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Physics Lab Observ

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2009-2010
Physics Lab Observation – POLARIMETER
ation – CONVERSION OF GALVANOMETER INTO AMMETER

Mr. A.CHARIS ISRAEL. M.Sc., B.Ed., (Ph.D.)


Asst. Professor of PHYSICS
Department of Humanities & Science
Mobile: +91-9269680853, +91-9571054586, +91-9866934653

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Hope you drop comments and suggestions at charisisrael@gmail.com. All the Best. for R T U
www.charis-ancha.blogspot.com
2009-2010
Physics Lab Observation – POLARIMETER

Exp. No. 7 POLARIMETER


Date:

Aim: To determine the specific rotation of Glucose (Sugar) solution using a Polarimeter.

Apparatus: Laurent’s half-shade polarimeter, sodium vapour lamp, polarimeter tube, a graduated
cylinder, two beakers, an electronic balance, Glucose or sugar and distilled water (500ml.).

Formula:

1) The Specific rotation of a solution, at a temperature t, and for a light of wave length is given
by
θ
S=
l ×C
where 'θ ' is the angle of rotation of the plane of polarization (in degrees),
' l ' is the length of the Glucose solution in the polarimeter tube (in decimeter) and
' C ' is the concentration of the Glucose solution (in gm/cc).
2) Concentration of the Glucose solution is given by
mass ' m ' of Glucose in grams
C=
volume of distill water in ml

Experimental set-up:

Convex lens ' L '


Polarizer Analyzer
S
N1 N2 Telescope
Glass Tube ' T '
monochromatic H alf − shade Circular
Source , S device ( H .S .) Scale ( C .S .)

F ig . L a u ren t ' s H a lf − sh a d e P o la rim eter

Procedure:

(A) Preparation of glucose solution of concentration ‘C’:


(1) Take an electronic balance and weigh 10gm of glucose.
(2) Take 100ml of distilled water and dissolve the weighed glucose. This gives 0.1gm/cc of
concentration of solution.
(3) Similarly prepare solution of concentrations 0.05gm/cc and 0.025gm/cc by dissolving 5gm
of glucose in 100ml of distilled water and 2.5gm in 100ml respectively.

(B) To determine the angle of rotation 'θ ' :

1) Take out the polarimeter tube, remove both the metal caps along with glass windows and
clean with distilled water carefully. Now replacing one metal cap along with the glass
window and holding the tube vertically, fill it with distill water and slip the second metal
cap along with the glass window.
2) Make sure that any air bubble found in the polarimeter tube is brought to the middle of the
tube where the diameter of the tube is larger and place the polarimeter tube in its proper
position and cover it with the metal cover provided with the polarimeter.
3) Looking through the eyepiece, rotate the analyser clockwise so that the two halves of the
half-shade device are of equal intensities in the field of view. This position of equal
intensity is such that a slight rotation of the analyser makes one half dark and another half

www.charis-ancha.blogspot.com. These files are created keeping in mind “my Students” who trust me. PHYSICS – I
Hope you drop comments and suggestions at charisisrael@gmail.com. All the Best. for R T U
www.charis-ancha.blogspot.com
2009-2010
Physics Lab Observation – POLARIMETER

bright. While an opposite rotation makes the first half bright and the second dark. Now note
the reading of the circular scale in this position as 'θ0 ' .
4) Remove distilled water from the polarimeter tube and rinse it with a small amount of
glucose solution and then fill it with 0.1gm/cc concentration solution. Place the polarimeter
tube in its proper position and cover it.
5) By repeating the step(4) note the reading of the circular scale for this position 'θ0.1 ' of the
analyser and continue the same procedure for different concentrations (say 0.05gm/cc,
0.025gm/cc, ... whose readings would be θ0.05 , θ0.025 , etc ) of the glucose solution.
6) Find the angle of rotation by using θ1 = (θ0.1 − θ 0 ) , θ 2 = (θ0.05 − θ 0 ) , θ3 = (θ 0.025 − θ 0 ) .
7) Measure the length ‘l’ of the polarimeter tube and convert it into decimeter.
8) By substituting the corresponding values of 'θ ' , ‘l’ and ‘C’ we can determine the Specific
rotation ‘S’.

Model Graph: Plot a graph between angle of rotation 'θ ' taking on Y-axis and concentration of
solution ' C ' on X-axis. A Straight line is obtained as shown in the fig. below.

θ

O C→

Observations:

1) Length of the polarimeter tube ‘l’ = _______cm = _______ decimeter.


2) Value of one division of circular scale ‘x’ = ________ (in degrees).
3) Total number of divisions on the vernier scale = N = ________.
4) Least count of the Circular scale, L.C. = x/N = _________ (in degrees).
Concentration Readings of analyser for equal intensities of
S.No. of the solution two halves of half-shade device Angle of θ
C gm cc M.S.R. V.S.R Total Rotation C
‘a’ ‘b’ a + ( b × L.C .) θ = θC − θ 0

1. Distilled water θ0 =

2. 0.1 θ 0.1 =

3. 0.05 θ0.05 =

4. 0.025 θ0.025 =

www.charis-ancha.blogspot.com. These files are created keeping in mind “my Students” who trust me. PHYSICS – I
Hope you drop comments and suggestions at charisisrael@gmail.com. All the Best. for R T U
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2009-2010
Physics Lab Observation – POLARIMETER

Calculations:

From the graph,


θ
The mean value of = ________ degree per gm/cc.
C
The length of the polarimeter tube ‘l’ = _______ decimeter.
1 θ
The Specific Rotation of the solution, S = × = __________ degree / dm / gm / c.c.
l C

Percentage error:

The calculated value of Specific rotation of glucose solution, S = __________ degree/dm/gm/cc.

The standard value of Specific rotation of glucose solution, S = __________ degree/dm/gm/cc.

Standard value − calculated value


Percentage error, = ×100 = __________ % .
Standard value

Precautions:

1. The polarimeter tube and the glass windows should be well cleaned with distilled water.
2. There should be no air bubble in the path of the light through the polarimeter tube.
3. Before filling the polarimeter tube with a new concentration solution, the tube should be
rinsed with the same solution.
4. The position of the equal intensities of two halves must be detected accurately.

Result:

1) The Specific Rotation of glucose solution is S = ________ degree per dm per gm/c.c.

2) The percentage error in the Specific Rotation =________% .

www.charis-ancha.blogspot.com. These files are created keeping in mind “my Students” who trust me. PHYSICS – I
Hope you drop comments and suggestions at charisisrael@gmail.com. All the Best. for R T U