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‘ . Unters: L616 { news - 109.16 ¢ OCTOBER, 1965 PROFILE AND LONGITUDINAL CORRECTIONS ON INVOLUTE GEARS By HANS SIGG, Chief Gear Engineer Mag Gear-Wheel Company Ltd. Zurich, Switzerland Presented ot the Semi-Annual Meeting of the AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION The Continental Plaxo, Chicago, l October 24-27, 1965 Copyright, 1965, by AGMA and MAAG The statements and opinions contoined hi ‘re those of the author ond should not lie construed os on of the AGMA : officiel action or opi TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1, BASIC CONSIDERATIONS . 2, TOOTH LOADING CHARACTERISTICS ON TRUE-INVOLUTE SPUR GEARS 3. PREVENTION OF ENGAGEMENT SHOCKS .....20.00s0000 : bit tet fae 4. PURPOSE AND PRINCIPLES OF PROFILE CORRECTION . 2 5. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF PROFILE CORRECTION ON SPUR AND HELICAL GEARS....... seat 3 6, FACTORS INFLUENCING THE LOAD DISTRIBUTION ACROSS THE FACE OF A GEAR . 4 {_ SCOMMENDATIONS FOR THE PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF LONGITUDINAL CORRECTION ON SPUR AND HELICAL GEARS «.- sett eeteeeees 4 8. FIELD EXPERIENCE .. Prerery 6 Introdvetion Experiments on loaded gear drives show that as tooth pairs move into and out of the field of mesh, shocks arise which cause fluctuations ia angular velocities. Such shocks would occuf even in perfectly accurately made gears, for they are partly due to the clastic deflec- tion of the teeth. The strength of the shocks is depend- ent on the actual load being transmitted, and on the accuracy both -of the teeth” wait of the Widtial location of the gears in’their housing: Other factors such as pitch line velocity, tio.moméne of inertia of the gears, the surface quality of die flanks, and lubrication ete., will also exert some influence: ‘These fluctuations of thé-gears ‘produce noize by in- ducing vibrations in thé gears diemsélves bue also in the shafts and housing: ‘When gear manufacture was still in ics infancy, the ‘general aim was to produce eeeth as near to the theoret cal form as possible. Ie was not uatil demands for higher speeds and loading, together with quieter running, became really acute, that the prospect of lessening ea- ‘gagement shocks by way of profile correction (tip and root relief) was entertained, As soon as the grinding of hardened gears was introduced, still higher specific loads could be transmitted which made the application of profile corrections even a necessity. Bat with the increase in transmission loads, lon tudinal corrections (or exowning) gained in significance also. As will be explained later in more detail, well designed crowning in connection with helical gears can also contribute to a reduction of engagement shocks, although the main object of crowning is to atain uniform load distribution across the facewidch under a given load; in other words, to counteract those various influ- ences which are alien to good tooth bearing conditions. So the considerations goveroing the application of the two types of flank correction ~ profile or longitudinal — are different. And for this reason they will be dealt with separately in this paper. The actual degree of correction necessary, whether it is tip, root ot end relief, is generally relatively small ~ usually between sbout 3tenthousandths and 1 thousandth of an inch. But in spite of being so small, these correc tions improve the load carrying capacity of a given gea ing appreciably! providing they are designed and applied properly. However, if a tooth correction is to increase load capacity, it is only logical that a certain minimum manufacturing accuracy mast be assured, In a case where tooth errors verge on the profile correction in order of magnimde, an improvement of the meshing conditions ‘would be' in doubs; particularly if ertor and corzections are additive. Te may generally be claimed that the certainty of i proved loading capacity by way of profile and longicu- inal corrections is only present if tooth exrors are less in magnitude than the degree of correction. ‘The recommendations made in this paper are based’ almost exclusively upon experience gained from hardened and ground single helical gears. The tooth accuracy of ‘ground tocthings corresponds to an AGMA quality 14 to 15. The profile accuracy, however, is even of a better qualicy. - 1, Basic Con: rations A gear tooth moves into the field of mesh with such 2 high speed, chat the nature of its load take-over wi have the character of a damped vibration. In spur gear the mumber of teeth carrying the load changes from ewo so one and back to two, which makes the elastic reaction even more complicated. In helical gears there ae more tooth pairs in comtact and the effect of the changing number is less acute, although the situation is basically the same. For identical load, speed and tooth accuracy, corrections may be smaller on helical ceeth than on spur teeth. A further consideration js shat a helical r~ath does not make contact immediately with its full & width. The load is taken up fist at che leading end of the helix, and spreads across the whole tooth gradually (Fig. 1. For this season, a longitudinal correction (Crowning or end relief) will also be effective in avoiding engagement shocks. Ia the following we shall examine cions prevailiog in meshing spor gears, from the poine of view. It must be kept in mind that the term “engagement shock” refers to the dynamic process of meshing, and that the actual force will exceed the theoretic, static value, and assume vibrational form governed by the speed and inertia of the gears. 2. Tooth Locding Characteristics on True-Invalute Spur Gears When spur gears mesh, contact is made by one p: and two pairs of teeth altemnately. Taking the lic= of action for an abscissa, as in Fig. 2, we can rep. -nt the force on the tooth at any point along the path of con act AD by an ordinate perpendicular to this axis. Two pairs of teeth make contact over the portions AB and CD, one pair only over the portion BC. The actual lengths of these paths are given by the gear dimensions, AC and BD being equal to the base pitch. For absolutely accurate, nos-elastic gears, the load in the double con- tact regipas would be exacdy half of that in the single contact régisn;, his is stiown by curve AFGHIKLD. Due to surface, defematioa at the points of rooth contact, and to shear ané" bending’ deflection of the eeeth them- selves, the sivision of lad alters. From calculations fone obtaiss a force cufve AMNHIOPD. Roughly speak- ing, engiagemesc seaits at A with.40% load, rising to GO% at the. point.of-transition.from.twoooth contact {0 one~ tooth. After carrying: 100% load alone over the central region, the receding tooth pair is atcribueed 60%, sinking 7 40% again on moving out of the field of mesh, 3. Preventing Engagement Shocks As soon as the ceeth under consideration have some sore of ecror, the loading characteristic will be differenc again; especially since geac teeth are comparatively stiff, and even slight errors have a great effect. OF particular jncerest in our present investigation is che rotation of one gear relative to the other as a cesule of the elastic deflection of the teeth, We can express this roration as a displacement 5, along the line of action (see Fig. 3). Its value for spur gears would be:? Bg = approx, 5 x 10-3 wy in ceathousandths of an iach (Equayjon 1) > ae cota El Se & Ne, gopie wp ~ the nomal force slong the line of hexion ia At the moment of moving into engagement, a driven tooth Zgo will find ies mating profile shifeed along the line of action by the stated amount 5, in accordance with Fig. 3: this is the cesule of the elastic deflection of the tooth pair Zq1 and Zp) already in contact. Such tack of correlation will lead to engagement shocks. As already mentioned. tooth errors can have a similar effect, since they also represent contact point displacement. Befoce devices for grinding flank coccections were incorpocared in MAAG machines, the following practices were employed co aid the situation when manufacturing high power, high speed gears: a) Close tolerances, particularly for profile form and adjacent piech b) Highest possible transverse contact ratio (one such measure was che introduction of addendum ‘modification, based on a 15° cutter pressure angle = known since 1908 as MAAG-toothing) ) Slightly longer base piteh for the driving ceeth as compared ro the deiven teeth, az shown in Fig. 4, Provided that the difference beeveen the base of the driving and driven gears is greater than the sum of all errors and deflections, the tooth tip of the driven gear sweeps. into the field of engagement making contact, The load ie subsequently taken up by this tooth gradually. Naturally the difference must not be too great, or the catio of the base circle diameters will 20 longer agree with the transmission ratio, and new speed fluctuations will be induced in frequency with the consecutive tooth engagement. In practice a base pitch difference of maximum 1.5 centhousandchs may be allowed. By using helical gears wich adequate overtap ratio (say between 3 and 4), the influence of cooth exrocs, especially of profile errors is less fele. ‘There is also oo less tendency for base picch differences to cause speed fluctuation, 4. Purpose and Pri iples of Profile Correction To avoid shocks as gear teeth enter and leave the field of engagement, the flank profile can be eased back locally over a suitable distance ~ in the regions of the tip and root on the pinion for instance, familiar to all as “‘tip and root relief"*. Nowadays che form and degree of such corrections can be controlled accurately on MAAG grinding machines, and moreover the relieved areas can be blended smoothly into the remaining true- iavolute areas.4 Various aspects dictate the character of the correce tion co be made; and those for spur gears differ from those foc helical gears, so thar different sets of correc« tive principles evolve, The final verdict concerning the worth of a given correction can only be passed on the strength of peactical results. To examine che problem as presented by spur gears, wwe shall refer again to the diagram of load in Fig. 2. We see that on «que involute flanks, quite apase from inicial and final coneacc in A and D, there is an abrupt change in loading at che change points B and C, where the load is suddenly transferced from cwo teeth (© one tooth alone and vice versa, Since this can excice vibrations, such shocks must be suppressed as far as possible. ‘In Fig. 5b an assumed specific loading is delineated, which should afford some success in this respect. Neglecting manufacturing errors for che moment, we are faced with che question: Whar exace form must the correction take, in ordec to make the force of rooth con= act follow che graph AHID ia Fig, 5b instead of the graph AMNHIOPD which would apply if che flanks are not corrected? In Fig. 5a the tip of a driven tooth is juse making initial contact in A. Another tooth pair akeady makes contact in C, Just before poine C, the full toad is cattied by the one cooth pair, causing the point of con tact to be displaced along the line of action by the amount 85 as per equation 1. If the newly contacting tooth tip is lefe uncorrected, the coors would inmediacely sake up a load represented in Fig. 5b by the point M. By casing back she profile of the said tip an amount equal to 3,, the Hidad is ceducedis! desiced from M to zero, The relief must'Fiaish ar‘cbatice poine Br. Field Ry in Fig. 5b ceptesents.she' actual load of which the newly contacting woith.pair is religved. Since che coral load muse remain usichanged, aiepreceding tooth paic alceady in concaét’ is subjecied té-"2..correspondingly higher load, ceptesenced by field Et. geometic rcliét is plated is an eolarged line of action in Fig. 5c, giving a diageam comparable to thac obrained from tooth peclile vecording instrument. On the tooth tip itself the correction will appear as shown, highly enlacged, in Fig. Sa. By easing back the Lip of the receding, driving tooth tip, the load on the lactersis reduced in a like manner as it moves out of mesh. Applying practically the same geonevic tip relief, we achieve a load reduction Rz and a load in- erease Ep, Ie is by such tip corrections on driving and driven flanks that the contact forces are made to follow the graph AHID oF Fig. 36. As can be Seen, there are no abrupt load chiages. Along the path ByC2 transmission takes place via tieinwolure flanks: Distance ByC> is equal to the base pitch. Based gn these observations we arrive at the following general rales for determining suitable involute cgrrections on, spur.gears: a) Along the pith. 6f contact, a. distance equal to the base piech should be left void-of any correctio and the correction should extend co both sider over more ot less equal distances, b) The correction can be applied to both gears in the form of tip relief, or to one gear alone in the form of tip and roor relief. If tip and root relief is ap- plied to both gears, the amounts are simply addi- five, which means that the individaal corrections fon each gear are half the otal amount. This method is already practised in certain cases, and often brings advantages from the point of view of manufacture. : ©) The degree of correction will depend on the * specific tooth loading w, and the accuracy of the gears. For pecfectly accurate gears the minimum dere would theoretically be equal 10 8, as per equation 1. 5. Recommendations for the Proctical Applicetion of Profile Correction on Spur and Helical Gears Profile and longitudinal corrections ace generally only applied to one gear of a pait; to the pinion, that is, in the fotm of tip and root relief ~ and possible crowning. We differentiate between the profile corrections for driv- ing and driven flanks. Along the path of contact, a dis- tance equal t© one transverse base pitch will almost invariably be left without correction. Similarly a certain stretch of the facewidth will be left free from longitu dinal correction. From the manufacturing aspect, this practice has the imporrant advantage of always leaving 2 chance to measure directly the (wo most important dimensions: the base pitch and che helix angle. From the operational aspect, it ensures that the tooth contact conditions of spur gears will still be kinematically cortect also under light loads, since the transverse con- ract ratio is ac least equal to 1. Helical gears with adequate overlap ratio are somewhat less sensitive in this respect, as correct kinematic transmission is guaranteed by the effect of the helix. In cases where the specific tooth load is relatively high in relation to” the tooth size this rule may be relaxed, and the true- involure portion along the path of contact made shorter. In extreme cases, as for example in aircraft gears, the profile corrections may even extend along the entire tooth flank in order eo ensure # smooth blending in of the corrections. 3 To make things easier for acceptance cests after ‘manufacture, it is advisable to specify tolerance limits for the correction. The tolerance field will be posi- tioned such that a deviation can only have a lessening effect on engagement shocks, For driving and driven gears, then, the fields will lie in opposite directions, in ‘support of the previously described principle of decreas- jing the driven gear base pitch relative vo that of the driving gear. Taking the general case of a corrected pinion, of the accuracy grade customary in ground gears, typical pro- as recorded on the involute tester, are ; 7 and Fig. 8. These diagrams refe -o cases where the thermal influence is not large enu.gh as to require additional corrections. To attain a smoother profile form by lengthening the the root relief slightly, the tip relief would have to be shortened. This measure should only be resorted to if root corrections are exceptionally short, as is the case with fine-pitched gears, Degree of Correction for Spur Gears (Equation 3) w= peripheral uaie load in ths per one inch of face~ width A= cocrections in centhousandths of an inch Ac first point of tooth contact: lower tolerance lis upper tolerance limit Biya 3+ 3.5 7 x 107> Bio ~ 6 + 3.5 w x 107? Ac lase point of tooth contact: ie Agu= 04 3.5 w x 107? ie Bag = 343.5 wx 107? lower colerance lis upper tolerance Degree of Cores jon for Helical Gears (Equation 4) Ac fits pdint.of tooth contact? lower tolerance’ limi upper tolerance Aiye2 +288 x10 Bio = 5+ 2.8 wx 107 At last polit of sooth contact NGG= 04 2.8.w x 107? 2g = 3+ 2.86 x 107? lower xolermee tinier" upper tolerance limig leis known that with high power high speed gears the linion will gain a higher average emperature than the gear, This results in a difference ia base pitch: Ape = Aas (Equation 5) Ae Temperatute difference pinion/ gear = Thermal expansion coefficient Corresponding corrections ate made by changing the inclination of the tolerance zone of the uncorected in- voluce section BC, i.e by cotrecting the base pitch ofthe Pinion. In speed reduction geat a pinion temperature higher then ae the gear produces a larger-buse pitch in the driving member. As described in section 3 and illus: teated by Fig. 4 this effect helps, up to a cetcain point, jn seducing tooth engagehjene shoc! If che cemperatuce di fe pitch difference c. This comective measur In a speed increasing gear che situation is reversed. Ic is the driven member (pinion) attaining a larger tem pecacuce and base pitch. This effect, like the tooth deflection, cends to increase the tooth engagement shock (Fig. 3). In order co compensate this temperature in- fluence, the tolerance zone BC on Fig. 8 is given a diffecene inclination again by lifting point C, which is equivalent to reducing the pinion base pitch. Aa example of such a case is illustrated by Fig. 141 For such cases where the average pinion temperature is larger than the gear temperature, the following should be noted: In a reduction gear the effects of tooth deflection and temperature difference tend 0 compensate each other. But with @ speed increasing gear chese wo effects are additive. This means thac the resultant base pitch cor nin a speed increasing geac is larger than in a rion gear. 6, Factors Influencing the Lood Distribution Across, the Face of o Gear Starting from an accurace gear which shows absolucely even load marking across the Face width in the unloaded and cold condition we find chac the load distribution will sot be uniform under service conditions. There are a sumber of factors responsible for this, which must be kept in mind when designing tooth corrections: Every pision under load suffers a certain amount of elastic deformation, The cylindrically shaped pinion body bends and ewists under the tooth load. Shear de- Mections are also present, but chey are small and can be neglected, In a gear which operates at high peripheral speed, is necessary co check on possible deflections due to centrifugal forces. Depending on the shape and design of the gear body, the toothed acea might acquire a slight barrel or concave shape, ‘There is also a thermal influence to be considered. The higher che power wansmitted in one mesh the more pronounced ic becomes. The gears gec heated unevenly, In a spur gear the temperature is highest in the center o the woothing and drops towards the tooth ends provided the influence of the heat generated in the bearings is negligible, Wich helical gears the hotest parc of the toothing is moved somewhat because of the Lube oil being teansported axially co one side. ‘As mentioned above the average pinion temperature is slightly higher than the gear cemperacure. With helical gears this has the following effect: Because there are several paiss of ceeth ia contact simultaneously the temperature difference causing difference in base pitch (equation 5) has the effect of producing unequal load sharing becween the ceeth in mesh. In 2 speed reducer it is the leading tooth pait which takes the highest load (see Fig. 6). The next following cooth paic gets a slightly reduced load, and at every following pair the load decccases. This results jin heavier contact marks at one end of the teeth, and gives the impression that the helix angle of the pinion decteases with rising temperature. In actual fact the helix angle remains unchanged. Such one-sided loading is only caused by the base pitch differences, and ic ob- viously becomes more pronounced, the more teeth there are in mesh simultaneously; or in other words, the larger the helix angle. With single helical gears whore the helix angles vary beeween 6° and 15° this effect is aormally very slight. However, it is an advancage to choose the hand of the helix such, that this effect tends to reduce the effect of the pinion corsional detection due to the woth load. Fig. 6 shows that ia a reduction gear the leading tooth eds of the pinion should be at the pinion coupling side. wa speed increasing gear the situation is reversed; the trailing tooth ends should be at the coupling Other factors influencing the load distibution, like stiffness of the housing and foundation, beating clear ances, ete., must be weighed up for each individual case. Tes often an ad¥sacage and comnompractice wo make an allowance for Sieh. influenged when designing de longieadinal cosredgionsi:: * for the Préctical. Application of 4 of Spur si’ Helical Gears 7. Recommendaticn Longitudinol. Correct In the wiajotity OF at cai n factor which calls for longitudinal tooth corrections are the elastic Pinion deflections. ‘The determination of the basic i ih longitudinal corrections is therefore based on these. These deflections can be calculated exactly for = definite wansmitted power for which uniform load is desired. ‘Any other influences 6a Joad distribution as_men- tioned above in section 6 aré more difficult to anticipate. For this reason the designer will generally uy, in the initial stages of his work, to aecange for these indefinite actors to-cancel-each: other as-well-as “possible, that they ale.pot additive: throughout,-" The expected misaligoment dué-to these factors is. given consideration by superimposing “xespective corrections on those determined from tooth load deflections. A simple way of calculating elastic: pinion “deflections and the correc- tions necessary tg ensire optimum ‘oad distribution is as follows: os The pinion deflections are determined in a plane tangential to a cylinder of pitch circle diameter (Fig. 9). The tooth load W, which is also acting in this plane, is assumed to be unifommly distributed across the face width. Its value corresponds t0 the operating load for ‘which optimom load diswibation is desired. The toral pinion deflection is composed of two parts, bending (curve 1) and torsion (curve 2). Both act in the same tangential plane. Therefore, the combined deflec- tion (curve 3) is obtained by algebraic addition of the two curves 1 and 2. In order to compensate elastic deflections under the predetermined load V, the longitudinal correction must be of the shape of the dotted line 4 which is an exact inversion of the combined deflection 3. For a symmetically mounted pinion as shown in Fig. 9, the equation for the calculation of the maximum bend- 1g deflection within the toothed section of face width F 2 ag: we Kn) Equation 6) w specific load Ibs/in K face width diamerer ratio= : ee 1 beating span—face width ratio The deflection curve is approximately of circular shape. The maximum value 5, appears in the middle of the wothing. The influence of the pressure angle is small and can be neglected. The maximum torsional deflection of the toothed section, again assuming uniform load distribution, is: 4 Bem Aw KF (Equation 7) ‘The torsional deflection curve is of parabolic shape; its vertex being at the tooth ends away from the coupling. Ifthe toothed part of the pinion has a bore of diameter - 4; the above values 5, and 5, must be multiplied by: “Tey ? for a suick detminacn of the combine pinion detecrion te cares af Fig. 10 can be apie. Toy are plotted as a fonction ot the face width diameter ratio K and are based on the following data: (qu 8) Curve A: Pinion in mesh with one gear Pinion symmewically mounted as shown in Fig. 9 Bearing span ~ face width ratio 9 = 1.7 Unit load we = 100 Ibs/in The maximum combined deflection for any load w is then: B= S100-s55 in samenaanie te v Curve B: Pinion in mesh with rwo gears, 180° displaced as shown in Fig. 9- Unit load per mesh we = 100 Ibs/in The maximum combined defle from equation 9. Ik must be noved chat w is the unit load for one mesh only. If the pinion engages three gears as for instance in an epicyclic gear, the values 5199 given by curve B are 8 is again obtained simply mulciplied by 3. Manufacturing aad inspection techniques make ie desirable to deviate somewhat from the theoretically Getermincd form of cocrection according to curve 4 in Fip. 9. Pracccal experience supplies the necessary directives. As with profile corrections, part of the woth is lefe uncorrected. This uncorrected portion assures adequate overlap ratio if possible) and hence smooth running when operating undec‘light loads. Ie also peemits a direct migasuremene of-the-helix angle. In such cases where loading afd deformations are extreme, the above principle can no Jotiger be spplied, for the correction must extend acros§ the full face width. For combined pinign’ déflgcrion 5 not exceeding ~8 tenthousandths, it hias becomé’gound established prac- tice tngive. che leagiuudinal.cortecitn che foom a3 shown in Fig. 11 and Fig. 12! The degree of cotcection is calculated from the com ned deflection 8, and provided with suitable rolecance limits for manufactore and inspection. Degree of Longitudinal Correction for Single Mesh (Equation 10) Form of correction see Fig. 11. tenthousandchs Coupling end Lower tolerance limit Agy = 5 Upper tolerance limic Az4 = + 2 Blind end For K $ 1 ForK >1 Lower tolerance limi Ayy = 0.3 3 Upper colerance limi Ayg = 0.35 +2 Degree of Longitudinal Correction for Double Mesh (Equation 11) Fotm of correction see Fig. 12. Coupting end Lower tolerance limit Ay, = 8 Upper tolerance limit Ay +2 Blind end by =0 8. Field Experience machines equipped with correction ies became available about 15 years ago. ‘These machines are capable of producing accurately controlled corrections within one tenthousandth of an inch. Since then, this technique of finely controlled corcec- tion has been applied co a vast aumber of hardened and ground gears of various sizes and all kinds of application. Observations on these gears in service have supplied adequate proof of the soundaess of the principles of correction as described in this paper. The following examples are presented as ¢ypi rete cases of successfully applied toath correct al con Example I: ig. 13, Marine Reduction Gear between Diesel Engine and Screw Shaft Max. power 3600 HP Speeds 1640/739 opm Pinion diamecer a= 8r Face wideh F=10,2" Spec. sooth loud w= 3200 Ibs/in Ke-factor 7 360 Helix angle w= toe Diamecral picch Pas 3.85 Gears carburized, hardened and ground Profile Corrections: The degree of correction is evaluated from equation 4. Aty= 2+ 2.8 x 10-3 - w= 11 cemthousandths Aq = 5+ 28x 10-3 - w= 14 cemthousandchs zy = 042.8% 10-3- w= 9 centhousandehs Azo 3 +28 x 10-3 - w= 12 centhousanddhs ‘The profile diagram of the pinion teeth is shown on Fig. 13b. Ic is based on the recommendations given by Fig. 7. The wlerance zone of the profile section be- tween points B and C allows a deviation from the true involuce of 1.2 tenthousandhs. This is equivalent to a Pinion base pitch being up co 1.4 tenthousandths larger, but never smaller, than the theoretical value. Longitudinal Corrections 10.2 33 Face wideh diamever ratio K 223 From Fig. 10, curve A: 899 = 0.2 tenthousandhs Combined deflections (equation 9) w 200 3 = 55 - 8100-2208. 0.2 - 6.4 centhousaadchs From equation 10 one obtains the degree and from Fig. 11 che form of the corcectioa. 3 = 64 centhousandths feo ~ 2+5 = 8.4 centhousandths Byix 0.38 = 2 cénthousandchs jp = 2 0.3.54 tenthousandths Coupting side: Bey = Blind side: The longicudinal diageam is ploctedin Fig. 13e. Example 2: Fig. 14 7 Speed Increasing Gear betweesi'Twin Diesel Engine and Generator for Diesel Electric Locomotive ‘Two Diesel crank shafts drive one generator. ‘The layout of the gears is shown ia Fig, Lda. ‘There are rigid couplings on she input and outpuc shafts. Power per crankshaft 1175 HP Speed of crankshafes 750 xpm Speed of generator 108 rpm Pinion diameter 13:55" Face width F naan Diametral pitch "Pg 2:36 Helix angle Le Backlash 34 + 4 thousandths Average tooth load; 83 tbs/in Torque Variation at normal load =.2300% Gears carburized, hatdéned and ground”? This is an unusual case because of the high torque fluctuation at normal operation, which accounts for the small backlash. ‘The peak load on the teeth is four times the average load: Wax =~ 3500 Ibs /in Observations made on this gear in service confirmed that not only elastic deflections, but also thermal in- fluences must be considered when determining the flank correction required. ‘The heat developed in the bearings causes the diameter to grow more at the tooth ends than im the middle. Gears of this type which were made without longitudinal correction suffered scoring at the tooth ends. To rectify the matter, che symmetrical longi- tudinal correction shown in Fig. 146 was applied, and no further trouble was experienced. Whereas no actual correction is applied to the teeth of che mating wheels, the tolerance zone for the tooth alignment is positioned such as to compensate for the ‘ery slight torsional deflections, ‘The degree of tip and root relief shown in Fig. 14> comresponds to values obtained by substituting into equation 3 a tooth load w equal to approximately double Since the pinion is driven by «wo wheels, a certain temperature difference .between wheels and pinion must be expected. In a speed increasing gear like the one in question, the temperature difference and the tooth deflec~ tions have an additive effect as mentioned earlier. ‘The ule here is to make the base pitch of the pinion 1.5 to 2.5 centhousandths of an inch below the theoretical value, In all cases where chermal influences are felt, and where appreciable vibrational forces or shocks occur, practical experience is the only reasonably reliable guide. Bur the delicate control possible in correction grinding permits the faithful reproduction of even the finest corrections which such field experience might suggest as being necessary. Example 3: Fig. 15 and 16 Pinions for Rolling Mill Pinion diameter aie Center distance a els Effective face width F =2x 8%" double helical) Gap = 4h Total face widch QF + gap) Diamerral pitch 429 Helix angle y= 26° ‘Teeth carburized, hardened and ground Input torque acting on one pinion: 1.97 - 206 tbs/'~ Normal rorque T T, 40 - 106 Ibs Naximum torque ‘The ourput torque is equally divided berween the two Pinions. Only half the input torque is transmitted by the teeth. The other half is transmitted directly by the input Pinion to the ourper coupling. Specific load w = 4200 Ibs/in (k= 600) max © 6100 Ibs/in (kmax - 870) Because this rolling mill operates only past time at the max. torque it was decided to apply corrections based 09 the normal load w. Profile Corrections: Because the pinions are of the same dimensions and the necessary tip and root relief is rather large, the corrections are shared equally berween both, Howey the tolerance zones of the eruc-involuce flank por are opposed to each other, such that the base pitch of the ion can never be smaller chan the pitch at the driven pinion, see Fig. 15. The degree of the tip and root corrections were de- rived from equation 4, Longitudinal Corrections: In a case likethis the combined deflections 5 can no longer be read, from graph Fig 10. The vatious deflec- tions must be ‘galculaced separately and superimposed. In this case the formulae 6.and 7 give a close approx imation for thé deflections’3y aad.5; respectively, if the tooth load“is assumed'to be eveslp distributed across the toral-face-wideh Fy-(see “Figs 16? The imaginary specific tooth load ig is then: 2 ~ 4200 2594. 5300 tbs in Longitudinal correction is only applied to the driving Pinion. ‘The cesuleane of curves 4a and 4b supplies the total combined corrections ar the helix ends. They ae (compare Fig. 16): The face width diameter catio is K Coupling side 5, = 15.5 + 2.7 = 18,2 Blind side By = 9-4 = 5 Fig. 16 shows the combined deflection curves for the driving and driven pinion: At the bottom of Fig. 16 is shown the longicudinal diagram, as ic was executed for this parcicular ease. Driving: Combined deflection cucve da =1+243 August 23, 1965 Driven Combined deflection curve 4b = 142 SG/dke ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This paper is published with che permission of Messrs. Maag Gear-Wheel Company, Zurich. The author wishes to thank Mr. R. Wydler, Dipl.tag., for his valuable contribution and assistance in accomplishing chis paper. My References INewman, A.D. 1958 Proceedings of the Intemational Davies, W.J. 1958 Proceedings of the Intemational 2Kalkere, W. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Bi Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. ~-nauigkeic auf dea Zahakrafevertaut Conference on Gearing, p. 313, Conference on Gearing, p. 82, “Load! Carrying Tests of Admi “'Some Design Considerations Af- aly Gearing” fecting Performance and Reliabil- ity of High-Duty Spur and Helical 1963 Industrie-Anceiger Essen, Febs. Gearing for Aircrafc”” 3) BOVIS, “Uakaicichungen aber den Einfluss derFertigungsge- “Martinaglia, L. 1958 Proceedings of the Intemational Conference on Gearing, p. 232, thd die Flankeperapfahigkeit unge- “Developments on Gear Grinding hiarveter, Stirartider”™ Machines" 1 Lines of Contact on a Helical Gear 2 Load Disuibution on TevesInvolute Spur Gears 3 Tooth Interference on Loaded True-Involute Gears 4 Redscing Engagencat Shock by Enlarging the Base Pitch of the Driving Geae 5. Load Distribution and Profile Corrections 6 Blfect of Temperasure Difference berween Pinion and Gear 7 Profile Corrections on a Speed Reduction Gear 8 Profile Correction on a Speed Increasing Gear 9 Pinion Deflections and Longitudinal Corrections 10 Combined Pinion Deflection 5199 at Unit Load we = 100 Ibs/in 11 Longitudinal Pinion Corrections for Single Mesh 12 Longitudinal Pinion Corrections for Double Mesh 13. Pinion Tooth Cocections for Example 1 Oe 14 Tooth Corrections for Example 2 Profile Corrections for Example 3 16 Longitudinal Corrections for Example 3 40 TON OF REDUCED Le (DUE TO LONGITUDINAL CORRECTION secn S OF CONTACT ON A HELICAL GEAR SYV39 UNdS SLNTOANI-3NYL NO NOILNGINLSIG GvOT 2 °dI4 ONIAINO. 7 NOILOW. a Q 75 30 3NTT Naat : G 2 q yj / d | IW Poly a 7 7 q 4 | i avO1% 001 uV39 ONIAINC 3H1 JO HOLId 3SvE SHL ONISUVINA AG HYOOHS LNSW3S9VONS ONIONGZY » ‘did ONIAIUG ese NANG NN ie ay ~ 000912" PINION DRIVING ‘ haw 6 a tated eee eayei oe pa Pye TRANSVERSE BASE AICH = Z=PR. (or UP TO 20% SMALLER) Zao. (OR UP TO 20% LARGER ) FIG. 7 PROFILE CORRECTIONS ON A SPEED REDUCTION GEAR FIG.8 PROFILE TOLERANCE ZONE OF UNCORRECTED MATING TOOTH FLANK OF GEAR Z> LENGTH OF CONTACT (OBTAINED FROM DIMENSIONS (OF THE GEARS IN MESH) Pps TRANSVERSE BASE PITCH Po (on UP TO 20% SMALLER) c+ 2522 (on uP To 20%, LARGER | 7 CORRECTIONS ON A SPEED INCREASING GEAR SUV3D SLNTOANI-3NYL G3CVOT NO 3ONSY3SYSLNI HLOOL € “SIS ONIAIN NN _ NBA a \ uv39 ONY NOINid \ N33M138 3ON3U3I410 3YNLWY3dW3L JO 193433 9914 jones we K oe 4 % pera E = vv oon evan ay vend ow oe aaa 9¢L 417841 O01 = GyOT LINN Iv %g NoILOsTI3q NOINId G3NIGWOD ol ‘Sls Hl 80 90 70 20". 0 oo. ve 22 08 , g 0 Le g 7 = Lo phos g } z x Zz0 e & 2 8 & 04 a a ++S F z v4 9m gy i » w» SO Z 3 g 83 gem 6 lot | to4° = i Pt We u Zl & 604 en Si 4 ad =z oo _ SL s a BENDING TORSION COMBINED DEFLECTION THEORETICAL CONCRUONAL 7 \ CORRECTION ~ | 3NOZ JONVYSIOL Mey OXY 30ls 9NITdN0O w COUPLING.” SIDE TOLERANCE ZONE a FIG. 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