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AGMA 109.16 Profile and Longitudinal Corrections on Involute Gears

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‘ . Unters: L616
{ news
- 109.16
¢ OCTOBER, 1965
PROFILE AND LONGITUDINAL
CORRECTIONS ON INVOLUTE GEARS
By
HANS SIGG, Chief Gear Engineer
Mag Gear-Wheel Company Ltd.
Zurich, Switzerland
Presented ot the Semi-Annual Meeting
of the
AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION
The Continental Plaxo, Chicago, l
October 24-27, 1965
Copyright, 1965, by AGMA and MAAG
The statements and opinions contoined hi
‘re those of the author ond should not lie construed os on
of the AGMA :
officiel action or opiTABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
1, BASIC CONSIDERATIONS .
2, TOOTH LOADING CHARACTERISTICS ON TRUE-INVOLUTE SPUR GEARS
3. PREVENTION OF ENGAGEMENT SHOCKS .....20.00s0000 : bit tet fae
4. PURPOSE AND PRINCIPLES OF PROFILE CORRECTION . 2
5. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF PROFILE CORRECTION
ON SPUR AND HELICAL GEARS....... seat 3
6, FACTORS INFLUENCING THE LOAD DISTRIBUTION ACROSS THE FACE OF A GEAR . 4
{_ SCOMMENDATIONS FOR THE PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF LONGITUDINAL
CORRECTION ON SPUR AND HELICAL GEARS «.- sett eeteeeees 4
8. FIELD EXPERIENCE .. Prerery 6Introdvetion
Experiments on loaded gear drives show that as tooth
pairs move into and out of the field of mesh, shocks
arise which cause fluctuations ia angular velocities.
Such shocks would occuf even in perfectly accurately
made gears, for they are partly due to the clastic deflec-
tion of the teeth. The strength of the shocks is depend-
ent on the actual load being transmitted, and on the
accuracy both -of the teeth” wait of the Widtial location of
the gears in’their housing: Other factors such as pitch
line velocity, tio.moméne of inertia of the gears, the
surface quality of die flanks, and lubrication ete., will
also exert some influence:
‘These fluctuations of thé-gears ‘produce noize by in-
ducing vibrations in thé gears diemsélves bue also in the
shafts and housing:
‘When gear manufacture was still in ics infancy, the
‘general aim was to produce eeeth as near to the theoret
cal form as possible. Ie was not uatil demands for
higher speeds and loading, together with quieter running,
became really acute, that the prospect of lessening ea-
‘gagement shocks by way of profile correction (tip and
root relief) was entertained, As soon as the grinding of
hardened gears was introduced, still higher specific
loads could be transmitted which made the application
of profile corrections even a necessity.
Bat with the increase in transmission loads, lon
tudinal corrections (or exowning) gained in significance
also. As will be explained later in more detail, well
designed crowning in connection with helical gears can
also contribute to a reduction of engagement shocks,
although the main object of crowning is to atain uniform
load distribution across the facewidch under a given
load; in other words, to counteract those various influ-
ences which are alien to good tooth bearing conditions.
So the considerations goveroing the application of the
two types of flank correction ~ profile or longitudinal —
are different. And for this reason they will be dealt with
separately in this paper.
The actual degree of correction necessary, whether it
is tip, root ot end relief, is generally relatively small ~
usually between sbout 3tenthousandths and 1 thousandth
of an inch. But in spite of being so small, these correc
tions improve the load carrying capacity of a given gea
ing appreciably! providing they are designed and applied
properly. However, if a tooth correction is to increase
load capacity, it is only logical that a certain minimum
manufacturing accuracy mast be assured, In a case
where tooth errors verge on the profile correction in order
of magnimde, an improvement of the meshing conditions
‘would be' in doubs; particularly if ertor and corzections
are additive.
Te may generally be claimed that the certainty of i
proved loading capacity by way of profile and longicu-
inal corrections is only present if tooth exrors are less
in magnitude than the degree of correction.
‘The recommendations made in this paper are based’
almost exclusively upon experience gained from hardened
and ground single helical gears. The tooth accuracy of
‘ground tocthings corresponds to an AGMA quality 14 to
15. The profile accuracy, however, is even of a better
qualicy. -
1, Basic Con:
rations
A gear tooth moves into the field of mesh with such 2
high speed, chat the nature of its load take-over wi
have the character of a damped vibration. In spur gear
the mumber of teeth carrying the load changes from ewo
so one and back to two, which makes the elastic reaction
even more complicated. In helical gears there ae more
tooth pairs in comtact and the effect of the changing
number is less acute, although the situation is basically
the same. For identical load, speed and tooth accuracy,
corrections may be smaller on helical ceeth than on spur
teeth. A further consideration js shat a helical r~ath
does not make contact immediately with its full &
width. The load is taken up fist at che leading end of
the helix, and spreads across the whole tooth gradually
(Fig. 1. For this season, a longitudinal correction
(Crowning or end relief) will also be effective in avoiding
engagement shocks. Ia the following we shall examine
cions prevailiog in meshing spor gears, from the
poine of view. It must be kept in mind that
the term “engagement shock” refers to the dynamic
process of meshing, and that the actual force will exceed
the theoretic, static value, and assume vibrational
form governed by the speed and inertia of the gears.
2. Tooth Locding Characteristics on True-Invalute
Spur Gears
When spur gears mesh, contact is made by one p:
and two pairs of teeth altemnately. Taking the lic= of
action for an abscissa, as in Fig. 2, we can rep. -nt
the force on the tooth at any point along the path of con
act AD by an ordinate perpendicular to this axis. Two
pairs of teeth make contact over the portions AB and
CD, one pair only over the portion BC. The actual
lengths of these paths are given by the gear dimensions,
AC and BD being equal to the base pitch. For absolutely
accurate, nos-elastic gears, the load in the double con-
tact regipas would be exacdy half of that in the single
contact régisn;, his is stiown by curve AFGHIKLD. Due
to surface, defematioa at the points of rooth contact,
and to shear ané" bending’ deflection of the eeeth them-
selves, the sivision of lad alters. From calculations
fone obtaiss a force cufve AMNHIOPD. Roughly speak-
ing, engiagemesc seaits at A with.40% load, rising to GO%
at the. point.of-transition.from.twoooth contact {0 one~
tooth. After carrying: 100% load alone over the centralregion, the receding tooth pair is atcribueed 60%, sinking
7 40% again on moving out of the field of mesh,
3. Preventing Engagement Shocks
As soon as the ceeth under consideration have some
sore of ecror, the loading characteristic will be differenc
again; especially since geac teeth are comparatively
stiff, and even slight errors have a great effect. OF
particular jncerest in our present investigation is che
rotation of one gear relative to the other as a cesule of
the elastic deflection of the teeth, We can express this
roration as a displacement 5, along the line of action
(see Fig. 3). Its value for spur gears would be:?
Bg = approx, 5 x 10-3 wy
in ceathousandths of an iach (Equayjon 1)
> ae cota El Se & Ne,
gopie wp ~ the nomal force slong the line of hexion ia
At the moment of moving into engagement, a driven
tooth Zgo will find ies mating profile shifeed along the
line of action by the stated amount 5, in accordance
with Fig. 3: this is the cesule of the elastic deflection of
the tooth pair Zq1 and Zp) already in contact. Such tack
of correlation will lead to engagement shocks. As
already mentioned. tooth errors can have a similar effect,
since they also represent contact point displacement.
Befoce devices for grinding flank coccections were
incorpocared in MAAG machines, the following practices
were employed co aid the situation when manufacturing
high power, high speed gears:
a) Close tolerances, particularly for profile form and
adjacent piech
b) Highest possible transverse contact ratio (one
such measure was che introduction of addendum
‘modification, based on a 15° cutter pressure angle
= known since 1908 as MAAG-toothing)
) Slightly longer base piteh for the driving ceeth as
compared ro the deiven teeth, az shown in Fig. 4,
Provided that the difference beeveen the base
of the driving and driven gears is greater than the sum
of all errors and deflections, the tooth tip of the driven
gear sweeps. into the field of engagement
making contact, The load ie subsequently taken up by
this tooth gradually. Naturally the difference must not
be too great, or the catio of the base circle diameters
will 20 longer agree with the transmission ratio, and new
speed fluctuations will be induced in frequency with the
consecutive tooth engagement. In practice a base pitch
difference of maximum 1.5 centhousandchs may be
allowed.
By using helical gears wich adequate overtap ratio
(say between 3 and 4), the influence of cooth exrocs,
especially of profile errors is less fele. ‘There is also
oo
less tendency for base picch differences to cause speed
fluctuation,
4. Purpose and Pri
iples of Profile Correction
To avoid shocks as gear teeth enter and leave the
field of engagement, the flank profile can be eased back
locally over a suitable distance ~ in the regions of the
tip and root on the pinion for instance, familiar to all
as “‘tip and root relief"*. Nowadays che form and degree
of such corrections can be controlled accurately on
MAAG grinding machines, and moreover the relieved
areas can be blended smoothly into the remaining true-
iavolute areas.4
Various aspects dictate the character of the correce
tion co be made; and those for spur gears differ from
those foc helical gears, so thar different sets of correc«
tive principles evolve, The final verdict concerning the
worth of a given correction can only be passed on the
strength of peactical results.
To examine che problem as presented by spur gears,
wwe shall refer again to the diagram of load in Fig. 2. We
see that on «que involute flanks, quite apase from inicial
and final coneacc in A and D, there is an abrupt change
in loading at che change points B and C, where the load
is suddenly transferced from cwo teeth (© one tooth alone
and vice versa, Since this can excice vibrations, such
shocks must be suppressed as far as possible. ‘In Fig.
5b an assumed specific loading is delineated, which
should afford some success in this respect.
Neglecting manufacturing errors for che moment, we
are faced with che question: Whar exace form must the
correction take, in ordec to make the force of rooth con=
act follow che graph AHID ia Fig, 5b instead of the
graph AMNHIOPD which would apply if che flanks are
not corrected?
In Fig. 5a the tip of a driven tooth is juse making
initial contact in A. Another tooth pair akeady makes
contact in C, Just before poine C, the full toad is
cattied by the one cooth pair, causing the point of con
tact to be displaced along the line of action by the
amount 85 as per equation 1. If the newly contacting
tooth tip is lefe uncorrected, the coors would inmediacely
sake up a load represented in Fig. 5b by the point M.
By casing back she profile of the said tip an amount
equal to 3,, the Hidad is ceducedis! desiced from M to
zero, The relief must'Fiaish ar‘cbatice poine Br. Field
Ry in Fig. 5b ceptesents.she' actual load of which the
newly contacting woith.pair is religved. Since che coral
load muse remain usichanged, aiepreceding tooth paic
alceady in concaét’ is subjecied té-"2..correspondingly
higher load, ceptesenced by field Et.
geometic rcliét is plated is an eolarged
line of action in Fig. 5c, giving a diageam comparable to
thac obrained from tooth peclile vecording instrument.On the tooth tip itself the correction will appear as
shown, highly enlacged, in Fig. Sa. By easing back the
Lip of the receding, driving tooth tip, the load on the
lactersis reduced in a like manner as it moves out of
mesh. Applying practically the same geonevic tip
relief, we achieve a load reduction Rz and a load in-
erease Ep, Ie is by such tip corrections on driving and
driven flanks that the contact forces are made to follow
the graph AHID oF Fig. 36. As can be Seen, there are no
abrupt load chiages. Along the path ByC2 transmission
takes place via tieinwolure flanks: Distance ByC> is
equal to the base pitch. Based gn these observations
we arrive at the following general rales for determining
suitable involute cgrrections on, spur.gears:
a) Along the pith. 6f contact, a. distance equal to the
base piech should be left void-of any correctio
and the correction should extend co both sider
over more ot less equal distances,
b) The correction can be applied to both gears in the
form of tip relief, or to one gear alone in the form
of tip and roor relief. If tip and root relief is ap-
plied to both gears, the amounts are simply addi-
five, which means that the individaal corrections
fon each gear are half the otal amount. This
method is already practised in certain cases, and
often brings advantages from the point of view of
manufacture. :
©) The degree of correction will depend on the
* specific tooth loading w, and the accuracy of the
gears. For pecfectly accurate gears the minimum
dere would theoretically be equal 10 8, as per
equation 1.
5. Recommendations for the Proctical Applicetion of
Profile Correction on Spur and Helical Gears
Profile and longitudinal corrections ace generally
only applied to one gear of a pait; to the pinion, that is,
in the fotm of tip and root relief ~ and possible crowning.
We differentiate between the profile corrections for driv-
ing and driven flanks. Along the path of contact, a dis-
tance equal t© one transverse base pitch will almost
invariably be left without correction. Similarly a certain
stretch of the facewidth will be left free from longitu
dinal correction. From the manufacturing aspect, this
practice has the imporrant advantage of always leaving
2 chance to measure directly the (wo most important
dimensions: the base pitch and che helix angle. From
the operational aspect, it ensures that the tooth contact
conditions of spur gears will still be kinematically
cortect also under light loads, since the transverse con-
ract ratio is ac least equal to 1. Helical gears with
adequate overlap ratio are somewhat less sensitive in
this respect, as correct kinematic transmission is
guaranteed by the effect of the helix. In cases where
the specific tooth load is relatively high in relation to”
the tooth size this rule may be relaxed, and the true-
involure portion along the path of contact made shorter.
In extreme cases, as for example in aircraft gears, the
profile corrections may even extend along the entire
tooth flank in order eo ensure # smooth blending in of the
corrections. 3
To make things easier for acceptance cests after
‘manufacture, it is advisable to specify tolerance limits
for the correction. The tolerance field will be posi-
tioned such that a deviation can only have a lessening
effect on engagement shocks, For driving and driven
gears, then, the fields will lie in opposite directions, in
‘support of the previously described principle of decreas-
jing the driven gear base pitch relative vo that of the
driving gear.
Taking the general case of a corrected pinion, of the
accuracy grade customary in ground gears, typical pro-
as recorded on the involute tester, are
; 7 and Fig. 8. These diagrams refe -o
cases where the thermal influence is not large enu.gh
as to require additional corrections.
To attain a smoother profile form by lengthening the
the root relief slightly, the tip relief would have to be
shortened. This measure should only be resorted to if
root corrections are exceptionally short, as is the case
with fine-pitched gears,
Degree of Correction for Spur Gears (Equation 3)
w= peripheral uaie load in ths per one inch of face~
width
A= cocrections in centhousandths of an inch
Ac first point of tooth contact:
lower tolerance lis
upper tolerance limit
Biya 3+ 3.5 7 x 107>
Bio ~ 6 + 3.5 w x 107?
Ac lase point of tooth contact:
ie Agu= 04 3.5 w x 107?
ie Bag = 343.5 wx 107?
lower colerance lis
upper tolerance
Degree of Cores
jon for Helical Gears (Equation 4)
Ac fits pdint.of tooth contact?
lower tolerance’ limi
upper tolerance
Aiye2 +288 x10
Bio = 5+ 2.8 wx 107
At last polit of sooth contact
NGG= 04 2.8.w x 107?
2g = 3+ 2.86 x 107?
lower xolermee tinier"
upper tolerance limigleis known that with high power high speed gears the
linion will gain a higher average emperature than the
gear, This results in a difference ia base pitch:
Ape =
Aas (Equation 5)
Ae Temperatute difference pinion/ gear
= Thermal expansion coefficient
Corresponding corrections ate made by changing the
inclination of the tolerance zone of the uncorected in-
voluce section BC, i.e by cotrecting the base pitch ofthe
Pinion.
In speed reduction geat a pinion temperature higher
then ae the gear produces a larger-buse pitch in the
driving member. As described in section 3 and illus:
teated by Fig. 4 this effect helps, up to a cetcain point,
jn seducing tooth engagehjene shoc!
If che cemperatuce di
fe pitch difference
c. This comective measur
In a speed increasing gear che situation is reversed.
Ic is the driven member (pinion) attaining a larger tem
pecacuce and base pitch. This effect, like the tooth
deflection, cends to increase the tooth engagement shock
(Fig. 3). In order co compensate this temperature in-
fluence, the tolerance zone BC on Fig. 8 is given a
diffecene inclination again by lifting point C, which is
equivalent to reducing the pinion base pitch. Aa example
of such a case is illustrated by Fig. 141
For such cases where the average pinion temperature
is larger than the gear temperature, the following should
be noted:
In a reduction gear the effects of tooth deflection and
temperature difference tend 0 compensate each other.
But with @ speed increasing gear chese wo effects are
additive. This means thac the resultant base pitch cor
nin a speed increasing geac is larger than in a
rion gear.
6, Factors Influencing the Lood Distribution Across,
the Face of o Gear
Starting from an accurace gear which shows absolucely
even load marking across the Face width in the unloaded
and cold condition we find chac the load distribution will
sot be uniform under service conditions. There are a
sumber of factors responsible for this, which must be
kept in mind when designing tooth corrections:
Every pision under load suffers a certain amount of
elastic deformation, The cylindrically shaped pinion
body bends and ewists under the tooth load. Shear de-
Mections are also present, but chey are small and can be
neglected,
In a gear which operates at high peripheral speed,
is necessary co check on possible deflections due to
centrifugal forces. Depending on the shape and design of
the gear body, the toothed acea might acquire a slight
barrel or concave shape,
‘There is also a thermal influence to be considered.
The higher che power wansmitted in one mesh the more
pronounced ic becomes. The gears gec heated unevenly,
In a spur gear the temperature is highest in the center o
the woothing and drops towards the tooth ends provided
the influence of the heat generated in the bearings is
negligible, Wich helical gears the hotest parc of the
toothing is moved somewhat because of the Lube oil
being teansported axially co one side.
‘As mentioned above the average pinion temperature
is slightly higher than the gear cemperacure. With
helical gears this has the following effect:
Because there are several paiss of ceeth ia contact
simultaneously the temperature difference causing
difference in base pitch (equation 5) has the effect of
producing unequal load sharing becween the ceeth in
mesh. In 2 speed reducer it is the leading tooth pait
which takes the highest load (see Fig. 6). The next
following cooth paic gets a slightly reduced load, and
at every following pair the load decccases. This results
jin heavier contact marks at one end of the teeth, and
gives the impression that the helix angle of the pinion
decteases with rising temperature. In actual fact the
helix angle remains unchanged. Such one-sided loading
is only caused by the base pitch differences, and ic ob-
viously becomes more pronounced, the more teeth there
are in mesh simultaneously; or in other words, the larger
the helix angle.
With single helical gears whore the helix angles vary
beeween 6° and 15° this effect is aormally very slight.
However, it is an advancage to choose the hand of the
helix such, that this effect tends to reduce the effect of
the pinion corsional detection due to the woth load.
Fig. 6 shows that ia a reduction gear the leading tooth
eds of the pinion should be at the pinion coupling side.
wa speed increasing gear the situation is reversed; the
trailing tooth ends should be at the coupling
Other factors influencing the load distibution, like
stiffness of the housing and foundation, beating clear
ances, ete., must be weighed up for each individual case.
Tes often an ad¥sacage and comnompractice wo make an
allowance for Sieh. influenged when designing de
longieadinal cosredgionsi::
* for the Préctical. Application of
4 of Spur si’ Helical Gears
7. Recommendaticn
Longitudinol. Correct
In the wiajotity OF at cai n factor which
calls for longitudinal tooth corrections are the elastic
Pinion deflections. ‘The determination of the basici
ih
longitudinal corrections is therefore based on these.
These deflections can be calculated exactly for =
definite wansmitted power for which uniform load is
desired.
‘Any other influences 6a Joad distribution as_men-
tioned above in section 6 aré more difficult to anticipate.
For this reason the designer will generally uy, in the
initial stages of his work, to aecange for these indefinite
actors to-cancel-each: other as-well-as “possible,
that they ale.pot additive: throughout,-" The expected
misaligoment dué-to these factors is. given consideration
by superimposing “xespective corrections on those
determined from tooth load deflections. A simple way of
calculating elastic: pinion “deflections and the correc-
tions necessary tg ensire optimum ‘oad distribution is
as follows: os
The pinion deflections are determined in a plane
tangential to a cylinder of pitch circle diameter (Fig. 9).
The tooth load W, which is also acting in this plane, is
assumed to be unifommly distributed across the face
width. Its value corresponds t0 the operating load for
‘which optimom load diswibation is desired.
The toral pinion deflection is composed of two parts,
bending (curve 1) and torsion (curve 2). Both act in the
same tangential plane. Therefore, the combined deflec-
tion (curve 3) is obtained by algebraic addition of the
two curves 1 and 2.
In order to compensate elastic deflections under the
predetermined load V, the longitudinal correction must
be of the shape of the dotted line 4 which is an exact
inversion of the combined deflection 3.
For a symmetically mounted pinion as shown in Fig.
9, the equation for the calculation of the maximum bend-
1g deflection within the toothed section of face width F
2
ag: we Kn) Equation 6)
w specific load Ibs/in
K face width diamerer ratio=
: ee
1 beating span—face width ratio
The deflection curve is approximately of circular
shape. The maximum value 5, appears in the middle of
the wothing. The influence of the pressure angle is
small and can be neglected.
The maximum torsional deflection of the toothed
section, again assuming uniform load distribution, is:
4
Bem Aw KF (Equation 7)
‘The torsional deflection curve is of parabolic shape;
its vertex being at the tooth ends away from the coupling.
Ifthe toothed part of the pinion has a bore of diameter -
4; the above values 5, and 5, must be multiplied by:
“Tey
?
for a suick detminacn of the combine pinion
detecrion te cares af Fig. 10 can be apie. Toy
are plotted as a fonction ot the face width diameter ratio
K and are based on the following data:
(qu
8)
Curve A:
Pinion in mesh with one gear
Pinion symmewically mounted as shown in Fig. 9
Bearing span ~ face width ratio 9 = 1.7
Unit load we = 100 Ibs/in
The maximum combined deflection for any load w is
then:
B= S100-s55 in samenaanie te v
Curve B:
Pinion in mesh with rwo gears, 180° displaced as shown
in Fig. 9-
Unit load per mesh we = 100 Ibs/in
The maximum combined defle
from equation 9.
Ik must be noved chat w is the unit load for one mesh
only.
If the pinion engages three gears as for instance in an
epicyclic gear, the values 5199 given by curve B are
8 is again obtained
simply mulciplied by 3.
Manufacturing aad inspection techniques make ie
desirable to deviate somewhat from the theoretically
Getermincd form of cocrection according to curve 4 in
Fip. 9. Pracccal experience supplies the necessary
directives. As with profile corrections, part of the woth
is lefe uncorrected. This uncorrected portion assures
adequate overlap ratio if possible) and hence smooth
running when operating undec‘light loads. Ie also peemits
a direct migasuremene of-the-helix angle. In such cases
where loading afd deformations are extreme, the above
principle can no Jotiger be spplied, for the correction must
extend acros§ the full face width.
For combined pinign’ déflgcrion 5 not exceeding ~8
tenthousandths, it hias becomé’gound established prac-
tice tngive. che leagiuudinal.cortecitn che foom a3 shown
in Fig. 11 and Fig. 12!The degree of cotcection is calculated from the com
ned deflection 8, and provided with suitable rolecance
limits for manufactore and inspection.
Degree of Longitudinal Correction for Single Mesh
(Equation 10)
Form of correction see Fig. 11.
tenthousandchs
Coupling end
Lower tolerance limit Agy = 5
Upper tolerance limic Az4 = + 2
Blind end
For K $ 1
ForK >1
Lower tolerance limi Ayy = 0.3 3
Upper colerance limi Ayg = 0.35 +2
Degree of Longitudinal Correction for Double Mesh
(Equation 11)
Fotm of correction see Fig. 12.
Coupting end
Lower tolerance limit Ay, = 8
Upper tolerance limit Ay
+2
Blind end by =0
8. Field Experience
machines equipped with correction
ies became available about 15 years ago.
‘These machines are capable of producing accurately
controlled corrections within one tenthousandth of an
inch.
Since then, this technique of finely controlled corcec-
tion has been applied co a vast aumber of hardened and
ground gears of various sizes and all kinds of application.
Observations on these gears in service have supplied
adequate proof of the soundaess of the principles of
correction as described in this paper.
The following examples are presented as ¢ypi
rete cases of successfully applied toath correct
al con
Example I:
ig. 13,
Marine Reduction Gear between Diesel Engine and
Screw Shaft
Max. power 3600 HP
Speeds 1640/739 opm
Pinion diamecer a= 8r
Face wideh F=10,2"
Spec. sooth loud w= 3200 Ibs/in
Ke-factor 7 360
Helix angle w= toe
Diamecral picch Pas 3.85
Gears carburized, hardened and ground
Profile Corrections:
The degree of correction is evaluated from equation 4.
Aty= 2+ 2.8 x 10-3 - w= 11 cemthousandths
Aq = 5+ 28x 10-3 - w= 14 cemthousandchs
zy = 042.8% 10-3- w= 9 centhousandehs
Azo 3 +28 x 10-3 - w= 12 centhousanddhs
‘The profile diagram of the pinion teeth is shown on
Fig. 13b. Ic is based on the recommendations given by
Fig. 7. The wlerance zone of the profile section be-
tween points B and C allows a deviation from the true
involuce of 1.2 tenthousandhs. This is equivalent to a
Pinion base pitch being up co 1.4 tenthousandths larger,
but never smaller, than the theoretical value.
Longitudinal Corrections
10.2
33
Face wideh diamever ratio K 223
From Fig. 10, curve A: 899 = 0.2 tenthousandhs
Combined deflections (equation 9)
w 200
3 = 55 - 8100-2208. 0.2 - 6.4 centhousaadchs
From equation 10 one obtains the degree and from
Fig. 11 che form of the corcectioa.
3 = 64 centhousandths
feo ~ 2+5 = 8.4 centhousandths
Byix 0.38 = 2 cénthousandchs
jp = 2 0.3.54 tenthousandths
Coupting side: Bey =
Blind side:
The longicudinal diageam is ploctedin Fig. 13e.
Example 2: Fig. 14 7
Speed Increasing Gear betweesi'Twin Diesel Engine and
Generator for Diesel Electric Locomotive‘Two Diesel crank shafts drive one generator.
‘The layout of the gears is shown ia Fig, Lda.
‘There are rigid couplings on she input and outpuc shafts.
Power per crankshaft 1175 HP
Speed of crankshafes 750 xpm
Speed of generator 108 rpm
Pinion diameter 13:55"
Face width F naan
Diametral pitch "Pg 2:36
Helix angle Le
Backlash 34 + 4 thousandths
Average tooth load; 83 tbs/in
Torque Variation at normal load =.2300%
Gears carburized, hatdéned and ground”?
This is an unusual case because of the high torque
fluctuation at normal operation, which accounts for the
small backlash.
‘The peak load on the teeth is four times the average
load:
Wax =~ 3500 Ibs /in
Observations made on this gear in service confirmed
that not only elastic deflections, but also thermal in-
fluences must be considered when determining the flank
correction required. ‘The heat developed in the bearings
causes the diameter to grow more at the tooth ends than
im the middle. Gears of this type which were made
without longitudinal correction suffered scoring at the
tooth ends. To rectify the matter, che symmetrical longi-
tudinal correction shown in Fig. 146 was applied, and
no further trouble was experienced.
Whereas no actual correction is applied to the teeth
of che mating wheels, the tolerance zone for the tooth
alignment is positioned such as to compensate for the
‘ery slight torsional deflections,
‘The degree of tip and root relief shown in Fig. 14>
comresponds to values obtained by substituting into
equation 3 a tooth load w equal to approximately double
Since the pinion is driven by «wo wheels, a certain
temperature difference .between wheels and pinion must
be expected. In a speed increasing gear like the one in
question, the temperature difference and the tooth deflec~
tions have an additive effect as mentioned earlier. ‘The
ule here is to make the base pitch of the pinion 1.5 to
2.5 centhousandths of an inch below the theoretical
value,
In all cases where chermal influences are felt, and
where appreciable vibrational forces or shocks occur,
practical experience is the only reasonably reliable
guide. Bur the delicate control possible in correction
grinding permits the faithful reproduction of even the
finest corrections which such field experience might
suggest as being necessary.
Example 3: Fig. 15 and 16
Pinions for Rolling Mill
Pinion diameter aie
Center distance a els
Effective face width F =2x 8%" double helical)
Gap = 4h
Total face widch QF + gap)
Diamerral pitch 429
Helix angle y= 26°
‘Teeth carburized, hardened and ground
Input torque acting on one pinion:
1.97 - 206 tbs/'~
Normal rorque T
T, 40 - 106 Ibs
Naximum torque
‘The ourput torque is equally divided berween the two
Pinions. Only half the input torque is transmitted by the
teeth. The other half is transmitted directly by the input
Pinion to the ourper coupling.
Specific load w = 4200 Ibs/in (k= 600)
max © 6100 Ibs/in (kmax - 870)
Because this rolling mill operates only past time at
the max. torque it was decided to apply corrections based
09 the normal load w.
Profile Corrections:
Because the pinions are of the same dimensions and
the necessary tip and root relief is rather large, the
corrections are shared equally berween both, Howey
the tolerance zones of the eruc-involuce flank por
are opposed to each other, such that the base pitch of
the ion can never be smaller chan the pitch at
the driven pinion, see Fig. 15.
The degree of the tip and root corrections were de-
rived from equation 4,
Longitudinal Corrections:
In a case likethis the combined deflections 5 can no
longer be read, from graph Fig 10. The vatious deflec-
tions must be ‘galculaced separately and superimposed.
In this case the formulae 6.and 7 give a close approx
imation for thé deflections’3y aad.5; respectively, if the
tooth load“is assumed'to be eveslp distributed across
the toral-face-wideh Fy-(see “Figs 16? The imaginary
specific tooth load ig is then:2 ~ 4200 2594. 5300 tbs in
Longitudinal correction is only applied to the driving
Pinion. ‘The cesuleane of curves 4a and 4b supplies the
total combined corrections ar the helix ends. They ae
(compare Fig. 16):
The face width diameter catio is K
Coupling side 5, = 15.5 + 2.7 = 18,2
Blind side By = 9-4 = 5
Fig. 16 shows the combined deflection curves for the
driving and driven pinion: At the bottom of Fig. 16 is shown the longicudinal
diagram, as ic was executed for this parcicular ease.
Driving: Combined deflection cucve da =1+243 August 23, 1965
Driven Combined deflection curve 4b = 142 SG/dke
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This paper is published with che permission of Messrs. Maag
Gear-Wheel Company, Zurich. The author wishes to thank Mr. R.
Wydler, Dipl.tag., for his valuable contribution and assistance in
accomplishing chis paper.My
References
INewman, A.D. 1958 Proceedings of the Intemational Davies, W.J. 1958 Proceedings of the Intemational
2Kalkere, W.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Bi
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
~-nauigkeic auf dea Zahakrafevertaut
Conference on Gearing, p. 313, Conference on Gearing, p. 82,
“Load! Carrying Tests of Admi “'Some Design Considerations Af-
aly Gearing” fecting Performance and Reliabil-
ity of High-Duty Spur and Helical
1963 Industrie-Anceiger Essen, Febs. Gearing for Aircrafc””
3) BOVIS, “Uakaicichungen aber
den Einfluss derFertigungsge- “Martinaglia, L. 1958 Proceedings of the Intemational
Conference on Gearing, p. 232,
thd die Flankeperapfahigkeit unge- “Developments on Gear Grinding
hiarveter, Stirartider”™ Machines"
1 Lines of Contact on a Helical Gear
2 Load Disuibution on TevesInvolute Spur Gears
3 Tooth Interference on Loaded True-Involute Gears
4 Redscing Engagencat Shock by Enlarging the Base Pitch of the Driving Geae
5. Load Distribution and Profile Corrections
6 Blfect of Temperasure Difference berween Pinion and Gear
7 Profile Corrections on a Speed Reduction Gear
8 Profile Correction on a Speed Increasing Gear
9 Pinion Deflections and Longitudinal Corrections
10 Combined Pinion Deflection 5199 at Unit Load we = 100 Ibs/in
11 Longitudinal Pinion Corrections for Single Mesh
12 Longitudinal Pinion Corrections for Double Mesh
13. Pinion Tooth Cocections for Example 1 Oe
14 Tooth Corrections for Example 2
Profile Corrections for Example 3
16 Longitudinal Corrections for Example 340
TON OF REDUCED Le
(DUE TO LONGITUDINAL CORRECTION
secn
S OF CONTACT ON A HELICAL GEARSYV39 UNdS SLNTOANI-3NYL NO NOILNGINLSIG GvOT 2 °dI4
ONIAINO. 7
NOILOW. a
Q
75 30 3NTT
Naat
: G 2 q yj
/ d | IW
Poly a
7 7 q 4
| i avO1% 001uV39 ONIAINC 3H1 JO HOLId 3SvE
SHL ONISUVINA AG HYOOHS LNSW3S9VONS ONIONGZY » ‘did
ONIAIUG
ese
NANG NN
ieay
~ 000912"
PINION DRIVING
‘ haw 6
a tated eee eayei oe
pa
Pye TRANSVERSE BASE AICH
= Z=PR. (or UP TO 20% SMALLER)
Zao. (OR UP TO 20% LARGER )
FIG. 7 PROFILE CORRECTIONS ON A SPEED REDUCTION GEAR
FIG.8 PROFILE
TOLERANCE ZONE OF UNCORRECTED
MATING TOOTH FLANK OF GEAR
Z> LENGTH OF CONTACT (OBTAINED FROM DIMENSIONS
(OF THE GEARS IN MESH)
Pps TRANSVERSE BASE PITCH
Po (on UP TO 20% SMALLER)
c+ 2522 (on uP To 20%, LARGER | 7
CORRECTIONS ON A SPEED INCREASING GEARSUV3D SLNTOANI-3NYL G3CVOT NO 3ONSY3SYSLNI HLOOL € “SIS
ONIAIN NN
_ NBA
a\ uv39 ONY NOINid
\ N33M138 3ON3U3I410 3YNLWY3dW3L JO 193433 9914
jones
we K
oe
4 %
pera E =
vv oon evan ay
vend ow oe aaa9¢L
417841 O01 = GyOT LINN Iv %g NoILOsTI3q NOINId G3NIGWOD ol ‘Sls
Hl
80 90 70 20". 0
oo. ve 22 08 ,
g 0 Le g
7 =
Lo phos
g } z x
Zz0 e &
2 8
& 04 a
a ++S F
z v4 9m
gy i »
w» SO Z 3
g 83
gem 6
lot | to4°
= i
Pt We
u Zl
& 604 en
Si 4 ad
=z oo _ SLs
a
BENDING
TORSION
COMBINED
DEFLECTION
THEORETICAL
CONCRUONAL 7 \
CORRECTION ~ |3NOZ JONVYSIOL
Mey OXY
30ls 9NITdN0O
wCOUPLING.” SIDE TOLERANCE ZONE
a
FIG. Il LONGITUDINAL PINION CORRECTIONS FOR SINGLE MESH@ AIdWVX3 YOS SNOILOJYYOD HLOOL 1 “Old
HONI NY 40 SHIONWSNOHINSL NI “SNOILOZuuO
HLooL 723HM
onnandd Nome
| HIONST snisows_aanow 3 ie
7ST
ean 2 suvao onialua
Wear
WYBOWIO FT1JOud NOINd)
NOINI NBAWOOg : 1 dnl
T31dWVX3 YOS SNOILOZYYOD HLOOL NOINId €I ‘9Id r
HON! NY 40 SHLONVSNOHIN1*NI SNOILI3HYOO.
Bais ONMNoo aS net wale
is
i
x
IS
BL |
907° NOWISHYOD INAOY
wv€ 31dWVX2 YOs SNOLLOSYYOD TWNIGNLIONOT 91 ‘Old
HONINY 40 SHIONYSNOHINSL NI SNOORHHOD GNY SNOILIZ7I30
x
«SNOUSEYOO TWNIOMWIONOT
ON S¥H NONId -N3ARIO)
‘NOINIS
| ONIAIEO NO SNoUgREADD
Sy tT om
swouss130 g ; Te : 1 Oe
OaNIEWOD
iden taste eal
ONISS¥d 3TOUOL
0 3na nso ©)
(YO HLooL — by ss
04 3nd NosiwoL (@)
exenaa @)
OMANG
Y e€ FIMWVXS HOS SNOILOSYYOD 3UWJOUd GI ‘dd oe ‘ i
HON. NV 30 SHLONVSNOHINGI NI SNOWOZEuOD
NaAuO
ONIARIO

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