYHMREPFEVWEHNE
GIRX XS XLI SJJWIX GSPYQR JEGIW WLSYPH FI TVSZMHIH 0ET
WTPMGIWWLSYPHGSRJSVQXS
 1E\MQYQRYQFIVSJPSRKMXYHMREPFEVWMRIEGL
VIGXERKYPEV GSPYQR JEGI{'EPGYPEXMSR SJ XLI QE\MQYQ
RYQFIVSJPSRKMXYHMREPFEVWMREGSPYQRJEGIWLSYPHGSRWMHIV
XLI PSRKMXYHMREP ERH XVERWZIVWI FEV HMEQIXIVW GSRGVIXI
GSZIV   QE\MQYQ RSQMREP GSEVWI EKKVIKEXI WM^I ERH
QMRMQYQGPIEVWTEGMRKFIX[IIRFEVW;LIRXLIWIGEPGYPE
XMSRWEVIRSXTIVJSVQIH E ERH F WLSYPHFIYWIH
E *SVGSPYQRHMQIRWMSRFGKVIEXIVXLERMR QQ 
XLI QE\MQYQ RYQFIVSJ FEVW MR E GSPYQRJEGI WLSYPH FI
HIXIVQMRIHYWMRK)U 

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

*MK{)JJIGXMZIGVSWWWIGXMSRSJGSPYQRWFYMPXQSRS
PMXLMGEPP][MXLE[EPP



*MK{'PIEVWTEGMRK FIX[IIRPSRKMXYHMREPFEVWMR
GSPYQRW

*MKE{8]TMGEPGSPYQRVIMRJSVGIQIRXPE]SYX
%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

*MKF{8]TMGEPGSPYQRVIMRJSVGIQIRXPE]SYXMRLMKLWIMWQMG^SRIW

QE\MQYQRYQFIVSJFEVWTIVJEGI c bc
3

bc
75



[LIVI FGMWMRMRGLIW QQ  8EFPI 


F 1E\MQYQSJXLVIIPSRKMXYHMREPFEVWWLSYPHFIYWIHMR
XLIGSPYQRJEGIW[LSWIHMQIRWMSRFGMWPIWWXLERSVIUYEPXS
MR QQ  8EFPI 

 1E\MQYQ RYQFIV SJ PSRKMXYHMREP FEVW MR


GMVGYPEVGSPYQR{8LIGEPGYPEXMSRJSVXLIQE\MQYQRYQFIV
SJPSRKMXYHMREPFEVWMRGMVGYPEVGSPYQRWWLSYPHGSRWMHIVXLI
GSRGVIXI GSZIV   QE\MQYQ RSQMREP GSEVWI EKKVIKEXI
WM^IQMRMQYQGPIEVWTEGMRKFIX[IIRFEVWERHPSRKMXYHMREP
ERH XVERWZIVWI FEV HMEQIXIVW ;LIR XLIWI GEPGYPEXMSRW EVI
RSX TIVJSVQIH XLI QE\MQYQ RYQFIV SJ FEVW WLSYPH FI
HIXIVQMRIH YWMRK )U   [LIVI L MW XLI GSPYQR
HMEQIXIV 8EFPI 

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

QE\MQYQRSSJFEVW

h
Lz c
e 6 (SI)
25



 :EPYISJHGERHHXSYWIMRGSPYQRW{'EPGYPE
XMSRSJHGWLSYPHGSRWMHIVXLIGSRGVIXIGSZIV  ERHPSRKM
XYHMREPERHXVERWZIVWIFEVHMEQIXIVW
8LIJSPPS[MRKZEPYIWGERFIYWIHJSVGSPYQRWHG!MR
 QQ  JSV MRXIVMSV I\TSWYVI ERH HG !  MR  QQ  JSV
I\XIVMSVI\TSWYVI
 8VERWZIVWIVIMRJSVGIQIRX
 +IRIVEP{'SPYQRW WLSYPH LEZI XMI VIMRJSVGI
QIRX SV WTMVEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX GSRJSVQMRK XS  SV
 VIWTIGXMZIP] 'SPYQRW PSGEXIH MR WIMWQMG ^SRIW
should have confining transverse reinforcement as indicated
MR 'LETXIV%XGSPYQRFIEQNSMRXWXLIQMRMQYQRYQFIV
SJXMIWWLSYPHFIEWMRHMGEXIHF]
 8MIW MR RSRWIMWQMG ^SRIW{'SPYQR XMIW WLSYPH
GSQTP][MXL E XLVSYKL I 
E %PPPSRKMXYHMREPGSPYQRFEVWWLSYPHFIIRGPSWIHF]PEXIVEP
XMIW1MRMQYQXMIFEVHMEQIXIVWLSYPHFIMR QQ 
F 8MIWWLSYPHFIEVVERKIHWSXLEXIZIV]GSVRIVERHEPXIVREXI
PSRKMXYHMREPFEVWLSYPHLEZIPEXIVEPWYTTSVXTVSZMHIHF]XLI
GSVRIVSJEXMISVEGVSWWXMI *MKE 
 G %PSRKEXMIRSPSRKMXYHMREPFEVWLSYPHFIJEVXLIVXLER
MR QQ GPIEVJVSQEPEXIVEPP]WYTTSVXIHPSRKMXYHMREP
FEV *MKE 
H :IVXMGEPWTEGMRKSJXMIWWWLSYPHRSXI\GIIHXLIPIEWXSJ
PSRKMXYHMREPFEVHMEQIXIVWXMIFEVHMEQIXIVWERHXLI
PIEWXHMQIRWMSRSJXLIGSPYQRWIGXMSR *MKF ERH



(e) The first tie should be located one-half spacing above


XLIXSTSJXLIWPEFFIEQSVJSSXMRKERHXLIYTTIVQSWXSRI
WLSYPHFIPSGEXIHRSQSVIXLERSRILEPJXMIWTEGMRKFIPS[
XLI PS[IWX LSVM^SRXEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX SJWLEPPS[IWX QIQFIV
WYTTSVXIHEFSZI
 7TMVEP{'SPYQRWWTMVEPWWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL E 
XLVSYKL J 
E  %PP PSRKMXYHMREP GSPYQR FEVW WLSYPH FI IRGPSWIH F]
E WTMVEP GSRWMWXMRK SJ ER IZIRP] WTEGIH GSRXMRYSYW FEV
1MRMQYQWTMVEPFEVHMEQIXIVWLSYPHFIMR QQ 
F  'PIEV ZIVXMGEP WTEGMRK FIX[IIR WTMVEPW WLSYPH RSX
I\GIIHMR QQ RSVFIPIWWXLERMR QQ ERH
WLSYPHGSQTP][MXL
G  7TMVEPW WLSYPH LEZI  I\XVE XYVRW EX IEGL IRH SJ E
WTMVEPYRMX
H 7TPMGIWMRWTMVEPWWLSYPHGSQTP][MXLERHIRHMR
ELSSOHMVIGXIHXSXLIGSPYQRGSVI
I 7TMVEPWWLSYPHI\XIRHJVSQXLIXSTSJJSSXMRKSVWPEF
XSXLIPIZIPSJPS[IWXLSVM^SRXEPVIMRJSVGIQIRXSJWLEPPS[IWX
QIQFIV WYTTSVXIH EFSZI -R GSPYQRW [MXL GETMXEPW WTMVEP
WLSYPHI\XIRHXSEPIZIPEX[LMGLXLIHMEQIXIVSV[MHXLSJ
GETMXEPMWX[SXMQIWXLEXSJXLIGSPYQRERH
J  7TMVEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX VEXMS W, defined as ratio of the
ZSPYQISJVIMRJSVGIQIRXGSRXEMRIHMRSRIWTMVEPPSSTXSXLI
volume of concrete in the column confined by the same spiral
PSSTWLSYPHFIRSXPIWWXLERXLIZEPYIKMZIRF])U  
*MK 
8EFPI {1E\MQYQRYQFIVSJPSRKMXYHMREP
FEVWMRIEGLVIGXERKYPEVGSPYQRJEGI
'SPYQRHMQIRWMSRFGMR QQ
FG MR QQ
MR QQ c FG MR QQ
MR QQ c FG

1E\MQYQRYQFIVSJ
PSRKMXYHMREPFEVW
7IGXMSRRSXTIVQMXXIH
8LVIIFEVW
c FG?c FG 7- AFEVW

8EFPI {1E\MQYQRYQFIVSJPSRKMXYHMREP
FEVWMRGMVGYPEVGSPYQRW
'SPYQRHMEQIXIVLMR QQ

1E\MQYQRYQFIVSJ
PSRKMXYHMREPFEVW

L MR QQ

7IGXMSRRSXTIVQMXXIH

MR QQ c L

*MK{0SRKMXYHMREPFEVSJJWIX

*MKE{,SVM^SRXEPXMIEVVERKIQIRX
%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

c he6

h
e 6 FEVW
25



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

JG is the column concrete specified strength; and J]X MW XLI


WXIIP]MIPHWXVIRKXLSJXLIWTMVEP
 'SPYQRKMVHIVNSMRXW{%XGSPYQRKMVHIVNSMRXWSJ
JVEQIWEQMRMQYQSJXLVIIGSPYQRXMIWWLSYPHFITVSZMHIH
[MXLMRXLINSMRX[MXLEQE\MQYQZIVXMGEPWTEGMRKFIX[IIR
XMIWSJMR QQ  *MK 
 8MI LSSOW{%PP GSPYQR XMIW WLSYPH LEZI
HIKVII LSSOW   'VSWWXMIW [MXL E HIKVII LSSO
MRSRI IRHERH EHIKVIIMRXLISXLIVIRHQE] FIYWIH
'SRWIGYXMZI GVSWWXMIW IRKEKMRK XLI WEQI PSRKMXYHMREP FEV
WLSYPHLEZIXLIMVHIKVIILSSOWEXSTTSWMXIWMHIWSJXLI
GSPYQR
 8MI PIK WTPMGMRK{'SPYQR XMIW WLSYPH RSX FI
PETWTPMGIH
 'SPYQR VIMRJSVGIQIRX MR WIMWQMG ^SRIW{-R
GSPYQRWXLEX EVI TEVX SJE QSQIRXVIWMWXMRK JVEQIPSGEXIH
MR WIMWQMG ^SRIW VIMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH EPWS GSQTP] [MXL
'LETXIV'SPYQRWXLEXEVITEVXSJWPEFGSPYQRJVEQIWMR
WIMWQMG^SRIWWLSYPHEPWSGSQTP][MXL'LETXIV

*MKF{:IVXMGEPWTEGMRKSJXMIW

*MK{7TMVEPVIMRJSVGIQIRXSJGSPYQR

{*PI\YVI
 *EGXSVIH PSEHW ERH QSQIRXW{*EGXSVIH E\MEP
PSEH 4YERHQSQIRX1YEXXLIWIGXMSRYRHIVGSRWMHIVEXMSR
WLSYPHFIFEWIHSR
 8VMEPGVSWWWIGXMSREPHMQIRWMSRWERHPSRKMXYHMREP
VIMRJSVGIQIRX
 8VMEP GVSWWWIGXMSREP HMQIRWMSRW{8VMEP GVSWW
WIGXMSREPHMQIRWMSRWWLSYPHFIIWXEFPMWLIHEWJSPPS[W
E  8VMEP KVSWW GVSWWWIGXMSREP EVIE %K WLSYPH FI HIXIV
QMRIHJVSQ)U E 
E
F *SVVIGXERKYPEVGVSWWWIGXMSRWXLIPIEWXHMQIRWMSRFG
WLSYPHGSQTP][MXL

f
ff
bc
f
f
fd

*MK{'SPYQRXMIWMRGSPYQRKMVHIVNSMRXW

Ab g d cs e db
s

Acs s

0.45

Ag
Acs

10 in. (250 mm)


hc 3
hn 10 for central columns
hn 9 for edge columns
hn 8 for corner columns

G *SVVIGXERKYPEVGVSWWWIGXMSRWXLIPEVKIVHMQIRWMSRLG
WLSYPHGSQTP][MXL

fc

f yt

c
c

[LIVI %FMWXLIEVIESJXLIWTMVEPFEVSV[MVIHFMWXLIWTMVEP
FEVSV[MVIHMEQIXIVHGWMWXLISYXWMHIHMEQIXIVSJXLIWTMVEP
WMWXLIZIVXMGEPWTEGMRKSJXLIWTMVEP%GWMWXLIEVIESJXLI
confined column core measured from the outside diameter of
XLIWTMVEP%GW!gHGW %KMWXLIKVSWWGSPYQRWIGXMSREVIE

F

for central columns

n
n

for edge columns

for corner columns

G

H  *SV GMVGYPEV GSPYQRW XLI HMEQIXIV L WLSYPH GSQTP]


[MXL

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

f
f

f
fd

12 in. (300 mm)


hn 10 for central columns
hn 9 for edge columns
hn 8 for corner columns

H

 8VMEP PSRKMXYHMREP VIMRJSVGIQIRX{8VMEP EVIE SJ


PSRKMXYHMREP VIMRJSVGIQIRX %WX WLSYPH FI IWXEFPMWLIH EW
JSPPS[W
E *SVVIGXERKYPEVGVSWWWIGXMSRWXLIXVMEPEVIESJPSRKMXY
HMREPVIMRJSVGIQIRX%WXWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL
f0.01Ag
WII 

fd4 Ab min .

Ast

E

QSQIRXEXXLIGSPYQRPS[IVIRHERHLRMWXLIGPIEVHMWXERGI
FIX[IIRGSPYQRPEXIVEPWYTTSVXW
 *EGXSVIHWLIEVJVSQLSVM^SRXEPPSEHW{*EGXSVIH
WLIEV :YHYIXSLSVM^SRXEPPSEHWWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ
XLILSVM^SRXEPPSEHWTVIWGVMFIHMR'LETXIVERHETTPMIHXS
XLIWXVYGXYVIEWTVIWGVMFIHMR'LETXIVYWMRKETTVSTVMEXI
PSEHGSQFMREXMSRWJVSQ
 (IWMKRWLIEVWXVIRKXL
 +IRIVEP{8LIHIWMKRWLIEVWXVIRKXLWLSYPHIUYEP
SV I\GIIH JEGXSVIH FIEQEGXMSR WLIEV [LMGL EGGSQTERMIW
GSPYQRQSQIRXWERHSGGYVWMRFSXLLSVM^SRXEPHMVIGXMSRW
having a constant value in the clear distance between floors.
 7LIEV WXVIRKXL{'SPYQR WIGXMSR WLIEV WXVIRKXL
:RWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHJSPPS[MRKXLITVSGIHYVIMR
JSVFIEQEGXMSRWLIEVYWMRK)U  
Vn

F  *SV GMVGYPEV GVSWW WIGXMSRW XLI XVMEP EVIE SJ PSRKMXY


HMREPVIMRJSVGIQIRX%WXWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL
f0.01Ag
WII 

fd6 Ab min.

Ast

F

 6IUYMVIH QSQIRX WXVIRKXL{-RXIVEGXMSR HMEKVEQW


JSVGSPYQRHMQIRWMSRWERHVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFIGEPGY
PEXIH MR FSXL HMVIGXMSRW YWMRK  8LI HIWMKR QSQIRX
WXVIRKXLMRFSXLHMVIGXMSRWWLSYPHFIGSQTYXIHYWMRK
;LIVIJEGXSVIHQSQIRX1YEXJEGXSVIHE\MEPPSEH4YI\GIIHW
HIWMKRQSQIRXWXVIRKXLXLIEVIESJPSRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGI
QIRXWLSYPHFIMRGVIEWIH[MXLSYXI\GIIHMRKXLIQE\MQYQ
VIMRJSVGIQIRX EVIE TIVQMXXIH F] SV XLI QE\MQYQ
RYQFIV SJ FEVW MR IEGL GSPYQR JEGI F]  SV
;LIVIPMQMXWSJ SV
are exceeded, increase the column dimensions. These verifi
GEXMSRWWLSYPHFITIVJSVQIHEXXLIYTTIVERHPS[IVGSPYQR
WIGXMSRWSJXLIWEQIWXSV]
 &ME\MEPQSQIRXWXVIRKXL{3RGIGSPYQRVIMRJSVGI
QIRXMWGSQTYXIHJSVFSXLHMVIGXMSRWMRHITIRHIRXP]FME\MEP
QSQIRX WXVIRKXL WLSYPH FI GSQTYXIH YWMRK  EX XLI
YTTIVERHPS[IVGSPYQRWIGXMSRWSJXLIWEQIWXSV]
{7LIEV
 6IUYMVIHWLIEVWXVIRKXL{*EGXSVIHWLIEV:YWLSYPH
FIHIXIVQMRIHJVSQZIVXMGEPPSEHWERHJVSQLSVM^SRXEPPSEHW
YWMRKPSEHGSQFMREXMSRWJVSQ
 *EGXSVIH WLIEV JVSQ ZIVXMGEP PSEHW{*EGXSVIH
WLIEV HYI XS ZIVXMGEP PSEHW WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH JVSQ
)U  JSVIEGLLSVM^SRXEPHMVIGXMSR

Vu

Mu

Mu

top

hn

bottom



[LIVI 1Y XST GSVVIWTSRHW XS XLI JEGXSVIH QSQIRX EX XLI


GSPYQR YTTIV IRH 1Y FSXXSQ GSVVIWTSRHW XS XLI JEGXSVIH



Vc +Vs



-R )U   :G MW GSRGVIXI WLIEV WXVIRKXL :W MW
XVERWZIVWIVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLIEVWXVIRKXLERH !
 'SRXVMFYXMSRSJXLIGSRGVIXIXSWLIEVWXVIRKXL{
8LI GSRXVMFYXMSR SJ GSRGVIXI XS WLIEV WXVIRKXL WLSYPH FI
GSQTYXIHYWMRK)U  [MXL !

Vc

2 f c bd

Vc

fc
6

bd (SI)



-R )U   H WLSYPH FI XEOIR EW XLI ETTVSTVMEXI


ZEPYIFEWIHIMXLIVSRLGSVFGMRXLIHMVIGXMSRSJXLIWLIEV
ERH FMRHMVIGXMSRRSVQEPXSXLIWLIEV-RGMVGYPEVGSPYQRW
XLI TVSHYGX SJ F XMQIW H WLSYPH FI XEOIR EW L [MXL L
FIMRKXLIGSPYQRHMEQIXIV
 'SRXVMFYXMSR SJ XLI XVERWZIVWI VIMRJSVGIQIRX
XS XLI WLIEV WXVIRKXL{8VERWZIVWI VIMRJSVGIQIRX WLIEV
WXVIRKXLWLSYPHFIGSQTYXIHMRIEGLHMVIGXMSRYWMRK)U
 8LIHIWMKRWLIEVWXVIRKXLWLSYPHFIFEWIHSR
)U   ERH   ;LIVI )U   MW RSX
WEXMWJMIHXMIWTEGMRKWWLSYPHFIVIHYGIH
Vs

Av f yt d
s



[LIVI %ZGSVVIWTSRHWXSEVIESJXLIXMIPIKWTEVEPPIPXSXLI
WLIEVHMVIGXMSRERHWXSXLIPEVKIWXXMIZIVXMGEPWTEGMRK[MXLMR
XLIGPIEVLIMKLXSJXLIGSPYQRJ]XMWXLI]MIPHWXVIRKXLSJXLI
XMIPIKWERH !*SVGMVGYPEVWXMVVYTWSVWTMVEPVIMRJSVGI
QIRX %ZMWX[MGIXLIWXMVVYTSVWTMVEPFEVSV[MVIEVIE%F
 Biaxial shear strength verification{;LIR XLI
GSPYQRMWWYFNIGXIHXSWLIEVMRXLIX[SLSVM^SRXEPHMVIGXMSRW
WMQYPXERISYWP]MXWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL)U  

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

Vu
Vn

2
x
x

Vu
Vn

2
y

1.0



[LIVI :Y \ERH :Y ]GSVVIWTSRHXSXLIJEGXSVIHWLIEVMRXLI


HMVIGXMSRSJXLI\ERH]E\IWERH :R \ERH :R ]GSVVI
WTSRHXSXLIWLIEVWXVIRKXLHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ)U  
JSVXLIETTVSTVMEXIHMVIGXMSR\SV]
{'EPGYPEXMSRSJJSYRHEXMSRVIEGXMSR
 :IVXMGEP PSEH VIEGXMSR{:IVXMGEP PSEH VIEGXMSR 6Y
EXXLIJSYRHEXMSRWLSYPHFIIUYEPXSXLIZEPYISJ 4YEXXLI
GSPYQRPS[IVIRHHMVIGXP]EFSZIXLIJSYRHEXMSR
 1SQIRX VIEGXMSR{9RFEPERGIH QSQIRX VIEGXMSR
1Y EXXLI JSYRHEXMSR WLSYPH FI IUYEP XS XLI ZEPYI SJ 1Y
EXXLIGSPYQRPS[IVIRHHMVIGXP]EFSZIXLIJSYRHEXMSR8LMW
YRFEPERGIHQSQIRXWLSYPHFIHMWXVMFYXIHXSXLIKVEHIFIEQW
ERHXLIJSYRHEXMSRQIQFIVWEWTVIWGVMFIHMR'LETXIV
',%48)6{7)-71-'6)7-78%2')
{7TIGMEPVIMRJSVGIQIRXHIXEMPWJSVWIMWQMG
^SRIW
 +IRIVEP{8LI JSPPS[MRK WLSYPH FI YWIH JSV XLI
structural members located in seismic zones as defined by

 *VEQIKMVHIVW
 (MQIRWMSREP PMQMXW{1MRMQYQ [MHXL F[ SJ
KMVHIVW WLSYPH FI  MR  QQ  ERH XLI KMVHIV WLSYPH
GSQTP][MXL
 0SRKMXYHMREP VIMRJSVGIQIRX{-R EHHMXMSR XS
 E XLVSYKL J WLSYPHFIQIX
E %XPIEWXX[SXSTERHFSXXSQPSRKMXYHMREPFEVWWLSYPH
FITVSZMHIH
F  %X ER] WIGXMSR XLI VEXMSW SJ TSWMXMZI ERH RIKEXMZI
QSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFIIUYEPXSSVKVIEXIVXLERXLI
QMRMQYQMRHMGEXIHF]
G  %X ER] WIGXMSR XLITSWMXMZI ERH RIKEXMZI QSQIRX
VIMRJSVGIQIRXVEXMSWWLSYPHRSXI\GIIH
H  %VIE SJ TSWMXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX EX XLI NSMRX
JEGI WLSYPH RSX FI PIWW XLER SRILEPJ XLI EVIE SJ RIKEXMZI
QSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXEXXLIWEQINSMRXJEGI
I %VIESJTSWMXMZIERHRIKEXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXEX
ER]WIGXMSRWLSYPHRSXFIPIWWXLERSRIJSYVXLXLIQE\MQYQ
EVIESJRIKEXMZIQSQIRXVIMRJSVGIQIRXEXIMXLIVNSMRXJEGIERH
J 0ETWTPMGIWWLSYPHRSXFIYWIHMRFIEQGSPYQRWNSMRXW
and the confinement zones defined in 11.1.2.3(a). Full length
of the lap splice should be confined with closed stirrups as
defined in 11.1.2.3(b), with stirrup spacing not exceeding the
WQEPPIVSJHERHMR QQ 
 8VERWZIVWIVIMRJSVGIQIRX{-REHHMXMSRXS E 
XLVSYKL I WLSYPHFIQIX
(a) Transverse reinforcement should be hoops (confine
QIRXWXMVVYTW EXFSXLIRHWSJXLIKMVHIVSZIVEHMWXERGIIUYEP
XSX[MGIXLIQIQFIVHITXLLQIEWYVIHJVSQXLIJEGISJXLI
WYTTSVXMRKQIQFIVXS[EVHQMHWTER *MK 

Fig. 11.1.2.3Confinement stirrup spacing.


F ,SSTWWLSYPHFIGPSWIHWXMVVYTWEXPIEWXMR QQ 
diameter, with hooks as definedMR H ERHGSQTP]MRK[MXL
GSPYQRXMIW'VSWWXMIWWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL  I 
(c) The first hoop should be located no farther than 2 in.
QQ JVSQXLIWYTTSVXJEGI
H ,SSTWTEGMRKWLSYPHRSXI\GIIHXLIWQEPPIVSJHERH
MR QQ ERH
I  *SV XLI GIRXVEP PIRKXL SJ XLI KMVHIV WTER FIX[IIR
confinement zones, transverse reinforcement should be
GPSWIHWXMVVYTW [MXL LSSOW GSQTP]MRK [MXL  H  ERH XLI
QE\MQYQWXMVVYTWTEGMRKWLSYPHFIH
 7LIEV WXVIRKXL{-R EHHMXMSR XS  E  XLVSYKL
I WLSYPHEPWSFIQIX
E %HHMXMSREPJEGXSVIHWLIEVJSVGI :IGSVVIWTSRHMRKXS
XLI TVSFEFPI QSQIRX WXVIRKXL HIZIPSTQIRX SJ XLI WTER EX
XLINSMRXJEGIWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHEWXLIPEVKIVZEPYIJVSQ
)U E ERH)U F  *MKE 

Ve

M pr

left

+ M pr

right

E

Ve

M pr

left

+ M pr

right

F

 F -R)U E ERH F 1TVERH1TVzGSVVI


WTSRH XS TSWMXMZI ERH RIKEXMZI TVSFEFPI QSQIRX WXVIRKXL
EXNSMRXJEGIWHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ)U  ERHYWMRKXLI
GSVVIWTSRHMRK PSRKMXYHMREP VIMRJSVGIQIRX ]MIPH WXVIRKXL
J]TVMRWXIEHSJJ] J]TV!J] ERHEWXVIRKXLVIHYGXMSRJEGXSV
!
G 8LIPEVKIWXZEPYISJ :IHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ)U E 
SV)U F WLSYPHFIEHHIHXS:YEXXLIWYTTSVXJEGI
ERH XLI WLIEV HMEKVEQ SJ  WLSYPH FI VIGEPGYPEXIH
*MKF 
H  8VERWZIVWI VIMRJSVGIQIRX JSV WLIEV WLSYPH FI HIXIV
QMRIHEWTVIWGVMFIHMRI\GITX[LIVI :I:Y MWKVIEXIV
XLER :YJSVKVEZMX]PSEHWEXXLIWYTTSVXJEGI-RGSQTYXMRK
WLIEV VIMRJSVGIQIRX XLI GSRXVMFYXMSR SJ GSRGVIXI XS WLIEV
WXVIRKXLWLSYPHFIXEOIREW^IVS :G = 0) in the confinement
^SRIWMRHMGEXIHMR E ERH
I  ,SSTW HIWGVMFIH MR  WLSYPH FI GSRWMHIVIH
IJJIGXMZIWLIEVVIMRJSVGIQIRX

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

 'SPYQRW
 (MQIRWMSREP PMQMXW{8LI VIWXVMGXMSRW SJ 
WLSYPHETTP]ERH should be modified by (a) and (b):
E 8LIPIEWXGVSWWWIGXMSREPHMQIRWMSRWLSYPHRSXFIPIWW
XLERMR QQ ERH
F  6EXMS SJ XLI PSRKIV XS XLI WLSVXIV GVSWWWIGXMSREP
HMQIRWMSRWLSYPHRSXI\GIIH
 0SRKMXYHMREP VIMRJSVGIQIRX{7IGXMSR 
WLSYPHETTP]ERH should be modified to restrict the
WTPMGIPSGEXMSRWXSXLIGIRXIVLEPJSJXLIQIQFIVPIRKXL
 1MRMQYQQSQIRXWXVIRKXLSJGSPYQRW{'SPYQR
QSQIRX WXVIRKXL WLSYPH WEXMWJ] )U   YRPIWW XLI
JYPPPIRKXLSJEGSPYQRMWTVSZMHIH[MXLXVERWZIVWIVIMRJSVGI
QIRXGSQTP]MRK[MXL

Mc

6
5

Mg



[LIVI 1GMWXLIWYQSJRSQMREPQSQIRXWXVIRKXLW1RSJ
GSPYQRWJVEQMRKMRXSENSMRXERH 1KMWXLIWYQSJRSQMREP
QSQIRXWXVIRKXLW1RSJKMVHIVWJVEQMRKMRXSXLIWEQINSMRX

*MKE{'EPGYPEXMSRSJ :I

'SPYQR QSQIRX WXVIRKXL WLSYPH GSVVIWTSRH XS XLI


QMRMQYQ QSQIRX WXVIRKXL GSQTYXIH YWMRK XLI ETTVS
TVMEXIIUYEXMSRSJ)U H ERH I JSVXLIVERKI
SJJEGXSVIHE\MEPPSEHW4YXLEXEGXSRXLIGSPYQR1SQIRX
WXVIRKXLW WLSYPH FI EHHIH MR WYGL E QERRIV XLEX GSPYQR
QSQIRXWSTTSWIFIEQQSQIRXW)UYEXMSR  WLSYPH
be satisfied for beam moments acting in both directions in
XLIZIVXMGEPTPERISJXLIJVEQIGSRWMHIVIH *MK 
 8MIXVERWZIVWIVIMRJSVGIQIRX{;LIRXMIW WXMVVYTW 
EVIYWIHEWGSPYQRXVERWZIVWIVIMRJSVGIQIRXERH E 
XLVSYKL L WLSYPHFIQIX
(a) Transverse reinforcement should be hoops (confine
QIRX XMIW  *MK E) over the length of the confine
QIRX^SRI SQIEWYVIHJVSQXLINSMRXJEGIEXFSXLGSPYQR
IRHW8LIHMWXERGI SWLSYPHRSXFIPIWWXLERXLIPEVKIWXSJ
XLI GSPYQR GVSWWWIGXMSREP HMQIRWMSR SRIWM\XL XLI GPIEV
PIRKXLSJXLIGSPYQRSVMR QQ 
F ,SSTWWLSYPHFIGPSWIHWMRKPISVSZIVPETTMRKXMIW[MXL
hooks as defined in  H  ERH GSQTP]MRK [MXL 
GSPYQRXMIW
G 'VSWWXMIWXLEXGSQTP][MXL  I ERHLEZIXLIWEQI
FEVHMEQIXIVERHWTEGMRKEWXLILSSTWEVITIVQMXXIH)EGL
GVSWWXMIWLSYPHIRKEKIETIVMTLIVEPPSRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGMRK
FEV 'SRWIGYXMZI GVSWWXMIW WLSYPH FI EPXIVREXIH IRHXSIRH
EPSRKXLIPSRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGIQIRX
H  ,SVM^SRXEP HMWXERGI QIEWYVIH GIRXIVXSGIRXIV
FIX[IIR PIKW SJ XLI TIVMTLIVEP LSSTW ERH GVSWWXMIW ERH
FIX[IIR GVSWWXMIW WLSYPH RSX I\GIIH XLI PEVKIV SJ  MR
QQ ERHSRILEPJXLIWQEPPIWXGVSWWWIGXMSREPHMQIR
WMSR -J XLI RYQFIV SJ LSST PIKW ERH GVSWWXMIW HIXIVQMRIH
I\GIIHWXLIRYQFIVSJPSRKMXYHMREPFEVWPSGEXIHMRXLIGVSWW
WIGXMSRJEGIEHHMXMSREPPSRKMXYHMREPFEVWWLSYPHFITVSZMHIH
*MKF 
(e) In confinement zones, maximum hoop spacing
QIEWYVIH EPSRK XLIQIQFIVE\MWWLSYPH RSX I\GIIH XLI
PEVKIVSJMR QQ ERHXLIZEPYIHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ
)U  
sc

Ab fyt

sc

*MK F{'EPGYPEXMSR SJ XLI WLIEV IRZIPSTI MR XLI


KMVHIV



6 fc
Ab fyt
15 fc


(SI)

[LIVI %FMWXLILSSTERHGVSWWXMIFEVEVIEERHJ]XMWXLIRSQMREP
]MIPHWXVIRKXLSJXLILSSTERHGVSWWXMI *MKE 
(f) The first hoop should be located no farther than 2 in.
QQ JVSQXLINSMRXJEGI

*MK{1MRMQYQQSQIRXWXVIRKXLSJGSPYQRW
%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

Fig. 11.1.3.4aConfinement hoop spacing in columns.


F  8LI WTMVEP ZSPYQIXVMG VEXMS WLSYPH RSX FI PIWW XLER
GSQTYXIHF])U  ERH)U  
Ab g dcs e db
s

Fig. 11.1.3.4bArrangement of hoop legs (confinement


XMIW ERHGVSWWXMIW
K ;LIRVIMRJSVGIQIRXEWMRHMGEXIHEFSZIMWRSXTPEGIH
XLVSYKLSYX XLI GSPYQR GPIEV PIRKXL XVERWZIVWI VIMRJSVGI
QIRXMRXLIGIRXVEPTEVXSJXLIGSPYQRGPIEVPIRKXLFIX[IIR
confinement zones should be hoops of the same diameter,
]MIPHWXVIRKXLJ]X and number of crossties used in the confine
QIRX^SRIWERHQE\MQYQGIRXIVXSGIRXIVWTEGMRKWLSYPH
RSXI\GIIHXLIWQEPPIVSJWM\XMQIWXLIPSRKMXYHMREPGSPYQR
FEVHMEQIXIVHFERHMR QQ  *MKE ERH
L 0SRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGIQIRXWTPMGIWWLSYPHFIPSGEXIHMR
the central zone of the column with hoop confinement provided
SZIVXLIIRXMVIWTPMGIPIRKXLERHRSXQSVIXLERSRILEPJSJXSXEP
PSRKMXYHMREPFEVWWLSYPHFIWTPMGIH *MKG 
 7TMVEPVIMRJSVGIQIRX{;LIRWTMVEPWEVIYWIHEW
GSPYQR XVERWZIVWI VIMRJSVGIQIRX ERH E XLVSYKL
G WLSYPHFIQIX
E 8VERWZIVWIVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFIEWTMVEPGSQTP]MRK
with 11.1.3.5 over the confinement zone length SRSX PIWW
XLERXLI PEVKIWX SJ XLI GSPYQR GVSWWWIGXMSREP HMQIRWMSRW
SRIWM\XLXLIGPIEVPIRKXLSJXLIQIQFIVERHMR QQ 
QIEWYVIHJVSQXLINSMRXJEGIEXFSXLGSPYQRIRHW

Acs s

0.12

fc
f yt



(c) Outside confinement zones, the maximum center-toGIRXIVWTMVEPWTEGMRKWLSYPHRSXI\GIIHXLIWQEPPIVSJWM\XMQIW


XLIPSRKMXYHMREPGSPYQRFEVHMEQIXIVHFERHMR QQ 
 7LIEVWXVIRKXL{7IGXMSRERH E XLVSYKL H
WLSYPHFIQIX
E *EGXSVIHWLIEV :IGSVVIWTSRHMRKXSTVSFEFPIGSPYQR
QSQIRX WXVIRKXL EX XLI NSMRX JEGIW WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH
YWMRK )U   JSV FSXL TVMRGMTEP HMVIGXMSRW MR TPER
*MKE 

Ve

M pr

M pr

top

hn

bottom



F -R)U  1TVMWXLITVSFEFPIQSQIRXWXVIRKXL


EX XLI NSMRX JEGIW HIXIVQMRIH YWMRK J]TV MRWXIEH SJ J] J]TV
! J]  ERH E WXVIRKXL VIHYGXMSR JEGXSV  !  'SPYQR
QSQIRXWXVIRKXLWLSYPHGSVVIWTSRHXSXLIQMRMQYQTVSF
EFPIQSQIRXWXVIRKXLGSQTYXIHYWMRKXLIETTVSTVMEXIIUYE
XMSRSJ)U H ERH I JSVXLIVERKISJJEGXSVIH
E\MEPPSEHW4YXLEXEGXSRXLIGSPYQR*EGXSVIHWLIEVJSVXLI
GSPYQR :IRIIHRSXI\GIIHXLIZEPYIHIXIVQMRIHJVSQXLI
NSMRXWLIEVFEWIHSRTVSFEFPIKMVHIVQSQIRXWXVIRKXL1TVEX
XLINSMRXEWHIXIVQMRIHMR *MKF 

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



Fig. 11.1.3.4cConfinement hoop spacing in columns for splices.


G  8VERWZIVWI VIMRJSVGIQIRX JSV WLIEV WLSYPH FI HIXIV
QMRIH EW TVIWGVMFIH MR  I\GITX XLEX XLI GSRGVIXI
GSRXVMFYXMSR XS XLI WLIEV WXVIRKXL WLSYPH FI XEOIR EW :G
! 0) in the confinement zones indicated in  E ERH
 E ERH
(d) Hoops (confinement ties) or spirals indicated by
 ERH WLSYPHFIGSRWMHIVIHIJJIGXMZIEWWLIEV
VIMRJSVGIQIRX
 *VEQINSMRXW
 +IRIVEP{*SV JVEQI NSMRXW PSGEXIH MR WIMWQMG
^SRIWWLSYPHETTP]ERHWLSYPHRSXETTP]
 'SPYQRHMQIRWMSRWEXENSMRX{'SPYQRHMQIR
WMSRTEVEPPIP XSXLI FIEQ WLSYPHRSXFIPIWWXLER  XMQIW
XLIPEVKIWXPSRKMXYHMREPKMVHIVFEVHMEQIXIVHF[LIVIPSRKM
XYHMREPKMVHIVFEVWI\XIRHXLVSYKLXLIGSPYQRKMVHIVNSMRX
 8VERWZIVWI VIMRJSVGIQIRX{8VERWZIVWI VIMRJSVGI
QIRX GSRJSVQMRK XS E ERH F WLSYPHFI TVSZMHIH [MXLMR
XLIGSPYQRKMVHIVNSMRX
(a) Horizontal transverse hoops (confinement ties) with
XLIWEQIEVIEERHWTEGMRKMRHMGEXIHF]WLSYPHFI
TVSZMHIH [MXLMR XLI GSPYQRKMVHIV NSMRX 8LMW EVIE [MXLMR
the joint is the confined core. Where girders, having a width
IUYEPXSSVKVIEXIVXLERXLVIIJSYVXLWSJXLIGSPYQR[MHXLJVEQI
MRXSXLINSMRXEXEPPJSYVWMHIWXLILSSTWTEGMRKGERFIX[MGIXLEX
MRHMGEXIHF]FYXRSXI\GIIHMR QQ ERH
F  ;LIVI PSRKMXYHMREP KMVHIV VIMRJSVGIQIRX MW PSGEXIH
outside the confined core defined in (a), vertical hoops
JSV KMVHIVW EW MRHMGEXIH F]  WLSYPH FI TVSZMHIH XS
confine it.

*MKE{'EPGYPEXMSRSJ :IJSVGSPYQRW
 .SMRX WLIEV WXVIRKXL{,SVM^SRXEP NSMRX WLIEV
WXVIRKXL WLSYPH IUYEP SV I\GIIH XLI JEGXSVIH WLIEV XLEX
HIZIPSTWHYIXSXLITVSFEFPIQSQIRXWXVIRKXLSJGSPYQRW
ERH KMVHIVW EX XLI NSMRX *MK E  -XIQW E  XLVSYKL
H ETTP]
E *EGXSVIHWLIEVEXXLINSMRX :YWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIH
JSVFSXLTVMRGMTEPHMVIGXMSRWYWMRK)U E JSVNSMRXW
[LIVIKMVHIVWJVEQIMRXSFSXLWMHIWERHYWMRK)U F 
[LIVIKMVHIVWJVEQIMRXSSRIWMHISRP]

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

*MKF{1E\MQYQ1TVJSVGSPYQRWVIUYMVIHJSVGSPYQRWLIEV :I

*MKE{.SMRXWLIEVHIXIVQMREXMSR

Vu

f ypr As

Vu

As

f ypr As
ff

ff
A
df ypr s

girder

girder

Ve

Ve

column

E

Fig. 11.1.4.4bDefinition of %N JSV KMVHIV [MHIV XLER


GSPYQRW

column

F
girder

Ve

column

-R )U E  ERH F  %W KMVHIV GSVVIWTSRHW XS


KMVHIVPSRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGIQIRXEVIE8LIWLIEVHIZIPSTIH
JVSQ XLI GSPYQR QSQIRX WXVIRKXL WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH
JVSQ 
F 7LIEVWXVIRKXLEXXLIGVMXMGEPTPERIMRXLINSMRXWLSYPH
FI JSV%NVIJIVXS*MKFERHG 

For joints confined on all four faces

For joints confined on three faces or on opposite faces

*SVEPPSXLIVNSMRXW

Fig. 11.1.4.4cDefinition of %N JSV KMVHIV REVVS[IV XLER


GSPYQR
G %KMVHIVXLEXJVEQIWMRXSENSMRXJEGIMWGSRWMHIVIHXS
provide confinement to the joint if at least three-fourths the
NSMRXJEGIMWGSZIVIHF]XLIKMVHIVERH
H %N MW XLI IJJIGXMZI GVSWWWIGXMSREP EVIE [MXLMR XLI
NSMRX MR E TPERI TEVEPPIP XS XLI TPERI SJ XLI VIMRJSVGIQIRX
KIRIVEXMRK XLI WLIEV ERH MW IUYEP XS XLI TVSHYGX SJ NSMRX
HITXLERHXLIIJJIGXMZINSMRX[MHXL.SMRXHITXLMWIUYEPXS
XLIGSPYQRHMQIRWMSRTEVEPPIPXSXLIKMVHIVHMVIGXMSR.SMRX
IJJIGXMZI[MHXLMWIUYEPXSXLIKMVHIV[MHXLJSVKMVHIVWIUYEP
XSSVPEVKIVXLERGSPYQR[MHXL *MKF *SVKMVHIVW
REVVS[IVXLERGSPYQR[MHXLNSMRXIJJIGXMZI[MHXLMWIUYEP
XSXLIWQEPPIVSJXLIKMVHIV[MHXLTPYWNSMRXHITXLSVKMVHIV
[MHXL TPYW X[MGI XLI WQEPPIV TIVTIRHMGYPEV HMWXERGI JVSQ

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



*MK{&SYRHEV]IPIQIRXHMQIRWMSRW
XLI KMVHIV PSRKMXYHMREP E\MW XS XLI GSPYQR WMHI [MXLSYX
I\GIIHMRKGSPYQR[MHXL *MKG 
 +MVHIV VIMRJSVGIQIRX ERGLSVEKI{0SRKMXYHMREP
VIMRJSVGIQIRX XIVQMREXMRK EX XLI NSMRX WLSYPH IRH MR E
90-degree standard hook located within the column confined
GSVI  E %RGLSVEKIHMWXERGIWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL

 ;EPPW
 +IRIVEP{6IMRJSVGIH GSRGVIXI [EPPW PSGEXIH MR
WIMWQMG^SRIWWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL'LETXIVERHSJ
 &SYRHEV] IPIQIRXW{&SYRHEV] IPIQIRXW MR
WXVYGXYVEP[EPPWWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL E XLVSYKL L 
(a) Where the maximum compressive extreme fiber stress
JGY GEPGYPEXIH JVSQ )U E  JVSQ PSEH GSQFMRE
XMSRWXLEXMRGPYHIWIMWQMGIJJIGXWI\GIIHWJG SRISJXLI
JSPPS[MRKWLSYPHFITVSZMHIH
&SYRHEV]IPIQIRXWEXFSXLIRHWSJWXVYGXYVEP[EPPWSV
Confinement transverse reinforcement complying with
JSVXLIIRXMVI[EPP

fcu

Pu
Ag

6 Mu
2
w bw

E

F &SYRHEV]IPIQIRXWQE]FIHMWGSRXMRYIH[LIVIJGYMW
PIWWXLERJG 
G &SYRHEV]IPIQIRXXLMGORIWWWLSYPHRSXFIPIWWXLERXLI
PEVKIVSJLRSVF[ERHWLSYPHLEZIELSVM^SRXEPPIRKXLMR
XLI[EPPHMVIGXMSRRSXPIWWXLERMR QQ EXIEGLIRH
 ERH*MK 
H &SYRHEV]IPIQIRXWWLSYPHLEZIXVERWZIVWIVIMRJSVGI
ment as specified for columns in [MXLXLIWTEGMRK
MR  I RSXI\GIIHIHEXER]TSMRXEPSRKXLILIMKLXSJ
XLIFSYRHEV]IPIQIRX
I &SYRHEV]IPIQIRXWWLSYPHFITVSTSVXMSRIHXSVIWMWXEPP
JEGXSVIHKVEZMX]PSEHWSRXLI[EPPMRGPYHMRKXVMFYXEV]PSEHW
ERHWIPJ[IMKLXEW[IPPEWXLIZIVXMGEPJSVGIVIWYPXMRKJVSQ
VIWMWXMRK WIMWQMG SZIVXYVRMRK QSQIRXW JSPPS[MRK 
'SQTVIWWMZIJEGXSVIHE\MEPPSEHSRFSYRHEV]IPIQIRXW4GY
WLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ)U F ERHXLIXIRWMPI
JEGXSVIHE\MEPPSEH 4XYSRXLIFSYRHEV]IPIQIRXWJVSQ)U
G 
u

cu
w

F

Ptu =

Pu
e
2

Mu
e
12 in.
w
G

 J 0SRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFITVSTSVXMSRIHJSV
JEGXSVIHGSQTVIWWMSRE\MEPPSEH4GYYWMRK)U  ERH
E  -R )U   %K WLSYPH FI VITPEGIH F] XLI
FSYRHEV] IPIQIRX EVIE 8LI VIMRJSVGIQIRX VEXMS WLSYPH RSX
I\GIIHXLIPMQMXWSJ;LIRPSRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGIQIRX
HIXIVQMRIHJVSQ)U F ERH)U G I\GIIHW
XLIWIPMQMXWFSYRHEV]IPIQIRXWM^IWLSYPHFIMRGVIEWIH;LIR
XLIFSYRHEV]IPIQIRXWM^IMWMRGVIEWIH4GYERH4XYWLSYPHFI
EHNYWXIHMR)U F ERH)U G 
K 0SRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFITVSTSVXMSRIHJSV
XLIEFWSPYXIZEPYISJXLIJEGXSVIHXIRWMPIE\MEPPSEH4XY{E
ZEPYIKVIEXIVXLER^IVSMR)U G QIERWRSXIRWMPI
PSEHW{YWMRK )U  ERH
L  ;LIVI FSYRHEV] IPIQIRXW EPWS WIVZI EW GSPYQRW
[MXLMR E JVEQI XLI] WLSYPH FI TVSTSVXMSRIH EW GSPYQRW
YWMRK 'LETXIV
 7LIEV WXVIRKXL{7XVYGXYVEP [EPP WLIEV WXVIRKXL
WLSYPHGSQTP][MXL
 7PEFGSPYQRW]WXIQW
 +IRIVEP{7PEFGSPYQR W]WXIQW PSGEXIH MR
WIMWQMG ^SRIW WLSYPH GSQTP] [MXL  ERH 'LETXIV 
8LMWWXVYGXYVEPW]WXIQWLSYPHRSXFIYWIHMRWIMWQMG^SRIW
[MXLSYX YWMRK VIMRJSVGIH GSRGVIXI [EPPW XS VIWMWX WIMWQMG
PEXIVEP PSEHW ERH PMQMX PEXIVEP HIJSVQEXMSR MQTSWIH F]
WIMWQMGEGGIPIVEXMSR
 0EXIVEP JSVGI QSQIRXW{*EGXSVIH PEXIVEP JSVGI
QSQIRXWEWHIXIVQMRIHJVSQWLSYPHFIEHHIHXS
XLIGSPYQRWXVMTQSQIRXWYWMRKETTVSTVMEXIPSEHGSQFMRE
XMSRW6IMRJSVGIQIRXGSVVIWTSRHMRKXSJEGXSVIHPEXIVEPJSVGI
QSQIRXWWLSYPHFITPEGIH[MXLMRXLIIJJIGXMZI[MHXL^SRI
defined in E 
 'SPYQR WXVMT VIMRJSVGIQIRX{-XIQW E  XLVSYKL
I ERH'LETXIVWLSYPHFISFWIVZIH
E  %X PIEWX SRILEPJ XLI XST ERH FSXXSQ GSPYQR WXVMT
VIMRJSVGIQIRX EX XLI WYTTSVX WLSYPH FI TPEGIH [MXLMR XLI
effective slab width defined in  E 
F %XPIEWXSRIUYEVXIVXLIXSTGSPYQRWXVMTVIMRJSVGIQIRX
EXXLIWYTTSVXWLSYPHFIGSRXMRYSYWXLVSYKLSYXXLIWTER
G 'SRXMRYSYWFSXXSQGSPYQRWXVMTVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPH
FIEXPIEWXSRIXLMVHXLIXSTVIMRJSVGIQIRXEXXLIWYTTSVX
H  %X PIEWX SRILEPJ SJ EPP FSXXSQ VIMRJSVGIQIRX EX
QMHWTERWLSYPHFIGSRXMRYSYWERHWLSYPHLEZIXLIHIZIPST

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

*MK{'ETXMZISVWLSVXGSPYQRIJJIGX
QIRXPIRKXLTVIWGVMFIHMRat the support face as defined
MRERH
I %XHMWGSRXMRYSYWWPEFIHKIWEPPXSTERHFSXXSQVIMRJSVGI
QIRXEXXLIWYTTSVXWLSYPHGSQTP][MXLXLIHIZIPSTQIRXPIRKXL
TVIWGVMFIHMREXXLIWYTTSVXJEGI
 Waffle-slabsIn waffle-slabs, joists located in
XLIGSPYQRWXVMTERHEPPNSMWXWXLEXGSRRIGXXSGETMXEPWWLSYPH
LEZIEQMRMQYQ[MHXLF[SJMR QQ ERHWLSYPHFI
TVSZMHIH[MXLLSSTWWTEGIHEXRSXQSVIXLERHXLVSYKLSYX
XLIGETMXEPERHI\XIRHMRKJVSQXLIGETMXEPJEGIEQMRMQYQ
HMWXERGIHMRXSXLIWTER
{-RXIVEGXMSR[MXLRSRWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXW
 +IRIVEP{7YTTSVXMRK WXERHEVHW SJ  WLSYPH FI
YWIHJSVHIWMKRSJRSRWXVYGXYVEPIPIQIRXW2SX[MXLWXERHMRK
MR GIVXEMR GEWIW RSRWXVYGXYVEP IPIQIRXW MRXIVEGX[MXLWXVYG
XYVEPQIQFIVWEJJIGXMRKXLIMVFILEZMSVERHMRXVSHYGMRKPSEHW
ERHQSQIRXWRSXGSZIVIHF]ETTVS\MQEXITVSGIHYVIWSJXLMW
KYMHI 8LMW WMXYEXMSR MW IWTIGMEPP] MQTSVXERX MR WXVYGXYVIW
WYFNIGXIHXSWIMWQMGSVSXLIVPEXIVEPPSEHW8LITSXIRXMEPSJ
PMJIXLVIEXIRMRK WMXYEXMSRWGEYWIH F] RSRWXVYGXYVEP IPIQIRX
JEMPYVIWHYVMRKWXVSRKKVSYRHQSXMSRWLSYPHFIEHHVIWWIHF]
XLIWXVYGXYVEPSVEVGLMXIGXYVEPHIWMKRIV
 Masonry infillsThe influence of masonry infills
SRXLIWXVYGXYVIvWPEXIVEPJSVGIFILEZMSVWLSYPHFIEHHVIWWIH
by the designer, either by considering such influence in the
HIWMKRTVSGIWWSVF]MWSPEXMRKXLIQEWSRV]JVSQXLIWXVYG
XYVI-RXLIWIGSRHEPXIVREXMZIETTVSTVMEXIQIEWYVIWWLSYPH
FIXEOIRXSQEMRXEMRXLISYXSJTPERIWXEFMPMX]SJXLIQEWSRV]
[LIRWYFNIGXIHXSWIMWQMGSV[MRHPEXIVEPPSEHW
 'ETXMZISVWLSVXGSPYQRW
 (IWGVMTXMSR{,MWXSVMGEPP] XLI QSWX HEQEKMRK
IJJIGXSJVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXIJVEQIWMRXIVEGXMRK[MXLRSRWXVYG
XYVEPIPIQIRXWLEWFIIRGEYWIHF]GETXMZISVWLSVXGSPYQRW%
GETXMZIGSPYQRI\MWXW[LIVIEWXVYGXYVEPSVRSRWXVYGXYVEP[EPP
confines the column bottom, but leaves a gap at the top, below
XLILSVM^SRXEPWXVYGXYVEPQIQFIV *MK 8LMWX]TISJ
[EPP EVVERKIQIRX MW ZIV] GSQQSR MR FYMPHMRKW [LIVI XLI
KET MW TVSZMHIH JSV PMKLXMRK TYVTSWIW WYGL EW IHYGEXMSREP
FYMPHMRKW 8LMW WMXYEXMSR MRXVSHYGIW E PEVKI YRERXMGMTEXIH
WLIEVJSVGIMRXLIGSPYQR[LIRXLIWXVYGXYVIMWWYFNIGXIHXS
PEXIVEPPSEHW
 'SVVIGXMZI QIEWYVIW{8[S EPXIVREXMZI GSVVIG
XMZIQIEWYVIWWLSYPHFIGSRWMHIVIH
(a) Separate the infill wall from the column by providing
EKET8LIKETFIX[IIR[EPPERHGSPYQRWLSYPHFIETTVS\M

*MK{%PXIVREXMZIXSEGGSYRXJSVXLIWLSVXSVGETXMZI
GSPYQRIJJIGX
QEXIP]  TIVGIRX SJ XLI WXSV] LIMKLX LTM 8LI QEWSRV]
[EPP WLSYPH FI ERGLSVIH XS TVIZIRX MXW SZIVXYVRMRK [LIR
WYFNIGXIHXSSYXSJTPERIPEXIVEPPSEHWSV
F 0SGEXIEQYGLWLSVXIV[MRHS[MRXLIGIRXVEPTEVXSJXLI
span, thus having the infill masonry wall against the column
EPSRKMXWJYPPLIMKLX-RXLMWEPXIVREXMZIXLIHMWXERGIFIX[IIRXLI
GSPYQRJEGIERHXLI[MRHS[WLSYPHFIEXPIEWXX[MGIXLIZIVXMGEP
HMQIRWMSRSJXLIKETPIJXF]XLI[MRHS[ *MK 
-J RIMXLIV E  RSV F  MW WEXMWJMIH LSSTW WLSYPH FI
TVSZMHIH SZIV XLI JYPP GSPYQR PIRKXL EW MRHMGEXIH F]
 ERH GSPYQR WLIEV WXVIRKXL WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH
JVSQ YWMRKXLIZIVXMGEP[MRHS[HMQIRWMSR MRWXIEH
SJ L R MR)U  
',%48)6{6)-2*36')('32'6)8);%007
{+IRIVEP
-RTPERI ERH SYXSJTPERI HIWMKR SJ VIMRJSVGIH GSRGVIXI
[EPPWWLSYPHFITIVJSVQIHYWMRK'LETXIV7SMPVIXEMRMRK
[EPPWWLSYPHFIHIWMKRIHJSPPS[MRK'LETXIV
{0SEHW
 0SEHW XS FI MRGPYHIH{0SEHW JSV VIMRJSVGIH
GSRGVIXI[EPPWWLSYPHFIIWXEFPMWLIHJVSQ'LETXIV0SEHW
XLEXWLSYPHFIMRGPYHIHMRXLIHIWMKREVI *MK 
E 0MZIERHHIEHPSEHWJVSQXVMFYXEV]WXVYGXYVEPQIQFIVW
from each floor located above. Tributary loads should be
IWXEFPMWLIHJVSQ'LETXIVERHXLIPSEHWSJIEGLXVMFYXEV]
QIQFIVX]TI
F ;EPPWIPJ[IMKLXERH
G  0EXIVEP PSEHW JVSQ [MRH WIMWQMG SV WSMP PEXIVEP
TVIWWYVIW
 (IEHPSEHERHPMZIPSEH{4HWLSYPHMRGPYHI[EPP
WIPJ[IMKLX 8LI [EPP WIPJ[IMKLX GSVVIWTSRHMRK XS IEGL
floor may be applied at the lower part of the wall in that
floor. The unbalanced moment due to vertical loads should
FIHIXIVQMRIHJVSQXLIWYTTSVXIHQIQFIV ERH 
 0EXIVEP PSEHW{%TTPMIH JEGXSVIH LSVM^SRXEP WLIEV
:YEXIEGLWXSV]ERHMRFSXLTVMRGMTEPHMVIGXMSRWWLSYPHFI
HIXIVQMRIH JVSQ 'LETXIV  8LI JEGXSVIH PEXIVEP JSVGI
QSQIRXW 1YWLSYPHFIIWXEFPMWLIHEX XLI YTTIVERH PS[IV
TEVXSJXLI[EPPMRFSXLTVMRGMTEPTPERHMVIGXMSRWEXIEGLWXSV]
F]JSPPS[MRK E  F ERH G 

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



*MK{6IMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI[EPP[MXLETTPMIHJEGXSVIHPSEHWERHQSQIRXW
E *EGXSVIHLSVM^SRXEPWLIEVEXIEGLWXSV] \ :\YWLSYPH
FIHIXIVQMRIHJSVXLI[EPPJVSQ'LETXIV
F  *EGXSVIH PEXIVEP JSVGI ETTPMIH EX IEGL WXSV] \ *\Y
WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH EW XLI HMJJIVIRGI MR JEGXSVIH WLIEV
FIX[IIRXLIX[SWYGGIWWMZIWXSVMIW:\YERH: \ YERH
G  *EGXSVIH PEXIVEP JSVGI QSQIRXW 1\Y EX IEGL WXSV] \
WLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHYWMRK)U   *MK 

M xu

n
i=x

Fiu hi

hx



 *EGXSVIH PSEHW{*EGXSVIH PSEHW 4Y ERH :Y ERH


QSQIRXW 1YWLSYPHFIIWXEFPMWLIHEX XLI YTTIVERH PS[IV
TEVX SJ XLI [EPP MR IEGL WXSV] ,SVM^SRXEP PSEHW WLSYPH FI
HMZMHIHMRXSMRTPERIERHSYXSJTPERIPSEHW *MK 

{(MQIRWMSREPPMQMXW
 +IRIVEP{-REHHMXMSRXS'LETXIV[EPPWWLSYPH
GSQTP][MXLKIRIVEPHMQIRWMSREPPMQMXWWIXJSVXLMRERH
WLSYPHFIVIGXERKYPEVI\GITXEWTIVQMXXIHF]
WLSYPH FI EPMKRIH ZIVXMGEPP] ERH WLSYPH FI GSRXMRYSYW XS
XLIJSYRHEXMSR;EPPWVIWMWXMRKPEXIVEPPSEHWEVIVIWXVMGXIHMR
XLIQE\MQYQE\MEPPSEHXLI]GERGEVV]F]7IGXMSR
PMQMXMRKXLIE\MEPPSEHXSXLEXGSVVIWTSRHMRKXSXLIFEPERGIH
TSMRXEWMRHMGEXIHF])U E 
 (MQIRWMSREPPMQMXW
 1MRMQYQ XLMGORIWW{1MRMQYQ [EPP XLMGORIWW
*MK   WLSYPH FI XLI PEVKIV SJ  MR  QQ  SV
SJXLI[EPPPIRKXL [%XGLERKIWSJ[EPPXLMGORIWWMR
GSRXMKYSYWWXSVMIW G WLSYPHETTP]
 'SPYQRW IQFIHHIH MR [EPPW{% GSPYQR QE]
FIIQFIHHIHMRE[EPPMRWXIEHSJMRGVIEWMRK[EPPXLMGORIWW
SZIVXLIIRXMVI[EPPPIRKXL8LIMRGVIEWISJXLMGORIWWQE]FI

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

*MK{'EPGYPEXMSRSJJEGXSVIHPEXIVEPJSVGIQSQIRXW

*MK{-RTPERIERHSYXSJTPERIPSEHW

*MK{6IMRJSVGIQIRXWTEGMRKMRVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI
[EPPW

ERH VSSJ WYTTSVXIH F] XLI [EPP 8LIWI FIEQW SV KMVHIVW
WLSYPHGSRJSVQXSERHGSRJSVQXSGSPPIGXSV
IPIQIRXW

*MK {1MRMQYQ GVSWWWIGXMSREP HMQIRWMSRW JSV


VIGXERKYPEVVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI[EPPW
TPEGIHEXSRIWMHISJXLIGVSWWWIGXMSR8VERWZIVWIGSPYQR
HMQIRWMSRWLSYPHQIIX
 (MWXERGI FIX[IIR PEXIVEP WYTTSVXW{-X WLSYPH FI
assumed that lateral support is provided by the floor system
EXEPPPIZIPWGSRRIGXIHXSXLI[EPP *MK MRXLIX[S
LSVM^SRXEPHMVIGXMSRW'PIEVZIVXMGEPHMWXERGIFIX[IIRPEXIVEP
WYTTSVXW LRWLSYPHRSXI\GIIHXMQIWXLI[EPPXLMGORIWW
 &IEQWSRXSTSJ[EPPW{&IEQWSVKMVHIVWWLSYPH
be provided for the full horizontal wall length at every floor

{6IMRJSVGIQIRXHIXEMPW
 +IRIVEP{6IMRJSVGIQIRX X]TIW WLSYPH FI EW
HIWGVMFIHMR'LETXIVERHWLSYPHGSQTP][MXLXS

 1E\MQYQ VIMRJSVGIQIRX WTEGMRK{1E\MQYQ
ZIVXMGEPERHLSVM^SRXEPVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFIXLIPIWWIVSJ
XLVIIXMQIWXLIVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI[EPPXLMGORIWWERHMR
QQ  *MK 
 2YQFIV SJ GYVXEMRW SJ VIMRJSVGIQIRX{8[S
GYVXEMRW SV PE]IVW SJ VIMRJSVGIQIRX LEZMRK FSXL ZIVXMGEP
ERHLSVM^SRXEPVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFITPEGIHMRGEWIW E 
F ERH G 
E ;EPPXLMGORIWWI\GIIHWMR QQ 

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



*MK{'EPGYPEXMSRSJZIVXMGEPVIMRJSVGIQIRXVEXMS

F  :IVXMGEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX VEXMS Z[ I\GIIHW 


 ERH
G -RTPERIJEGXSVIHWLIEVJSVGI:YMRXLI[EPPI\GIIHW :G
EWKMZIRF])U  
;LIRX[SVIMRJSVGIQIRXGYVXEMRWEVITPEGIHIEGLWLSYPH
LEZIETTVS\MQEXIP]LEPJXLIVIMRJSVGIQIRX1MRMQYQGSZIV
XS E GYVXEMR WLSYPH FI  MR  QQ  ERH QE\MQYQ
GSZIVXSEGYVXEMRWLSYPHFISRIXLMVHXLI[EPPXLMGORIWW*SV
I\XIVMSVI\TSWYVIQMRMQYQGSZIVWLSYPHFIMR QQ 
-REPPSXLIVGEWIWSRP]SRIVIMRJSVGIQIRXGYVXEMRPSGEXIH
MRXLI[EPPGIRXIVQE]FIYWIH
 :IVXMGEPVIMRJSVGIQIRX
 +IRIVEP{:IVXMGEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH GSRWMWX SJ
SRISVX[SGYVXEMRWSJFEVWSV[IPHIH[MVIVIMRJSVGIQIRXTPEGIH
TEVEPPIP XS XLI [EPP JEGI 8LI EVIE SJ ZIVXMGEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX
should be sufficient to resist the combination of factored
E\MEPPSEHWERHJEGXSVIHQSQIRXWEGXMRKEFSYXXLIX[SQEMR
[EPPE\IW
 1MRMQYQ EVIE SJ ZIVXMGEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX{
1MRMQYQ ZIVXMGEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX VEXMS Z[ SJ WXIIP EVIE XS
KVSWWGSRGVIXILSVM^SRXEPWIGXMSREVIEWLSYPHFI
 1E\MQYQ EVIE SJ ZIVXMGEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX{
1E\MQYQ ZIVXMGEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX VEXMS Z[ SJ WXIIP EVIE XS
KVSWWVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI[EPPLSVM^SRXEPWIGXMSREVIEWLSYPH
FI;LIVIXLIVEXMS Z[I\GIIHWZIVXMGEPVIMRJSVGI
QIRXWLSYPHFIIRGPSWIH[MXLXMIWEWTVIWGVMFIHJSVGSPYQRW
MR 
0.0025

vw

Ast
bw w

0.06



 'EPGYPEXMSR SJ ZIVXMGEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX VEXMS{


-XIQW E ERH F WLSYPHETTP]XS[EPPW[LIVIEVIEERHZIVXMGEP
VIMRJSVGIQIRXWTEGMRKZEVMIWSVGSPYQRWEVIIQFIHHIH
E :IVXMGEPVIMRJSVGIQIRXVEXMS Z[WLSYPHRSXI\GIIHXLI
maximum vertical reinforcement ratio defined by 12.4.4.3,
ERHWLSYPHFIIZEPYEXIHMREREVIE[LIVIXLIZIVXMGEPVIMR
JSVGIQIRX MW GSRGIRXVEXIH EW WLS[R MR *MK  E 
8LI ZIVXMGEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX VEXMS Z[ WLSYPH FI IZEPYEXIH
SZIVEREVIEFSYRHF][EPPJEGIWERHMR QQ FI]SRH

XLIVIMRJSVGMRKFEVWEWQIEWYVIHEPSRKXLI[EPPPIRKXL[LIVI
XLIZIVXMGEPVIMRJSVGIQIRXMWGSRGIRXVEXIH  ERH
F  :IVXMGEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX VEXMS Z[ WLSYPH RSX FI PIWW
XLERXLI QMRMQYQ ZIVXMGEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX VEXMS WIX JSVXL MR
 [LIVI XLI ZIVXMGEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX GSRGIRXVEXMSR MW
VIHYGIHF]MRGVIEWMRKXLIFEVWTEGMRKSVF]HIGVIEWMRKXLI
ZIVXMGEPFEVHMEQIXIVEWWLS[RMR*MK F 
 6IMRJSVGIQIRXWTPMGMRK{0ETWTPMGIWSJZIVXMGEP
[EPPVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHGSQTP][MXLXLIPETWTPMGIPIRKXL
SJ  -X MW TIVQMXXIH XS PET WTPMGI  TIVGIRX SJ XLI
ZIVXMGEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX EX ER] KMZIR WIGXMSR I\GITX EX XLI
supported member of the floor system.
 )RHERGLSVEKISJVIMRJSVGIQIRX{%XXLI[EPPXST
ERHEXXLIFSXXSQ MRXLIJSYRHEXMSR ZIVXMGEPVIMRJSVGIQIRX
WLSYPHI\XIRHEWGPSWIXSXLIIHKIEWTVEGXMGEFPIGSRWMHIVMRK
GSRGVIXIGSZIVERHIRHMREWXERHEVHLSSO
 ,SVM^SRXEPVIMRJSVGIQIRX
 +IRIVEP{,SVM^SRXEPVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHGSRWMWX
SJ SRI SV X[S PE]IVW SJ FEVW SV [IPHIH [MVI VIMRJSVGIQIRX
TPEGIHTEVEPPIP[MXLXLI[EPPJEGI8LIEQSYRXSJLSVM^SRXEP
VIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFIXLEXRIIHIHXSVIWMWXJEGXSVIHMRTPERI
WLIEV EX XLI [EPP WIGXMSR *SV LIEZMP] VIMRJSVGIH [EPPW EW
HIWGVMFIH MR  XVERWZIVWI VIMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH FI
TVSZMHIHEWMRGSPYQRW
 ;EPPW [MXL XVERWZIVWI VIMRJSVGIQIRX{;LIVI
ZIVXMGEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX VEXMS Z[ I\GIIHW  ZIVXMGEP
VIMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH FI IRGPSWIH F] XMIW GSQTP]MRK [MXL
MRGPYHMRKZIVXMGEPWTEGMRKPMQMXW  
 1MRMQYQ LSVM^SRXEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX EVIE{
1MRMQYQLSVM^SRXEPVIMRJSVGIQIRXVEXMS XSJWXIIPEVIEXS
KVSWWGSRGVIXIZIVXMGEPWIGXMSREVIEWLSYPHFI
 6IMRJSVGIQIRX WTPMGMRK{0ET WTPMGIW SJ LSVM
^SRXEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH GSQTP] [MXL XLI PET WTPMGI
length defined by 
 )RH ERGLSVEKI SJ VIMRJSVGIQIRX{,SVM^SRXEP
VIMRJSVGIQIRXXIVQMREXMRKEX[EPPIHKIWWLSYPHLEZIEWXER
HEVH LSSO XLEX IRKEKIW XLI IHKI ZIVXMGEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX SV
9WLETIHWXMVVYTWSJWEQIWM^IERHWTEGMRK EWXLILSVM
^SRXEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH FI TVSZMHIH -J 9WLETIH
WXMVVYTW EVI TVSZMHIH XLI] WLSYPH FI WTPMGIH XS XLI LSVM
^SRXEPVIMRJSVGIQIRX

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

 6IMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI[EPPVIMRJSVGIQIRXMRWIMWQMG
^SRIW{-R [EPPW XLEX EVI TEVX SJ XLI PEXIVEPJSVGIVIWMWXMRK
W]WXIQMRWIMWQMG^SRIWVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL
'LETXIV  
{*PI\YVI
 *EGXSVIH PSEHW{*EGXSVIH E\MEP PSEHW 4Y ERH
QSQIRXW 1Y EX WIGXMSR YRHIV GSRWMHIVEXMSR WLSYPH FI
HIXIVQMRIHJSPPS[MRK
 8VMEP ZIVXMGEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX{% XVMEP EVIE SJ
ZIVXMGEPVIMRJSVGIQIRX%WXWLSYPHFIXLIQMRMQYQZIVXMGEP
VIMRJSVGIQIRXVEXMSSJ
 6IUYMVIH QSQIRX WXVIRKXL{-RXIVEGXMSR HMEKVEQW
JSVXVMEP[EPPHMQIRWMSRWERHVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFIGEPGY
PEXIHMRFSXLHMVIGXMSRWYWMRK8SXEPZIVXMGEPVIMRJSVGI
QIRXEVIE%WXWLSYPHFIHMZMHIHMRXSXSXEPI\XVIQIJEGIWXIIP
EVIE %WIERHXSXEPWMHIJEGIWXIIPEVIE %WWJSV XLI HMVIGXMSR
GSRWMHIVIH EW MRHMGEXIH F]  8LI HIWMKR QSQIRX
WXVIRKXLMRFSXLHMVIGXMSRWWLSYPHFIGSQTYXIHYWMRK
;LIR XLI JEGXSVIH QSQIRX 1Y EX JEGXSVIH E\MEP PSEH 4Y
I\GIIHWXLI HIWMKRQSQIRX WXVIRKXLEXJEGXSVIH E\MEP PSEH
PIZIP 4YXLIZIVXMGEPVIMRJSVGIQIRXEVIEWLSYPHFIMRGVIEWIH
;LIRXLIVIMRJSVGIQIRXEVIEI\GIIHWXLIPMQMXSJ
MRGVIEWI XLI [EPP HMQIRWMSRW %JXIV EHNYWXMRK XLI HMQIR
WMSRWXLI[EPPWIPJ[IMKLXWLSYPHFIGSVVIGXIHERHXLI[EPP
HIWMKR WXVIRKXL WLSYPH FI VIGEPGYPEXIH 8LIWI GEPGYPEXMSRW
WLSYPHFITIVJSVQIHEXXLIYTTIVERHPS[IVWIGXMSRWSJXLI
WEQIWXSV]
{7LIEV
 6IUYMVIHWLIEVWXVIRKXL{*EGXSVIHMRTPERIWLIEV
:YWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHJVSQZIVXMGEPPSEHWERHJVSQLSVM
^SRXEPPSEHWEWMRHMGEXIHF]
 7LIEVWXVIRKXLSJVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI[EPPW
 +IRIVEP{8LIMRJSVQEXMSRMRWLSYPHETTP]
XSXLIHIWMKRSJVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI[EPPWJSVWLIEV-XIQW E 
XLVSYKL H WLSYPHFIYWIH
E  8LI HIWMKR JSV WLIEV TIVTIRHMGYPEV XS XLI [EPP JEGI
SYXSJTPERIWLIEV WLSYPHFIMREGGSVHERGIXSTVSZMWMSRW
JSVWSPMHWPEFWMR8LIHIWMKRJSVMRTPERIWLIEVWLSYPH
FITIVJSVQIHJSPPS[MRK
F 8LI[EPPWLSYPHFIZIVXMGEPP]GSRXMRYSYWJVSQVSSJXS
JSYRHEXMSRERHLEZIRSSTIRMRKWJSV[MRHS[WSVHSSVW
G  8LI[EPPWLSYPHLEZIZIVXMGEPERHLSVM^SRXEPHMWXVMF
YXIH VIMRJSVGIQIRX GSRJSVQMRK XS XLI QMRMQYQ EVIE ERH
QE\MQYQWTEGMRKZEPYIWSJERH
H  8LI HIWMKR WLIEV WXVIRKXL :R WLSYPH FI GSQTYXIH
YWMRK)U  
Vn

Vc Vs



[LIVI :G MW XLI GSRGVIXI GSRXVMFYXMSR XS XLI HIWMKR WLIEV
WXVIRKXL ERH :W MW XLI VIMRJSVGIQIRX GSRXVMFYXMSR XS XLI
HIWMKRWLIEVWXVIRKXLERH !
 'SRXVMFYXMSR SJ GSRGVIXI XS WLIEV WXVIRKXL{%X
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WLSYPHFIGSRWMHIVIHXSGSQTYXI :GYWMRK)U  

Vc

2 fc bw
fc

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(SI)

[LIVI F[MWXLI[EPP[IF[MHXL [MXWLSVM^SRXEPPIRKXLERH


!
 'SRXVMFYXMSRSJVIMRJSVGIQIRXXSWLIEVWXVIRKXL{
'SRXVMFYXMSRSJLSVM^SRXEP[IFVIMRJSVGIQIRXXSXLI[EPPvW
HIWMKRWLIEVWXVIRKXLWLSYPHFI

Vs =

f y bw



[LIVI X MW XLI VEXMS SJ LSVM^SRXEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX J] MW MXW
]MIPHWXVIRKXLERH !
 (IWMKRSJWLIEVVIMRJSVGIQIRX{;LIVIJEGXSVIH
WLIEV :YI\GIIHW :GXLIVEXMSSJLSVM^SRXEPVIMRJSVGIQIRX
WLSYPH RSX FI PIWW XLER XLI EQSYRX HIXIVQMRIH JVSQ )U
E [MXL !
u

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-REHHMXMSR E  F ERH G WLSYPHFIQIX


E 8[SVIMRJSVGIQIRXGYVXEMRWSJFSXLZIVXMGEPERHLSVM
^SRXEPVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFITPEGIH
F :IVXMGEPWXIIPVEXMS Z[WLSYPHRSXFIPIWWXLERXLILSVM
^SRXEPWXIIPVEXMS X[LIVIL[ [MWPIWWXLERERH
G :EPYISJ :RWLSYPHRSXI\GIIHXLIZEPYIKMZIRF])U
F [MXL !
Vn
Vn

Vc +Vs
Vc +Vs

10 f c bw
5
6

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(SI)

F

 7LIEV WXVIRKXL{;EPP WLIEV WXVIRKXL WLSYPH FI


GSQTYXIHEWJSPPS[W
E 3YXSJTPERI[EPPWLIEVWXVIRKXLWLSYPHFIGSQTYXIHMR
EGGSVHERGI[MXLXLITVSZMWMSRWJSVWSPMHWPEFWMR;LIR
JEGXSVIHWLIEV:YI\GIIHW :GEWKMZIRF])U F YWMRK
XLI [EPP LSVM^SRXEP PIRKXL [ MRWXIEH SJ F [EPP XLMGORIWW
WLSYPHFIMRGVIEWIHERHXLI[EPPWIPJ[IMKLXGSVVIGXIHERH
F -RTPERIWLIEVWXVIRKXLWLSYPHFIGSQTYXIHMREGGSV
HERGI[MXL;LIVIJEGXSVIHWLIEV:YI\GIIHW :REW
KMZIRF])U  XLIEQSYRXSJLSVM^SRXEPVIMRJSVGI
QIRXWLSYPHFIMRGVIEWIHGSQTP]MRK[MXL;LIVI
JEGXSVIHWLIEV :YI\GIIHW :REWKMZIRF])U 
F 
[EPPXLMGORIWWWLSYPHFIMRGVIEWIHERHXLI[EPPWIPJ[IMKLX
GSVVIGXIH
{'EPGYPEXMSRSJVIEGXMSRWEXJSYRHEXMSR
 :IVXMGEPPSEHVIEGXMSR{:IVXMGEPPSEHVIEGXMSR6YEX
XLIJSYRHEXMSRWLSYPHFIIUYEPXSXLIZEPYISJ4YEXXLIPS[IV
IRHSJXLI[EPPHMVIGXP]EFSZIXLIJSYRHEXMSR
 1SQIRX VIEGXMSR{9RFEPERGIH QSQIRX VIEGXMSR
1Y MR IEGL TVMRGMTEP HMVIGXMSR EX XLI JSYRHEXMSR WLSYPH

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



FI IUYEP XS XLI ZEPYI SJ 1Y MR XLEX HMVIGXMSR EX XLI PS[IV
IRHSJXLI[EPPHMVIGXP]EFSZIXLIJSYRHEXMSR9RFEPERGIH
QSQIRXWWLSYPHFIHMWXVMFYXIHXSXLIJSYRHEXMSRQIQFIVEW
TVIWGVMFIHMR'LETXIV
{'SVI[EPPW
 +IRIVEP{'SVI [EPPW YRHIV XLMW KYMHI EVI [EPPW
GSQTSWIHSJTPEREVIPIQIRXW[LSWILSVM^SRXEPWIGXMSRLEW
XLIWLETISJER-98SV'%PPSJ'LETXIVERH7IGXMSR
JSVWXVYGXYVIWPSGEXIHMRWIMWQMG^SRIWEVIETTPMGEFPI
XSGSVI[EPPW[MXLXLII\GITXMSRWRSXIHMRGYVVIRX
 )QFIHHIH GSPYQRW EX GSVRIVW{%PP GSVRIVW SJ
MRXIVWIGXMRK TPEREV [EPP WIKQIRXW ERH EPP IHKIW SJ E GSVI
[EPP WLSYPH FI TVSZMHIH [MXL ER IQFIHHIH GSPYQR XLEX
GSQTPMIW[MXLXLIHMQIRWMSREPERHVIMRJSVGIQIRXPMQMXWJSV
GSPYQRW-JETTPMGEFPIXLIWIGSPYQRWWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL
FSYRHEV]IPIQIRXW
 0SEHW{0SEHWSRXLIGSVI[EPPWLSYPHFIGSQTYXIH
EWMRHMGEXIHMR [MXLXLII\GITXMSRXLEXMRMRWXIEH
SJ MRTPERI ERH SYXSJTPERI HMWXMRGXMSR JSV XLI LSVM^SRXEP
PSEHWXLIWIPSEHWWLSYPHFIGEPPIHXLITVMRGMTEPE\MWMRTPER
\ERH]EWWLS[RMR*MK
 (MQIRWMSREPPMQMXW{8LIHMQIRWMSREPPMQMXWEWWIX
JSVXLMRETTP]XSGSVI[EPPWEWMRHMGEXIHJSVIEGLSJ
XLITPEREV[EPPGSQTSRIRXWSJXLIGSVI[EPP
 6IMRJSVGIQIRX HIXEMPW{6IMRJSVGIQIRX HIXEMPW MR
ETTP]XSGSVI[EPPW
 *PI\YVI{*EGXSVIH E\MEP PSEHW 4Y ERH QSQIRXW
1Y EX WIGXMSR YRHIV GSRWMHIVEXMSR WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH
JSPPS[MRK 
*SV GSVI [EPPW XLI JEGXSVIH QSQIRX 1Y WLSYPH FI
GSQTYXIHMRFSXLTVMRGMTEPHMVIGXMSRW[MXLVIWTIGXXSERE\MW
PSGEXIHMRXLIGIRXIVSJXLIWIGXMSRSJXLI[EPPMRXLIHMVIGXMSR
SJMRXIVIWX
1SQIRX WXVIRKXL JSV GSVI [EPPW WLSYPH FI GSQTYXIH EW
JSPPS[W
E  ;LIR XLI [IF SV [IFW SJ XLI GSVI [EPPW EVI MR
compression and the flange in tension due to the flexural
QSQIRX *MK E XLIWEQITVSGIHYVITVIWGVMFIHJSV
TPEREV[EPPWWLSYPHFIYWIHEWTVIWIRXIHMR(MQIRWMSR
LGSVVIWTSRHW XS XLI PIRKXL SJ XLI [EPP MR XLIHMVIGXMSR SJ
XLILSVM^SRXEP JSVGIW GEYWMRK XLIQSQIRX [(MQIRWMSRF
GSVVIWTSRHWXSXLIWYQSJXLI[MHXLWSJXLI[IFWPSGEXIHMR
XLI HMVIGXMSR SJ XLI LSVM^SRXEPJSVGIW GEYWMRK XLIQSQIRX
:IVXMGEP VIMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH FI HMWXVMFYXIH EW %WI ERH
%WWEW MRHMGEXIHMR MRGPYHMRK[EPP ERHIQFIHHIH
GSPYQRZIVXMGEPVIMRJSVGIQIRXEWETTVSTVMEXIHITIRHMRKSR
XLIMVPSGEXMSRMRXLI[EPPWIGXMSR
(b) When the web of the core walls is in tension and the flange
in compression due to the flexural moment (Fig. 12.8.6(b)),
MX MW TIVQMXXIH HYIXS XLI VIWXVMGXMSR MQTSWIH MRE\MEPPSEH
F] 7IGXMSR  XS HMWVIKEVH XLI E\MEP PSEH 4Y [LIR
computing the flexural strength 1RERHYWISRP]XLIPSRKM
XYHMREPVIMRJSVGIQIRXSJXLIIQFIHHIHGSPYQRWMRXIRWMSREW
the flexural reinforcement to compute the required moment
WXVIRKXLYWMRKXLIWEQITVSGIHYVIEWTVIWIRXIHJSV8FIEQW
MR. The limits for effective flange of WLSYPH
FIGSQTPMIH[MXLMRXIVTVIXMRKXLIWTERPIRKXLEWXLILIMKLX

*MK {8]TMGEP GSVI [EPP WLS[MRK IQFIHHIH GSVRIV


GSPYQRW

*MK{4VSGIHYVIJSVGSQTYXMRKXLIQSQIRXWXVIRKXL
SJGSVI[EPP
SJXLI[EPPQIEWYVIHJVSQXLIFEWISJXLI[EPPEXXLIJSYR
dation to the section of interest. The effective flange width
TVIWIRXIH MR  JSV MWSPEXIH 8FIEQW WLSYPH FI YWIH
[LIRXLILSVM^SRXEPWIGXMSRSJXLIGSVI[EPPMW8WLETIH
 7LIEV{*EGXSVIH :Y WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH JVSQ
ZIVXMGEPPSEHWERHJVSQLSVM^SRXEPPSEHWEWMRHMGEXIHF]
8LIWLIEVWXVIRKXL :RSJXLIGSVI[EPPWLSYPHFIGSQTYXIH
JSPPS[MRK  3RP] XLI TPEREV [EPP GSQTSRIRXW XLEX
VIWMWXMRTPERIWLIEVMRXLIHMVIGXMSRSJXLILSVM^SRXEPJSVGIW
GSRXVMFYXIXSXLIGSVI[EPPWLIEVWXVIRKXL;MXLVIJIVIRGIXS
*MKJSVWLIEVMRXLIHMVIGXMSRSJXLI\E\MWHMVIGXMSR
SRP]TPEREV[EPPIPIQIRX'GSRXVMFYXIWXSXLIGSVI[EPPWLIEV
WXVIRKXL ERH JSV WLIEV MR XLI ]E\MW HMVIGXMSR FSXL TPEREV
[EPP IPIQIRXW % ERH & GSRXVMFYXI XS XLI GSVI [EPP WLIEV
WXVIRKXL
',%48)6{38,)67869'896%01)1&)67
{7XEMV[E]WERHVEQTW
 +IRIVEP{8LI HIWMKR SJ WXEMV[E]W ERH VEQTW
WLSYPHFIKSZIVRIHF]MREHHMXMSRXS'LETXIVWERH
 8]TIW SJ WXEMV[E]W ERH VEQTW{6IMRJSVGIH
GSRGVIXI WXEMV[E]W ERH VEQTW GSRWMWX SJ ER MRGPMRIH WPEF
WYTTSVXIH EX MXW IRHW [MXL WXITW JSVQIH YTSR MXW YTTIV
WYVJEGIJSVWXEMV[E]W
8LIYRWYTTSVXIHWTERSJ EWXEMV[E]WPEFWLSYPH FI OITX
reasonably short. If no break occurs in the flight between
floors, intermediate beams, supported by the buildings

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

*MK {1E\MQYQ WXIT VMWI ERH QMRMQYQ WXIT VMWI


ERHXLVIEHMRWXEMV[E]W
WXVYGXYVEP JVEQI[SVO WLSYPH FI YWIH -J XLI WXEMV[E]
between floors is divided into two or more flights, beams
WLSYPHWYTTSVXXLIMRXIVQIHMEXIPERHMRKSVXLIMRXIVQIHMEXI
slab may be suspended from a beam at the upper floor level
F]QIERWSJVSHLERKIVW WQEPPGSPYQRWEGXMRKMRXIRWMSR 
;LIVI GSRHMXMSRW TIVQMX XLI MRXIVQIHMEXI WPEF GSYPH FI
WYTTSVXIH HMVIGXP] F] XLI FYMPHMRKvW I\XIVMSV VIMRJSVGIH
GSRGVIXI[EPPW
 (MQIRWMSREPPMQMXW
 +IRIVEP{8LIFYMPHMRKGSHILEZMRKNYVMWHMGXMSR
SVXLIGSVVIWTSRHMRKVIJIVIRGIHWXERHEVHJVSQKSZIVRW
XLIRIIHIHRYQFIVSJWXEMV[E]WERHQER]SXLIVWXEMVVIPEXIH
HIXEMPW -R XLI EFWIRGI SJ TVIZEMPMRK GSHIW SV WXERHEVHW
XLVSYKLGERFIYWIH
8LMW WIGXMSR TVSZMHIW XLI QE\MQYQ HMWXERGI JVSQ XLI
most remote point in the floor area to the stairway, minimum
stairway width, maximum height of any straight flight,
QE\MQYQLIMKLX SVVMWI SJEWMRKPIWXITQMRMQYQHMWXERGI
XLI VYR  FIX[IIR ZIVXMGEP JEGIW SJ X[S GSRWIGYXMZI WXITW
XLIVIPEXMSRFIX[IIRVMWIERHVYRJSVWEJIX]ERHGSRZIRMIRGI
MRGPMQFMRKERHEGGIWWMFMPMX] VIGSQQIRHEXMSRWJSVTISTPI
[MXLHMWEFMPMXMIW
 1MRMQYQWXEMV[MHXL{1MRMQYQWXEMV[MHXLERH
QMRMQYQPERHMRKHMQIRWMSRWLSYPHFIJX Q 
 1E\MQYQ WXIT VMWI ERH QMRMQYQ WXIT VMWI ERH
XVIEH{1E\MQYQWXEMVWXITVMWIWLSYPHFIMR QQ 
%WXEMVWXITVMWIPIWWXLERMR QQ WLSYPHRSXFI
YWIHMRFYMPHMRKMRXIVREPWXEMV[E]W1MRMQYQ VYRSVXVIEH
[MHXL I\GPYWMZI SJ RSWMRK WLSYPH FI  MR  QQ 
*MK 
8LI JSPPS[MRK VIGSQQIRHEXMSR QE] FI YWIH JSV WXITW
[MXLSYXRSWMRKXLIWYQSJVMWIERHVYRMWMR QQ 
FYXVMWIMWRSXPIWWXLERMR QQ RSVQSVIXLER
MR QQ 
 Maximum height of a straight flight between
PERHMRKW{*SV WXEMV[E]W WIVZMRK EW I\MXW JVSQ TPEGIW SJ
assembly, a maximum height of a straight flight between
PERHMRKWWLSYPHFIJX Q *SVSXLIVGEWIWEQE\MQYQ
height of a straight flight between landings should be 12 ft
Q 
 2YQFIV SJ WXEMV[E]W{8LI RYQFIV SJ WXEMV[E]W
MWKSZIVRIHF]XLIWXEMVWPEF[MHXLXLIRYQFIVSJTVSFEFPI
occupants on each floor, and the floor area dimensions. The
RYQFIVSJWXEMV[E]WWLSYPHFIEWMRHMGEXIHF] E  F ERH G 

(a) Distance from any point in an open floor area to nearest


WXEMV[E]SVI\MXWLSYPHRSXI\GIIHJX Q 
F 'SVVIWTSRHMRKHMWXERGIEPSRKGSVVMHSVWMRETEVXMGYPEV
EVIEWLSYPHRSXI\GIIHJX Q ERH
G 'SQFMRIH[MHXLSJEPPWXEMV[E]WMRER]WXSV]WLSYPH
EGGSQQSHEXIEXSRIXMQIXLIXSXEPRYQFIVSJTIVWSRWSGGY
pying the largest floor area served by the stairs above the
floor area under consideration on the basis of one person for
IEGLJX Q SJWXEMV[MHXLERHXVIEHWSRXLIWXEMVW
ERHSRITIVWSRJSVIEGLJX Q) of floor area on the
PERHMRKWERHLEPPW[MXLMRXLIWXEMV[E]IRGPSWYVI
 Fireproofing enclosure{-RFYMPHMRKWSZIVJX
Q MRLIMKLXERHMRGSQQIVGMEPFYMPHMRKWVIKEVHPIWWSJ
height, the stairways should be completely enclosed by fireresistant partitions with a minimum 1-hour fire rating with
EXPIEWXSRIWXEMV[E]GSRXMRYMRKXSXLIVSSJ%RSTIRSVRE
mental stairway may be used from the main entrance floor
to the floor next above, provided it is not the only stairway.
 %GGIWW JSV TISTPI [MXL HMWEFMPMXMIW{(MWEFPIH
TISTPIWLSYPHLEZIJYPPEGGIWWXSEPPTYFPMGFYMPHMRKW  
)EGL TYFPMG FYMPHMRK WLSYPH TVSZMHI GSRXMRYSYW YRSF
WXVYGXIH VSYXIW F] [LMGL TL]WMGEPP] HMWEFPIH TIVWSRW GER
TEVO XLIMV ZILMGPIW SV PIEZI TYFPMG XVERWTSVXEXMSR QSZI XS
XLIFYMPHMRKIRXIVVIEGLZMVXYEPP]ER]TSMRXMRXLIFYMPHMRK
ERH LEZI EGGIWW XS WYGL MRXIVMSV EQIRMXMIW EW [SVOTPEGIW
VIXEMP GSYRXIVW XMGOIX [MRHS[W HVMROMRK JSYRXEMRW XSMPIX
and washroom fixtures, and public telephones. The unob
WXVYGXIHVSYXIWLSYPHRSXMRGPYHIWXEMVWERHVEQTWWLSYPHFI
TVSZMHIH1E\MQYQVEQTWPSTIWLSYPHRSXI\GIIHEWPSTI
SJZIVXMGEPXSLSVM^SRXEP
 7XVYGXYVEPHIWMKR
 +IRIVEP{% VIMRJSVGIH GSRGVIXI WXEMV[E]
GSRWMWXWSJERMRGPMRIHWPEFWYTTSVXIHEXMXWIRHWF]QIQFIVW
of the floor system, or auxiliary members between floors,
[MXLWXEMV[E]WXITWJSVQIHSRXLIYTTIVWYVJEGI7XEMV[E]W
ERHVEQTWWLSYPHQIIXXS
 Design load definition{8LI HIWMKR PSEH JSV
WXEMV[E]ERHVEQTWPEFWWLSYPHFIIWXEFPMWLIHJVSQ'LETXIV
+VEZMX]PSEHWWLSYPHMRGPYHIHIEHPSEHWERHETTVSTVMEXIPMZI
PSEHW JSV WXEMV[E]W (IEH PSEH UH WLSYPH MRGPYHI XLI WPEF
and steps self-weight, and the flat and standing nonstructural
elements as defined in 0MZIPSEHU WLSYPHFIHIXIV
QMRIHF]8LIJEGXSVIHXSXEPPSEHUYWLSYPHFIXLIPEVKIWX
ZEPYIHIXIVQMRIHJVSQPSEHGSQFMREXMSRWJSVUHERHU YWMRK
)U E ERH)U F 
 6IMRJSVGIQIRX HIXEMPW{6IMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH
GSQTP][MXLWSPMHWPEFWERHWMRKPIWTERSRI[E]
WSPMHWPEFW;LIVIXLIWXEMV[E]SVVEQTMWGSRXMRYSYW[MXL
E LSVM^SRXEP WPEF PSRKMXYHMREP VIMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH FI
GSRXMRYIH WXVEMKLX [MXLMR XLIWPEF YRXMP MXVIEGLIWXLI STTS
WMXII\XIVREPWPEFWYVJEGI[LIVIMXWLSYPHFIFIRXERHIMXLIV
GSRXMRYIH XS XLI STTSWMXI I\XIVREP WYVJEGI SV HIZIPSTIH EW
MRHMGEXIHMR *MK 
 (MQIRWMSREP VIUYMVIQIRXW{(MQIRWMSREP PMQMXW
JSVWMRKPIWTERSRI[E]WPEFWKMZIRMRWLSYPHFIQIX
 6IUYMVIH QSQIRX WXVIRKXL{6IUYMVIH QSQIRX
WXVIRKXL WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH JSPPS[MRK  8LI WTER
WLSYPHFIIUYEPXSXLILSVM^SRXEPHMWXERGIFIX[IIRWYTTSVXW

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



*MK{8]TMGEPVIMRJSVGIQIRXHIXEMPW

The influence of the slab slope and the slab bend on the
JEGXSVIHQSQIRXGEPGYPEXMSRWLSYPHFIHMWVIKEVHIH
 7LIEV WXVIRKXL{*EGXSVIH WLIEV WLSYPH FI
GSQTYXIHJSPPS[MRK
 7YTTSVX VIEGXMSR{7YTTSVX VIEGXMSRW WLSYPH FI
GSQTYXIHJSPPS[MRK
 (IWMKR SJ XLI WYTTSVXW{7YTTSVXMRK QIQFIVW
WLSYPHFIHIWMKRIHJSVVIEGXMSRWHIXIVQMRIHMR
 'SRWXVYGXMSR HIXEMPW{9WYEP TVEGXMGI MW XS
GSRWXVYGXWXEMV[E]W EJXIVXLI QEMR WXVYGXYVEP JVEQI[SVOSJ
XLI FYMPHMRK LEW FIIR GSQTPIXIH 6IGIWWIW EVI PIJX MR XLI
FIEQWXSWYTTSVXXLIWXEMV[E]WPEFERHHS[IPWEVITVSZMHIH
XSJYVRMWLXLIRIGIWWEV]ERGLSVEKI3GGEWMSREPP]LS[IZIV
stairways are constructed at the same time as the floors,
ERH WS RIKEXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX MW JYVRMWLIH EX XLI
WXEMV[E]WPEFWYTTSVXEWMRER]GSRXMRYSYWFIEQGSRWXVYG
XMSR 7XITW EVI YWYEPP] QSRSPMXLMG [MXL XLI WPEF FYX XLI]
GERFIQSPHIHEJXIVXLIQEMRWPEFMWMRTPEGI-RXLIPEXXIV
MRWXERGITVSZMWMSRWWLSYPHFIQEHIJSVWIGYVMRKXLIWXITXS
XLIWPEFXLVSYKLWQEPPHMEQIXIVHS[IPFEVW
{7QEPP[EXIVXEROW JSVTSXEFPI[EXIV
WXSVEKI
 +IRIVEPSection 13.2.1 provides simplified guide
PMRIWJSVXLIHIWMKRERHGSRWXVYGXMSRSJWQEPP[EXIVWXSVEKI
XEROW MRXIRHIH JSV XLI WSPI YWI SJ XLI FYMPHMRK SGGYTERXW
8LIWIXEROWWLSYPHFIIMXLIVWYTTSVXIHF]XLIWXVYGXYVISV
[LIVIWYTTSVXIHF]XLIWSMPWLSYPHEWTEVXSJEFYMPHMRKFI
SRXLIWYVJEGISVTEVXMEPP]SVXSXEPP]FYVMIH7IGXMSR
WLSYPHETTP]7IGXMSRWLSYPHRSXFIYWIHMRXLIHIWMKR
ERH GSRWXVYGXMSR SJ KIRIVEP IRZMVSRQIRXEP ERH WERMXEV]
WXVYGXYVIW 8LMW KYMHI EWWYQIW XLI IRKMRIIV LEW PMQMXIH
I\TIVMIRGI[MXL[EXIVXEROWERHMWRSXMRXIRHIHXSVITPEGI
%'-  JSV XLI HIWMKR SJ WXERHEPSRI [EXIV WXSVEKI
XEROW%'-MWVIGSQQIRHIHJSVXLIHIWMKRSJPEVKIV
[EXIVWXSVEKIXEROWERHVIPEXIHIRZMVSRQIRXEPWXVYGXYVIW
 Load definition

 0SEHWXSFIMRGPYHIH{0SEHWJSVXEROWWLSYPHFI
IWXEFPMWLIHJVSQ'LETXIV0SEHW E XLVSYKL J WLSYPHFI
MRGPYHIH
E  (IEH PSEHW WIPJ[IMKLX SJ XERO GSQTSRIRXW ERH EPP
HIEHPSEHWWYTTSVXIHF]XLIXEROvWXSTWPEFWYGLEWWXVYG
tural and nonstructural elements, earth-fill over buried tanks,
and fixed equipment loads;
F 0MZIPSEHWJVSQXVMFYXEV]WXVYGXYVEPQIQFIVWWYTTSVXIH
F]XLIXEROPMZIPSEHWWYTTSVXIHF]XLIXEROvWXSTWPEFERH
live loads on the surface of the earth-fill over buried tanks;
G 0EXIVEPIEVXLTVIWWYVIMRFYVMIHXEROW
H &YS]ERG]JSVGISRFYVMIHSVTEVXMEPP]FYVMIHIQTX]
XEROW
(e) Internal fluid pressure from liquid contained by the
XEROERH
J  7IMWQMG PSEHW JVSQ XEROW WYTTSVXIH F] XLI FYMPHMRK
WYGLEWEXEROPSGEXIHSRXLIVSSJSVEXER]SXLIVWXSV]SJXLI
FYMPHMRK2SXIXLEXEJYPP[EXIVXEROGERVIXEMREPEVKIQEWW
of water and can therefore create a significant seismic load.
 *EGXSVIHPSEHW{*EGXSVIHPSEHWWLSYPHFIHIXIV
QMRIHYWMRKPSEHWMRGPYHIHMRERHGSQFMRIHYWMRK
PSEHGSQFMREXMSRIUYEXMSRWSJ6IWYPXMRKJEGXSVIHPSEHW
WLSYPHFIMRGVIEWIHF]TIVGIRX QYPXMTPMIHF] *SV
XEROW [MXLMR XLI WGSTI SJ XLMW KYMHI XLMW GEPGYPEXMSR MW E
satisfactory simplification of the ACI 350-06 detailed calcu
PEXMSR JSV IRZMVSRQIRXEP HYVEFMPMX] (YI GEVI WLSYPH FI
XEOIR MR HIXIVQMRMRK [LMGL PSEHW GER EGX WMQYPXERISYWP]
[MXLSXLIVPSEHW
 (MQIRWMSREPPMQMXW
 'SRGVIXI GSZIV{1MRMQYQ GSRGVIXI GSZIV JSV
VIMRJSVGIQIRXMRXLIXEROJSYRHEXMSRWLSYPHFIMR QQ 
ERH QMRMQYQ GSZIV JSV EPP SXLIV VIMRJSVGIQIRX MR XEROW
WLSYPHFIMR QQ 
 .SMRXW{.SMRXW WLSYPH FI YWIH XS PMQMX ZSPYQIXVMG
GSRGVIXI GLERKIW HYI XS HV]MRK WLVMROEKI GVIIT ERH
XIQTIVEXYVIZEVMEXMSR%PPGSRXVEGXMSRSVGSRWXVYGXMSRNSMRXW
WLSYPH LEZI [EXIVWXSTW 1E\MQYQ WTEGMRK FIX[IIR NSMRXW
WLSYPHRSXI\GIIHJX Q 

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

 1MRMQYQXLMGORIWWSJ[EPPWERHWPEFW{8ERO[EPPW
ERHWPEFWWLSYPHLEZIEQMRMQYQXLMGORIWWSJMR QQ 
;EPPWERHWPEFW[MXLGPIEVWTERWKVIEXIVXLERJX Q WLSYPH
LEZIEQMRMQYQXLMGORIWWSJMR QQ 
 *PI\YVI
 1MRMQYQ VIMRJSVGIQIRX VEXMS{1MRMQYQ VIMR
JSVGIQIRXVEXMS MRER]HMVIGXMSRWLSYPHFI
 1MRMQYQ VIMRJSVGMRK FEV HMEQIXIV{1MRMQYQ
VIMRJSVGMRK FEV HMEQIXIV HF WLSYPH FI MR  QQ  JSV
XERO[EPPWERHWPEFWYTXSMR QQ MRXLMGORIWWERH
 MR  QQ  JSV XERO [EPP ERH WPEFW XLMGOIV XLER  MR
QQ 
 1E\MQYQ FEV WTEGMRK{1E\MQYQ FEV WTEGMRK
MRVIKMSRWSJQE\MQYQQSQIRXWLSYPHFIMR QQ 
 *PI\YVEPVIMRJSVGIQIRXEVIE{*PI\YVEPVIMRJSVGI
QIRXEVIEWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHEWJSVWSPMHWPEFWYWMRK
 7LIEV{7LIEVWXVIRKXLWLSYPHFIGSQTYXIHYWMRK
WSPMHWPEFW
 'SRGVIXIMRXEROW{'SRGVIXIYWIHMRXEROGSRWXVYG
XMSRWLSYPHQIIX E XLVSYKL I 
E 1MRMQYQ[GWLSYPHFI
(b) Outside finish should be as smooth as practicable and
inside surface should be a broom finish to reduce slip hazard;
G  1E\MQYQ RSQMREP EKKVIKEXI WM^I WLSYPH FI EW
TIVQMXXIHF]-XMWVIGSQQIRHIHXSYWIXLIPEVKIWXEKKVI
KEXITSWWMFPIXSVIHYGIWLVMROEKI
H 'SRGVIXIWLSYPHFIGSQTEGXIHEWWSSREWMXMWHITSWMXIH
MRXLIJSVQWERH
I 1MRMQYQQSMWXGYVMRKXMQIWLSYPHFIHE]WOIITMRK
GSRGVIXI HEQT HYVMRK XLEX XMQI 8LMW GER FI EGLMIZIH F]
QEMRXEMRMRK[EPPJSVQWMRTPEGI
',%48)6{*392(%8-327
{7SMPMRZIWXMKEXMSR
 &SVMRKWA properly planned field exploration and
laboratory investigation should be conducted by a qualified
KISXIGLRMGEP IRKMRIIV [LS LEW I\TIVMIRGI MR XLI PSGEXMSR
SJ XLI TVSTSWIH FYMPHMRK -X WLSYPH GSRJSVQ XS 
SVFSXL
 ,ERHEYKIV{7IZIVEPX]TIWSJGYXXMRKTSMRXWEVI
EHZERGIH QERYEPP] SV F] TS[IV IUYMTQIRX 8LI HITXL SJ
XLIWILSPIWMWKIRIVEPP]PMQMXIHXSJX Q [MXLJX Q 
FIMRKXLIQSWXGSQQSR
 4IVGYWWMSR HVMPPMRK{% WXERHEVH TIRIXVEXMSR
XIWX 748 GERFITIVJSVQIHF]QIERWSJETIVGYWWMZIXSSP
EXXEGLIHXSXLIVMK8LI748MW[MHIP]YWIHERHI\XIRWMZIP]
VIJIVIRGIH
 -RTPEGI XIWXW{1IXLSHW SJ MRZIWXMKEXMSR WLSYPH
TVSZMHIMRJSVQEXMSRVIJIVVMRKXSMXIQWMR
ERH
 4IRIXVEXMSRXIWXW{8[SX]TIWSJTIRIXVEXMSRXIWXW
WLSYPHFIGSRWMHIVIH
E  748{8LI 748 GSRWMWXW SJ GSYRXMRK XLI RYQFIV SJ
FPS[W 2RIGIWWEV]XSTVSHYGIEMR QQ TIRIXVEXMSR
SJEWXERHEVHWTPMXWTSSRMRXSXLIWSMP7XERHEVH[IMKLXYWIH
MRXLIXIWXMWPF OK ERHMXMWHVSTTIHJVSQEWXERHEVH
LIMKLXSJMR QQ ERH

F  'SRI TIRIXVEXMSR XIWX '48 {8LI '48 GSRWMWXW SJ


TYWLMRKEHIKVIIGSRISJMR QQ FEWIEVIE
MRXSXLIWSMPEXEGSRWXERXVEXISJMRW QQW 8LI
JSVGIRIIHIHXSEHZERGIXLIGSRIHMZMHIHF]XLIFEWIEVIEMW
XLIGSRIVIWMWXERGIUG
 0SEH XIWXW{;LIVI MX MW YWIJYP MRZIWXMKEXI XLI
FIEVMRKGETEGMX]SJEXIVVEMRF]QIERWSJERIPIQIRXEV]PSEH
XIWXGSQTP]MRK[MXL E XLVSYKL I 
E  8IWX WLSYPH FI GSRHYGXIH MR E TMX LEZMRK E [MHXL EX
PIEWXXLVIIXMQIWXLEXSJXLIPSEHTPEXI
F %JXIVIEGLPSEHMRGVIQIRXXLIGSVVIWTSRHMRKHIJSVQEXMSR
MWSFWIVZIHERHVIGSVHIH
G  0SEHWIXXPIQIRX VIPEXMSRWLMT WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH
IMXLIVXSXLITSMRXSJJEMPYVISVXSEPSEHZEPYIXLVIIXMQIW
XLEXERXMGMTEXIHJSVWIVZMGI
H  9RJEGXSVIH EPPS[EFPI WSMP GETEGMX] WLSYPH FI HIXIV
QMRIHEWEZEPYILEZMRKEJEGXSVSJWEJIX]SJJSVXLIPIEWX
JEZSVEFPIWMXYEXMSRSVXLEXTVSHYGMRKEWIXXPIQIRXRSXPEVKIV
XLERMR QQ [LMGLIZIVMWPIWWERH
I  )\TPSVIXLIWSMPFIRIEXLJSSXMRKWXSEHITXLSJXLVII
XMQIWMXWPEVKIWXWM^IXSSZIVGSQIXIWXQMWMRXIVTVIXEXMSRW
 7SMPWVITSVX{8LIWSMPWVITSVXWLSYPHGSRXEMREWE
QMRMQYQMRJSVQEXMSRVIPEXIHXS
E 0SGEXMSR
F 7MXIXSTSKVETL]
G 7XVEXMKVETL]
H +VSYRH[EXIVIPIZEXMSR
I +VSYRHWYVJEGIIPIZEXMSRERH
J  0SGEP GSRHMXMSRW RIIHMRK WTIGMEP GSRWMHIVEXMSR WYGL
EW WSMP WXVIRKXL GSQTVIWWMFMPMX] I\TERWMSR TSXIRXMEP
GSQQIRXWSRGSPPETWMFMPMX]PMUYIJEGXMSRTSXIRXMEPERHPSGEP
LMWXSV]SJXLITIVJSVQERGISJX]TMGEPGSRWXVYGXMSRQIXLSHW
{%PPS[EFPIWSMPFIEVMRKGETEGMX]
 %PPS[EFPIFIEVMRKGETEGMX]JSVKVERYPEVWSMPW
 7XERHEVH TIRIXVEXMSR XIWX{8LI EPPS[EFPI
FIEVMRK GETEGMX] UE MR PFJX O4E ?O2QA  JSV KVERYPEV
WSMPW WLSYPH FI IWXMQEXIH EW E TVSHYGX SJ XLI FPS[ GSYRX
2 QIEWYVIH F] QIERW SJ XLI 748 YWMRK XLI VIPEXMSRWLMT
HIWGVMFIHF])U  
UE!2?UE!2 7- A



 'SRI TIRIXVEXMSR XIWX{*SV QIHMYQWM^I


KVERYPEVWSMP[LIR GSRI TIRIXVEXMSR HEXEEVIEZEMPEFPI
EPPS[EFPI FIEVMRK GETEGMX] U E WLSYPH FI IZEPYEXIH F]
QIERWSJ)U  
UE!UG



 %PPS[EFPI FIEVMRK GETEGMX] JSV GSLIWMZI WSMPW{


%PPS[EFPIFIEVMRKGETEGMX]UEJSVGSLIWMZIWSMPWWLSYPHFI
XEOIREW
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UY!WY

E

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)U F WLSYPHFIYWIHJSVSFXEMRMRKEPPS[EFPIFIEVMRK

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

8EFPI {1E\MQYQTIVQMXXIHEPPS[EFPI
FIEVMRKGETEGMXMIW
7SMP
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7SJXGPE]
*MVQGPE]
;IXWERH
7ERHERHGPE]QM\IH
*MRIHV]WERH GSQTEGX
,EVHGPE]
'SEVWIHV]WERH GSQTEGX
7ERHERHKVEZIPQM\IH GSQTEGX
+VEZIP GSQTEGX
7SJXVSGO
,EVHTERSVLEVHWLEPI
1IHMYQVSGO
,EVHVSGO

&IEVMRK
GETEGMX]
UEPFJX















&IEVMRKGETEGMX]
UEO4E O2Q
c














GETEGMX] UE MR PFJX O4E ?O2QA  JSV WSMPW RSX ZIV] WSJX
ZEPYIWHIXIVQMRIHEVIRSXVIPMEFPIJSVZIV]WSJXWSMPW 
UE!2?UE!2 7- A

F

;LIR '48 HEXE EVI EZEMPEFPI XLI VIPEXMSR I\TVIWWIH MR


)U G WLSYPHFIYWIHSRP][LIRGSPPEXIVEPQIERWSJ
bearing capacity confirmation exist.

qa

qc
12

G

 4VSGIHYVIWXSSFXEMREPPS[EFPIFIEVMRKGETEGMX]{
4VSGIHYVIW XS IZEPYEXI EPPS[EFPI FIEVMRK GETEGMX] UE
HIWGVMFIHMRERHWLSYPHFIYWIHMRGEWIWXLEX
GSRJSVQXS E XLVSYKL K 
E %JSVQEPWSMPFIEVMRKGETEGMX]VIGSQQIRHEXMSRJVSQ
EKISXIGLRMGEPIRKMRIIVHSIWRSXI\MWXSVWMXII\TPSVEXMSRLEW
RSXFIIRTIVJSVQIH
F  7XVIRKXL TEVEQIXIVWGSVVIWTSRH XS XLI QIERTVSTIVXMIW
SJ XLI FIEVMRK WXVEXYQ SV PE]IV WYTTSVXMRK PSEHW ETTPMIH
XLVSYKLJSYRHEXMSRXSXLIWSMP
(c) Ground surface is nearly flat;
H &EWISJWXVYGXYVIMWLSVM^SRXEP
I *SSXMRKHITXLMWXLIWEQIQEKRMXYHIEWMXW[MHXL
J ;EXIVPIZIPMWFIPS[EHITXLSJX[MGIXLI[MHXLSJXLI
PEVKIWXJSSXMRKERH
(g) In stratified or multi-layered soils, the smallest value
SJXLIGSVVIWTSRHMRKWSMPWXVIRKXLWMWYWIH
:EPYIW KMZIR MR 8EFPI  GSVVIWTSRH XS EZIVEKI
FIEVMRKGETEGMXMIWJSVZEVMSYWX]TIWSJWSMPWEXEHITXLSJJX
(1 m). These values may be used as verification for values
HIXIVQMRIHXLVSYKLI\TPSVEXMSR
 %PPS[EFPI FIEVMRK GETEGMX] MRGVIEWI JSV [MRH
ERH WIMWQMG{%PPS[EFPI FIEVMRK GETEGMX] UE HIXIVQMRIH
XLVSYKL TVSGIHYVIW MR 'LETXIV  SV JVSQ KISXIGLRMGEP
MRZIWXMKEXMSRWLSYPHFIMRGVIEWIHF]SRIXLMVH[LIRFIMRK
GSQTYXIHJSVPSEHWXLEXMRGPYHIIJJIGXWSJ[MRHSVWIMWQMG



{7IXXPIQIRXGVMXIVME
To define an allowable bearing capacity UEJSV EGIVXEMR
WSMPMREGIVXEMRPSGEXMSREVIEWSREFPIWIXXPIQIRXWLSYPHFI
HIXIVQMRIH
%VIEWSREFPIWIXXPIQIRXZEVMIWFIX[IIRERHMR ERH
 QQ  ERHXLI QIXLSHW WXEXIH WLSYPH TVSHYGI ZEPYIW MR
XLEXVERKI0SGEPTVIGIHIRXGERFIYWIH[LIVIRSEHHMXMSREP
MRJSVQEXMSRMWEZEMPEFPILS[IZIVWLSYPHWMXIGSRHMXMSRWFI
WYGLXLEXTVIGIHIRXMWRSPSRKIVETTPMGEFPIFIGEYWITEVXMGYPEV
soils are very soft or because other difficult conditions are
JSVIWIIR XLIR E GSQTPIXI KISXIGLRMGEP EREP]WMW WLSYPH FI
GSRHYGXIH
{(MQIRWMSRMRKJSYRHEXMSRQIQFIVW
1MRMQYQ LSVM^SRXEP JSYRHEXMSR EVIE GSRXEGXMRK FIEVMRK
WSMPWLSYPHFIGSQTYXIHF]HMZMHMRKXLIWYQSJEPPYRJEG
XSVIHZIVXMGEPPSEHWXVMFYXEV]XSXLIJSYRHEXMSRQIQFIVF]
XLIEPPS[EFPIWSMPFIEVMRKGETEGMX]UE
{7TVIEHJSSXMRKW
 +IRIVEP{-WSPEXIH JSSXMRKW WLSYPH FI HIWMKRIH
YWMRK  ;EPP JSSXMRKW WLSYPH GSQTP] [MXL  ERH
8LMWWIGXMSRETTPMIWXSJSSXMRKWXLEXGERFIWYFNIGXIH
to flexural moments from the supported column or wall. The
EREP]WMWERHHIWMKRSJWSPMHQEXWERHHIITJSYRHEXMSRWWYGL
EWTMPIWEVIFI]SRHXLIWGSTISJXLMWKYMHI
 Load definition and area of the footing
 0SEHW XS FI MRGPYHIH{8LI HIWMKR SJ WTVIEH
JSSXMRKWWLSYPHMRGPYHIXLIPSEHWMR E XS G EWWLS[R
MR *MK
(a) The soil fill weight on top of the footing, and all dead
and live loads applied to the fill, plus the footing self-weight.
-XQE]FIEWWYQIHXLEXXLIJSSXMRKLEWXLIWEQIHIRWMX]EW
the soil for a first trial, to be corrected as the footing size is
defined. The sum of the pressure on the bearing soil is called
XLISZIVFYVHIRTVIWWYVIUS
F 8LIYRJEGXSVIHPSEHIJJIGXWXVERWJIVVIHF]XLIGSPYQR
SV[EPPXSXLIJSSXMRKJVSQEPPWSYVGIWMRGPYHMRKHIEHPMZI
[MRHWIMWQMGERHSXLIVPSEHWEWTVIWGVMFIHF]'LETXIV
I\TVIWWIHEWYRJEGXSVIHE\MEPPSEHWQSQIRXWERHWLIEVW
G  %W ER EPXIVREXI XS F  YRJEGXSVIH E\MEP PSEH QE] FI
SFXEMRIHJVSQYRJEGXSVIHYRMXPSEHWMRGPYHMRKWIPJ[IMKLX
multiplied by column or wall tributary area from all floors
WYTTSVXIHF]MX*EGXSVIH[MRHIJJIGXWWLSYPHFIGSRZIVXIH
XSYRJEGXSVIHZEPYIWF]HMZMHMRKJEGXSVIHZEPYIWF]ERH
WIMWQMGIJJIGXWGSRZIVXIHXSYRJEGXSVIH ZEPYIWF]HMZMHMRK
JEGXSVIHZEPYIWF]
 1E\MQYQYRJEGXSVIHZIVXMGEPPSEH{9RJEGXSVIH
E\MEPPSEHWETTPMIHF]XLIGSPYQRSV[EPPXLVSYKLXLIJSSXMRK
XSXLIYRHIVP]MRKWSMPSZIVFYVHIRPSEHWXVERWQMXXIHF]XLI
fill, the fill weight, and the footing self-weight should be
GSQFMRIHEGGSVHMRK XS PSEH GEWIW SJ  [MXLSYX ETTP]MRK
PSEHJEGXSVW'EWIW E ERH F WLSYPHFIMRZIWXMKEXIH
E 4ZQE\MQYQZIVXMGEPYRJEGXSVIHPSEHI\GPYHMRK[MRH
SVWIMWQMGERH
F 4SZ QE\MQYQ ZIVXMGEP YRJEGXSVIH PSEH MRGPYHMRK
PEXIVEPPSEH [MRHSVWIMWQMG SZIVXYVRMRKIJJIGXW

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

*MK{0SEHWEGXMRKSRJSSXMRKW

*MK{8]TIWSJWTVIEHJSSXMRKW
 1MRMQYQ JSSXMRK EVIE{1MRMQYQ JSSXMRK EVIE
%J WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH EW XLIKVIEXIV EVIE SFXEMRIH JVSQ
)U E SV)U F 
E  *SVQE\MQYQZIVXMGEP YRJEGXSVIH PSEH4ZI\GPYHMRK
PEXIVEPPSEHW [MRHSVWIMWQMG SZIVXYVRMRKIJJIGXW
E
F *SVQE\MQYQZIVXMGEPYRJEGXSVIHPSEH4SZMRGPYHMRK
PEXIVEPPSEHW [MRHSVWIMWQMG SZIVXYVRMRKIJJIGXW
Af =

Pov
(1.33qa e qo )

F

 *EGXSVIH WSMP VIEGXMSR{*EGXSVIH RIX WSMP VIEGXMSR


UYRWLSYPHFIGSQTYXIHF]HMZMHMRKXLIPEVKIWXJEGXSVIHE\MEP
PSEHEXXLIGSPYQRSV[EPPFEWI4YFF]XLIJSSXMRKEVIE8LI
JSSXMRKEVIEWLSYPHGSRJSVQXSERH
 (MQIRWMSREP PMQMXW{*SSXMRK HMQIRWMSRW WLSYPH
GSQTP][MXLXLVSYKL
 4PERWLETI{7TVIEHJSSXMRKWWLSYPHFIWUYEVISV
VIGXERKYPEVMRTPER
 7]QQIXV]{7TVIEH JSSXMRKW WLSYPH LEZI XLI
GSPYQR SV [EPP PSGEXIH EX XLI JSSXMRK EVIE GIRXVSMH 8LMW
MW[EMZIHMJMRHYGIHQSQIRXWERHEHHMXMSREPWSMPTVIWWYVI
QIIXXLIPMQMXWMR
 1MRMQYQ HITXL XS FIEVMRK WSMP{1MRMQYQ
ZIVXMGEP HMWXERGI JVSQ XLI WSMP WYVJEGI XS JSSXMRK FSXXSQ
JSSXMRKWSMPMRXIVJEGI WLSYPHFIJX Q 
 1MRMQYQ JSSXMRK EVIE{1MRMQYQ JSSXMRK
HMQIRWMSRMRTPERWLSYPHFIJX Q 

 1MRMQYQ JSSXMRK XLMGORIWW{*SSXMRK HITXL


EFSZI FSXXSQ VIMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH RSX FI PIWW XLER  MR
QQ 
 7PSTIHSVWXITTIHJSSXMRKW{-RWPSTIHSVWXITTIH
JSSXMRKWERKPISJWPSTISVHITXLERHPSGEXMSRSJWXITWWLSYPH
WEXMWJ]HIWMKRERHHMQIRWMSREPPMQMXWEXIZIV]WIGXMSR7PSTIH
SVWXITTIHJSSXMRKWHIWMKRIHEWEYRMXWLSYPHFIGSRWXVYGXIH
XSIRWYVIEGXMSREWEYRMX*MKYVIWLS[WXLIX]TIWSJ
WTVIEHJSSXMRKW[MXLMRXLIWGSTISJXLMWKYMHI
 *SSXMRKWWYTTSVXMRKGMVGYPEVWLETIHGSPYQRW{
*SV PSGEXMSRW SJ GVMXMGEP WIGXMSR JSV QSQIRXW WLIEV ERH
HIZIPSTQIRX SJ VIMRJSVGIQIRX MR JSSXMRKW GMVGYPEVWLETIH
GSRGVIXIGSPYQRWWLSYPHFIXVIEXIHEWWUYEVIGSPYQRW[MXL
XLIWEQIEVIE
 6IMRJSVGIQIRXHIXEMPW
 +IRIVEP{6IMRJSVGIQIRX X]TI ERH GLEVEGXIVMW
XMGWMRWTVIEHJSSXMRKWWLSYPHFIEWHIWGVMFIHMR
 0SGEXMSR SJ VIMRJSVGIQIRX{6IMRJSVGIQIRX
WLSYPHFITVSZMHIHMRXLIPS[IV TEVXSJWTVIEH JSSXMRKWMR
FSXLHMVIGXMSRW6IMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFIPSGEXIHEWGPSWIXS
JSSXMRKFSXXSQEWTVEGXMGEFPIJSPPS[MRKXLIGSRGVIXIGSZIVSJ
-RVIGXERKYPEVGSPYQRJSSXMRKWVIMRJSVGIQIRXTEVEPPIP
XS XLI WLSVXIV WMHI WLSYPH FI PSGEXIH EFSZI VIMRJSVGIQIRX
TEVEPPIP XS XLI PSRKIV WMHI -R [EPP JSSXMRKWVIMRJSVGIQIRX
TIVTIRHMGYPEV XS XLI TPERI SJ XLI [EPP WLSYPH FI PSGEXIH
YRHIVXLIVIMRJSVGIQIRXTEVEPPIPXSXLI[EPP
 1MRMQYQGPIEVWTEGMRKFIX[IIRTEVEPPIPFEVW{
1MRMQYQ GPIEV WTEGMRK FIX[IIR TEVEPPIP FEVW MR E PE]IV
WLSYPH FI XLIPEVKIWX FEV RSQMREP FEVHMEQIXIV HFFYXRSX
PIWWXLERMR QQ 
 1E\MQYQ WTEGMRK{-R WTVIEH JSSXMRKW VIMR
JSVGIQIRX WLSYPH FI WTEGIH RS JEVXLIV ETEVX XLER XLVII
XMQIWXLIJSSXMRKXLMGORIWWRSVMR QQ -RWUYEVI
GSPYQRJSSXMRKWERHMR[EPPJSSXMRKWVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPH

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



FIHMWXVMFYXIHYRMJSVQP]EGVSWWXLIIRXMVIJSSXMRK[MHXL-R
VIGXERKYPEVGSPYQRJSSXMRKWMRXLIPSRKHMVIGXMSRVIMRJSVGI
QIRXWLSYPHFIYRMJSVQP]HMWXVMFYXIHEGVSWWXLI[MHXLERH
MRXLIWLSVXHMVIGXMSRVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFIJEGXSVIHF]
XLIZEPYIKMZIRMR)U  ERHYRMJSVQP]HMWXVMFYXIH
EGVSWWXLIIRXMVIJSSXMRK[MHXL


 1MRMQYQVIMRJSVGIQIRXEVIE{1MRMQYQVIMRJSVGI
QIRXVEXMS QMRMRER]HMVIGXMSRWLSYPHFI
 1E\MQYQ VIMRJSVGIQIRX EVIE{1E\MQYQ VIMR
JSVGIQIRXVEXMS QE\WLSYPHFIXLEXKMZIRJSVWPEFWMR
 (IZIPSTQIRX SJ VIMRJSVGIQIRX{6IMRJSVGIQIRX
EX GVMXMGEP WIGXMSRW WLSYPH FI HIZIPSTIH SR IEGL WMHI SJ
XLEX WIGXMSR F] IQFIHQIRX PIRKXL SV LSSO *MK  
'VMXMGEP WIGXMSRW WLSYPH FI EWWYQIH EX XLI WEQI PSGEXMSRW
as defined in  JSV QE\MQYQ JEGXSVIH QSQIRX ERH
EX EPP SXLIV ZIVXMGEP TPERIW [LIVI WIGXMSR SV VIMRJSVGIQIRX
GLERKIWSGGYV
 6IMRJSVGIQIRXGYXSJJ{-RWTVIEHJSSXMRKWVIMRJSVGI
QIRXEXXLIQSQIRXGVMXMGEPWIGXMSRMRIMXLIVHMVIGXMSRWLSYPH
FI QEMRXEMRIH SZIV XLI JYPP PIRKXL SJ XLI JSSXMRK MR XLEX
HMVIGXMSR
 )RH ERGLSVEKI SJ VIMRJSVGIQIRX{6IMRJSVGMRK
FEVW WLSYPH IRH MR E WXERHEVH LSSO EX XLI JSSXMRK IHKI MJ
RIIHIHF]GEPGYPEXMSRSJXLIHIZIPSTQIRXPIRKXLEXGVMXMGEP
WIGXMSR
 :EPYISJ HGERHHXSYWIMRJSSXMRK{8LIGEPGYPE
XMSRSJHG, distance from extreme tension fiber to the centroid
SJ XLI XIRWMSR VIMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH GSRWMHIV XLIGSRGVIXI
GSZIVJSVQIQFIVWGEWXERHTIVQERIRXP]I\TSWIHXSIEVXL
XLI FEV HMEQIXIVW YWIH ERH TIVTIRHMGYPEV VIMRJSVGIQIRX
TPEGIHYRHIVXLIGSRWMHIVIHVIMRJSVGIQIRX
8LIJSPPS[MRKZEPYIWSJHGQE]FIYWIHXSGSQTYXIHEW
H ! LzHG*SVVIMRJSVGIQIRXTEVEPPIPXSXLIPSRKHMVIGXMSR
SJJSSXMRKWERHJSV[EPPJSSXMRKWHG!MR QQ *SV
VIMRJSVGIQIRXTEVEPPIPXSXLIWLSVXHMVIGXMSRSJGSPYQRJSSXMRKW
HG!MR QQ 
 (IXEMPWJSVXVERWJIVSJGSPYQRSV[EPPPSEHWXS
JSSXMRK{0SEHWERHQSQIRXWEXXLIFEWISJGSPYQR[EPPSV
TIHIWXEPWLSYPHFIXVERWJIVVIHXSXLIWYTTSVXMRKTIHIWXEPSV
JSSXMRK F]FIEVMRKSR GSRGVIXI ERH F] VIMRJSVGIQIRX 8LI
JSPPS[MRKWLSYPHETTP]
E  &IEVMRK WXVIWW HYI XS JEGXSVIH PSEHW EX XLI GSRXEGX
WYVJEGI FIX[IIR WYTTSVXIH ERH WYTTSVXMRK QIQFIV WLSYPH
RSX I\GIIH GSRGVIXI FIEVMRK WXVIRKXL JSV IMXLIV WYVJEGI EW
KMZIRMR
F 8LIGSPYQRGSQTVIWWMZIJSVGIXLEXI\GIIHWXLIJSSXMRK
GSRGVIXIFIEVMRKWXVIRKXLWLSYPHFIXVERWJIVVIHXSXLIJSSXMRK
F]VIMRJSVGIQIRX
G *SSXMRKHITXLWLSYPHFIEHIUYEXIXSEPPS[XLIGSPYQR
PSRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGIQIRXXSIRHMREWXERHEVHLSSOERHXS

*MK{(MWXVMFYXMSRSJVIMRJSVGIQIRXMRVIGXERKYPEV
WTVIEHJSSXMRKW
HIZIPSTXLIERGLSVEKIHMWXERGISJ;EPPZIVXMGEPVIMR
JSVGIQIRXWLSYPHLEZIXLIIQFIHQIRXPIRKXLKMZIRMR
H -JYTPMJXMWI\TIGXIHERXMGMTEXIHXIRWMSRFIX[IIRXLI
GSPYQR ERH JSSXMRK WLSYPH FIXVERWJIVVIHF]ZIVXMGEP VIMR
JSVGIQIRXSRP]ERH
I -JETIHIWXEPMWYWIHZIVXMGEPVIMRJSVGIQIRX MRGPYHMRK
GSPYQR VIMRJSVGIQIRX  MR XLI TIHIWXEP WLSYPH FI RSX PIWW
XLERXMQIWKVSWWGSRGVIXIEVIEERHWLSYPHLEZIXMIWMR
EGGSVHERGI[MXL
 7LIEV
 +IRIVEP{*SSXMRK WLIEV WXVIRKXL WLSYPH FI
GSQTYXIH YWMRK  JSV XLI X[S X]TIW SJ WLIEV XLEX SGGYV
RIEVXLIWYTTSVXIHGSPYQRTIHIWXEPSV[EPPERHEXGLERKIW
SJJSSXMRKXLMGORIWWMRWXITTIHJSSXMRKW
E  4YRGLMRKWLIEV SV X[S[E] EGXMSR WLIEV MR GSPYQR
JSSXMRKWERH
(b) Beam-action shear that accompanies flexural moments.
 0SGEXMSR SJ GVMXMGEP WIGXMSRW JSV TYRGLMRK
WLIEV{4YRGLMRKWLIEVGVMXMGEPWIGXMSRWLSYPHFIPSGEXIHEX
EHMWXERGIHJVSQXLIJEGISJGSPYQRTIHIWXEPSVWXITTIH
JSSXMRKXLMGORIWWGLERKI  
 4YRGLMRK WLIEV WXVIRKXL{6IUYMVIH TYRGLMRK
WLIEVWXVIRKXLMWIUYEPXSXLIPEVKIWXJEGXSVIHE\MEPPSEH4YF
EXXLIGSPYQRFEWI4YFQMKLXFIVIHYGIHF]XLITVSHYGXSJ
XLIEVIEFSYRHF]XLIGVMXMGEPWIGXMSRXMQIWXLIJEGXSVIHRIX
WSMPVIEGXMSRUYRJVSQ
 4YRGLMRKWLIEVHIWMKRWXVIRKXL{4YRGLMRKWLIEV
WXVIRKXL MW HIXIVQMRIH YWMRK XLI WEQI QIXLSHW EW WPEF
GSPYQRW]WXIQWSJ JSVMRXIVMSVGSPYQRW
 1MRMQYQJSSXMRKHITXLEWVIUYMVIHF]TYRGLMRK
WLIEV{%XVMEPJSSXMRKHITXLWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ
)U  

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

*MK{8VMFYXEV]EVIEWJSVFIEQEGXMSRWLIEV

*MK{'VMXMGEPWIGXMSRWJSVQSQIRXW

hc

bc

Pu

4
hc

Pu
fc

bc
4

12 fc
bc

hc

hc

bc
4


(SI)

*MREPHMQIRWMSRWWLSYPHQIIX
 'VMXMGEP WIGXMSR PSGEXMSRW JSV FIEQEGXMSR
WLIEV{'VMXMGEP WIGXMSR JSV FIEQEGXMSR WLIEV WLSYPH
FI PSGEXIH EX E HMWXERGI H JVSQ XLI JEGI SJ GSPYQR [EPP
TIHIWXEPSVWXITTIHJSSXMRKXLMGORIWWGLERKI  
 &IEQEGXMSR WLIEV WXVIRKXL{&IEQEGXMSR
VIUYMVIH WLIEV WXVIRKXL :Y WLSYPH FI XLI TVSHYGX SJ XLI
JEGXSVIHRIXWSMPVIEGXMSRUYRJVSQERHXLIXVMFYXEV]
area of the footing beyond the critical section as defined in
 *MK 
 &IEQEGXMSR WLIEV HIWMKR WXVIRKXL{&IEQ
EGXMSR WLIEV WXVIRKXL MW HIXIVQMRIH YWMRK XLI WPEFGSPYQR
W]WXIQETTVSEGLSJ
 &IEQEGXMSR WLIEV{8LI IJJIGXMZI HITXL H JSV
TYRGLMRKWLIEVWLSYPHFIYWIHJSVMRMXMEPP]IWXEFPMWLMRKPSGEXMSR
SJXLIFIEQEGXMSRWLIEVGVMXMGEPWIGXMSRXLIXVMFYXEV]EVIEERH

XLIHIWMKRWXVIRKXL :GJVSQ)U  ;LIRHIWMKRWXVIRKXL


MWPIWWXLERVIUYMVIHWXVIRKXLXLIZEPYISJHWLSYPHFIMRGVIEWIH
*SV[EPPJSSXMRKWWLSYPHFIYWIH
 *PI\YVI
 'VMXMGEP WIGXMSRW JSV QSQIRXW{1E\MQYQ
VIUYMVIHQSQIRXWXVIRKXLJSVERMWSPEXIHJSSXMRKWLSYPHFI
GSQTYXIHEXJEGISJGSPYQR[EPPSVTIHIWXEP *MK 
 6IUYMVIH QSQIRX WXVIRKXL{6IUYMVIH QSQIRX
WXVIRKXL 1YEXER]JSSXMRKWIGXMSRWLSYPHFIXLIGERXMPIZIV
QSQIRX SJ XLI JEGXSVIH RIX WSMP VIEGXMSR UYR EGXMRK SZIV
IRXMVIJSSXMRK EVIESRSRIWMHISJXLEXZIVXMGEPTPERIYWMRK
)U   *MK 
2
un n
u



 %TTVS\MQEXI HIWMKR QSQIRX WXVIRKXL{*SV


JSSXMRKW XLI HIWMKR QSQIRX WXVIRKXL SJ  WLSYPH FI
ETTVS\MQEXIHYWMRK)U  [MXL !
1R! %WJ]H

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



 Calculating the flexural reinforcement ratio{


*PI\YVEPVIMRJSVGIQIRXVEXMS%W FH WLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIH
JVSQ)U  

As
bd

Mu
0.85 f y bd 2



-J MWPIWWXLER QMRJVSQ %WWLSYPHFIMRGVIEWIH


-J  MW KVIEXIV XLER QE\ EW IWXEFPMWLIH MR  XLI
QIQFIVvWIJJIGXMZIHITXLHWLSYPHFIMRGVIEWIH
 0SRKMXYHMREP VIMRJSVGIQIRX{0SRKMXYHMREP
VIMRJSVGIQIRXMRFSXLTPERTVMRGMTEPHMVIGXMSRWLEZMRKXLI
GSVVIWTSRHMRKEVIEHIXIVQMRIHJVSQERHQIIXMRK
WLSYPHFITVSZMHIHMRXLIPS[IVTEVXSJXLIJSSXMRK
*MK 
 *SSXMRKWWYFNIGXIHXSI\XIVREPQSQIRXW
 +IRIVEP{*SSXMRKW WYFNIGX XS QSQIRXW XVERW
QMXXIHF]GSPYQRSV[EPPSVHYIXSIGGIRXVMGMX]SJXLIGSPYQR
SV[EPP[MXLVIWTIGXXSXLIJSSXMRKGIRXVSMH  WLSYPH
FIHIWMKRIHEGGSVHMRKXS-RMXMEPWM^MRKSJXLIJSSXMRK
WLSYPH FI TIVJSVQIH YWMRK TVSGIHYVIW SJ  -RMXMEP
WM^IWLSYPHFIEHNYWXIHXSQIIX
 )GGIRXVMGMX]{)GGIRXVMGMX]MRFSXLHMVIGXMSRWI,
ERH I&TEVEPPIPXS,JERHTEVEPPIPXS&JVIWTIGXMZIP]WLSYPH
FIHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ E  F ERH G 
E  (MZMHI QSQIRXW  F  XVERWQMXXIH F] XLI
GSPYQRSV[EPPF]XLIE\MEPPSEHXLEXEGGSQTERMIWXLIQMR
XLIWEQIPSEHGEWI8LMWGEPGYPEXMSRQE]FITIVJSVQIHJSV
IMXLIVYRJEGXSVIHSVJEGXSVIHQSQIRXWERHE\MEPPSEHW
F *SVIGGIRXVMGGSPYQRSV[EPPPSGEXMSRWEWXLIHMWXERGI
QIEWYVIH TEVEPPIP XSIEGL SJXLITVMRGMTEPHMVIGXMSRW JVSQ
XLIGSPYQRSV[EPPGIRXVSMHXSJSSXMRKGIRXVSMHERH
G *SVQSQIRXWXVERWQMXXIHF]EGSPYQRSV[EPPIGGIRXVM
GEPP]PSGEXIHF]EHHMRKXLIIGGIRXVMGMXMIWJVSQ E ERH F 
[MXLGSRWMHIVEXMSRSJXLIQSQIRXWMKR
 9TPMJXGLIGO{;LIVIXLIVIWYPXERXSJXLIZIVXMGEP
JSVGI XVERWQMXXIH F] XLI GSPYQR SV [EPP MW PSGEXIH MRWMHI
XLIJSSXMRKOIVR *MK XLIVIMW RSYTPMJXERHWSMP
WXVIWWIW WLSYPH FI GSQTYXIH EGGSVHMRK XS  -J XLI
VIWYPXERXMWSYXWMHIXLIOIVRMRGVIEWIJSSXMRKWM^ISV
WLSYPHFIQIX
 'SQTPMERGI[MXLXLIWSMPEPPS[EFPIFIEVMRKGETEGMX]
2SYTPMJX{%PPS[EFPIFIEVMRKGETEGMX]WLSYPHRSXFII\GIIHIH
YRHIV XLIETTPMIHPSEHW ERHQSQIRXW 'SQTPMERGI WLSYPHFI
verified using Eq. (14.5.7.4a) or Eq. (14.5.7.4b).
E  *SVQE\MQYQZIVXMGEP YRJEGXSVIH PSEH4ZI\GPYHMRK
PEXIVEPPSEHWv [MRHSVWIMWQMG SZIVXYVRMRKIJJIGXW

Pv
e
1 6 H
Bf H f
Hf

eB
Bf

qa

qo

E

F *SVQE\MQYQZIVXMGEPYRJEGXSVIHPSEH4SZMRGPYHMRK
PEXIVEPPSEHWv [MRHSVWIMWQMG SZIVXYVRMRKIJJIGXW

*MK{'EPGYPEXMSRSJVIUYMVIHQSQIRXWXVIRKXL

*MK {0SGEXMSR SJ XLI VIWYPXERX XS EZSMH JSSXMRK


YTPMJX

Pov
e
e
1+ 6 H + B
Bf H f
H f Bf

c 1.33 qa e qo

F

;LIVI EPPS[EFPI FIEVMRK GETEGMX] MW RSX I\GIIHIH XLI


ZEPYISJUYRWLSYPHFIGSQTYXIHYWMRK)U G 
qun =

Pu
e
e
1+ 6 H + B
Bf t H f
H f Bf

G

 'SQTPMERGI [MXL XLI WSMP EPPS[EFPI FIEVMRK


GETEGMX] 9TPMJX{%PPS[EFPI FIEVMRK GETEGMX] WLSYPH RSX
FI I\GIIHIH YRHIV ETTPMIH PSEHW ERH QSQIRXW ;LIR XLI
VIWYPXERXSJXLIZIVXMGEPPSEHWXVERWQMXXIHF]XLIGSPYQRSV
[EPPMWPSGEXIHSYXWMHIXLIJSSXMRKOIVRXLMWVIWYPXERXWLSYPH
GSMRGMHI[MXLXLIVIWYPXERXJSVGISJXLIWSMPTVIWWYVIHMEKVEQ
*MK 7YMXEFPIZEPYIWSJERH ,JERH&JWLSYPHFI
WIPIGXIHXSGSQTP][MXL)U E SV)U F 
E  *SVQE\MQYQZIVXMGEP YRJEGXSVIH PSEH 4ZI\GPYHMRK
PEXIVEPPSEHWv [MRHSVWIMWQMG SZIVXYVRMRKIJJIGXW

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

{;EPPJSSXMRKW
 +IRIVEP{'SRXMRYSYWJSSXMRKWYRHIV[EPPWWLSYPH
FIHIWMKRIHMREGGSVHERGI[MXLERH
 7LIEV{;EPP JSSXMRK WLIEV WLSYPH GSQTP] [MXL
 ERH [MXL XLI I\GITXMSRW PMWXIH MR  XLVSYKL

 4YRGLMRK WLIEV{4YRGLMRK WLIEV MR [EPP JSSXMRKW
WLSYPHFIHMWVIKEVHIH
 &IEQEGXMSR WLIEV{4VSGIHYVIW SJ 
ERH  WLSYPH FI JSPPS[IH I\GITX XLEX XLI FIEQ
EGXMSR WLIEV VIUYMVIH WXVIRKXL WLSYPH FI GSQTYXIH TIV
YRMXPIRKXLSJJSSXMRKEXXLI[EPPJEGIERHJSVWMQTPMGMX]
YWMRK )U E  *MK   1MRMQYQ JSSXMRK
IJJIGXMZIHITXLHEWGSRXVSPPIHF]FIEQEGXMSRWLIEVWLSYPH
FIHIXIVQMRIHJVSQ)U F 

*MK{7SMPTVIWWYVI[MXLYTPMJX

Vu = qun

*MK{&IEQEGXMSRWLIEVMR[EPPJSSXMRKW

2 Pv
c qa e qo
3B f aw

E

F *SVQE\MQYQZIVXMGEPYRJEGXSVIHPSEH4SZMRGPYHMRK
PEXIVEPPSEHWv [MRHSVWIMWQMG SZIVXYVRMRKIJJIGXW

2 Pov
c 1.33qa e qo
3B f aw

F

-JEPPS[EFPIFIEVMRKGETEGMX]MWRSXI\GIIHIHXLIZEPYISJ
UYRWLSYPHFIGSQTYXIHYWMRK)U G 

qun =

2Pu
3B f aw

G

-JEPPS[EFPIFIEVMRKGETEGMX]MWI\GIIHIHF]XLIIGGIR
XVMG ETTPMIH PSEH GSQFMRIH JSSXMRKW SV XLI HMWXVMFYXMSR SJ
QSQIRXW XS KVEHI FIEQW WLSYPH FI MRZIWXMKEXIH *SV [EPP
JSSXMRKWWLSYPHETTP]

qun B f e bw
4 fc

B f e bw

E

qun 12 B f e bw
fc

(SI)

F

 *PI\YVI{;EPPJSSXMRKWWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL
ERH E ERH F 
E 7IMWQMG^SRI[EPPFSYRHEV]IPIQIRXWXLEXLEZIERIHKI
PSGEXIH[MXLMRSRILEPJXLIJSSXMRKHITXLJVSQEJSSXMRKIHKI
WLSYPH LEZI XVERWZIVWI VIMRJSVGIQIRX MR EGGSVHERGI [MXL
 FIPS[ XLI JSSXMRK XST 8LMW VIMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH
I\XIRHMRXSXLIJSSXMRKRSPIWWXLERXLIJSSXMRKHITXLERH
F  ;LIVI WIMWQMG IJJIGXW GVIEXI YTPMJX PSEHW MR [EPP
FSYRHEV] IPIQIRXW SV GSPYQRW XST JSSXMRK VIMRJSVGIQIRX
WLSYPHFITVSZMHIHMRXLIWEQIEQSYRXERHWTEGMRKEWXLI
FSXXSQVIMRJSVGIQIRX
 ;EPP QSQIRXW EX XLI JSYRHEXMSR{0EXIVEP PSEHW
EVIVIWMWXIHTVMQEVMP]F][EPPWXLIVIJSVIMXMWTSWWMFPIXLEX
[EPPSZIVXYVRMRKQSQIRXWEXXLIJSYRHEXMSRTVSHYGIIGGIR
XVMGMXMIW SYXWMHI XLI JSSXMRKW HMQIRWMSRIH JSV ZIVXMGEP PSEH
IJJIGXWSRP]*SVPEVKIIGGIRXVMGMXMIWI\XIRHMRKXLIJSSXMRK
YRHIV E KVEHI FIEQ WLSYPH FI MRZIWXMKEXIH *MK E 
8LIKVEHIFIEQ WLSYPHI\XIRHW]QQIXVMGEPP]EXFSXL[EPP
IRHW -J XLI W]QQIXVMGEP I\XIRWMSR MW RSX TSWWMFPI XLMW
WSPYXMSRWLSYPHRSXFIYWIH
7SMP FIEVMRK WLSYPH FI GSQTYXIH YWMRK  [MXL
I\XIRHIHJSSXMRKHMQIRWMSRW8LIJSSXMRKWLSYPHFIHIWMKRIH
YWMRKTVSGIHYVIWSJERH8LIKVEHIFIEQWLSYPHFI
HIWMKRIHJSVJEGXSVIHQSQIRXERHJEGXSVIHWLIEVHIXIVQMRIH
JVSQ)U E ERH F YWMRKERH

Mu =

Pu H f
3

:Y!4Y

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

E

F

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

8LIJEGXSVIHQSQIRX JVSQ )U E HMZMHIHF] XLI


WXVIRKXL VIHYGXMSR JEGXSV WLSYPH FI YWIH XS GSQTYXI XST
ERHFSXXSQFIEQVIMRJSVGIQIRX8VERWZIVWIVIMRJSVGIQIRX
HIXIVQMRIH JSV XLI JEGXSVIH WLIEV KMZIR MR )U F 
WLSYPHFIYWIHXLVSYKLSYXXLIFIEQPIRKXL7TPMGIWSJPSRKM
XYHMREPFIEQVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFIPSGEXIHYRHIVXLI[EPP
RIEVMXWGIRXIV6IMRJSVGIQIRXPE]SYXWLSYPHFIEWWLS[RMR
*MKF
{'SQFMRIHJSSXMRKW
 +IRIVEP{'SQFMRIH JSSXMRKW EVI YWIH [LIR E
GSPYQR MW PSGEXIH EX XLI TVSTIVX] PMRI XLYW QEOMRK MX
MQTSWWMFPI XS FYMPH E GSRGIRXVMG JSSXMRK 'SQFMRMRK X[S



GSPYQRWMRXLIWEQIJSSXMRKEPPS[WJSVEYRMJSVQWSMPVIEG
XMSRYRHIVXLIJSSXMRKW*MKYVIWLS[WWIZIVEPX]TIWSJ
GSQFMRIHJSSXMRKW8]TIW E XS H EVIRSXGSZIVIHMRXLMW
KYMHI 8]TI I  PMROW X[S WTVIEH JSSXMRKWXLVSYKL E KVEHI
FIEQERHMWGSZIVIHMR
 'SQFMRIHJSSXMRKWPMROIHF]KVEHIFIEQW
 6IEGXMSRWERHKIRIVEPHMQIRWMSRW{%GSQFMRIH
JSSXMRK WLSYPH GSRWMWX SJ X[S WTVIEH JSSXMRKW PMROIH F] E
KVEHI FIEQ *MKYVI  WLS[W GSPYQR PSEHW ERH WSMP
VIEGXMSRW YRHIV XLI JSSXMRKW ERH XLI VIPIZERX HMQIRWMSRW
8LIVIEGXMSRWWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIHJVSQIUYMPMFVMYQ

2P1 s
hc H f

E

6!44z6

F

R1 =

 *SSXMRKHIWMKR{)EGLJSSXMRKWLSYPHFIHIWMKRIH
EWEWTVIEHJSSXMRKJSVXLIVIEGXMSRWHIXIVQMRIHMR
YWMRK  4YRGLMRK WLIEV GEPGYPEXMSRW JSV IGGIRXVMGEPP]
PSEHIHJSSXMRKWWLSYPHYWIIHKIGSPYQRQIXLSHW
 &IEQHIWMKR{8LIKVEHIFIEQWLSYPHFIHIWMKRIH
YWMRK  ERH  JSV XLI JEGXSVIH WLIEV ERH QSQIRX
HIXIVQMRIHJVSQ)U E ERH)U F 
E

*MKE{;EPPJSSXMRKI\XIRHIHF]YWISJEKVEHIFIEQ

[LIVI 4YGSVVIWTSRHWXSXLIQE\MQYQJEGXSVIHE\MEPJSVGI
SJXLIPIJXWMHIGSPYQR8LIVIUYMVIHQSQIRXWXVIRKXLSJXLI
FIEQWLSYPHFIXLIRIKEXMZIQSQIRX TVSHYGMRKXIRWMSRMR

*MKF{;EPPJSSXMRKKVEHIFIEQVIMRJSVGIQIRXPE]SYX

*MK{8]TIWSJGSQFMRIHJSSXMRKW
%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

XLIYTTIVTEVXSJXLIKVEHIFIEQ XLEXZEVMIWEWWLS[RMR
*MK8LIJEGXSVIHQSQIRXXLEXWLSYPHFIYWIHMW
u

F

{4MPIWERHGEMWWSRW
4MPIW ERH GEMWWSRW WLSYPH FI HMQIRWMSRIH ERH HIWMKRIH
MREGGSVHERGI[MXLXLIGSHIWERHWXERHEVHWPMWXIHMRMR
EHHMXMSRXSKISXIGLRMGEPVITSVXVIGSQQIRHEXMSRW
*MK {'SQFMRIH JSSXMRK PSEHW VIEGXMSRW ERH
HMQIRWMSRW

*MK{1SQIRXZEVMEXMSRMRKVEHIFIEQSJGSQFMRIH
JSSXMRK

{*SSXMRKWSRTMPIW
*SSXMRKWSRTMPIWERHTMPIGETWWLSYPHFIHMQIRWMSRIHERH
HIWMKRIHMREGGSVHERGI[MXLXLIGSHIWERHWXERHEVHWPMWXIH
MR MREHHMXMSRXSKISXIGLRMGEPVITSVXVIGSQQIRHEXMSRW
{*SYRHEXMSRQEXW
 +IRIVEP{;LIRWTVIEHJSSXMRKEVIEI\GIIHWSRI
LEPJXLITVSNIGXMSREVIESJXLIFYMPHMRKJSYRHEXMSREJSYRHE
XMSRQEXWLSYPHFIMRZIWXMKEXIH3RP]JSYRHEXMSRQEXW[MXL
FIEQWEVIGSZIVIHMRXLMWKYMHI
*MKYVIEWLS[WEJSYRHEXMSRQEX[LIVIKVEHIFIEQW
EVIPSGEXIHSRXSTSJXLIWPEFMRGSRXEGX[MXLXLIFIEVMRKWSMP
and needing an additional slab for the first floor. In this case,
NSMWXWXLIWEQIHITXLEWXLIKVEHIFIEQWQE]FIYWIH*MKYVI
FWLS[WEJSYRHEXMSRQEX[MXLKVEHIFIEQWPSGEXIH
YRHIVXLIWPEFERHMRGSRXEGX[MXLXLIFIEVMRKWSMP)EGLEPXIV
REXMZILEWMXWQIVMXWJVSQGSRWXVYGXMSRERHGSWXTIVWTIGXMZIW
EPXLSYKLXLIHIWMKRTVSGIHYVIMWIWWIRXMEPP]XLIWEQIJSVFSXL
GEWIW *SV XLI GEWI WLS[R MR *MK E XLI JSVQ[SVO

*MKE{*SYRHEXMSRQEX[MXLKVEHIFIEQSRXSTSJXLIWPEF

*MKF{*SYRHEXMSRQEX[MXLKVEHIFIEQWYRHIVXLIWPEF
%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



*MK{6IMRJSVGIQIRXPE]SYXJSVFIEQW
used to cast the floor slab will be lost, but there is the advan
XEKISJLEZMRKWTEGIYRHIVMXJSVYXMPMXMIWERHHYGXW*SVXLI
GEWI WLS[R MR *MK F RS JSVQ[SVO MW PSWX ERH XLI
WSMPQE]FIYWIHXSJSVQXLIKVEHIFIEQWMJMXMWTVSTIVP]
GSZIVIHF]EPIERGSRGVIXI
 Load definition and foundation mat area
 0SEHWXSFIMRGPYHIH{8LIHIWMKRSJJSYRHEXMSR
QEXWWLSYPHMRGPYHIPSEHWMR E XLVSYKL G 
E  %PP YRJEGXSVIH HIEH ERH PMZI PSEHW ETTPMIH HMVIGXP]
XSXLIQEXWPEFTPYWXLIWIPJ[IMKLXSJXLIQEX8LIWYQSJ
XLIWIPSEHWWLSYPHFIHIWGVMFIHYWMRKUS
F  9RJEGXSVIH E\MEP PSEHW QSQIRXW ERH WLIEV PSEHW
GEVVMIH F] GSPYQRW ERH [EPPW ERH XVERWJIVVIH XS XLI QEX
JSYRHEXMSR JVSQ EPP WSYVGIW MRGPYHMRK HIEH PMZI [MRH
WIMWQMGERHSXLIVIJJIGXWEWTVIWGVMFIHMR'LETXIVSV
G %WEREPXIVREXMZIXS F YRJEGXSVIHE\MEPPSEHQE]FI
SFXEMRIHJVSQYRJEGXSVIHYRMXPSEHWYWIHXSGSQTYXIJEGXSVIH
PSEHWMRGPYHMRKWIPJ[IMKLX QYPXMTPMIHF]GSPYQRSV[EPP
tributary area from all floors supported by it. Factored wind
IJJIGXWWLSYPHFIGSRZIVXIHXSYRJEGXSVIHZEPYIWF]HMZMHMRK
JEGXSVIHZEPYIWF]ERHWIMWQMGIJJIGXYRJEGXSVIHZEPYIW
F]HMZMHMRKJEGXSVIHZEPYIWF]
 1E\MQYQYRJEGXSVIHZIVXMGEPPSEH{8SSFXEMR
XSXEPYRJEGXSVIHZIVXMGEPPSEH 4ZETTPMIHXSXLIWSMPF]XLI
QEXJSYRHEXMSRYRJEGXSVIHE\MEPPSEHWGEVVMIHF]GSPYQRW
and walls, floor loads, and mat foundation self-weight should
FIGSQFMRIHEGGSVHMRKXSPSEHGEWIWSJ[MXLSYXETTP]MRK
PSEHJEGXSVW8LIPSGEXMSRSJXLIVIWYPXERXYRJEGXSVIHZIVXMGEP
PSEHWLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIH
 Verification of allowable bearing capacity{
)UYEXMSR  WLSYPHFIYWIHXSGSQTYXIWSMPFIEVMRK
TVIWWYVI7SMPFIEVMRKGETEGMX]WLSYPHRSXFII\GIIHIH

Pv
c qa e qo
Bf H f



 )GGIRXVMGMX] SJ ZIVXMGEP PSEHW{8LI HMWXERGI


FIX[IIR XLI VIWYPXERX SJ XLI ZIVXMGEP PSEHW ERH XLI QEX
EVIE GIRXVSMH WLSYPH RSX I\GIIH XLI ZEPYI MRHMGEXIH MR XLI
KISXIGLRMGEPVITSVXSVMRMXWEFWIRGIWLSYPHRSXFIKVIEXIV
XLERTIVGIRXSJXLIPEVKIWXTPERHMQIRWMSRSJXLIQEX,J
8LI I\MWXIRGI SJ IGGIRXVMGMX] MRGVIEWIW XLI TSWWMFMPMX] SJ

HMJJIVIRXMEPWIXXPIQIRX-JIGGIRXVMGMX]I\GIIHWXLIQE\MQYQ
ZEPYIMXWLSYPHFIVIHYGIHF]EHHMRKSVVIQSZMRKETTVSTVMEXI
QEXWIGXMSRW
 *EGXSVIH WSMP VIEGXMSR{*EGXSVIH RIX WSMP
VIEGXMSR UYR WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH F] HMZMHMRK XLI WYQ SJ
JEGXSVIHE\MEPPSEHWJVSQEPPGSPYQRWERH[EPPWEXXLIFEWI
4YRF]XLIQEXEVIE8LMWZEPYIWLSYPHFIYWIHJSVHIWMKRSJ
XLIJSYRHEXMSRWPEFERHXLIKVEHIFIEQW
 (IWMKRTVSGIHYVIW
 +IRIVEP{8LI JSPPS[MRK TVSGIHYVIW WLSYPH
ETTP]XSXLIHIWMKRSJXLIQEXJSYRHEXMSR8LIVIEVIWIZIVEP
MQTSVXERXEWTIGXWVIPEXIHXSXLIHIWMKRSJXLIQEXJSYRHEXMSR
(a) Although mat slab layout is similar to a regular floor
WPEFXLISVHIVSJQEKRMXYHISJXLIPSEHWEWGSQTEVIH[MXL
a typical floor slab, increases by a factor equal to the number
SJFYMPHMRKWXSVMIW
F  8LI QEX WPEF EW ER] JSYRHEXMSR IPIQIRX [MPP FI
PSEHIHKVEHYEPP]EWFYMPHMRKGSRWXVYGXMSRTVSKVIWWIW8LIWI
PSEHW [MPP GEYWI HIJSVQEXMSRW ERH WIXXPIQIRXW SJ XLI QEX
JSYRHEXMSRERH
(c) The loads act in the opposite direction than in floor
WPEFW XLIVIJSVI PSRKMXYHMREP VIMRJSVGIQIRX MR XLI QEX
QIQFIVW WLSYPH LEZI XLIMV PE]SYX VIZIVWIH 2IKEXMZI
QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX YWYEPP] PSGEXIH MR XLI YTTIV TEVX
of floor slabs, should be placed as bottom reinforcement
MR JSYRHEXMSR QEXW ERH QEX KVEHI FIEQW *SV XLI WEQI
VIEWSR TSWMXMZI QSQIRX VIMRJSVGIQIRX YWYEPP] PSGEXIH MR
the bottom part of floor members, should be placed as top
VIMRJSVGIQIRXMRXLIQEXJSYRHEXMSR *MK 
 *SYRHEXMSR WPEF{8LI JSYRHEXMSR WPEF
QIQFIVGSRXEGXMRK XLI WSMP WLSYPHFIHIWMKRIH EWE WPEF
SR KMVHIV YWMRK 'LETXIV  PSEHIH F] XLI JEGXSVIH RIX WSMP
VIEGXMSR UYR8LIWIPJ[IMKLXWLSYPHRSXFIMRGPYHIHFIGEYWI
MXMWWYTTSVXIHHMVIGXP]F]XLIWSMP8STERHFSXXSQVIMRJSVGI
QIRXPE]SYXWGLIQIWSJ'LETXIVWLSYPHFIVIZIVWIH
 1EXKVEHIFIEQW{1EXKVEHIFIEQWWLSYPHFI
HIWMKRIHEWKMVHIVWXLEXEVITEVXSJEQSQIRXVIWMWXMRKJVEQI
YWMRK 7IGXMSR*EGXSVIHRIX WSMP VIEGXMSRUYRWLSYPHFI
YWIHEWXLIXSXEPPSEHETTPMIHHMVIGXP]XSXLIKMVHIVERHXLI
JSYRHEXMSR WPEF VIEGXMSRW EW XVMFYXEV] PSEHW XS XLI KMVHIV
7IPJ[IMKLXWLSYPHRSXFIMRGPYHIHFIGEYWIMXMWWYTTSVXIH
HMVIGXP] F] XLI WSMP 8ST ERH FSXXSQ VIMRJSVGIQIRX PE]SYX
WGLIQIWSJWLSYPHFIYWIH[MXLVIMRJSVGIQIRXVIZIVWIH

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

*MK{8]TIWSJVIMRXEMRMRK[EPPW
8EFPI {8]TMGEPZEPYIWSJ WJSVHV]WERHW
GSQTSWIHTVMQEVMP]SJUYEVX^
(IRWMX]

&PS[GSYRX 748

%RKPISJMRXIVREPJVMGXMSR

:IV]PSSWI
0SSWI
1IHMYQ
(IRWI
:IV]HIRWI

2 c
 2 c
 2 c
 2 c
 2

W c
  W c
  W c
  W c
  W c

XST ERH FSXXSQ -R WIMWQMG ^SRIW 7IGXMSR  WLSYPH


ETTP]
 *PSSVWPEF[LIRMRHITIRHIRXJVSQJSYRHEXMSR
WPEFWhen the floor slab is independent from the founda
XMSRWPEF *MKE), the floor slab should be designed
as a slab on girders using the floor load of 'LETXIV  -R
XLMWGEWIXLIWIPJ[IMKLXWLSYPHFIGSRWMHIVIHERHXLIVIMR
JSVGIQIRXPE]SYXWSJ'LETXIVEVIRSXVIZIVWIHERHWLSYPH
FIYWIHEWWLS[R
 :EPYIW HG ERH H MR JSYRHEXMSR QEXW{8LI
GEPGYPEXMSRSJHG, the distance from extreme tension fiber to
GIRXVSMHSJXIRWMSRVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHGSRWMHIVGSRGVIXI
GSZIVFEVHMEQIXIVWERHTIVTIRHMGYPEVVIMRJSVGIQIRXYRHIV
XLIVIMRJSVGIQIRXYRHIVGSRWMHIVEXMSR
8LIJSPPS[MRKZEPYIWSJHGQE]FIYWIHXSGSQTYXIHEWH!
L z HG*SVSRI[E]WSPMHWPEFWXLEXEVITEVXSJXLIJSYRHEXMSRQEX
ERHMRGSRXEGX[MXLXLIWSMPERHJSVVIMRJSVGIQIRXMRXLIWLSVX
HMVIGXMSRMRX[S[E]WPEFWXLEXEVITEVXSJXLIJSYRHEXMSRQEXMR
GSRXEGX[MXLXLIWSMPHG!MR QQ *SVVIMRJSVGIQIRXMR
XLIPSRKHMVIGXMSRSJX[S[E]WPEFWMRGSRXEGX[MXLXLIWSMP
HG!MR QQ *SVKMVHIVWFIEQWERHNSMWXXLEXEVI
TEVXSJXLIJSYRHEXMSRQEXYWI
{6IXEMRMRK[EPPW
 8]TIW SJ VIXEMRMRK[EPPW{*MKYVIWLS[W
WIZIVEP X]TIW SJ VIXEMRMRK [EPPW 8]TIW E  XS H  EVI JVII
WXERHMRKERHWLSYPHFIHIWMKRIHYWMRKEGXMZIIEVXLTVIWWYVI
8]TI I MWVIWXVEMRIHEXXSTERHFSXXSQXLIVIJSVIMXWLSYPH
FIHIWMKRIHYWMRKEXVIWXIEVXLTVIWWYVI3RP]X]TI I FEWI
QIRX[EPPWMWGSRWMHIVIHMRXLMWKYMHI*SVSXLIVX]TIWXLI
VIJIVIRGIHHSGYQIRXWMRWLSYPHFIYWIH
 0EXIVEPIEVXLTVIWWYVI
 +IRIVEP{:EPYIW JVSQ E KISXIGLRMGEP VITSVX
should be used where backfill has appropriate drainage and
[LIVIL]HVSWXEXMGTVIWWYVIJVSQ[EXIVEGGYQYPEXMSRMRXLI
backfill is not possible. In remote areas, where a geotech
RMGEPVITSVXSVPSGEPKISXIGLRMGEPMRJSVQEXMSRMWYREZEMPEFPI
ZEPYIWKMZIRMRGERFIYWIH

;LIRETSVXMSRSVXLI[LSPISJXLIEHNEGIRXWSMPMWFIPS[
XLI[EXIVXEFPIGEPGYPEXMSRWLSYPHFIFEWIHSRXLI[IMKLXSJ
XLIWSMPHMQMRMWLIHF]FYS]ERG]TPYWJYPPL]HVSWXEXMGTVIW
WYVI;LIRHIWMKRMRKFEWIQIRX[EPPWERHWMQMPEVETTVS\M
QEXIP]ZIVXMGEPWXVYGXYVIWFIPS[KVEHITVSZMWMSRWWLSYPHFI
QEHIJSVPEXIVEPTVIWWYVISJEHNEGIRXWSMP%PPS[ERGIWLSYPH
be made for possible surcharge from fixed or moving loads.
)EVXLTVIWWYVIMWWXEXIHKIRIVEPP]MRWMQTPIPMRIEVIUYEXMSRW
%PXLSYKL XLMW XVIEXQIRX SZIVPSSOW WSQI EGXYEP FILEZMSV
GLEVEGXIVMWXMGW MX MWTVIJIVVIH JSV WMQTPMGMX] 8LI HIWMKRIV
LS[IZIV WLSYPHVIQIQFIVXLEXSJXIRPEXIVEPIEVXLTVIWWYVI
HMWXVMFYXMSR MW RSX PMRIEV ERH IEVXL PSEHW XIRH XS QMKVEXI
from the more flexible to the stiffer portions of the system.
Construction stages and procedures have a great influence in
XLMWPSEHQMKVEXMSR
 %RKPI SJ MRXIVREP JVMGXMSR W{*SV WSMPW XLI
ERKPI SJ MRXIVREP JVMGXMSR W GSVVIWTSRHW XS XLI VIPIZERX
TEVEQIXIV JSV PEXIVEP IEVXL TVIWWYVI HIXIVQMREXMSR 8LI
JSPPS[MRKKYMHIPMRIWWLSYPHFIYWIHXSHIXIVQMRIXLIERKPI
SJMRXIVREPJVMGXMSRSJXLIWSMP
E *SVWERHWXLIVIPEXMSRWLMTKMZIRF])U  SV
XLIZEPYIWJVSQ8EFPIWLSYPHFIYWIH[LIVI2MW
XLIFPS[GSYRXJVSQXLI748
s

28.5

N
4



 F *SV[IXWERHWXLIZEPYIWSJ WJVSQ)U  SV


8EFPIWLSYPHFIHIGVIEWIHF]SRISVX[SHIKVIIW
G  *SV KVEZIPW ERH GVYWLIH VSGO [MXL WXEXIW SJ HIRWMX]
WMQMPEV XS XLSWI KMZIR MR 8EFPI XLI ZEPYIWSJ W
WLSYPHFIMRGVIEWIHJVSQXSHIKVIIW
H  *SV HV] WMPXW ERH ZIV] WMPX] WERHW XLI ZEPYIW SJ W
WLSYPH FI XEOIR FIX[IIRXS HIKVIIWPIWWXLERXLSWI SJ
8EFPIERH
I  *SV GPE]W W HITIRHW SR XLI HVEMREKI GSRHMXMSR ERH
PSEHMRKVEXI8]TMGEPZEPYIWWLSYPHFIXEOIRFIX[IIRXS
HIKVIIW*SVPS[HVEMREKIWMXYEXMSRWZEPYIWVERKIJVSQ
XSHIKVIIW
 %XVIWX IEVXL TVIWWYVI{%XVIWX TVIWWYVI I\MWXW
MR PIZIP KVSYRH YRHIV PSRKXIVQ GSRHMXMSRW 8LEX TVIWWYVI
WLSYPHFIIZEPYEXIHEW
TS!/S ^

E

[LIVI
/S!zWMR

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

F

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



8EFPI {1MRMQYQHIWMKRPEXIVEPEGXMZITVIWWYVI /E
Description of backfill material
7ERHERHKVEZIPWSMPX]TI
;IPPKVEHIHGPIERKVEZIPW{KVEZIPWERHQM\XYVIW
4SSVP]KVEHIHGPIERKVEZIPW{KVEZIPWERHQM\XYVIW
7MPX]KVEZIPW{TSSVP]KVEHIHKVEZIPWERHQM\XYVIW
'PE]I]KVEZIPW{TSSVP]KVEHIHKVEZIPERHGPE]QM\XYVIW
;IPPKVEHIHGPIERWERHW{KVEZIPP]WERHQM\XYVIW
4SSVP]KVEHIHGPIERWERHW{WERHKVEZIPQM\XYVIW
7MPX]WERHW{TSSVP]KVEHIHWERHWMPXQM\XYVIW
7MPXERHGPE]WSMPX]TI
Sand-silt clay mix with plastic fines
'PE]I]WERHW{TSSVP]KVEHIHWERHGPE]QM\XYVIW
-RSVKERMGWMPXWERHGPE]I]WMPXW
1M\XYVISJMRSVKERMGWMPXERHGPE]
3XLIVWSMPX]TIW
-RSVKERMGGPE]WSJPS[XSQIHMYQTPEWXMGMX]
3VKERMGWMPXWERHWMPXGPE]WPS[TPEWXMGMX]
-RSVKERMGGPE]I]WMPXWTPEWXMGWMPXW
-RSVKERMGGPE]WSJLMKLTPEWXMGMX]
3VKERMGGPE]WERHWMPX]GPE]W

Unified soil
classification

(IWMKREGXMZIWSMPTVIWWYVI
PFJXTIVJXSJHITXL

(IWMKREGXMZIWSMPTVIWWYVI
O2QTIVQSJHITXL

+;
+4
+1
+'
7;
74
71

















717'
7'
10
10'0











'0
30
1,
',
3,





Unsuitable as backfill

Unsuitable as backfill

 %GXMZI IEVXL TVIWWYVI{%GXMZI IEVXL TVIWWYVI


HIZIPSTW[LIRXLI[EPPQSZIWWPMKLXP]JVSQXLIIEVXLFERO
-RXLMWGEWI

 +VERYPEVWSMPW

TE!/E ^

 'SLIWMZIWSMPW

E

[LIVI /E is the active earth pressure coefficient and should


FIGEPGYPEXIHYWMRK)U F 
s

F

T!/E LW

T! LWJSVWY

PFJX O4E

F

 4EWWMZI IEVXL TVIWWYVI{4EWWMZI IEVXL TVIWWYVI


HIZIPSTW[LIRXLI[EPPSVER]SJMXWTEVXWMWJSVGIHEKEMRWX
XLIIEVXLFERO-RXLMWGEWI
TT!/T ^

E

[LIVI /T is the passive earth pressure coefficient and should


FIGEPGYPEXIHYWMRK)U F 

1 sin
1 sin

E

T! LWJSVPFJX O4E "WY PFJX O4E

Kp



F

 &VEGIH I\GEZEXMSRW{1SWX VIXEMRMRK [EPPW JSV


WQEPP FYMPHMRKW EVI FVEGIH I\GEZEXMSRW [LIVI XLI [EPP MW
PEXIVEPP]VIWXVEMRIHEXXLIFEWIXLIXSTERHTSWWMFP]EXSXLIV
PIZIPW -R XLMW WMXYEXMSR TVIWWYVI HMWXVMFYXMSR VIWIQFPIW
E VIGXERKPI SV E XVETI^SMH [MXL XLI YTTIV XVMERKPI QMWWMRK
L W  *SV TVEGXMGEP GEWIW HIWMKR TVIWWYVI WLSYPH FI
IZEPYEXIHYWMRKERH

T! LWJSVPFJX O4E  WY

G

 1MRMQYQWSMPPEXIVEPTVIWWYVI
 1MRMQYQ EGXMZI WSMP TVIWWYVI{7SMP PSEHW MR
8EFPIWLSYPHFIYWIHEWPEXIVEPWSMPTVIWWYVIYRPIWW
specified otherwise in a soil investigation report. This pressure
GSVVIWTSRHWXSXLIEGXMZITVIWWYVI /E0EXIVEPTVIWWYVIJVSQ
WYVGLEVKIPSEHWWLSYPHFIEHHIHXSXLIPEXIVEPIEVXLTVIWWYVI
PSEH0EXIVEPTVIWWYVIWLSYPHFIMRGVIEWIH[LIVIWSMPW[MXL
I\TERWMSRTSXIRXMEPEVITVIWIRXEXXLIWMXIEWHIXIVQMRIHF]E
KISXIGLRMGEPMRZIWXMKEXMSR
-R 8EFPI  PEXIVEP WSMP TVIWWYVI MW KMZIR JSV
moist conditions for the specified soils at optimum densi
XMIW %GXYEP JMIPH GSRHMXMSRW WLSYPH KSZIVR 7YFQIVKIH
SV WEXYVEXIH WSMP TVIWWYVI WLSYPH MRGPYHI XLI FYS]ERX WSMP
[IMKLXTPYWXLIL]HVSWXEXMGPSEHW
 1MRMQYQ PEXIVEP TVIWWYVI EX VIWX{*SV VMKMH
[EPPW PEXIVEPP] VIWXVEMRIH XST ERHFSXXSQ PEXIVEP WSMP TVIW
WYVIMR8EFPIWLSYPHFIMRGVIEWIHEWJSPPS[W

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

E *SVWERHERHKVEZIPWSMPX]TIXSPFJX O2Q
TIVJX Q SJHITXLERH
F *SVWMPXERHGPE]WSMPX]TIXSPFJX O2Q TIV
JX Q SJHITXL
8LIWIGEWIWGSVVIWTSRHXSXLIPEXIVEPWSMPTVIWWYVIEXVIWX
/S
 0EXIVEP TVIWWYVI SR VIXEMRMRK [EPP{0EXIVEP
TVIWWYVIGEYWIH F] XLI EHNEGIRX WSMP SR XLI VIXEMRMRK [EPP
WLSYPHFIGEPGYPEXIHYWMRKTVSGIHYVIWHIWGVMFIHMR
ERH
 6IXEMRMRK [EPPW RSX PEXIVEPP]VIWXVEMRIH EX XLI
XST{*SV VIXEMRMRK [EPPW RSX VIWXVEMRIH EX XLI XST F] XLI
FYMPHMRKWPEFWXLIPEXIVEPTVIWWYVIEXER]HITXL^WLSYPHFI
GEPGYPEXIHYWMRK)U E 
T^! /E^

E

[LIVI T^GSVVIWTSRHWXSXLIPEXIVEPTVIWWYVIMRPFJX O2Q


EXEHITXL^MRJX Q QIEWYVIHJVSQXLIWYVJEGIERH /E
WLSYPHFIKMZIRF]XLIKISXIGLRMGEPVITSVXSVMRMXWEFWIRGI
QMRMQYQ ZEPYIW KMZIR MR 8EFPI  QE] FI YWIH
8SXEPPEXIVEPJSVGIETTPMIHF]XLIWSMPXSXLI[EPPWLSYPHFI
HIXIVQMRIHYWMRK)U F 

Fac =

1
K h2
2 a s

F

[LIVI *EG MW XLI XSXEP PEXIVEP JSVGI ERH LW MW WSMP LIMKLX
EKEMRWXXLI[EPPQIEWYVIHJVSQXLIFEWISJXLI[EPPJSSXMRK
XSWSMPWYVJEGI*EGWLSYPHFIEWWYQIHXSEGXEXELIMKLXLW
QIEWYVIHJVSQXLIFEWISJXLI[EPPJSSXMRK
 6IXEMRMRK[EPPWPEXIVEPP]VIWXVEMRIHEXXLIXST{
*SV VIXEMRMRK [EPPW VIWXVEMRIH PEXIVEPP] F] FYMPHMRK WPEFW
PEXIVEPTVIWWYVIEXER]HITXL ^WLSYPHFIGEPGYPEXIHYWMRK
)U E 
T^! /S^

E

[LIVI T^GSVVIWTSRHWXSPEXIVEPTVIWWYVIMRPFJX  O2QQ


EXEHITXL^MRJX QQ QIEWYVIHJVSQXLIWYVJEGIERH /S
WLSYPHFIKMZIRF]XLIKISXIGLRMGEPVITSVXSVMRMXWEFWIRGI
QMRMQYQZEPYIWKMZIRMR QE]FIYWIH8SXEPPEXIVEP
JSVGIETTPMIHF]XLIWSMPXSXLI[EPP WLSYPHFIHIXIVQMRIH
YWMRK)U F 

*S


/ S LW


F

[LIVI *SMWXLIXSXEP PEXIVEPJSVGIERH LWMWXLIWSMPLIMKLX


EKEMRWXXLI[EPPQIEWYVIHJVSQXLIFEWISJXLI[EPPJSSXMRK
XSWSMPWYVJEGI*SWLSYPHFIEWWYQIHXSEGXEXELIMKLXLW
QIEWYVIHJVSQXLIFEWISJXLI[EPPJSSXMRK
 0SEHWJSVFEWIQIRX[EPPW
 0SEHWXSFIMRGPYHIH{&EWIQIRXVIXEMRMRK[EPP
HIWMKRWLSYPHMRGPYHIXLIJSPPS[MRKPSEHW
E 3YXSJTPERIIEVXLTVIWWYVIT^EWWXEXIHMRERH


F  3YXSJTPERI ZIVXMGEP WYVGLEVKI TVIWWYVI PSGEXIH SR


top of the backfill, TXMRGVIEWMRKPEXIVEPIEVXLTVIWWYVIMRXLI
WYVGLEVKIZEPYIQYPXMTPMIHF]/S
G -RTPERIPSEHWERHQSQIRXWHYIXS[MRHERHWIMWQMG
PSEHWXVERWQMXXIHF]WYTTSVXMRKIPIQIRXW
H -RTPERIRSRGSQTIRWEXIHPEXIVEPPSEHWMRHYGIHF]WSMP
PEXIVEPPSEHW  ERH
I  %R] EHHMXMSREP PEXIVEP SYXSJTPERI TVIWWYVI I\IVXIH
by the soil caused by the compaction of the backfill of the
wall. In many cases, the backfill compaction is more effi
GMIRXP] TIVJSVQIH [LIVI XLI [SVOIVGSQJSVX MW LMKLIWX EX
the upper part of the fill; which is why this guide proposes
 EGSRWIVZEXMZIYRMJSVQSYXSJTPERIWSMPTVIWWYVI
HMWXVMFYXMSRSRXLI[EPPYRPIWWXLIKISXIGLRMGEPMRZIWXMKEXMSR
VITSVXMRHMGEXIWEHMJJIVIRXHMWXVMFYXMSRSJTVIWWYVIW
 7IMWQMG IJJIGXW{7IMWQMG IJJIGXW MRGPYHMRK
MRGVIEWIH IEVXL TVIWWYVI [EPP MRTPERI QSQIRXW ERH SYX
SJTPERIQSQIRXWERHSYXSJTPERIWLIEVWLSYPHFIHMWVI
KEVHIH JSV E SRIWXSV] [EPP VIWXVEMRIH EX XST ERH FSXXSQ
8LIMRTPERIWLIEVXVERWQMXXIHF]XLIWPEFHMETLVEKQMRXLI
YTTIVTEVXSJXLI[EPPWLSYPHFIGSRWMHIVIH
 0EXIVEP TVIWWYVI{*EGXSVIH PEXIVEP TVIWWYVIW
TY[ ERH TYX[ SR XLI [EPP WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH F] QYPXM
TP]MRKTVIWWYVIWT^ERHTXJVSQERHF]XLI
ETTVSTVMEXIPSEHJEGXSVJVSQ
 +IRIVEPGSRHMXMSRWJSVFEWIQIRX[EPPW
 7YTTSVXXSTERHFSXXSQ{&EWIQIRXVIXEMRMRK
[EPPW YRHIV XLI WGSTI SJ XLMW KYMHI WLSYPH LEZI PEXIVEP
restraint provided at the top of the wall by the first aerial
floor slab and at the bottom of the wall by either (a) the grade
FIEQWMRLMKLERHQSHIVEXIWIMWQMG^SRIWMRSV F 
F]XLI[EPPJSSXMRKMRPS[ERHRSWIMWQMGVMWO^SRIW-RFSXL
GEWIWE[EPPJSSXMRKWLSYPHFITVSZMHIHXSXVERWQMXKVEZMX]PSEHW
JVSQXLIJSPPS[MRKGSQTSRIRXWXSXLIWSMPXLI[EPPWIPJ[IMKLX
ZIVXMGEPVIEGXMSRWSJXLIWPEFWYTTSVXIHF]XLIXSTSJXLI[EPPERH
ER]ZIVXMGEPPSEHWXVERWQMXXIHF]JVMGXMSRXLEXEVITVSHYGIHF]
the compaction of the backfill and the portion of the backfill
XLEXMWWYTTSVXIHHMVIGXP]F]XLI[EPPJSSXMRK;MRHS[STIR
MRKWJSVPMKLXMRKERHZIRXMPEXMSRTYVTSWIWGERGEYWIEGETXMZI
GSPYQR TVSFPIQ MR WIMWQMG ^SRIW   -R XLSWI GEWIW
EPXIVREXMZIPMKLXMRKERHZIRXMPEXMSRWLSYPHFIYWIH
 (VEMREKI{8LIHIWMKRTVIWWYVIEWWXEXIHHSIW
RSXMRGPYHIL]HVSWXEXMGTVIWWYVIXLIVIJSVIHVEMREKIWYGLEW
through-filters and weep-holes for dissipation of hydrostatic
TVIWWYVIWLSYPHFIYWIH
 Backfill material{1EXIVMEPWQEVOIHEWYRWYMX
able for backfill material in 8EFPIWLSYPHRSX FI
YWIH
 7YVGLEVKI{%R] I\TIGXIH WYVGLEVKI HYVMRK
GSRWXVYGXMSRSVYWISJXLIWXVYGXYVIWLSYPHFIMRGPYHIHMRXLI
[EPPHIWMKR
 1MRMQYQ XLMGORIWW{1MRMQYQ XLMGORIWW SJ
FEWIQIRX[EPPWWLSYPHFIMR QQ 
 6IMRJSVGIQIRX HIXEMPW{&EWIQIRX VIXEMRMRK
[EPPWWLSYPHGSQTP][MXL
 *PI\YVI{6IUYMVIH QSQIRX WXVIRKXL SJ XLI
FEWIQIRX VIXEMRMRK [EPP HITIRHW SR XLI SYXSJTPERI WSMP
TVIWWYVI HMWXVMFYXMSR ERH XLI VSXEXMSREP VIWXVEMRX EX XLI XST

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



8EFPI {&EWIQIRXVIXEMRMRK[EPPVIUYMVIHQSQIRXWXVIRKXLTIVLSVM^SRXEPYRMXPIRKXLSJ[EPP
'EWI

Wall flexural restraint


8ST
&SXXSQ

6IUYMVIHQSQIRXWXVIRKXLJSVVIMRJSVGIQIRXX]TI *MK
&
'

*VII

*VII

Mu

puw n2
17

putw
8

2
n

6IWXVEMRIH

*VII

Mu

puw n2
17

putw
8

2
n

*VII

6IWXVEMRIH

6IWXVEMRIH

6IWXVEMRIH

Mu

puw n2
30

putw n2
12

ERHFSXXSQSJXLI[EPP6SXEXMSREPVIWXVEMRXMWTVSZMHIHF]
XLIWPEFEXXLIXSTSJXLI[EPPXLIFIEQEPSRKXLI[EPPPIRKXL
EWMRHMGEXIHF]ERHXLI[EPPJSSXMRK&EWIHSRXLIWI
GMVGYQWXERGIW XLI JSPPS[MRK WYTTSVX GSRHMXMSRW VIWYPX MR
XLIVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLS[RMR*MK[MXLXLIVIUYMVIH
QSQIRXWXVIRKXLTIVYRMXSJ[EPP[MHXLMRHMGEXIHMR8EFPI

E 1MRMQYQ VSXEXMSREP VIWXVEMRX XST ERH FSXXSQ{8LI
[EPP LEW RS VSXEXMSREP VIWXVEMRX TVSZMHIH F] IPIQIRXW XLEX
GSYPHTVSZMHIMX
F 6SXEXMSREP VIWXVEMRX TVSZMHIH EX XST ERH QMRMQYQ
VSXEXMSREPVIWXVEMRXEXFSXXSQThe slab elements of the first
aerial floor have sufficient flexural stiffness to inhibit any
flexural rotation of the wall at the top, whereas the elements
XLEXTVSZMHIXLIPEXIVEPVIWXVEMRXEXXLIFSXXSQ HSRSXLEZI
flexural stiffness to inhibit flexural rotation of the retaining
[EPP
G 1MRMQYQ VSXEXMSREP VIWXVEMRX EX XST ERH VSXEXMSREP
VIWXVEMRX TVSZMHIH EX FSXXSQ{8LI WPEF IPIQIRXW SJ XLI
first aerial floor are simply supported at the wall and do not
provide any flexural stiffness to inhibit flexural rotation of
XLI[EPPEXXLIXST[LIVIEWXLI[EPPJSSXMRKSVXLIIPIQIRXW
XLEXTVSZMHIPEXIVEPVIWXVEMRXEXXLIFSXXSQSJXLI[EPPLEZI
sufficient flexural stiffness to inhibit flexural rotation of the
[EPPFSXXSQ
H 6SXEXMSREPVIWXVEMRXTVSZMHIHFSXLXSTERHFSXXSQ{
The slab elements of the first aerial floor have sufficient flexural
stiffness to inhibit any flexural rotation of the wall at the
XSTERHXLI[EPPJSSXMRKSVXLIIPIQIRXWXLEXTVSZMHIPEXIVEP
restraint at the bottom of the wall have sufficient flexural
stiffness to inhibit flexural rotation of the wall bottom.
6IMRJSVGIQIRX EVIE ERH WTEGMRK WLSYPH FI HIXIVQMRIH
YWMRK TVSGIHYVIW SJ  JSV WPEFW 'EPGYPEXMSR SJ HG XLI
distance from extreme tension fiber to tension reinforcement
GIRXVSMHWLSYPHGSRWMHIVGSRGVIXIGSZIVFEVHMEQIXIVWERH
TIVTIRHMGYPEVVIMRJSVGIQIRXTPEGIHFIX[IIRVIMRJSVGIQIRX
GSRWMHIVIHERHXLIGSRGVIXIWYVJEGI%ZEPYISJHG!MR
QQ WLSYPHFIYWIHXSGSQTYXIHEWH ! LzHG
 7LIEV{6IUYMVIH WLIEV WXVIRKXL TIV YRMX LSVM
^SRXEP [EPP PIRKXL JSV XLI FEWIQIRX [EPP WLSYPH FI HIXIV
QMRIHJVSQ

puw n2
15

putw
8

Mu

puw n2
24

putw n2
14

Mu

puw n2
33

putw n2
14

Mu

puw n2
15

putw
8

Mu

puw n2
47

putw n2
24

Mu

puw n2
20

putw n2
12

Mu

2
n

2
n

*MK {(IWMKR QSQIRXW ERH VIMRJSVGIQIRX JSV


FEWIQIRX[EPPW
n



8LIWLIEVWXVIRKXLSJWSPMHWPEFWMRWLSYPHFIQIX
{+VEHIFIEQW JSYRHEXMSRFIEQW
 +IRIVEP
 (IWGVMTXMSR{+VEHI FIEQW PSGEXIH YRHIV XLI
WYVJEGIERHEFSZIXLIJSSXMRKW *MKE WLSYPHJSVQ
E KVMH PMROMRK EPP GSPYQRW ERH [EPPW EX XLI FYMPHMRK FEWI
*MKF -RQEXJSYRHEXMSRWQEXFIEQWWIVZIXLI
WEQIJYRGXMSR
 *YRGXMSR{+VEHI FIEQW JYRGXMSRW MRGPYHI E 
XLVSYKL H 
E  1EOI XLI SZIVEPP FYMPHMRK WIXXPIQIRX QSVI YRMJSVQ
FIGEYWI XLI] TIVQMX VIHMWXVMFYXMSR SJ JSSXMRK PSEHW ERH
VIHYGIXLITSXIRXMEPJSVHMJJIVIRXMEPWIXXPIQIRXW

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

*MKE{0SGEXMSRSJKVEHIFIEQW
HMWXERGIXSXLEXGSPYQRSV[EPP*EGXSVIHWLIEVJSVXLIKVEHI
FIEQWLSYPHFIGSQTYXIHJVSQ)U F 

Vu =

*MKF{+VMHSJKVEHIFIEQW
F 0MROGSQFMRIHJSSXMRKW  HMWXVMFYXMRKQSQIRXW
HYI XS IGGIRXVMG JSSXMRKW SV QSQIRXW XVERWQMXXIH JVSQ
GSPYQRWXSJSSXMRKW
G ,IPTXVERWQMXPSEHWHYIXS[EPPQSQIRXWXSXLIWSMP
ERH
H -RWIMWQMG^SRIWJSVQEHMETLVEKQEXJSYRHEXMSRPIZIP
XLEX MRLMFMXW HMJJIVIRXMEP LSVM^SRXEP QSZIQIRXW FIX[IIR
GSPYQRWERH[EPPW
 1ERHEXSV] YWEKI{8LI YWI SJ E KVEHIFIEQ
KVMH MWQERHEXSV]JSV QSHIVEXISVLMKLWIMWQMG VMWO^SRIW
ERH^SRIWSJRSSVPS[WIMWQMGVMWO
 0SEHW
 +IRIVEP{+VEHI FIEQW HMQIRWMSRW ERH VIMR
JSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFIFEWIHSRXLIQEMRJYRGXMSR  
[MXLEPPS[ERGIWQEHIJSVXLISXLIVJYRGXMSRW6IGSQQIR
HEXMSRWSJXLIKISXIGLRMGEPVITSVXWLSYPHFISFWIVZIH
 (MJJIVIRXMEPWIXXPIQIRXW{8SQMRMQM^IHMJJIVIRXMEP
settlements, grade beams should have sufficient stiffness and
WXVIRKXL XS XVERWJIV XLI PSEHW HIZIPSTIH 7XMJJRIWW GSRXVSPW
JSVWLSVXWTERWERHWXVIRKXLJSVPSRKWTERW8LIKVEHIFIEQ
WLSYPHFIHMQIRWMSRIHJSVXLIJEGXSVIHTSWMXMZIERHRIKEXMZI
QSQIRXKMZIRF])U E 

Mu

Pu s
160

E

[LIVI 4Y MW XLI PEVKIWX E\MEP JSVGI GEVVMIH F] GSPYQRW SV
[EPPWPMROIHF]XLIKVEHIFIEQERH WMWXLIGIRXIVXSGIRXIV

Pu
80

F

 7IMWQMG{8LI KVEHI FIEQ WLSYPH EGX EW E XMI


FIX[IIR RIMKLFSVMRK GSPYQRW SV [EPPW 8LI KVEHI FIEQ
WLSYPHFIGETEFPISJVIWMWXMRKMRXIRWMSRERHGSQTVIWWMSRE
JEGXSVIHE\MEPJSVGIIUYMZEPIRXXS%E4Y[LIVI4YMWXLI
PEVKIWXE\MEPJSVGIGEVVMIHF]GSPYQRWSV[EPPWPMROIHF]XLI
KVEHIFIEQERH%EMWXLIIJJIGXMZIIEVXLUYEOITIEOKVSYRH
LSVM^SRXEP EGGIPIVEXMSR KMZIR MR  *SV GEPGYPEXMSR SJ
GSQTVIWWMSRERHXIRWMSRWXVIRKXLVIJIVXSERH
 (MQIRWMSREP PMQMXW{8LI KVEHI FIEQ WLSYPH FI
TVSTSVXMSRIH XS VIWMWX XLI PSEHW SJ  ERH QMRMQYQ
GVSWWWIGXMSREP HMQIRWMSR WLSYPH FI XLI GPIEV WTEGMRK
FIX[IIRGSRRIGXIHGSPYQRWHMZMHIHF]MR QQ SV
F]MR QQ WIMWQMG^SRIWFYXRIIHRSXI\GIIHMR
QQ 
 6IMRJSVGIQIRX{+VEHI FIEQW WLSYPH LEZI GSRXMR
YSYWPSRKMXYHMREPVIMRJSVGIQIRXHIZIPSTIH[MXLMRSVFI]SRH
XLIWYTTSVXIHGSPYQRSVERGLSVIHEXEPPHMWGSRXMRYMXMIW'PSWIH
XMIWWLSYPHFITVSZMHIHEXEQE\MQYQWTEGMRKSJXLIPIWWIV
SJ SRILEPJ XLIWQEPPIWX SVXLSKSREPGVSWWWIGXMSREP HMQIRWMSR
SVMR QQ -RWIMWQMG^SRIWKVEHIFIEQWWLSYPH
GSQTP][MXL*SVKVEHIFIEQWERHFIEQWSRKVEHI
HG!MR QQ QE]FIYWIHXSGSQTYXIHEWH!LzHG
{7PEFWSRKVSYRH
 +IRIVEP{7IGXMSR  GSZIVW SRP] MRXIVMSV
slabs continuously supported on selected material fill, which
MRXYVRMWWYTTSVXIHF]WSMP;LIRXLIJSYRHEXMSRWPEFWSR
KVSYRHMWYWIHXSXVERWJIVPSEHWJVSQSXLIVTEVXWSJXLIWXVYG
XYVIXS XLIWYTTSVXMRK WSMP XLIMVHIWMKRWLSYPHGSRJSVQXS
ETTVSTVMEXIWIGXMSRWSJ'LETXIV(IWMKRSJTEZIQIRXWSV
WPEFWSRKVSYRHWYFNIGXXSETTVIGMEFPIGSRGIRXVEXIHPSEHWMW
RSXGSZIVIHMRXLMWKYMHI
 7YFFEWI{8LITVITEVIHWYFFEWIWLSYPHGSRWMWXSJ
a compacted selected material fill made from crushed stone
or gravel with an appropriate mixture of fines. Minimum
WYFFEWIXLMGORIWWWLSYPHFIMR QQ 
 1MRMQYQ XLMGORIWW{8LI QMRMQYQ WPEFSR
KVSYRHXLMGORIWWWLSYPHFIMR QQ 
 .SMRXW{'SRXVEGXMSR NSMRXW WLSYPH FI YWIH XS
TVSZMHI YRMJSVQ GVEGOMRK EW XLI WPEFSRKVSYRH WLSVXIRW
HYIXSWLVMROEKIERHXIQTIVEXYVIZEVMEXMSRW8LI]WLSYPHFI

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

IMXLIVWE[IHSVLERHJSVQIHERHI\XIRHEXPIEWXSRIJSYVXL
XLIWPEFXLMGORIWW.SMRXWTEGMRKMRFSXLHMVIGXMSRWWLSYPHFI
JVSQXSJX XSQ 6IMRJSVGIQIRXMJRIIHIHWLSYPH
FI GSRXMRYSYW EGVSWW XLI NSMRX 2S TERIP WLSYPH FI PEVKIV
XLERJX Q SVLEZIXLIPSRKWMHII\GIIHXLIWLSVX
WMHIF]QSVIXLERTIVGIRX
 6IMRJSVGIQIRX{6IMRJSVGMRKFEVWSV[IPHIH[MVI
VIMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH FI YWIH [LIR XLI HMWXERGI FIX[IIR
GSRXVEGXMSR NSMRXW I\GIIHW  JX  Q  6IMRJSVGIQIRX
WLSYPHFITPEGIHETTVS\MQEXIP]EXSRIXLMVHXLIWPEFXLMGO
RIWWQIEWYVIHJVSQXLIYTTIVWYVJEGIGSQTP]MRK[MXL
GSRGVIXI GSZIV 1MRMQYQ VIMRJSVGIQIRX VEXMS WLSYPH FI
SRILEPJXLIQMRMQYQZEPYIKMZIRF]JSVWPEFW8LMW
VIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFIPETWTPMGIHGSQTP]MRK[MXL 
%PPVIMRJSVGIQIRXJSVWPEFWSRKVSYRHWLSYPHFIWYTTSVXIH
F]FSPWXIVWEXGPSWIIRSYKLGIRXIVWXSTVIZIRXHIJSVQEXMSR
F][SVOIVWSVIUYMTQIRX0MJXMRKTYPPMRKYTSVTYHHPMRKMR
EVIRSXEGGITXEFPIQIXLSHWJSVTPEGMRKVIMRJSVGIQIRX
',%48)6{(6%;-2+7%2(74)'-*-'%8-327
{+IRIVEP
&YMPHMRKGSRWXVYGXMSRIQTPS]WWIZIVEPX]TIWSJHVE[MRKW
IEGLHITMGXMRKERMQTSVXERXTEVXSJXLITVSNIGX8LIWIHVE[MRKW
which cover all phases of the work necessary for the finished
WXVYGXYVI WLSYPH LEZI XLI WGSTI KMZIR MR  XLVSYKL

 7MXIHVE[MRKW{7MXIHVE[MRKWSVTPSXTPERWHITMGX
E 0SGEXMSRSJXLIFYMPHMRKSRXLITVSTIVX]
F 9XMPMX]PMRIW
G (VEMREKIERHHVEMREKIWXVYGXYVIW
H 3YXWMHI[EPOWWXITWHVMZI[E]WERHGYVFW
(e) Preconstruction ground elevations and finished grades;
ERH
J 0SGEXMSRSJEPPWMXIWXVYGXYVIWMRGPYHMRKWMKRWVIXEMRMRK
[EPPWERHTEZMRK
 %VGLMXIGXYVEPHVE[MRKW{-RQER]GEWIWEVGLMXIGXYVEP
HVE[MRKWEVIXLIFEWMWJSVXLIHVE[MRKWSJSXLIVHMWGMTPMRIW
WYGLEWWXVYGXYVEPQIGLERMGEPERHIPIGXVMGEP%VGLMXIGXYVEP
HVE[MRKWHITMGX
E (IWMKRSGGYTERG]ERHYWEKISJEVIEW
F *MRMWLIHETTIEVERGISJXLIFYMPHMRKMRIPIZEXMSRW
G 4PERWERHWIGXMSRWGSQTPIXIP]HMQIRWMSRIH
H 8LIVIPEXMSRWLMTSJQEXIVMEPWWYGLEWGSRGVIXIWXIIP
ERHFVMGOERH[SSHERHWXSRIXSIEGLSXLIV
I 6SSQEVVERKIQIRXWMRTPERW[MXLWIGXMSRWERHIPIZEXMSRW
XSMPPYWXVEXIHIXEMPW
J *MRMWLIWWYGLEWTPEWXIVSVXMPI[EPPWERH
(g) Ceiling, floor surfaces, and fixtures.
 7XVYGXYVEP HVE[MRKW{7XVYGXYVEP HVE[MRKW HITMGX
EPP TPERW ERH HIXEMPW RIGIWWEV] XS GSRWXVYGX XLI FYMPHMRK
JVEQI[MXLGSQTPIXI[SVOMRKHMQIRWMSRWERHIPIZEXMSRW
 1IGLERMGEP HVE[MRKW{1IGLERMGEP HVE[MRKW
HITMGX TMTMRK LIEXMRK ERH EMVGSRHMXMSRMRK HYGXW ERH
QIGLERMGEP IUYMTQIRX -RWXEPPEXMSR SJ XLMW [SVO SJXIR
VIUYMVIW XLI GSRWXVYGXMSR SJ WYQTW TMXW ERH STIRMRKW MR
walls and floors. Structural drawings need to depict these
GSRGVIXIHIXEMPWWSXLIQIGLERMGEPHVE[MRKWWLSYPHFIYWIH
JSV VIJIVIRGITYVTSWIW SRP] -R WSQI MRWXERGIW XLIQERY



JEGXYVIV SJ WTIGMEP IUYMTQIRX WYTTPMIW WXVYGXYVEP HIXEMPW XS


EGGSQTER]QIGLERMGEPJIEXYVIWMRXLMW GEWIRSXIWWLSYPH
FITPEGIHSRXLIWXVYGXYVEPHVE[MRKWVIJIVVMRKXS[LIVIXLI
WTIGMEPX]HVE[MRKWGERFIJSYRH
 )PIGXVMGEP HVE[MRKW{)PIGXVMGEP HVE[MRKW HITMGX
electric wiring, conduits, fixture locations, control panels,
ERH IPIGXVMG TYQTW 7SQIXMQIW GSRGVIXI IRGEWIQIRX SJ
GSRHYMXWVIUYMVIWVIMRJSVGMRKFEVW8LMWIRGEWIQIRXWLSYPH
FIHIXEMPIHSRXLIWXVYGXYVEPHVE[MRKW[MXLEVIJIVIRGIQEHI
to the electrical drawings for specific details.
{7XVYGXYVEPHVE[MRKW
7XVYGXYVEPHVE[MRKWWLSYPHFIHMZMHIHMRXSKIRIVEPWXVYGXYVEP
HVE[MRKW ERH HIXEMPMRK SV TPEGMRK HVE[MRKW ERH VIPEXIH
WGLIHYPIW%PPWXVYGXYVEPHVE[MRKWWLSYPHFIWMKRIHF]XLI
PMGIRWIHHIWMKRTVSJIWWMSREPERHWLSYPHMRGPYHI
E 4VSNIGXREQI
F (EXIXLIHIWMKR[EWTIVJSVQIH
G 2EQISJXLIPMGIRWIHHIWMKRTVSJIWWMSREP
H 2EQIERHIHMXMSRSJGSHIXS[LMGLHIWMKRGSRJSVQW
I 0MZIPSEHERHSXLIVPSEHWEWWYQIHMRHIWMKR
(f) Specified compressive strength of concrete at stated
EKIWSJGSRWXVYGXMSRJSVIEGLTEVXSJXLIWXVYGXYVI
(g) Specified strength or grade of reinforcement; and
L  7XEXIQIRX SJ XLI HIWMKR PMQMXEXMSRW [MXL VIWTIGX XS
SGGYTERG] QE\MQYQ RYQFIV SJ WXSVMIW QE\MQYQ EVIE
per floor; maximum span length; minimum number of
WTERWQE\MQYQGERXMPIZIVWTERQE\MQYQWPSTIJSVWPEFW
KMVHIVWFIEQWERHNSMWXWERHQE\MQYQWPSTISJXLIXIVVEMR
 +IRIVEP WXVYGXYVEP HVE[MRKW{-XIQW   XLVSYKL
  WLSYPH FI MRGPYHIH MR E WIX SJ KIRIVEP WXVYGXYVEP
HVE[MRKW
 'SQTPIXIERHGPIEVHMQIRWMSRWWSXLIFYMPHMRKWXVYGXYVI
GERFIGSRWXVYGXIH[MXLSYXVIJIVIRGIXSSXLIVHVE[MRKW
  7M^I ERH WLETI SJ EPP MRHMZMHYEP WXVYGXYVEP QIQFIVW
WYGL EW JSSXMRKW GSPYQRW [EPPW FIEQW NSMWXW ERH WPEFW
MRTPERWIGXMSRIPIZEXMSRSVWGLIHYPIWSVMRGSQFMREXMSR
 )PIZEXMSRWEX
8LIFSXXSQSJJSSXMRKWERH[EPPW
*PSSVERHVSSJPIZIPW
&VMGOPIHKIWSR[EPPWERH
7XITWMR[EPPJSSXMRKW
 *PS[PMRIWJSVHVEMREKIWXVYGXYVIW
 0SGEXMSRERHHIXEMPWSJGSRWXVYGXMSRNSMRXW
 6IMRJSVGMRKFEVUYERXMX]SVWTEGMRK TSWMXMSRWLETI
ERH WM^I XLEX EVI SJXIR PMWXIH MR WITEVEXI WGLIHYPIW JSV
GSPYQRWFIEQWNSMWXWERHWPEFW
 0SGEXMSRERHPIRKXLSJEPPPETWTPMGIW
  'EQFIVMRJSVQEXMSRJSVLSVM^SRXEP QIQFIVW WYGLEW
PSRKWTERFIEQERHKMVHIVWERHGERXMPIZIVW
 7IGXMSRWSJWTIGMEPJVEQMRKERHFEVHIXEMPMRKEWRIGIW
WEV]XSGPEVMJ]WYGLJVEQMRK
 +IRIVEPRSXIWWYGLEW
E  +VEHI SJ WXIIP [LIR MJ QSVI XLER SRI KVEHI MW
WLS[RIEGLMWPSGEXIHMRXLIWXVYGXYVI
(b) Specified concrete strengths for the various struc
XYVEPQIQFIVW
G 6IJIVIRGIXSXLIHIXEMPMRKERHTPEGMRKHVE[MRKW

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

H 6IJIVIRGIXSXLIGSHIJSVSZIVEPPHIWMKRGSQTPMERGI
(e) Class of concrete slab finish and bar support types;
ERH
(f) Mill certifications for reinforcing steel, if needed.
 2SXIW[LIVIHIZMEXMSRJVSQVIGSKRM^IHWXERHEVHWERH
tolerances exist, or where specific instructions are needed for
YRYWYEPNSFGSRHMXMSRWERH
  8]TMGEP HMEKVEQW WLS[MRK FEV EVVERKIQIRX JSV EPP
GSRGVIXIQIQFIVWERHFEVWYTTSVXEVVERKIQIRXERHWTEGMRK
*SV JYVXLIV HIXEMPMRK VIGSQQIRHEXMSRW VIJIV XS %'-
74  
 (IXEMPMRK ERH TPEGMRK HVE[MRKW SV WGLIHYPIW{
(IXEMPMRKERHTPEGMRKHVE[MRKWSVWGLIHYPIWWLSYPHWEXMWJ]
X[STYVTSWIWXLEXTVSZMHI
 (IXEMPWJVSQ[LMGLXLIFYMPHIVSVFEVJEFVMGEXSVI\XVEGXW
MRJSVQEXMSRRIIHIHXSGYXERHFIRHXLIWXIIPERH
 (IXEMPWERHTPEGMRKMRWXVYGXMSRWJSV[SVOIVWXSTPEGI
FEVWSRXLINSF
;LIRQEHIF]XLIFYMPHIVSVJEFVMGEXSVXLI]MRHMGEXIXS
XLIHIWMKRIRKMRIIVLS[XLIFYMPHIVSVJEFVMGEXSVMRXIVTVIXW
KIRIVEPWXVYGXYVEPHVE[MRKW%TTVSZEPSJXLITPEGMRKHVE[
MRKWF]XLIPMGIRWIHHIWMKRTVSJIWWMSREPMRHMGEXIWEGGITXERGI
SJXLEXMRXIVTVIXEXMSR
8LIVIGSQQIRHIHTVSGIHYVIJSVQEOMRKXLIHIXEMPMRKERH
TPEGMRKHVE[MRKWSVWGLIHYPIWMWPMWXIHMR  XLVSYKL  
(1) Project specifications and general structural drawings
WLSYPH FI YWIH XS TVITEVI TPEGMRK HVE[MRKW [LMGL WLS[
HIXEMPIH UYERXMXMIW PIRKXLW FIRHMRK HMEKVEQW ERH TSWM
XMSRMRKSJVIMRJSVGMRKWXIIPERHFEVWYTTSVXW
  ;LIR IPIGXVSRMG HVE[MRKW EVI RSX IQTPS]IH LMKLP]
XVERWTEVIRX XVEGMRK TETIV WLSYPH FI WIPIGXIH 8LMW TETIV
WLSYPH FI WYTIVMQTSWIH SR WXVYGXYVEP SV EVGLMXIGXYVEP
HVE[MRKW 3YXPMRIW SR XLIWI HVE[MRKW WLSYPH FI XVEGIH
ERH YWIH EW TEVX SJ XLI TPEGMRK HVE[MRKW 8LMW [MPP WEZI
XLIHIXEMPIVXMQIMRQIGLERMGEPP]VITVSHYGMRKXLITPERW
IPIZEXMSRWERHWIGXMSRWRIIHIHJSVVIMRJSVGIQIRXHIXEMPMRK
  ;LIR GVIEXMRK FYMPHMRK SYXPMRIW SRP] XLI TSVXMSR
RIIHIH JSV FEV HIXEMPMRK WLSYPH FI XVEGIH &VMGO SV XMPI
[SVORSRVIMRJSVGIHTEVXMXMSR[EPPWERHQIGLERMGEPHIXEMPW
WLSYPHRSXFIWLS[R9RRIGIWWEV]WIGXMSRWERHIPIZEXMSRW
WLSYPHFISQMXXIH+IRIVEPP]HMQIRWMSRWQE]FISQMXXIHSR
TPEGMRKHVE[MRKW*SVGSRWXVYGXMSRTYVTSWIWWXVYGXYVEPERH
EVGLMXIGXYVEPHVE[MRKWWLSYPHFIYWIH
  7IZIVEP QIXLSHW GER TVSHYGI XVERWTEVIRGMIW 6ITVS
HYGXMSRWSRXVERWTEVIRXTETIV[MPPWEZIXLIHIXEMPIVXMQIERH
IRWYVIEGGYVEXI[SVOXVEGMRKWJSVXLIHIXEMPW-RVITVSHYGMRK
XLIWIHVE[MRKWMXMWTSWWMFPIXSFPSGOSYXXMXPIWRSXIWERH
YRRIIHIHWIGXMSRWERHHIXEMPW6IMRJSVGMRKFEVHIXEMPWWLSYPH
XLIRFIEHHIHXSXLIXVERWTEVIRGMIWXSWYTTPIQIRXSVMKMREP
HVE[MRKWERHTVSHYGITPEGMRKHVE[MRKW
  4PEGMRK HVE[MRKW SV WGLIHYPIW WLSYPH FI GPIEV
GSQTPIXIERH[SVOEFPIERHMRGPYHIEPPMRJSVQEXMSRRIGIWWEV]
XSTPEGIXLIWXIIP8LISTIVEXMSRSJTPEGMRKVIMRJSVGIQIRXMWE
key construction phase. Unclear drawings cause field delays,
WPS[XLITVSHYGXMSRSJXLITPEGMRKGVI[ERHMJTVSPSRKIH
[MPPHMWVYTXGSRWXVYGXMSRSTIVEXMSRWJSPPS[MRKTPEGMRK

15.3Project specifications
Project specifications should include all requirements,
[VMXXIR F] XLI PMGIRWIH HIWMKRTVSJIWWMSREP XS WYTTPIQIRX
and amplify project drawings. Specification details control
GSRWXVYGXMSR VIUYMVIQIRXW SZIV HVE[MRKW 8LI] WLSYPH FI
HMZMHIHMRXSWIGXMSRWFIKMRRMRK[MXLSRIGSZIVMRKKIRIVEP
GSRHMXMSRW ERH JSPPS[IH MR PSKMGEP GSRWXVYGXMSR SVHIV F]
WIGXMSRWTIVXEMRMRKXSQEXIVMEPWERHI\IGYXMSR
+IRIVEPGSRHMXMSRWMRGPYHIEJSVQSJGSRXVEGXKSZIVRMRK
XLIVIPEXMSRWLMTERHVIWTSRWMFMPMXMIWSJXLIVIKMWXIVIHHIWMKR
TVSJIWWMSREPXLIKIRIVEPGSRXVEGXSVWYFGSRXVEGXSVWYTTPMIVW
SJQEXIVMEPWERH[SVOIVW8LMWWIGXMSRWLSYPHEPWSMRGPYHI
KIRIVEPMRWXVYGXMSRWKSZIVRMRKXLIHMWXVMFYXMSRSJVIMRJSVGI
QIRXTPEGMRKHVE[MRKWJSVETTVSZEPERHYWIERHTVSGIHYVIW
JSVWYFQMXXMRKER]VIUYMVIHQEXIVMEPWEQTPIWJSVXIWXMRKSV
ETTVSZEP
*SPPS[MRK XLI KIRIVEP GSRHMXMSRW EVI XLI HIXEMPIH TEVXW
of the project by sections. Each section defines the require
QIRXWJSVSRITLEWISJGSRWXVYGXMSRSVQEXIVMEPW
8]TMGEPWIGXMSRXMXPIWEVI
(MZMWMSR{+IRIVEPVIUYMVIQIRXW
(MZMWMSR{7MXIGSRWXVYGXMSR
(MZMWMSR{'SRGVIXI
(MZMWMSR{1EWSRV]
(MZMWMSR{1IXEPW
(MZMWMSR{;SSHERHTPEWXMGW
(MZMWMSR{8LIVQEPERHQSMWXYVITVSXIGXMSR
(MZMWMSR{(SSVWERH[MRHS[W
(MZMWMSR{*MRMWLIW
(MZMWMSR{7TIGMEPXMIW
(MZMWMSR{)UYMTQIRX
(MZMWMSR{*YVRMWLMRKW
(MZMWMSR{7TIGMEPGSRWXVYGXMSR
(MZMWMSR{'SRZI]MRKW]WXIQW
(MZMWMSR{1IGLERMGEP
(MZMWMSR{)PIGXVMGEP
(MZMWMSRSRGSRGVIXI[SVOMWXLITVMQEV]HMZMWMSRXLEX
EHHVIWWIW GSRWXVYGXMSR GSZIVIH F] XLMW KYMHI FYX IEGL
HMZMWMSRWLSYPHFIVIZMI[IHJSVMXIQWXLEXGSYPHEJJIGXXLI
WXVYGXYVEPHIWMKR
*SV I\EQTPI XLI QEWSRV] WIGXMSR QMKLX MRGPYHI WXIIP
VIMRJSVGIQIRXJSVFVMGOSVGSRGVIXIFPSGOGSRWXVYGXMSR8LI
HMZMWMSRSRWXVYGXYVEPWXIIPQMKLXMRGPYHIVIMRJSVGIQIRXJSV
concrete fireproofing of structural steel roof trusses, beams,
ERHGSPYQRW
9RHIVXLIGSRGVIXIHMZMWMSREVIERYQFIVSJWIGXMSRW%'-
301-10, Specifications for Structural Concrete is a refer
ence specification for concrete building construction. Some
X]TMGEPWIGXMSRWEVIPMWXIHERHI\TPEMRIHFIPS[
E 4VSTSVXMSRMRKQM\MRKLERHPMRKTPEGMRKUYEPMX]ERH
XIWXMRKSJGSRGVIXI
(b) Concrete strengths and, if several are specified, where
IEGLMWXSFIYWIHMRXLITVSNIGX
G  *SVQ[SVO X]TI SJ QEXIVMEPW IVIGXMSR FVEGMRK
WLSVMRKERHVIQSZEP
H +VEHISJVIMRJSVGMRKFEVWERHMJQSVIXLERSRI[LIVI
IEGL MW XS FI YWIH JEFVMGEXMSR SJ VIMRJSVGMRK FEVW ERH
XSPIVERGIW

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

I 'SRGVIXIGSZIVSZIVXLIFEVW
J 5YEPMX]GSRXVSPSJVIMRJSVGMRKFEVW[LIXLIVF]XIWXMRK
EGGITXERGISJQMPPXIWXVITSVXWSVFSXL
K  'PEWW SV X]TI SJ FEV WYTTSVXW FEV TSWMXMSRMRK ERH
KIRIVEPEVVERKIQIRXSJFEVWYTTSVXWERH
(h) Concrete finishes.
A carefully prepared project specification should minimize
XLIRIIHJSVPIRKXL]HIXEMPIHRSXIWSRXLIHVE[MRKW'IVXEMR
RSXIWEP[E]WKSSRXLIWXVYGXYVEPHVE[MRKWFIGEYWIXLI]EVI
fundamental, such as the specified strength of concrete, even
if the information is included in the specification.
',%48)6{'327869'8-32
{-RXVSHYGXMSR
 +IRIVEP{'SRGVIXI MW E GEVIJYPP] TVSTSVXMSRIH
QM\XYVISJGIQIRXWERHERHKVEZIPSVSXLIVEKKVIKEXIERH
[EXIVLEVHIRIHMRJSVQWSJXLIWLETIERHHMQIRWMSRWSJXLI
HIWMVIHWXVYGXYVI
Most concrete material consists of fine and coarse aggregate.
'IQIRXERH[EXIVMRXIVEGXGLIQMGEPP]XSFMRHEKKVIKEXITEVXMGPIW
MRXSEWSPMHQEWW%HHMXMSREP[EXIVSZIVERHEFSZIXLEXRIIHIH
JSVXLMWGLIQMGEPVIEGXMSRMWRIGIWWEV]XSKMZIXLIQM\XYVI
the workability that enables it to fill forms and surround the
IQFIHHIHVIMRJSVGMRKWXIIPFIJSVILEVHIRMRK'SRGVIXITVST
IVXMIW HITIRH SR XS E WYFWXERXMEP HIKVII QM\XYVI TVSTSV
XMSRWXLIXLSVSYKLRIWW[MXL[LMGLXLIZEVMSYWGSRWXMXYIRXW
EVIMRXIVQM\IHERHLYQMHMX]ERHXIQTIVEXYVIGSRHMXMSRWMR
[LMGLXLIQM\XYVIMWQEMRXEMRIHJVSQXLIQSQIRXMXMWTPEGIH
MRXLIJSVQWYRXMPMXJYPP]LEVHIRW8LITVSGIWWSJGSRXVSPPMRK
LYQMHMX] ERH XIQTIVEXYVI GSRHMXMSRW MW ORS[R EW GYVMRK
8STVSXIGXEKEMRWXYRMRXIRXMSREPTVSHYGXMSRSJWYFWXERHEVH
GSRGVIXIELMKLHIKVIISJWOMPPJYPGSRXVSPERHWYTIVZMWMSRMW
RIGIWWEV]XLVSYKLSYXXLITVSGIWWJVSQXLITVSTSVXMSRMRKF]
MRHMZMHYEPGSQTSRIRX[IMKLXXLVSYKLQM\MRKERHTPEGMRK
YRXMPXLIGSQTPIXMSRSJGYVMRK
 'IQIRX{% GIQIRXMRK QEXIVMEP LEW XLI EHLIWMZI
ERHGSLIWMZITVSTIVXMIWRIGIWWEV]XSFSRHMRIVXEKKVIKEXIW
MRXSEWSPMHQEWWSJEHIUYEXIWXVIRKXLERHHYVEFMPMX]
*SV QEOMRK WXVYGXYVEP GSRGVIXI L]HVEYPMG GIQIRXW EVI
YWIHI\GPYWMZIP];EXIVMWRIIHIHJSVXLIGLIQMGEPTVSGIWW
L]HVEXMSR  MR [LMGL XLI GIQIRX TS[HIV WIXW ERH LEVHIRW
MRXSSRIWSPMHQEWW3JXLIZEVMSYWL]HVEYPMGGIQIRXWXLEX
LEZIFIIRHIZIPSTIHTSVXPERHGIQIRXMWXLIQSWXGSQQSR
Portland cement is a finely powdered, grayish material that
GSRWMWXW QEMRP] SJ GEPGMYQ ERH EPYQMRYQ WMPMGEXIW 8LIWI
EVIKVSYRHFPIRHIHJYWIHXSGPMROIVWMREOMPRGSSPIHERH
ground to the required fineness. The material is shipped in
FYPOSVMRFEKWGSRXEMRMRKPF OK SJGIQIRXMRXLI
9RMXIH 7XEXIW ERH  PF OK  SJGIQIRX MRQSWXSXLIV
GSYRXVMIW;LIRGIQIRXMWQM\IH[MXL[EXIVXSJSVQEWSJX
TEWXI MX KVEHYEPP] WXMJJIRW YRXMP MX FIGSQIW E WSPMH 8LMW
TVSGIWWMWORS[REWWIXXMRKERHLEVHIRMRKXLIGIQIRXMWWEMH
to have set when it has gained sufficient rigidity to support
an arbitrarily defined pressure, after which it continues for
E PSRK XMQI XS LEVHIR ERH KEMR JYVXLIV WXVIRKXL ;EXIV MR
XLI TEWXI HMWWSPZIW QEXIVMEP EX XLI WYVJEGIW SJ XLI GIQIRX
KVEMRW ERH JSVQW E KIP XLEX KVEHYEPP] MRGVIEWIW MR ZSPYQI
ERHWXMJJRIWW8LMWPIEHWXSEVETMHWXMJJIRMRKSJXLITEWXI



XSLSYVWEJXIV[EXIVLEWFIIREHHIHXSXLIGIQIRX,]HVE
XMSRGSRXMRYIWXSTVSGIIHHIITIVMRXSXLIGIQIRXKVEMRWEX
HIGVIEWMRKWTIIH[MXLGSRXMRYIHWXMJJIRMRKERHLEVHIRMRKSJ
XLIQEWW-RSVHMREV]GSRGVIXIXLIGIQIRXMWTVSFEFP]RIZIV
GSQTPIXIP]L]HVEXIH8LIKIPWXVYGXYVISJXLILEVHIRIHTEWXI
WIIQWXSFIXLIGLMIJVIEWSRJSVXLIZSPYQIGLERKIWGEYWIH
MRGSRGVIXIF]ZEVMEXMSRWMRQSMWXYVIWYGLEWXLIWLVMROEKI
SJ GSRGVIXI EW MX HVMIW *SV GSQTPIXI L]HVEXMSR SJ E KMZIR
EQSYRX SJ GIQIRX ER EQSYRX SJ [EXIV IUYEP XS EFSYX 
TIVGIRXSJXLEXSJGIQIRXF][IMKLXMWRIIHIHGLIQMGEPP]
%REHHMXMSREPXSTIVGIRXWLSYPHFITVIWIRXLS[IZIV
XSTVSZMHIQSFMPMX]JSVXLI[EXIVMRXLIGIQIRXTEWXIHYVMRK
XLIL]HVEXMSRTVSGIWWWSXLEXMXGERVIEGLXLIGIQIRXTEVXMGPIW
8LMW QEOIW JSV E XSXEP QMRMQYQ [EXIVGIQIRX VEXMS [G
SJXSF][IMKLX8LMWGSVVIWTSRHWXSXSKEP
XS 0 SJ [EXIVTIVPF  OK  WEGO SJ GIQIRX
XLI QSVIGYWXSQEV][E] SJI\TVIWWMRK [G;EXIVGIQIRX
VEXMSW MR GSRGVIXI EVI KIRIVEPP] GSRWMHIVEFP] PEVKIV XLER
XLMW QMRMQYQ XS TVSZMHI XLI RIGIWWEV] [SVOEFMPMX] SJ XLI
GSRGVIXIQM\XYVI%R]EQSYRXSJ[EXIVEFSZIXLITIVGIRX
GSRWYQIH MR XLI GLIQMGEP VIEGXMSR TVSHYGIW TSVIW MR XLI
GIQIRX TEWXI 8LI LEVHIRIH TEWXI WXVIRKXL HIGVIEWIW MR
MRZIVWITVSTSVXMSRXSXLIJVEGXMSRSJXLIXSXEPZSPYQISGGYTMIH
F] TSVIW 8LMW MW [L] XLI GIQIRX TEWXI WXVIRKXL HITIRHW
TVMQEVMP] SR ERH HIGVIEWIW HMVIGXP] [MXL MRGVIEWMRK [G
8LI GLIQMGEP TVSGIWW MRZSPZIH MR WIXXMRK ERH LEVHIRMRK
PMFIVEXIWLIEXORS[REWLIEXSJL]HVEXMSR-RPEVKIGSRGVIXI
QEWWIW XLMW LIEX MW HMWWMTEXIH ZIV] WPS[P] ERH VIWYPXW MR
E XIQTIVEXYVI VMWI ERH ZSPYQI I\TERWMSR SJ XLI GSRGVIXI
HYVMRKL]HVEXMSR[MXLWYFWIUYIRXGSSPMRKERHGSRXVEGXMSR
8S EZSMH WIVMSYW GVEGOMRK ERH [IEOIRMRK XLEX QE] VIWYPX
JVSQXLMWTVSGIWWWTIGMEPQIEWYVIWWLSYPHFIXEOIRJSVMXW
GSRXVSP
 %KKVIKEXIW{1E\MQYQ EKKVIKEXI WM^I WLSYPH
easily fit into the forms and between the reinforcing bars
  8LI YWI SJ PMKLX[IMKLX EKKVIKEXIW MW FI]SRH XLI
WGSTISJXLMWKYMHI-RSVHMREV]WXVYGXYVEPGSRGVIXIEKKVI
KEXIW SGGYT] EFSYX  XS  TIVGIRX SJ XLI ZSPYQI SJ XLI
LEVHIRIHQEWW8LIVIQEMRHIVGSRWMWXWSJLEVHIRIHGIQIRX
TEWXI YRGSQFMRIH [EXIV [EXIV RSX MRZSPZIH MR GIQIRX
L]HVEXMSR ERHEMVZSMHW8LIPEWXX[SHSRSXGSRXVMFYXIXS
GSRGVIXIWXVIRKXL-RKIRIVEPXLIQSVIHIRWIP]XLIEKKVIKEXI
GER FI TEGOIH XLI FIXXIV XLI WXVIRKXL [IEXLIV VIWMWXERGI
ERH IGSRSQ] SJ XLI GSRGVIXI *SV XLMW VIEWSR XLI KVEHE
XMSRSJXLITEVXMGPI WM^IWMRXLIEKKVIKEXIXSTVSHYGI GPSWI
TEGOMRKMWMQTSVXERX-XMWEPWSMQTSVXERXXLEXXLIEKKVIKEXI
LEZIKSSHWXVIRKXLHYVEFMPMX]ERH[IEXLIVVIWMWXERGIXLEX
MXW WYVJEGI FI JVII JVSQ MQTYVMXMIW WYGL EW PSEQ WMPX ERH
SVKERMGQEXXIV[LMGLQE][IEOIRXLIFSRH[MXLXLIGIQIRX
TEWXIERHXLEXRSYRJEZSVEFPIGLIQMGEPVIEGXMSRXEOIWTPEGI
FIX[IIR XLI GIQIRX TEWXI ERH XLI GIQIRX 2EXYVEP EKKVI
gates are generally classified as fine and coarse. Fine aggre
KEXISVWERHMWER]QEXIVMEPXLEXTEWWIWEWMIZI[MXLMR
(6 mm) openings. Material coarser than this is classified
EW GSEVWI EKKVIKEXI SV KVEZIP ;LIR JEZSVEFPI KVEHEXMSR
MWHIWMVIHEKKVIKEXIWEVI WITEVEXIHF]WMIZMRK MRXSX[SSV
XLVIIWM^IKVSYTWSJWERHERHWIZIVEPWM^IKVSYTWSJGSEVWI

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

EKKVIKEXI8LIWIGERXLIRFIGSQFMRIHEGGSVHMRKXSKVEHMRK
GLEVXWXSVIWYPXMREHIRWIP]TEGOIHEKKVIKEXI
 %HQM\XYVIW{-REHHMXMSRXSXLIQEMRGSQTSRIRXW
of concrete, admixtures are often used for specific purposes.
8LIVIEVIEHQM\XYVIWXSMQTVSZI[SVOEFMPMX]EGGIPIVEXISV
VIXEVH WIXXMRK ERH LEVHIRMRK EMH MR GYVMRK MQTVSZI HYVE
FMPMX]EHH GSPSVERH MQTEVXSXLIVTVSTIVXMIW;LIVIEW XLI
beneficial effects of some admixtures are well established,
XLIGPEMQWSJSXLIVWWLSYPHFIZMI[IH[MXLGEYXMSR
 6IMRJSVGIQIRX{8LIVIMRJSVGIQIRXX]TIWGSZIVIH
MRXLMWKYMHIEVIHIJSVQIHVIMRJSVGMRKFEVWTPEMRFEVWERH
[IPHIH[MVIVIMRJSVGIQIRX  
*SV QSWX IJJIGXMZI VIMRJSVGIQIRX EGXMSR MX MW RIGIWWEV]
that sufficient bond exists between the two materials so that
VIPEXMZIQSZIQIRXFIX[IIRXLIWXIIPFEVERHXLIWYVVSYRHMRK
GSRGVIXIHSIWRSXSGGYV8LMWFSRHMWTVSZMHIHF]XLIVIPE
XMZIP] PEVKI GLIQMGEP EHLIWMSR XLEX HIZIPSTW EX XLI WXIIP
GSRGVIXIMRXIVJEGIF]XLIREXYVEPVSYKLRIWWSJXLIQMPPWGEPI
SJ LSXVSPPIH VIMRJSVGMRK FEVW ERH F] XLI GPSWIP] WTEGIH
WYVJEGI FEV HIJSVQEXMSRW [LMGL TVSZMHI E LMKL HIKVII SJ
MRXIVPSGOMRKSJXLIX[SQEXIVMEPW
 *SVQ[SVOForms should result in a final structure
XLEX GSRJSVQW XS XLI WLETIW PMRIW ERH HMQIRWMSRW SJ XLI
members indicated by the design drawings and specifications.
Forms should be substantial and sufficiently tight to
TVIZIRXQSVXEVPIEOEKI8LI]WLSYPHFITVSTIVP]FVEGIHSV
XMIHXSKIXLIVXSQEMRXEMRTSWMXMSRERHWLETI*SVQWERHXLIMV
WYTTSVXWLSYPHFIHIWMKRIHWSEWRSXXSHEQEKIETVIZMSYWP]
TPEGIHWXVYGXYVI*SVQ[SVOHIWMKRWLSYPHGSRWMHIVXLIVEXI
ERH QIXLSH SJ TPEGMRK GSRGVIXI ERH GSRWXVYGXMSR PSEHW
MRGPYHMRKZIVXMGEPLSVM^SRXEPERHMQTEGXPSEHW
{'SRGVIXIQM\XYVITVSTSVXMSRMRK
 +IRIVEP{8LMW KYMHI HSIW RSX MRXIRXMSREPP]
EHHVIWW GSRGVIXI GSRXEMRMRK WYTTPIQIRXEV] GIQIRXMRK
materials (SCM) including fly ash. It is recognized that in
many countries, like the United States, that fly ash and other
7'1 EVI YWIHMR SZIV  TIVGIRX SJ EPP GSRGVIXI QM\XYVIW
ERH EVI VSYXMRIP] HIPMZIVIH F] GSRGVIXI WYTTPMIVW EW GSRWXMXY
IRXW SJ X]TMGEP QM\XYVIW 8LMW KYMHI SRP] QEOIW VIJIVIRGI XS
GSRGVIXIHIWMKRWXVIRKXLEWMXMWTVMQEVMP]HMVIGXIHXSIRKMRIIVW
[MXLPMQMXIHI\TSWYVIXSQEXIVMEPWXIGLRSPSK]ERHXVEMRMRK*SVE
complete definition of proportions, the weight of cement, water,
WERHERHGSEVWIEKKVIKEXIWLSYPHFITVSZMHIH
:EVMSYW QM\XYVI GSQTSRIRXW EVI TVSTSVXMSRIH WS XLEX XLI
VIWYPXMRKGSRGVIXILEWEHIUYEXIWXVIRKXLTVSTIV[SVOEFMPMX]JSV
TPEGMRKERHPS[GSWX8LIPEXXIVGEPPWJSVYWMRKXLIQMRMQYQ
EQSYRXSJGIQIRX{XLIQSWXGSWXP]GSQTSRIRX{XSEGLMIZI
adequate properties. Concrete attributes are generally influenced
EWMRHMGEXIHMR8EFPI8LIFIXXIVXLIEKKVIKEXIKVEHEXMSR
XLIWQEPPIVXLIZSPYQISJZSMHWERHXLIPIWWGIQIRXTEWXIMW
needed to fill these voids. Water is required for hydration and
RIIHIHJSV[IXXMRKXLIEKKVIKEXIWYVJEGI%W[EXIVMWEHHIH
TPEWXMGMX]ERHJPYMHMX]SJXLIQM\XYVIMRGVIEWIWERH[SVO
EFMPMX]MQTVSZIWFYXWXVIRKXLHIGVIEWIWFIGEYWIJVII[EXIV
GVIEXIWEPEVKIVZSPYQISJZSMHW8SVIHYGIJVII[EXIV[LMPI
VIXEMRMRK [SVOEFMPMX] GIQIRX WLSYPH FI EHHIH 8LIVIJSVI
EWJSVGIQIRXTEWXIXLI[GMWXLIQEMRJEGXSVXLEXGSRXVSPW

XLIGSRGVIXIWXVIRKXL*SVEKMZIR[GXLIQMRMQYQEQSYRX
SJGIQIRXF][IMKLXXLEX[MPPWIGYVIXLIHIWMVIH[SVOEFMPMX]
WLSYPHFIWIPIGXIH
'SRGVIXI WLSYPH FI TVSTSVXMSRIH XS TVSZMHI ER EZIVEKI
GSQTVIWWMZI WXVIRKXL JGV  XLEX QMRMQM^IW XLI JVIUYIRG] SJ
WXVIRKXLXIWXWFIPS[JG (IXIVQMREXMSRSJJGV WLSYPHFIFEWIH
SRHE]EKIXIWXWSRTEMVWSJG]PMRHIVWQEHIERHXIWXIHEW
HIWGVMFIHMR-REHHMXMSRGSRGVIXIQEXIVMEPTVSTSVXMSRW
WLSYPHFIIWXEFPMWLIHXSTVSZMHI
E ;SVOEFMPMX]ERHGSRWMWXIRG]XSTIVQMXGSRGVIXIXSFI
[SVOIHVIEHMP]MRXSJSVQWERHEVSYRHVIMRJSVGIQIRXYRHIV
XLITPEGIQIRXGSRHMXMSRW[MXLSYXWIKVIKEXMSRSVI\GIWWMZI
FPIIHMRK
F 6IWMWXERGIXSERXMGMTEXIHI\TSWYVIWERH
G 'SRJSVQERGI[MXLWXVIRKXLXIWXVIUYMVIQIRXW
'SRGVIXI TVSTSVXMSRW MRGPYHMRK [G WLSYPH FI IWXEF
lished based on field experience, trial mixtures, or both, with
XLIQEXIVMEPWXSFIYWIH
 (YVEFMPMX]
 +IRIVEP{8S SFXEMR ETTVSTVMEXI GSRGVIXI
HYVEFMPMX]EQMRMQYQEQSYRXSJGIQIRXWLSYPHFITVSZMHIH
F] YWMRK [G below specified values and by specifying a
QMRMQYQGSQTVIWWMZIWXVIRKXLJSVXLIGSRGVIXI8LMWKYMHI
LS[IZIV HSIW RSX TVSZMHI QM\XYVI VIGSQQIRHEXMSRW JSV
FYMPHMRKW[MXLWTIGMEPHYVEFMPMX]GSRGIVRW
 'EPGYPEXMSRSJ[G{;EXIVGIQIRXVEXMSWWTIGM
fied in 16.2.2 should be calculated using water weight in
GSRGVIXI PF]H OK TIV Q HMZMHIH F]XLIGIQIRX MR XLI
GSRGVIXIQM\XYVIMRPF]H OKTIVQ). The use of fly ash,
TS^^SPERWWPEKERHWMPMGEJYQIMWFI]SRHXLIWGSTISJXLMW
KYMHIERHMJYWIHWLSYPHFIMREGGSVHERGI[MXLVIJIVIRGIH
WXERHEVHWSJ'LETXIV
 *VII^MRKERHXLE[MRK I\TSWYVIW{'SRGVIXI
I\TSWIHXSJVII^MRKERHXLE[MRKSVHIMGMRKGLIQMGEPWWLSYPH
FIEMVIRXVEMRIH[MXLETIVGIRXXSXEPEMVGSRXIRXJSVWIZIVI
I\TSWYVI ERH  TIVGIRX JSV QSHIVEXI I\TSWYVI 8SPIVERGI
SREMVGSRXIRXMRJVIWLGSRGVIXIWLSYPHFITIVGIRX%MV
IRXVEMRQIRX WLSYPH RSXFI YWIH JSV GSRGVIXI WYVJEGIW[MXL
specified hard trowel finish.
 7TIGMEP I\TSWYVI GSRHMXMSRW{*SV I\TSWYVIW
KMZIR MR 8EFPI  GSRGVIXI WLSYPH GSRJSVQ XS XLI
GSVVIWTSRHMRK QE\MQYQ [G and minimum specified
GSRGVIXIGSQTVIWWMZIWXVIRKXL
 7YPJEXI I\TSWYVIW{;LIR [EXIVWSPYFPI WYPJEXI
73 MWTVIWIRXMRWSMPERHLEWEGSRGIRXVEXMSRKVIEXIVXLER
TIVGIRXF][IMKLXSVMWTVIWIRXMR[EXIV[MXLQSVIXLER
TEVXWTIVQMPPMSR TTQ GSRGVIXII\TSWIHXSXLIWI
WYPJEXIGSRXEMRMRKWSPYXMSRWSVWSMPWWLSYPHLEZIE[GPIWW
XLERSVIUYEPXSF][IMKLXERHEQMRMQYQGSQTVIWWMZI
WXVIRKXL JG SJTWM 14E 8LIYWISJWYPJEXIVIWMW
XERXGIQIRXMWVIGSQQIRHIHMJEZEMPEFPI'EPGMYQGLPSVMHI
EWEREHQM\XYVIWLSYPHRSXFIYWIHMRGSRGVIXII\TSWIHXS
WYPJEXIW
 'LPSVMHIMSRI\TSWYVI{*SVGSVVSWMSRTVSXIGXMSR
SJVIMRJSVGIQIRXMRGSRGVIXIQE\MQYQ[EXIVWSPYFPIGLPS
VMHI MSR GSRGIRXVEXMSRW MR LEVHIRIH GSRGVIXI EX EKIW JVSQ
XSHE]WGSRXVMFYXIHJVSQMRKVIHMIRXWMRGPYHMRK[EXIV

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6



8EFPI {)JJIGXWSRGSRGVIXIEXXVMFYXIWHYIXSERMRGVIEWISJER]WMRKPIQM\XYVIGSQTSRIRX
%XXVMFYXI

'IQIRX

7PYQT
'SLIWMSR
;SVOEFMPMX]
7IKVIKEXMSR
7IHMQIRXEXMSR
;IXGSRWSPMHEXMSR
&PIIHMRK
)RXVEMRIHEMV
(YVEFMPMX]
7XVIRKXL
)PEWXMGQSHYPYW
*VII^IVIWMWXERGI
;IEVVIWMWXERGI
'LIQMGEPVIWMWXERGI
4IVQIEFMPMX]
;IXI\TERWMSR
(V]WLVMROEKI
(IRWMX]
Form finish

*MRIEKKVIKEXI 'SEVWIEKKVIKEXI

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8EFPI {'SRGVIXITVSTIVXMIWJSVI\TSWYVIGSRHMXMSRW
1E\MQYQ [GF][IMKLX

1MRMQYQ JG TWM

1MRMQYQ JG 14E

'SRGVIXIMRXIRHIHXSLEZIPS[TIVQIEFMPMX][LIRI\TSWIHXS[EXIV

)\TSWYVIGSRHMXMSR







'SRGVIXII\TSWIHXSJVII^MRKERHXLE[MRKMREQSMWXGSRHMXMSRSVXS
HIMGMRKGLIQMGEPW







*SVGSVVSWMSRTVSXIGXMSRSJVIMRJSVGIQIRXMRGSRGVIXII\TSWIHXS
GLPSVMHIWJVSQHIMGMRKGLIQMGEPWWEPXWEPX[EXIVFVEGOMWL[EXIV
WIE[EXIVSVWTVE]JVSQXLIWIWSYVGIW







8EFPI {1E\MQYQGLPSVMHIMSRGSRXIRXJSV
GSVVSWMSRTVSXIGXMSRSJVIMRJSVGIQIRX

1IQFIVX]TI

1E\MQYQ[EXIVWSPYFPI
GLPSVMHIMSR 'Pz MRGSRGVIXI
TIVGIRXF]GIQIRX[IMKLX

6IMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXII\TSWIHXS
GLPSVMHIMRWIVZMGI



6IMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXIXLEX[MPPFI
HV]SVTVSXIGXIHJVSQQSMWXYVI
MRWIVZMGI



3XLIVVIMRJSVGIHGSRGVIXI
GSRWXVYGXMSR



EKKVIKEXIW GIQIRX ERH EHQM\XYVIW WLSYPHRSX I\GIIH XLI


PMQMXWSJ8EFPI
 %ZIVEKIGSQTVIWWMZIWXVIRKXL{%ZIVEKIGSQTVIW
WMZI WXVIRKXL JGV  JSV GSRGVIXIWLSYPH FI  TWM  14E 
greater than specified concrete compressive strength JG 8LMW
I\GIIHWXLI%'-VIUYMVIQIRXSJTWM 14E 
FIGEYWISJEREWWYQIHPS[IVUYEPMX]GSRXVSPMRVIQSXIEVIEW
 4VSTSVXMSRMRK XLI GSRGVIXI QM\XYVI{8LI GSRGVIXI
mixture proportions should be established from field experience
TVSHYGIVSVXVMEPQM\XYVIWYWMRKGSQFMREXMSRW SJQEXIVMEPW
JSVXLITVSTSWIH[SVOYWMRKEXPIEWXXLVIIHMJJIVIRX[GXLEX
GSQTP] [MXL  HYVEFMPMX] WPYQT PMQMXW JVSQ 8EFPI

8EFPI {7PYQTPMQMXWJSVZEVMSYW
GSRWXVYGXMSRX]TIW
'SRWXVYGXMSRX]TI

7PYQTMR QQ
1E\MQYQ
1MRMQYQ

6IMRJSVGIHJSYRHEXMSR[EPPWJSSXMRKW

 

 

4PEMRJSSXMRKWERHGEMWWSRW
WYFWXVYGXYVI[EPPW

 

 

&IEQWERHVIMRJSVGIH[EPPW

 

 

'SPYQRW

 

 

4EZIQIRXWERHWPEFW

 

 

1EWWGSRGVIXI

 

 

 ERH IRGSQTEWW XLI VIUYMVIH EZIVEKI WXVIRKXL JGV 


8VMEPQM\XYVIWWLSYPHFIHIWMKRIHXSTVSHYGIWPYQTW[MXLMR
MR QQ SJXLIQE\MQYQTIVQMXXIH*SVIEGL[G
EXPIEWXXLVIIG]PMRHIVWWLSYPHFIQEHIERHGYVIHMREGGSV
HERGI [MXL %781 ''1 ERH XIWXIHEX  HE]W
MREGGSVHERGI[MXL%781''1*VSQXLIVIWYPXW
SJXLIG]PMRHIVXIWXWEGYVZIWLSYPHFITPSXXIHWLS[MRKXLI
VIPEXMSRWLMTFIX[IIRXLI[GERHXLIGSQTVIWWMZIWXVIRKXL
A field-experienced concrete producer should have
WXVIRKXL XIWX VIGSVHW RSX QSVI XLER  QSRXLW SPH ERH
E WEQTPI WXERHEVH HIZMEXMSR WW WLEPP FI IWXEFPMWLIH 8IWX
VIGSVHWJVSQ[LMGLWWEVIGEPGYPEXIHWLEPP

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

8EFPI {8SPIVERGIMRHITXLERHQMRMQYQ
GSZIV
8SPIVERGISRHITXLH

Tolerance on specified
GSRGVIXIGSZIV

H MR
QQ

MR QQ

zMR zQQ

H"MR
QQ

MR QQ

zMR zQQ

E  6ITVIWIRX QEXIVMEPW UYEPMX] GSRXVSP TVSGIHYVIW ERH


GSRHMXMSRWWMQMPEVXSXLSWII\TIGXIHERHGLERKIWMRQEXIVMEPW
ERHTVSTSVXMSRW[MXLMRXLIXIWXVIGSVHWWLEPPRSXLEZIFIIR
QSVIVIWXVMGXIHXLERXLSWIJSVTVSTSWIH[SVO
(b) Represent concrete produced to meet a specified
GSQTVIWWMZIWXVIRKXLSVWXVIRKXLW[MXLMRTWM 14E 
SJ JG 
G 'SRWMWXSJEXPIEWXGSRWIGYXMZIXIWXWSVX[SKVSYTWSJ
GSRWIGYXMZIXIWXWXSXEPMRKEXPIEWXXIWXW
8LI [G XS FI YWIH MR GSRWXVYGXMSR WLSYPH FI XLI ZEPYI
HIXIVQMRIHJVSQXLIKVETLJSVXLIVIUYMVIHEZIVEKIWXVIRKXL
JVSQ 7PYQTWLSYPHFIQIEWYVIHMREGGSVHERGI[MXL
%781''1
%LMKLIV[GGERFIYWIH[MXLGSRGVIXIEHHMXMZIWWYGLEW
WYTIVTPEWXMGM^IVWSVLMKLVERKI[EXIVVIHYGMRKEHQM\XYVIW
,6;6% 
{4PEGMRKVIMRJSVGIQIRX
 &IRHMRK{%PPVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFIFIRXGSPH
6IMRJSVGIQIRXTEVXMEPP]IQFIHHIHMRGSRGVIXIWLSYPHRSXFI
field bent.
 7YVJEGI GSRHMXMSR SJ VIMRJSVGIQIRX{%X XLI XMQI
GSRGVIXIMWTPEGIHVIMRJSVGIQIRXWLSYPHFIJVIIJVSQQYH
SMP SV SXLIV RSRQIXEPPMG GSEXMRKW XLEX HIGVIEWI FSRH
6IMRJSVGIQIRX[MXLVYWXQMPPWGEPISVEGSQFMREXMSRSJFSXL
WLSYPH FI GSRWMHIVIH WEXMWJEGXSV] TVSZMHIH XLI QMRMQYQ
HMEQIXIV MRGPYHMRKLIMKLXSJHIJSVQEXMSRW ERHQEWWSJE
LERH[MVIFVYWLIHXIWXWTIGMQIRMWRSXPIWWXLERETTPMGEFPI
ASTM standard specification.
 4PEGMRK ERH WIGYVMRK{6IMRJSVGIQIRX WLSYPH FI
EGGYVEXIP]TPEGIHERHEHIUYEXIP]WYTTSVXIHFIJSVIGSRGVIXI
MW TPEGIHERH WIGYVIHEKEMRWXHMWTPEGIQIRX[MXLMRXSPIVERGIW
TIVQMXXIHMR;IPHMRKSJGVSWWMRKFEVWWLSYPHRSXFI
TIVQMXXIHJSVEWWIQFP]SJVIMRJSVGIQIRX
 6IMRJSVGIQIRXTPEGMRKXSPIVERGIW{6IMRJSVGIQIRX
WLSYPHFITPEGIH[MXLMRXLIXSPIVERGIWKMZIR ERH
 
 8SPIVERGIJSVHITXLERHGSZIV{(ITXL HERHWTIGM
fied concrete cover in girders, beams, joists, walls, and columns
WLSYPHFIEWWIXMR8EFPII\GITXXLEXXSPIVERGIJSVXLI
clear distance to formed soffits should be 1/4 in. (6 mm), and
XSPIVERGI JSV GSZIV WLSYPH RSX I\GIIH z XLI QMRMQYQ
GSRGVIXIGSZIVMRHMGEXIHMR
 8SPIVERGI JSV PSGEXMSR SJ FIRHW{8SPIVERGI
JSV PSRKMXYHMREP PSGEXMSR SJ FIRHW ERH VIMRJSVGIQIRX IRHW
WLSYPHFIMR QQ I\GITXEXHMWGSRXMRYSYWIRHWSJ
QIQFIVW[LIVIXSPIVERGIWLSYPHFIMR QQ 

{'SRGVIXIQM\MRKERHXVERWTSVXEXMSR
 +IRIVEP{%PPGSRGVIXIWLSYPHFIQM\IHERHXVERW
ported to its final destination following 16.4.
3R EPP FYX XLI WQEPPIWX NSFW FEXGLMRK MW GEVVMIH SYX MR
FEXGLMRK TPERXW 7ITEVEXI LSTTIVW GSRXEMR GIQIRX ERH
ZEVMSYW JVEGXMSRW SJ EKKVIKEXI 4VSTSVXMSRW EVI GSRXVSPPIH
F] [IMKLX F] QERYEPP] STIVEXIH SV EYXSQEXMG HMEP WGEPIW
GSRRIGXIHXSXLILSTTIVW1M\MRK[EXIVMWLEXGLIHIMXLIVF]
QIEWYVMRKXEROWSVF][EXIVQIXIVW8LITVMRGMTEPTYVTSWI
SJQM\MRKMWXSTVSHYGIERMRXMQEXIQM\XYVISJGIQIRX[EXIV
fine and coarse aggregate, and admixtures of uniform consis
XIRG]XLVSYKLSYX IEGL FEXGL8LMW MW EGLMIZIHF] QEGLMRI
QM\IVW SJ XLI VIZSPZMRKHVYQ X]TI 3R PEVKI TVSNIGXW
TEVXMGYPEVP][LIVIEQTPIWTEGIMWEZEMPEFPIQSZEFPIQM\MRK
TPERXWEVIMRWXEPPIHERHSTIVEXIHEXXLIWMXI-RGSRWXVYGXMSR
YRHIVGSRKIWXIHGSRHMXMSRWSRWQEPPIVNSFWERHJVIUYIRXP]
MRLMKL[E]GSRWXVYGXMSRVIEH]QM\IHGSRGVIXIMWYWIH7YGL
GSRGVIXIMWFEXGLIHMREWXEXMSREV]TPERXERHXLIRLEYPIHXS
XLIWMXIMRXVYGOWMRSRISJXLVII[E]W  QM\IHGSQTPIXIP]
EX XLI WXEXMSREV] TPERX ERH LEYPIH MR E XVYGO EKMXEXSV  
XVERWMXQM\IH XLEX MW LEXGLIH EX XLI TPERX FYX QM\IH MR E
XVYGOQM\IVSV  TEVXMEPP]QM\IHEXXLITPERX[MXLQM\MRK
GSQTPIXIHMREXVYGOQM\IV
'SRGVIXIWLSYPHFIHMWGLEVKIHJVSQXLIQM\IVSVEKMXEXSV
[MXLMREQE\MQYQSJLSYVWEJXIV[EXIVMWEHHIHXSXLI
FEXGL-RLSX[IEXLIVGSRHMXMSRWXLIQE\MQYQXMQIFIJSVI
HMWGLEVKIWLSYPHFIVIZMI[IH
1SWX FYMPHMRK GSRGVIXI MW GSRZI]IH JVSQ XLI QM\IV SV
XVYGOXSXLIJSVQMR[LIIPFEVVS[WSVFYKKMIWSRLSVM^SRXEP
VYR[E]W SVF] TYQTMRK XLVSYKL WXIIPTMTIPMRIW8LIQEMR
GSRGIVR HYVMRK GSRZI]MRK MW WIKVIKEXMSR -RHMZMHYEP
GSQTSRIRXWSJ GSRGVIXIXIRHXSWIKVIKEXIFIGEYWISJXLIMV
HMWWMQMPEVMX]-RSZIVP][IXGSRGVIXIWXERHMRKMRGSRXEMRIVW
SVJSVQWLIEZMIVKVEZIPGSQTSRIRXWXIRHXSWIXXPIERHPMKLXIV
QEXIVMEPW TEVXMGYPEVP][EXIV VMWI0EXIVEPQSZIQIRXWYGLEW
flow within the forms, tends to separate coarse gravel from
the finer components of the mixture. The danger of segregation
LEWGEYWIHXLIHMWGEVHMRKSJGLYXIWERHGSRZI]SVFIPXWMRJEZSV
SJQIXLSHWXLEXQMRMQM^IXLMWXIRHIRG]
4PEGMRKMWXLITVSGIWWSJXVERWJIVVMRKJVIWLGSRGVIXIJVSQ
the conveying device to its final place in the forms. Before
TPEGMRK PSSWI VYWX WLSYPH FI VIQSZIH JVSQ VIMRJSVGI
QIRX JSVQW GPIERIH ERH LEVHIRIH WYVJEGIW SJ TVIZMSYW
GSRGVIXIPMJXWGPIERIHERHXVIEXIHETTVSTVMEXIP]4PEGMRKERH
compacting are critical in their effect on the final quality
SJ XLI GSRGVIXI 4VSTIV TPEGIQIRX WLSYPH EZSMH WIKVIKE
XMSRJSVQHMWTPEGIQIRXSJJSVQWSVSJVIMRJSVGIQIRXMRXLI
JSVQWERHTSSVFSRHFIX[IIRWYGGIWWMZIPE]IVWSJGSRGVIXI
-QQIHMEXIP] YTSR TPEGMRK GSRGVIXI WLSYPH FI GSQTEGXIH
F] QIERWSJLERH XSSPWSV ZMFVEXSVW'SQTEGXMRKTVIZIRXW
LSRI]GSQFMRKIRWYVIWGPSWIGSRXEGX[MXLJSVQWERHVIMR
JSVGIQIRXERHWIVZIWEWETEVXMEPVIQIH]XSTSWWMFPITVMSV
WIKVIKEXMSR'SQTEGXMRKMWEGLMIZIHF]LERHXEQTMRK[MXL
EZEVMIX]SJXSSPWERHRS[GSQQSRP]ERHWYGGIWWJYPP][MXL
LMKLJVIUYIRG] TS[IVHVMZIR ZMFVEXSVW 8LIWI EVI SJ XLI
MRXIVREP X]TI MQQIVWIH MR XLI GSRGVIXI SV SJ XLI I\XIVREP
X]TI EXXEGLIH XS XLI JSVQW 8LI JSVQIVEVI TVIJIVEFPI FYX

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

WLSYPHFIWYTTPIQIRXIHF]XLIPEXXIV[LIVIREVVS[JSVQWSV
SXLIVSFWXEGPIWQEOIMQQIVWMSRMQTSWWMFPI
 4VITEVEXMSRSJIUYMTQIRXERHTPEGISJHITSWMX{
4VITEVEXMSRFIJSVIGSRGVIXITPEGIQIRXWLSYPHMRGPYHI
E  )UYMTQIRX JSV QM\MRK ERH XVERWTSVXMRK GSRGVIXI MW
GPIER
F  (IFVMW ERH MGI MW VIQSZIH JVSQ WTEGIW XLEX [MPP FI
SGGYTMIHF]GSRGVIXI
G *SVQWEVITVSTIVP]GSEXIH
(d) Masonry filler units that will be in contact with concrete
EVI[IPPWEXYVEXIH
I  6IMRJSVGIQIRXMW XLSVSYKLP]GPIER SJ MGISV SXLIV
HIPIXIVMSYWGSEXMRK
J ;EXIVMWVIQSZIHJVSQTPEGISJHITSWMXFIJSVIGSRGVIXI
MWTPEGIHYRPIWWEXVIQMIMWXSFIYWIHERH
K  %PP PEMXERGI ERH SXLIV YRWSYRH QEXIVMEP EVI VIQSZIH
FIJSVIEHHMXMSREPGSRGVIXIMWTPEGIHEKEMRWXLEVHIRIHGSRGVIXI
 1M\MRK
 +IRIVEP{%PP GSRGVIXI WLSYPH FI QM\IH YRXMP
XLIVI MW YRMJSVQ QEXIVMEPW HMWXVMFYXMSR XLEX MW HMWGLEVKIH
GSQTPIXIP]FIJSVIXLIQM\IVMWVIGLEVKIH
 6IEH] QM\IH GSRGVIXI{6IEH] QM\IH GSRGVIXI
WLSYPH FI QM\IHERH HIPMZIVIH MR EGGSVHERGI [MXL %781
''1
 .SFQM\IHGSRGVIXI{;LIRGSRGVIXIMWQM\IHSR
WMXIMXWLSYPHFIQM\IHMREGGSVHERGI[MXLXLIJSPPS[MRK
E 1M\MRKMWHSRIMREFEXGLQM\IV
F  1M\IV MW VSXEXIH EX QERYJEGXYVIVvW VIGSQQIRHIH
WTIIH
G 1MRMQYQQM\MRKXMQIMWQMRYXIJSVQM\IVWSJRSX
QSVI XLER  ]H  Q GETEGMX] [MXL ER EHHMXMSREP 
WIGSRHWJSVIEGLEHHMXMSREP]H Q 1M\MRKGERFI
GSRXMRYIHJSVEGSRWMHIVEFPIXMQI[MXLSYXEHZIVWIIJJIGX
H 1M\MRKMWGSRXMRYIHJSVEXPIEWXQMRYXIWEJXIVEPP
QEXIVMEPWEVIMRXLIHVYQERH
I %HIXEMPIHVIGSVHWLSYPHFIOITXXSMHIRXMJ]
 2YQFIVSJFEXGLIWTVSHYGIH
 4VSTSVXMSRWSJQEXIVMEPWYWIH
(3) Approximate location of final deposit in structure;
ERH
 8MQIERHHEXISJQM\MRKERHTPEGMRK
 'SRZI]MRK{'SRGVIXI WLSYPH FI GSRZI]IH JVSQ
QM\IV XSTPEGISJ JMREP HITSWMX F] QIXLSHWXLEX TVIZIRX
WITEVEXMSRSVPSWWSJQEXIVMEP'SRZI]MRKIUYMTQIRXWLSYPH
FIGETEFPISJTVSZMHMRKEWYTTP]SJGSRGVIXIEXXLIWMXISJ
TPEGIQIRX [MXLSYX WITEVEXMSR SJ MRKVIHMIRXW ERH MRXIVVYTXMSRW
XLEXGEYWIPSWWSJTPEWXMGMX]FIX[IIRWYGGIWWMZIMRGVIQIRXW
 (ITSWMXMRK
 4PEGISJHITSWMX{'SRGVIXIWLSYPHFIHITSWMXIH
as nearly as practical in its final position to avoid segregation
from rehandling or flowing.
 (ITSWMX VEXI{'SRGVIXMRK WLSYPH FI GEVVMIH SR
at a rate that concrete is plastic during discharge and flows
VIEHMP]MRXSWTEGIWFIX[IIRVIMRJSVGIQIRX
 4EVXMEPP] LEVHIRIH GSRGVIXI{'SRGVIXI XLEX
LEWTEVXMEPP] LEVHIRIH SV FIIR GSRXEQMREXIH F] JSVIMKR
QEXIVMEPWWLSYPHRSXFIHITSWMXIHMRXLIWXVYGXYVI



*MK {'SRWXVYGXMSR NSMRXW MR WPEFW KMVHIVW ERH


FIEQW
 6IXIQTIVMRKGSRGVIXI{6IXIQTIVMRKGSRGVIXIMW
RSXTIVQMXXIHERHGSRGVIXIXLEXLEWFIIRVIQM\IHEJXIVMRMXMEP
WIXWLSYPHRSXFIYWIH
 (ITSWMXFSYRHEVMIW{;LIRGSRGVIXMRKFIKMRWMX
WLSYPHFIEGSRXMRYSYWSTIVEXMSRYRXMPTPEGMRKSJETERIPSV
section, as defined by its boundaries or predetermined joints,
MWGSQTPIXIHI\GITXEWTIVQMXXIHSVTVSLMFMXIHF]
 8STWYVJEGIW{8STWYVJEGIWSJZIVXMGEPP]JSVQIH
PMJXWWLSYPHFIPIZIP
 'SRWSPMHEXMSR{'SRGVIXI WLSYPH FI XLSVSYKLP]
GSRWSPMHEXIH F] WYMXEFPI QIERW HYVMRK TPEGIQIRX ERH
XLSVSYKLP] [SVOIH EVSYRH VIMRJSVGIQIRX ERH IQFIHHIH
fixtures, as well as into form corners.
 'SRWXVYGXMSRNSMRXW
 +IRIVEP{'SRWXVYGXMSRNSMRXWYVJEGIWWLSYPHFI
GPIERIHERHPEMXERGIVIQSZIH-QQIHMEXIP]FIJSVITPEGMRK
RI[GSRGVIXIEPPGSRWXVYGXMSRNSMRXWWLSYPHFI[IXXIHERH
WXERHMRK[EXIVVIQSZIH'SRWXVYGXMSRNSMRXWWLSYPHFIQEHI
ERHPSGEXIHWSEWRSXXSMQTEMVXLIWXVIRKXLSJXLIWXVYGXYVI
4VSZMWMSRW WLSYPH FI QEHI JSV XVERWJIV SJ WLIEV ERH SXLIV
PSEHWXLVSYKLGSRWXVYGXMSRNSMRXW
 -RWPEFW{'SRWXVYGXMSRNSMRXWWLSYPHFIPSGEXIH
[MXLMRXLIQMHHPIXLMVHSJWTERWSJWPEFWFIEQWERHKMVHIVW
*MK .SMRXWMRKMVHIVWWLSYPHFISJJWIXEQMRMQYQ
HMWXERGISJX[MGIXLI[MHXLSJMRXIVWIGXMRKFIEQW
 -R FIEQW KMVHIVW ERH WPEFW WYTTSVXIH F]
GSPYQRW SV [EPPW{'SRGVIXI WLSYPH RSXFI GEWX SVIVIGXIH
YRXMPGSRGVIXIMRXLIZIVXMGEPWYTTSVXQIQFIVWMWRSPSRKIV
TPEWXMG
 -R FIEQW KMVHIVW LEYRGLIW HVST TERIPW ERH
GETMXEPW{'SRGVIXI MR FIEQW KMVHIVW LEYRGLIW HVST
TERIPW ERH GETMXEPW WLSYPH FI TPEGIH QSRSPMXLMGEPP] [MXL
XLIWPEFW]WXIQ
{'SRGVIXIWXVIRKXLIZEPYEXMSR
 +IRIVEP{'SRGVIXIWLSYPHFIXIWXIHMREGGSVHERGI
[MXL
'SRGVIXI TVSTIVXMIW EVI EJJIGXIH F] QER] JEGXSVW XLYW
W]WXIQEXMG UYEPMX] GSRXVSP WLSYPH FI MRWXMXYXIH EX XLI
GSRWXVYGXMSRWMXI'SQTVIWWMZIWXVIRKXLMWXLIQEMRQIEWYVI
SJXLIWXVYGXYVEPUYEPMX]SJGSRGVIXI8IWXWJSVXLMWTVSTIVX]EVI
QEHISRG]PMRHVMGEPWTIGMQIRWSJLIMKLXIUYEPXSX[MGIXLI
HMEQIXIV\MR F]QQ SV\MR \
mm). Impervious molds of this shape are filled with concrete
during the placement operation as specified by ASTM C172/
'1']PMRHIVWEVIQSMWXGYVIHEX* ' 
JSV  HE]W EGGSVHMRK XS %781 ''1 ERH XLIR
tested in the laboratory at a specified loading rate as required

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

8EFPI {'YVMRKXMQI

-XIQ

1MRMQYQHYVEXMSRGSRGVIXIOITX
[IXEJXIVWIXXMRK MRHE]W
'SPH[IEXLIV
;EVQ[IEXLIV

Self-supporting floors and


FIEQW



;EPPWMR QQ XLMGO


SVPIWW

8LMGO[EPPWGSPYQRWERHTMIVW
*PSSVWERHTEZIQIRXWSRWSMP







F]%781''1'SQTVIWWMZIWXVIRKXLHIXIVQMRIH
JVSQWYGLXIWXWEWXLIEZIVEKISJX[SG]PMRHIVWGEWXXLIWEQI
HE]JVSQXLIWEQIGSRGVIXIMWXLIG]PMRHIVWXVIRKXLJG 8LI
GSRGVIXIEWJYVRMWLIHWLSYPHFIMRWEXMWJEGXSV]EKVIIQIRX[MXL
the specified strength value.
 *VIUYIRG]SJXIWXMRK
 2YQFIVSJWEQTPIW{7EQTPIW JSVWXVIRKXLXIWXW
SJIEGLGPEWWSJGSRGVIXITPEGIHIEGLHE]WLSYPHFIEXPIEWX
X[SG]PMRHIVWJSV\MR \QQ SVXLVIIG]PMR
HIVWJSV\MR \QQ RSXPIWWXLERSRGIEHE]
SV PIWW XLER SRGI JSV IEGL  ]H  Q  SJ GSRGVIXI SV
PIWWXLERSRGIJSVIEGLJX Q SJWYVJEGIEVIESJ
WPEFWSV[EPPW%WEQTPISJX[SG]PMRHIVWJSV\MR 
\QQ SVXLVIIG]PMRHIVWJSV\MR \QQ 
WLSYPHEXPIEWXFIXEOIRSJXLIGSRGVIXISJXLIGSPYQRWSJ
each floor. A sample of two cylinders for 6 x 12 in. (150 x
QQ  SV XLVII G]PMRHIVW JSV  \  MR  \ QQ 
WLSYPHEXPIEWXFIXEOIRIZIV]FEXGLIWSJGSRGVIXI
 7QEPP NSFW{3R E KMZIR TVSNIGX MJ XLI XSXEP
GSRGVIXIZSPYQIMWWYGLXLEXXIWXMRKJVIUYIRG]MRHMGEXIHF]
16.5.2.1 would provide less than five strength tests (average
SJX[SG]PMRHIVW SJEKMZIRGPEWWSJGSRGVIXIXIWXWWLSYPHFI
made from at least five randomly selected batches or from
each batch if fewer than five batches are used.
 Definition of strength test{%WXVIRKXLXIWXWLSYPHFI
XLIEZIVEKISJXLIWXVIRKXLWSJX[SG]PMRHIVWJSV\MR 
\QQ SVXLVIIG]PMRHIVWJSV\MR \QQ QEHI
JVSQXLIWEQIWEQTPIERHXIWXIHEXHE]W
 %GGITXERGISJGSRGVIXI
 1EOMRK XIWX WTIGMQIRW{']PMRHVMGEP WTIGMQIRW
 \  MR  \  QQ  SV  \  MR  \  QQ 
should be cast in impervious molds of this shape and filled
with concrete during the placement operation as specified by
%781'1
 'YVMRKERHXIWXMRKWTIGMQIRW{']PMRHIVWWLSYPH
FIQSMWXGYVIHEX* ' JSVHE]WERHXLIR
XIWXIHMRXLIPEFSVEXSV]EXEPSEHMRKVEXIEWVIUYMVIH%781
''1
 %GGITXERGI SJ GSRGVIXI{7XVIRKXL PIZIP SJ ER
MRHMZMHYEP GPEWW SJ GSRGVIXI WLSYPH FI GSRWMHIVIHWEXMWJEG
XSV][LIRFSXLSJXLIJSPPS[MRKEVIQIX
E 8LIEZIVEKISJER]XLVIIGSRWIGYXMZITEMVWJSV\MR
\QQ SVXLVIIG]PMRHIVWJSV\MR \QQ 
should be at least equal to the specified design strength JG ERH

F 2SMRHMZMHYEPWXVIRKXLXIWX EZIVEKISJX[SG]PMRHIVW
JSV\MR?\QQASVXLVIIG]PMRHIVWJSV\MR
?\QQA JEPPWFIPS[JG F]QSVIXLERTWM 14E 
 0S[ WXVIRKXL VIWYPXW{;LIR XLI PMOIPMLSSH SJ
PS[WXVIRKXL GSRGVIXI I\MWXW ERH GEPGYPEXMSRW MRHMGEXI XLEX
load-carrying capacity is significantly reduced, the affected
TSVXMSR SJ XLI WXVYGXYVI WLSYPH FI HIQSPMWLIH SV VITEMVIH
%WXEXMWXMGEPTVSGIHYVIJSVIZEPYEXMRKXLIVIWYPXWSJGSRGVIXI
WXVIRKXLXIWXWMWKMZIRMR%'-6-JGSVIWEVIXEOIRXS
ZIVMJ]GSRGVIXIWXVIRKXLW%'-6WYQQEVM^IWTVEGXMGIW
JSVSFXEMRMRKGSVIWERHMRXIVTVIXMRKGSVIGSQTVIWWMZIWXVIRKXL
XIWXVIWYPXW
{'SRGVIXIGYVMRK
 +IRIVEP{'SRGVIXIWLSYPHFIGYVIHF]QEMRXEMRMRK
it above the temperatures specified and in a moist condition
JSVXLITIVMSHMRHMGEXIHMR8EFPI
Fresh concrete gains strength rapidly during the first
JI[ HE]W ERH [IIOW 7XVYGXYVEP HIWMKR MW KIRIVEPP] FEWIH
SR HE] WXVIRKXL EFSYX  TIVGIRX SJ [LMGL MW VIEGLIH
at the end of the first week after placing. Final concrete
WXVIRKXLHITIRHWKVIEXP]SRXLIGSRHMXMSRWSJQSMWXYVIERH
XIQTIVEXYVI HYVMRK XLMW MRMXMEP TIVMSH 8LI QEMRXIRERGI
SJ TVSTIV GSRHMXMSRW HYVMRK XLMW XMQI MW ORS[R EW GYVMRK
8LMVX]TIVGIRXSVQSVISJXLITSXIRXMEPWXVIRKXLGERFIPSWX
F]TVIQEXYVIHV]MRKSJXLIGSRGVIXIWMQMPEVEQSYRXWQE]
FI PSWX [LIR GSRGVIXI XIQTIVEXYVI HVSTW XS * ' 
or lower during the first few days, unless the concrete is
QEMRXEMRIH GSRXMRYSYWP] QSMWX JSV E PSRK XMQI XLIVIEJXIV
*VII^MRKSJJVIWLGSRGVIXIQE]VIHYGIWXVIRKXLF]EWQYGL
EW  TIVGIRX 8S TVIZIRX WYGL HEQEKI GSRGVIXI WLSYPH
FITVSXIGXIHJVSQQSMWXYVIPSWWJSVEXPIEWXHE]WERHYT
XS  HE]W 'YVMRK GER FI EGLMIZIH F] OIITMRK I\TSWIH
WYVJEGIW GSRXMRYEPP] [IX XLVSYKL WTVMROPMRK TSRHMRK SV
GSZIVMRK[MXL[IXFYVPET;EXIVYWIHJSVGYVMRKWLSYPHFI
RSQSVIXLER* ' HMJJIVIRXMRXIQTIVEXYVIXLERXLI
GSRGVIXIWYVJEGIFIMRKGYVIHXSTVIZIRXXLIVQEPWXVIWWIWERH
GVEGOMRK 3XLIV QIXLSHW MRGPYHI YWMRK GYVMRK GSQTSYRHW
XLEXJSVQZETSVFEVVMIVWERH[EXIVTVSSJTETIVW-REHHMXMSR
XS MQTVSZIH WXVIRKXL TVSTIV QSMWX GYVMRK TVSZMHIW FIXXIV
WLVMROEKIGSRXVSP8STVSXIGXGSRGVIXIEKEMRWXPS[XIQTIVE
XYVI HYVMRK GSPH [IEXLIV QM\MRK [EXIV ERH SGGEWMSREPP]
EKKVIKEXIWEVILIEXIHXIQTIVEXYVIMRWYPEXMSRMWYWIH[LIVI
TSWWMFPIERHWTIGMEPEHQM\XYVIWTEVXMGYPEVP]GEPGMYQGLPSVMHI
EVIYWIH;LIREMVXIQTIVEXYVIWEVIZIV]PS[I\XIVREPLIEX
QE]LEZIXSFIWYTTPMIHMREHHMXMSRXSMRWYPEXMSR
 'YVMRK XMQI{'SRGVIXI WLSYPH FI QEMRXEMRIH
EFSZI* ' ERHMREQSMWXGSRHMXMSRRSXPIWWXLERXLI
XMQIKMZIRMR8EFPI
 'SPH [IEXLIV{%HIUYEXI IUYMTQIRX WLSYPH FI
TVSZMHIH JSV LIEXMRK GSRGVIXI QEXIVMEPW ERH TVSXIGXMRK
GSRGVIXI HYVMRK JVII^MRK SV RIEVJVII^MRK [IEXLIV %PP
concrete materials and reinforcement, forms, fillers, and
KVSYRHXLEXGSRGVIXIGSQIWMRGSRXEGX[MXLWLSYPHFIJVSWX
JVII*VS^IRQEXIVMEPWSVQEXIVMEPWGSRXEMRMRKMGIWLSYPHRSX
FIYWIH
 ,SX[IEXLIV{(YVMRKLSX[IEXLIVEXXIRXMSRWLSYPH
FI KMZIR XS MRKVIHMIRXW TVSHYGXMSR QIXLSHW LERHPMRK

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

TPEGMRKTVSXIGXMSRERHGYVMRKXSTVIZIRXI\GIWWMZIGSRGVIXI
XIQTIVEXYVIW SV [EXIV IZETSVEXMSR XLEX GSYPH MQTEMV E
QIQFIVvWSVWXVYGXYVIvWHIWMKRWXVIRKXLSVWIVZMGIEFMPMX]
{*SVQVIQSZEP
*SVQW WLSYPH FI VIQSZIH WS EW RSX XS MQTEMV WEJIX]
ERH WIVZMGIEFMPMX] SJ XLI WXVYGXYVI ;LIR VIQSZMRK JSVQ
WYTTSVXW XLI STIVEXMSR WLSYPH TIVQMX GSRGVIXI XS XEOI MXW
WLEVI SJ XLI PSEH KVEHYEPP] ERH YRMJSVQP] 'SRGVIXI XS FI
exposed by form removal should have sufficient enough
WXVIRKXL XS EZSMH HEQEKI HYVMRK XLI VIQSZEP STIVEXMSR
'SRGVIXI [MXLMR XLI WGSTI SJ XLMW KYMHI YWYEPP] EXXEMRW 
TIVGIRXSJJG EJXIVHE]W8LIVIJSVIETWM 14E 
GSRGVIXI WLSYPH FI EX PIEWX  TWM  14E  EX  HE]W
&EWIHSRXLMWIWXMQEXMSRXLIQMRMQYQVIQSZEPXMQIKMZIR
F]8EFPIEWLSYPHFIYWIH%PPS[IEVPMIVVIQSZEPSJXLI
forms when the concrete strength tested, using field-cured
G]PMRHIVWLEWEGLMIZIHWXVIRKXLWKMZIRMR8EFPIF
{-RWTIGXMSR
7]WXIQEXMG SFWIVZEXMSR ERH MRWTIGXMSR IRWYVIW GPSWI
correspondence between plans and specifications and the
finished structure. A competent architect/engineer, preferably
XLI HIWMKR IRKMRIIV SV SRI VIWTSRWMFPI XS XLI HIWMKRIV
WLSYPHSFWIVZIXLIWXVYGXYVEPW]WXIQJSVGSRJSVQERGIXSXLI
approved construction document at significant construction
WXEKIWGSQTPIXMSRSJXLIWXVYGXYVEPW]WXIQERHGSQTPIXMSR
SJGSRWXVYGXMSR
%HHMXMSREPMRWTIGXMSRWLSYPHFITVSZMHIHF]ERMRHITIR
dent qualified inspector. The inspectors main functions for
QEXIVMEPWUYEPMX]GSRXVSPEVI
E 7EQTPMRK
F )\EQMREXMSR
G *MIPHXIWXMRKSJQEXIVMEPW
8EFPI E{1MRMQYQJSVQVIQSZEPXMQI

-XIQ

*SVQWLIPHMRTPEGIEJXIVGSRGVIXI
LEWWIXMRHE]W
'SPH[IEXLIV
;EVQ[IEXLIV

Self-supporting floors and


FIEQW





;EPPWMR QQ XLMGO


SVPIWW

8LMGO[EPPWGSPYQRWERHTMIVW
*PSSVWERHTEZIQIRXWSRWSMP


{


{



H 'SRXVSPSJGSRGVIXITVSTSVXMSRMRK
I  -RWTIGXMSR SJ FEXGLMRK QM\MRK GSRZI]MRK TPEGMRK
GSQTEGXMRKERHGYVMRKERH
J  7YTIVZMWMSR SJ WTIGMQIR TVITEVEXMSR JSV PEFSVEXSV]
XIWXW
%HHMXMSREPP] MRWTIGXSVvW HYXMIW MRGPYHI MRWTIGXMSR SJ
JSYRHEXMSRW JSVQ[SVO VIMRJSVGMRK WXIIP TPEGIQIRX SXLIV
TIVXMRIRXJIEXYVIWSJXLIKIRIVEPTVSKVIWWSJ[SVOOIITMRK
MRWTIGXMSR VIGSVHW ERH TVITEVMRK TIVMSHMG VITSVXW 8LI
MQTSVXERGI SJ XLSVSYKL MRWTIGXMSR XS XLI GSVVIGXRIWW ERH
quality of the finished structure cannot be overemphasized.
',%48)6{6)*)6)2')7
{6IJIVIRGIHWXERHEVHWERHVITSVXW
%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI
6 +YMHI JSV 3FXEMRMRK 'SVIW ERH -RXIVTVIXMRK
'SQTVIWWMZI7XVIRKXL6IWYPXW
6 +YMHIXS)ZEPYEXMSRSJ7XVIRKXL8IWX6IWYPXWSJ
'SRGVIXI
  Specifications for Structural Concrete
  &YMPHMRK 'SHI 6IUYMVIQIRXW JSV 7XVYGXYVEP
'SRGVIXIERH'SQQIRXEV]
  &YMPHMRK 'SHI 6IUYMVIQIRXW JSV 6IMRJSVGIH
'SRGVIXI
  'SHI 6IUYMVIQIRXW JSV )RZMVSRQIRXEP )RKM
RIIVMRK'SRGVIXI7XVYGXYVIWERH'SQQIRXEV]
-47  )WWIRXMEP 6IUYMVIQIRXW *SV 6IMRJSVGIH
'SRGVIXI&YMPHMRKW
74  %'-(IXEMPMRK1ERYEP
%QIVMGER7SGMIX]SJ'MZMP)RKMRIIVW
%7') 1MRMQYQ(IWMKR0SEHWJSV&YMPHMRKWERH3XLIV
7XVYGXYVIW
%781-RXIVREXMSREP
%%1 Specification for Deformed and
4PEMR 'EVFSR 7XIIP &EVW JSV 'SRGVIXI
6IMRJSVGIQIRX
%%1 Specification for Low Alloy Steel
(IJSVQIHERH4PEMR&EVWJSV'SRGVIXI
6IMRJSVGIQIRX
%%1 Specification for Steel Wire and
;IPHIH ;MVI 6IMRJSVGIQIRX 4PEMR
ERH(IJSVQIHJSV'SRGVIXI

8EFPI F{'SRGVIXIWXVIRKXLJSVWEJIJSVQVIQSZEP
Structural classification

1MRMQYQGSQTVIWWMZIWXVIRKXL
TWM 14E

'SRGVIXIRSXWYFNIGXIHXSETTVIGMEFPIFIRHMRKSVHMVIGXWXVIWWRSVVIPMERXSRJSVQWJSVZIVXMGEPWYTTSVXRSV
PMEFPIXSMRNYV]JVSQJSVQVIQSZEPSTIVEXMSRWSVSXLIVGSRWXVYGXMSRSTIVEXMSRWWYGLEWZIVXMGEPSVETTVS\MQEXIP]
ZIVXMGEPWYVJEGIWSJXLMGOWIGXMSRWSVXSTSJWPSTMRKWYVJEGIW
'SRGVIXIWYFNIGXXSETTVIGMEFPIFIRHMRKHMVIGXWXVIWWSVFSXLERHTEVXMEPP]VIPMERXSRJSVQWJSVZIVXMGEPWYTTSVX
  7YFNIGXXSZIVXMGEPPSEHSRP]WYGLEWZIVXMGEPSVETTVS\MQEXIP]ZIVXMGEPWYVJEGIWSJXLMRWIGXMSRWSVYRHIV
WMHIWSJWPSTMRKWYVJEGIWWXIITIVXLER
  7YFNIGXXSHIEHERHPMZIPSEHWWYGLEWGSPYQRW

 

'SRGVIXIWYFNIGXIHXSLMKLFIRHMRKWXVIWWIWERH[LSPP]SVEPQSWX[LSPP]VIPMERXSRJSVQWJSVZIVXMGEPWYTTSVX
such as roof or floor slabs and beams, or undersides of slopping surfaces flatter than 1:1.

 

%QIVMGER'SRGVIXI-RWXMXYXI'ST]VMKLXIH1EXIVMEP{[[[GSRGVIXISVK

 

 



+9-()837-140-*-)(()7-+2*366)-2*36')('32'6)8)&9-0(-2+7 %'-6

''1

8IWX 1IXLSH JSV &YPO (IRWMX] 9RMX


;IMKLX ERH:SMHWMR%KKVIKEXI
4VEGXMGI JSV 1EOMRK ERH 'YVMRK
'SRGVIXI8IWX7TIGMQIRWMRXLI*MIPH
Specification for Concrete Aggregates
8IWX1IXLSHJSV'SQTVIWWMZI7XVIRKXL
SJ']PMRHVMGEP'SRGVIXI7TIGMQIRW
Specification for Ready Mixed
'SRGVIXI
8IWX 1IXLSH JSV 7PYQT SJ ,]HVEYPMG
'IQIRX'SRGVIXI
Specification for Portland Cement
4VEGXMGI JSV 7EQTPMRK *VIWLP] 1M\IH
'SRGVIXI
4VEGXMGI JSV 1EOMRK ERH 'YVMRK
'SRGVIXI 8IWX 7TIGMQIRW MR XLI
0EFSVEXSV]
Specification
for
Air-Entraining
%HQM\XYVIWJSV'SRGVIXI
Specification for Lightweight Aggre
KEXIWJSV7XVYGXYVEP'SRGVIXI
Specification for Chemical Admixtures
JSV'SRGVIXI
7XERHEVH8IWX1IXLSHJSV(IXIVQMRMRK
(IRWMX] SJ 7XVYGXYVEP 0MKLX[IMKLX
'SRGVIXI

''1
''1
''1
''1
''1
''1
''1
''1

''1
''1
''1
'

Specification for Blended Hydraulic


'IQIRXW
'
Specification for Expansive Hydraulic
'IQIRX
'1 Specification for Chemical Admixtures
JSV9WIMR4VSHYGMRK*PS[MRK'SRGVIXI
''1 Specification for Mixing Water Used
MRXLI4VSHYGXMSRSJ,]HVEYPMG'IQIRX
'SRGVIXI
''1

-RXIVREXMSREP'SHI'SYRGMP
-RXIVREXMSREP&YMPHMRK'SHI -&'
%44)2(-<%{'314%6-7323*%'-6
83%'--&'%2(%7')
8EFPI%WIVZIWEWEKYMHIXSPSGEXMRKXLIGSVVIWTSRHMRK
XSTMGWMRXLIWYTTSVXMRKGSHIWERHWXERHEVHW %'-
-&'  ERH %7')   PMWXIH MR 7IGXMSR  7SQI
VIGSQQIRHEXMSRWEVIQSVIGSRWIVZEXMZIMRXLMWKYMHIXLIVI
JSVI HMJJIVIRGIW FIX[IIR XLIQ ERH XLSWI TVIWIRXIH MR XLI
WYTTSVXMRKGSHIWERHWXERHEVHWWLSYPHFII\TIGXIH7IZIVEP
VIGSQQIRHEXMSRW HS RSX LEZI HMVIGX GSVVIWTSRHIRGI
%TTIRHM\%MWTVIWIRXIHJSVMRJSVQEXMSRSRP]

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