AGMA 915-1-A02 Gears Inspect

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AGMA 915-1-A02 Gears Inspect

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Cylindrical Gears Tangential Measurements

American

Measurements

Gear

AGMA 915--1--A02

Manufacturers

CAUTION NOTICE: AGMA technical publications are subject to constant improvement,

Association

revision or withdrawal as dictated by experience. Any person who refers to any AGMA

technical publication should be sure that the publication is the latest available from the Association on the subject matter.

[Tables or other self--supporting sections may be quoted or extracted. Credit lines should

read: Extracted from AGMA 915--1--A02, Inspection Practices -- Part 1: Cylindrical Gears

-- Tangential Measurements, with the permission of the publisher, the American Gear

Manufacturers Association, 1500 King Street, Suite 201, Alexandria, Virginia 22314.]

Approved April 16, 2002

ABSTRACT

This information sheet provides a code of practice dealing with inspection relevant to tangential element and

composite deviations of cylindrical involute gears (measurements referred to single flank contact) and serves

as a supplement to ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01, Accuracy Classification System -- Tangential Measurements for

Cylindrical Gears.

Published by

1500 King Street, Suite 201, Alexandria, Virginia 22314

Copyright 2002 by American Gear Manufacturers Association

All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic

retrieval system or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

ISBN: 1--55589--798--3

ii

AGMA 915--1--A02

Contents

Page

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v

1

Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

3

Symbols and corresponding terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

4

Extent of gear inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

5

Identification of deviation position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

6

Measurement of pitch deviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

7

Measurement of profile deviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

8

Measurement of helix deviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

9

Measurement of single flank composite deviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

10 Contact pattern checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Figures

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

Notation and numbering for internal gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Schematic of single probe measuring device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Single pitch deviation, single probe device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Pitch measurement with a pitch comparator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Circular pitch measurement, two probe device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Single pitch deviation, two probe device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Sample table with hypothetical deviation values obtained by pitch

comparator (two probe) device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Sample table with hypothetical deviation values obtained by indexing

(single probe) device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Sample graphic representation of single pitch deviations, fpt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Sample graphic representation of index deviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Base pitch measurement, two probe device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Schematic of involute inspection device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Profile measuring method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Profile inspection by coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Typical tooth profile measurement charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Tooth profile and profile diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Mean profile slope deviation, fHm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Profile inspection by optical projection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Profile inspection by gear tooth caliper method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Profile inspection by measurement over pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Helix deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Graphic charting of helix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Helix diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Traces generated from four tooth flanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Helix of right hand helical gear with short lead (+ helix angle) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Helix of right hand helical gear with long lead (-- helix angle) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Helix of left hand helical gear with long lead (-- helix angle) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Helix of left hand helical gear with short lead (+ helix angle) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Principle of undulation inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Composite gear testing, double and single flank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Schematic of a single flank measuring device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Individual tooth deviations revealed by single flank testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Filtered signal from figure 33 (eccentricity removed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Angular motion curves from tooth modification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

iii

AGMA 915--1--A02

36

composite deviation diagram (spur gears) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37 Influence of overlap ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38 Single flank composite strip chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39 Single flank composite test, low number of teeth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40 Single flank composite test, high number of teeth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41a Total composite deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41b Long term component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41c Short term component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42 Manual interpretation of composite test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43 Part of tangential composite deviation diagram -- Interpretation example . . .

44 Tangential composite deviation diagrams showing influence of mesh

relocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45 Matching profiles, with tooth alignment mismatch and end relief . . . . . . . . . . .

46 Matching helix, with profile mismatch and end relief . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47 Waviness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48 Typical specification: approximately 75% contact, excluding extremes of

tooth, which are intentionally relieved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

31

32

33

33

34

34

35

36

36

37

38

38

39

39

Tables

1

iv

AGMA 915--1--A02

Foreword

This Information Sheet, AGMA 915--1--A02, Inspection Practices -- Part 1: Cylindrical

Gears -- Tangential Measurements is provided for informational purposes and is intended

for use with the Standard ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01, Accuracy Classification System -Tangential Measurements for Cylindrical Gears.

AGMA 915--1--A02 replaces AGMA ISO 10064--1, Cylindrical Gears -- Code of Inspection

Practice -- Part 1: Inspection of Corresponding Flanks of Gear Teeth. and the information on

similar subjects as covered in ANSI/AGMA 2000--A88, Gear Classification and Inspection

Handbook -- Tolerances and Measuring Methods for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears.

The user of this Information Sheet is alerted that differences exist between it and

ANSI/AGMA 2000--A88 and AGMA ISO 10064--1. These include, but are not limited to:

-- Measuring methods refer to an accuracy grade numbering system that is reversed,

such that the smallest number represents the smallest tolerance;

-- Probe direction and measurement requirements for elemental and composite

tolerances may differ from ANSI/AGMA 2000--A88 or AGMA ISO 10064--1;

-- The measurement profile evaluation range and helix evaluation range, where

the tolerances are applied, are defined for different area than in ANSI/AGMA 2000--A88

or AGMA ISO 10064--1;

--

deviation, gear form filter cutoff, tolerance diameter and data density are defined.

Therefore, the user of this information sheet must be very careful when comparing

measurement methods formerly specified using ANSI/AGMA 2000--A88 or AGMA ISO

10064--1.

The first draft of AGMA 915--1--A02 was made in May, 1998. This document was approved

by the Inspection Handbook Committee on January 31, 2002. It was approved by the

Technical Division Executive Committee as an AGMA Information Sheet on April 16, 2002.

Suggestions for improvement of this document will be welcome. They should be sent to the

American Gear Manufacturers Association, 1500 King Street, Suite 201, Alexandria,

Virginia 22314.

AGMA 915--1--A02

Chairman: Edward Lawson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M&M Precision Systems

ACTIVE MEMBERS

W.A. Bradley . . . .

D.R. Choiniere . .

J. Clatworthy . . . .

B.L. Cox . . . . . . .

T.C. Glasener . . .

G.G. Grana . . . . .

B. Hofrichter . . . .

T. Klaves . . . . . . .

I. Laskin . . . . . . . .

Consultant

Profile Engineering, Inc.

Gear Metrology, Inc.

BWXT Y12 LLC

Xtek, Incorporated

The Gleason Works

Arrow Gear Company

Milwaukee Gear

Consultant

S. Lindley . . . . . .

M. May . . . . . . . . .

D.A. McCarroll . .

D.R. McVittie . . . .

S. Moore . . . . . . .

R.W. Ott . . . . . . . .

J.M. Rinaldo . . . .

L.J. Smith . . . . . .

R.E. Smith . . . . . .

The Gleason Works

ZF Industries

Gear Engineers, Inc.

Martin Sprocket & Gear, Inc.

Caterpillar, Inc.

Atlas Copco Comptec, Inc.

Consultant

R.E. Smith & Company, Inc.

W.E. Lake . . . . . .

A.J. Lemanski . . .

G.A. Luetkemeier

D. Matzo . . . . . . .

P.A. McNamara .

W.J. Michaels . . .

M. Milam . . . . . . .

T. Miller . . . . . . . .

M. Nanlawala . . .

M. Octrue . . . . . .

T. Okamoto . . . . .

J.A. Pennell . . . . .

K.R. Price . . . . . .

R.S. Ramberg . . .

V.Z. Rychlinski . .

D.H. Senkfor . . . .

S. Shariff . . . . . . .

E. Storm . . . . . . .

R.F. Wasilewski .

F.M. Young . . . . .

P. Zwart . . . . . . . .

Penn State University

Rockwell Automation/Dodge

Northwest Gears, Inc.

Caterpillar, Inc.

Sundstrand Corporation

Amarillo Gear Company

The Cincinnati Gear Company

IIT Research Institute/INFAC

Centre Technique Des Ind. Mec.

Nippon Gear Company, Ltd.

Univ. of Newcastle--Upon--Tyne

Eastman Kodak Company

The Gear Works -- Seattle, Inc.

Brad Foote Gear Works, Inc.

Precision Gear Company

PMI Food Equipment Group

Consultant

Arrow Gear Company

Forest City Gear Company

Caterpillar, Inc.

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS

M. Antosiewicz . .

M.J. Barron . . . . .

D. Behling . . . . . .

M.K. Considine . .

R. Considine . . . .

J.S. Cowan . . . . .

M.E. Cowan . . . .

B. Cowley . . . . . .

C. Dick . . . . . . . . .

H.D. Dodd . . . . . .

R. Green . . . . . . .

D. Gregory . . . . .

B. Gudates . . . . .

J.S. Hamilton . . .

H. Harary . . . . . . .

D. Heinrich . . . . .

G. Henriot . . . . . .

J. Horwell . . . . . .

S. Johnson . . . . .

T. Klemm . . . . . . .

D.E. Kosal . . . . . .

J. Koshiol . . . . . .

vi

Gear Motions, Inc.

Hamilton Sundstrand Aero.

Considine Associates

Considine Associates

Eaton Corporation

Process Equipment Company

Mahr Corporation

The Horsburgh & Scott Co.

Caterpillar, Inc.

R7 Group, Gear Consultants

Gear Products, Inc.

Fairfield Manufacturing Co., Inc.

Regal--Beloit Corporation

NIST

Xtek, Incorporated

Consultant

Brown & Sharpe

The Gear Works -- Seattle, Inc.

Liebherr

National Broach & Machine Co.

Columbia Gear Corporation

Association --

Gears -- Tangential

Measurements

AGMA 915--1--A02

valid. All standards are subject to revision, and

parties to agreements based on this document are

encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying

the most recent editions of the standards indicated.

AGMA 915--3--A99, Inspection Practices -- Gear

Blanks, Shaft Center Distance and Parallelism

ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01, Accuracy Classification

System -- Tangential Measurements for Cylindrical

Gears

ISO 53:1998, Cylindrical gears for general and

heavy engineering -- Standard basic rack tooth

profile

ISO 54:1996, Cylindrical gears for general

engineering and for heavy engineering -- Modules

1 Scope

This information sheet constitutes a code of practice

dealing with tangential measurements on flanks of

individual cylindrical involute gears., i.e., with the

measurement of pitch, profile, helix and tangential

composite characteristics.

In providing advice on gear measuring methods and

the analysis of measurement results, it supplements

the standard ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01, Accuracy

Classification System -- Tangential Measurements

for Cylindrical Gears.

2 References

The following standards contain provisions which

are referenced in the text of this information sheet.

ISO 1122--1:1998, Vocabulary of gear terms -- Part

1: Definitions related to geometry

The symbols and terms used throughout this manual

are in basic agreement with the symbols and terms

given in ISO 701:1998, International gear notation -Symbols for geometrical data. In all cases, the first

time that each symbol is introduced, it is defined and

discussed in detail. See table 1.

NOTE: The symbols and definitions used in this information sheet may differ from other AGMA standards.

The user should not assume that familiar symbols can

be used without a careful study of their definitions.

Symbols

b

D

Db

d

db eff

dT

F

Definition1)

Facewidth

Design pitch diameter

Design base diameter

Reference diameter

Effective base diameter

Tolerance diameter

Total helix deviation

Units

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

Where

first used

Figure 24

Eq 4

Eq 3

Eq 24

6.5.3

6.2

Figure 22

(continued)

AGMA 915--1--A02

Table 1 (continued)

Symbols

Fis

Fp

Fps/8

Fr

F

fdbm

fe

ff

ff

fH

fHm

fH

fHm

fHmt

fid

fis

fLm

fpbm

fpbn

fpt

fw

f1, f2

f

fmn

fmt

f

fm

g

k

L

L

Leff

L

Lc

L

L

l

mn

N

n

pb

pbn

pm

Definition1)

Total single flank composite deviation

Total cumulative pitch deviation

Sector pitch deviation2)

Radial runout

Total profile deviation

Mean base diameter difference2)

Eccentricity between gear axis and axis of gear teeth

Profile form deviation

Helix form deviation

Profile slope deviation2)

Mean profile slope deviation2)

Helix slope deviation2)

Mean helix slope deviation2)

Mean helix slope deviation, in the transverse plane and tangent to the

tolerance diameter2)

Tooth--to--tooth double flank composite deviation

Tooth--to--tooth single flank composite deviation

Mean lead difference2)

Mean normal base pitch deviation2)

Normal base pitch deviation2)

Single pitch deviation2)

Undulation height (along helix)

Reading head frequency

Pressure angle deviation2)

Mean normal pressure angle deviation2)

Mean transverse pressure angle deviation2)

Helix angle deviation2)

Mean helix angle deviation2)

Length of path of contact

Number of pitches in a sector

Left flank

Lead of the design helix

Effective lead

Profile evaluation range

Functional profile length

Helix evaluation range

Base tangent length to start of active profile

Left hand helix

Normal module

Pitch number

Number of deviation values included in the mean

Base pitch

Theoretical normal base pitch

True position pitch2)

Units

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

pulses/sec

degrees

degrees

degrees

degrees

degrees

mm

-- --- -mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

-- -mm

-- --- -mm

mm

mm

Where

first used

9.1

6.1

6.2

9.3.6

Figure 17

6.5.3

Figure 18

Figure 17

Figure 24

Figure 17

7.6

Figure 24

8.6

Eq 18

9.3.6

9.1

8.7

6.5.3

6.5

6.1

Figure 24

Figure 32

7.5

6.5.3

6.5.3

8.5

8.7

Figure 36

5.6

5.2

Eq 17

8.7

Figure 17

Eq 9

Figure 24

Figure 17

5.3

Eq 1

5.5

Eq 8

Figure 36

6.5

6.3.2

(continued)

AGMA 915--1--A02

Table 1 (concluded)

Symbols

R

r

s

z

zM

z1

z2

Tt

n

n eff

t

t eff

b

eff

T eff

I

II

Definition1)

Right flank

Right hand helix

Undulation measurement bar length

Number of teeth

Number of teeth in master indexing worm wheel

Driving gear

Driven gear

Transverse pressure angle at the tolerance diameter

Normal pressure angle

Effective normal pressure angle

Design transverse pressure angle

Effective transverse pressure angle

Helix angle

Design base helix angle

Effective helix angle at the standard pitch diameter

Effective helix angle at the tolerance diameter

Total contact ratio

Undulation wave length

Axial wavelength of undulation

Involute roll angle

Reference face

Non--reference face

Units

-- --- -mm

-- --- --- --- -degrees

degrees

degrees

degrees

degrees

degrees

degrees

degrees

degrees

-- -mm

mm

degrees

-- --- --

Where

first used

5.2

5.3

Figure 30

Eq 2

Eq 24

Figure 32

Figure 32

6.5.2

Eq 1

6.5.3

Eq 6

6.5.3

Eq 5

Eq 2

8.7

8.7

9.3.5

Eq 24

Figure 24

Figure 17

5.2

5.2

NOTE:

1) Symbols used for deviations of individual element measurements from specified values are composed of lower case

letters f with subscripts (exceptions include fe, f1 and f2) whereas symbols used for cumulative or total deviations,

which represent combinations of several individual element deviations,are composed of capital letters F also with subscripts. It is necessary to qualify some deviations with an algebraic sign. A deviation is positive when e.g., a dimension

is larger than optimum and negative when smaller than optimum.

2) These deviations can be + (plus) or -- (minus).

It is rarely necessary or economical to measure all

possible deviations on all gears manufactured.

Certain elements may not significantly influence the

function of the gear under consideration. Some

measurements can be substituted for others. Stable

manufacturing processes allow a relatively small

number of samples to be measured and still ensure

that the required quality level is maintained. It is

recommended that specific measuring plans be

negotiated between purchaser and supplier.

4.1 Required inspection information

Certain necessary information should be provided to

the operator(s) of the measuring equipment. The

information required will vary depending on the type

of measurement(s) required. Most measurement

number of teeth, pitch, pressure angle, helix angle,

tooth size, outside diameter, root diameter, face

width, design profile, design helix, etc. Certain

measuring tasks require additional information. For

example, to measure profile, the profile control

diameter and start of tip break must be provided.

With mechanical measuring equipment, additional

information may be required: base circle diameter

(radius), base helix angle, sine bar setting, etc.

The design engineer or engineering department

should be responsible for supplying this minimum

required inspection information to those performing

the measurements.

4.2 Measurement selection

Inspection may be carried out using a number of

alternate methods. Some measurements may be

AGMA 915--1--A02

composite measurement may be substituted for

pitch measurement, or radial composite measurement may replace runout measurement.

A number of factors should be considered when

selecting the measurements, including the quality

level required, size of the gear, manufacturing cost

and most important the application of the product

gear.

4.2.1 Sampling

Gears, like other parts, are manufactured to a certain

level of accuracy dependant on the production

process used. When the process used is proven

capable of producing the required accuracy level

using statistical methods, sampling inspection may

be utilized. Many factors may influence the sample

size and frequency, foremost among these should

be the assurance that the required accuracy level of

the parts is met.

4.2.2 First piece inspection

It may be possible to inspect only the first piece of a

batch to verify that the setup is correct, allowing the

inherent accuracy of the process to assure the

quality of subsequent parts.

axis, the surfaces used to locate the gear for

manufacturing, and the functional surfaces that

define the gear axis of rotation in its final assembly

would all be the same. In practice this is often not the

case. For example, shaft type parts are often

manufactured and inspected using female centers to

define the datum axis. In cases where the inspection, manufacturing, and/or functional datum surfaces are different, these surfaces must be

coincident with each other to a level of accuracy

sufficient to assure the final quality of the gear is

adequately represented during measurement.

The gear being measured should be oriented so that

its datum axis is coincident with the axis of rotation of

the measuring instrument. In the case of mounting

the gear between centers, care must be taken to

assure that the mounting arbor, if used, is in good

condition, and the female centers are clean and

concentric with the datum surfaces of the gear. In the

case of computer controlled measuring instruments,

it may be possible to mount the gear with significant

deviation to the instruments axis of rotation. In that

case, the measuring program must be capable of

mathematically correcting the errors resulting from

this off axis mounting condition.

5.2 Right or left flank

It is convenient to identify deviations associated with

measurements of gear teeth by specific reference to

individual right flanks, left flanks, pitches or groups of

these.

In the following, conventions are described which

enable positive determination of the location of

deviations.

5.1 Datum axis

Specification of the design profile, design helix, and

design pitch requires definition of an appropriate

reference axis of rotation, called the datum axis. It is

defined by specification of datum surfaces. See

AGMA 915--3--A99.

The datum axis determines tooth geometry, thereby

being the reference for measurements and associated tolerances. The location and orientation of the

tolerance diameter circle are determined by the

datum axis.

4

reference face and to mark it with the letter I. The

other non--reference face might be termed face II.

For an observer looking at the reference face, so that

the tooth is seen with its tip uppermost, the right flank

is on the right and the left flank is on the left.

Right and left flanks are denoted by the letters R

and L respectively.

5.3 Right hand or left hand helical gears

The helix of an external or internal helical gear is

referred to as being right hand or left hand. The hand

of helix is denoted by the letters r and l

respectively.

The helix is right hand (left hand) if, when looking

from one face, the transverse profiles show successive clockwise (counter--clockwise) displacement

with increasing distance from an observer.

5.4 Numbering of teeth and flanks

Looking at the reference face of a gear, the teeth are

numbered sequentially in the clockwise direction.

The tooth number is followed by the letter R or L,

AGMA 915--1--A02

Flank 29 L.

tooth numbering as follows: pitch number N lies

between the corresponding flanks of teeth numbers

N--1 and N; with a letter R or L it is indicated

whether the pitch lies between right or left flanks. For

example Pitch 2 L, (see figures 1 and 2).

5.6 Number of pitches k

The subscript k of a deviation symbol denotes the

number of consecutive pitches to which the deviation

applies.

In practice, a number is substituted for k, for

example Fp3 indicates that a given cumulative pitch

deviation refers to three pitches.

(Fp) are elemental parameters relating to the accuracy of tooth locations around a gear. The following is a

description of the measuring methods and a guide to

the interpretation of data generated by the measuring devices.

6.2 Pitch deviation measurement

Measurements for determining index, single pitch

(fpt), and total cumulative pitch (Fp) are made:

--

--

the transverse plane along the arc of the tolerance

diameter).

30R

2L

tip

left

flank

right

flank

30

29

2

30 R = pitch No. 30, right flank

2 L = pitch No. 2, left flank

Figure 1 -- Notation and numbering for external gear

30R

1L

tip

left flank

right

flank

2

29

1

30

30 R = pitch No. 30, right flank

Figure 2 -- Notation and numbering for internal gear

AGMA 915--1--A02

other directions must be adjusted so that they are

equivalent to measurements at the tolerance diameter and in the tolerance direction. This adjustment

must be made before comparison of test results to

tolerances.

Sector pitch deviation (Fps/8) is an optional parameter described in Annex E of ANSI/AGMA

2015--1--A01. Measurements of sector pitch deviation are also expected to conform to the above

specified requirements.

Pitch should be measured on both left and right

flanks. However, if the specific operating direction of

the gear is known, only the loaded flanks need to be

measured.

6.3 Pitch deviation measurement methods

Pitch parameters can be measured by either of two

types of device. The indexing (single probe) device

determines the location of each tooth around a gear,

relative to a datum tooth (the index). The pitch

comparator (two probe) device compares the distances between adjacent tooth flanks to the distance

flanks.

The various pitch parameters can all be determined

by either measuring device with the application of

suitable calculations. The indexing method is

usually preferred because of its accuracy and

simplicity. However, for large diameter gears, use of

the pitch comparator method may be preferable.

Coordinate measuring machines without a rotating

table can also be used for measurements of pitch

parameters by probe movements that correspond to

the principle of the indexing method.

6.3.1 Indexing pitch measurement method

The indexing (single probe) device uses an angular

indexing apparatus such as an index plate, circle

divider, optical or electronic encoder, or polygon and

auto collimator to precisely rotate the gear by an

angular increment equal to its pitch, or 360/z (see

figure 3). The degree of its precision must be

consistent with the quality grade and diameter of the

gear.

Index mechanism

Tolerance

diameter, dT

4

3

-- Index

deviation

2

1

theoretical location

+ Index

deviation

Index readings

measurements by taking a final measurement on the

initial reference tooth, thereby closing the circle.

Ideally, this would produce a second measurement

value of zero for the first tooth, as was set at the

beginning of the process. Excessive deviation of this

second measurement value from zero indicates a

problem with the measurement.

6.3.1.1 Calculation of index

If the indicator always reads plus material as a plus

reading and the gear is indexed counterclockwise

(teeth are numbered clockwise), then the right flank

measurement values provided by the indexing

(single probe) pitch measurement device can be

used directly as the plus and minus values of index

for each tooth of the gear (see figure 3). Left flank

single probe measurement values must be multiplied by 1 to produce plus and minus index values.

Other pitch parameters may then be calculated from

that data.

If a graphical recorder is used, data gathered by the

single probe measurement device will appear in the

form shown in figure 4. This figure shows the

measurement value of the initial measured tooth set

to zero, thereby establishing it as the reference. The

measured values shown for all other teeth then

represent the positional deviations of those teeth

from the initial reference tooth.

6.3.1.2 Calculation of single pitch, fpt

Subtraction of each successive pair of index values

produces the plus and minus values of single pitch

deviation for each adjacent pair of tooth flanks of the

gear. See Clause 5 for specified tooth numbering,

pitch numbering, and flank naming conventions.

The number 1 single pitch deviation value is equal to

the index value of the last tooth subtracted from the

index value of the first tooth. The number 2 single

first tooth subtracted from the index value of the

second tooth. Since the index value of the first tooth

is set to zero, the number 2 single pitch deviation

value is equal to the index value of the second tooth.

The number 3 single pitch deviation value is equal to

the index value of the second tooth subtracted from

the index value of the third tooth, and so on.

Index deviation

tooth flanks at the tolerance diameter, dT, and to

gather measurements in the specified measurement

direction. The single probe is adjusted to indicate

zero while the device is contacting the randomly

selected initial test tooth flank. As the gear is

incrementally rotated around its datum axis, the

single probe moves in and out on a precision slide

and stop, measuring each successive tooth flank

position, relative to the indexing mechanism. This

process is repeated until every tooth has been

measured.

AGMA 915--1--A02

--fpt

+fpt

-1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Tooth number

Figure 4 -- Single pitch deviation, single probe

device

If a graphical recorder is used, data gathered by the

single probe measurement device will appear in the

form shown in figure 4. Single pitch deviation values,

fpt, are shown as the differences between adjacent

index values.

6.3.1.3 Calculation of total cumulative pitch

deviation, Fp

The total cumulative pitch deviation, Fp, is equal to

the difference between the most positive and the

most negative index value for the complete gear.

6.3.1.4 Calculation of sector pitch deviation,

Fps/8

Calculation of the sector pitch deviation, Fps/8, is

presented in Annex E of ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01.

6.3.2 Comparator pitch measurement method

The pitch comparator (two probe) device may be

mechanized or hand--held. Measurements made by

the mechanized version are preferred. In either

case, both probes should be oriented to contact

adjacent tooth flanks at the tolerance diameter.

One probe serves to establish a reference position

upon a tooth flank. The second probe is fitted with

either a mechanical or an electronic indicator to

measure variations of its position from the first probe.

The device is adjusted to indicate zero while the

probes are contacting the randomly selected initial

pair of teeth (see figure 5).

AGMA 915--1--A02

spring

loaded

Tolerance

diameter,

dT

probe device

comparator

rotational axis that positions the gear for measurement. The gear must be mounted with its datum axis

coincident with the pitch comparators rotational

axis.

The two probes should be oriented to contact the

adjacent tooth flanks within the same transverse

plane, at the tolerance diameter, dT. As the gear is

rotated around its datum axis, the pitch comparator

moves in and out on a precision slide and stop,

measuring each successive adjacent tooth pair.

This process is repeated until every adjacent pair of

teeth has been measured.

The hand--held pitch comparator is a portable device

that lacks a means of referencing the datum axis of

the gear. It is therefore fitted with a positioning stop

that contacts the outside diameter of the gear, which

thereby becomes the reference for pitch measurements. This method requires that special consideration be given to the concentricity of the outside

diameter of the gear with its datum axis.

The two probes must be oriented to contact the

adjacent tooth flanks within a normal plane. The

hand--held pitch comparator is applied successively

to each pair of teeth with each indicator measurement observed and recorded. This process is

repeated until every adjacent pair of teeth has been

measured (see figure 6).

8

the normal plane, the measurements must be

converted to transverse pitch deviations before

being summed to determine index as described in

6.3.2.3.

It is important to understand that the readings

collected from two probe pitch comparators are

relative to a randomly selected tooth pair of unknown

position. They must not be compared to the single

pitch tolerances, until they are adjusted by true

position pitch, pm.

6.3.2.1 Calculation of true position pitch, pm

The true position pitch, pm, is the measurement

value for any perfectly spaced tooth pair, with the

given setup of the pitch comparator. It is equal to the

average value found by summing all the adjacent

tooth pair measurements then dividing the result by

the number of tooth pairs (i.e., the number of teeth).

If a graphical recorder is used, data gathered by the

pitch comparator method will appear in the form

shown in figure 7. This figure shows the measurement value of the initial pair of teeth (1--2) set to zero.

Also shown is the true position pitch, pm, as the

calculated mean of pitch comparator measurement

values.

6.3.2.2 Calculation of single pitch deviation, fpt

Subtraction of the true position pitch, pm, from each

adjacent tooth pair measurement produces the plus

and minus values of single pitch deviation, fpt, for

each tooth pair of the gear. See Clause 5 for

specified tooth numbering, pitch numbering, and

flank naming conventions.

If a graphical recorder is used, data gathered by the

pitch comparator method will appear in the form

shown in figure 7. Single pitch deviation values, fpt,

comparator measurement values to the true position

pitch, pm.

AGMA 915--1--A02

deviation, Fp

The total cumulative pitch deviation, Fp, is equal to

the difference between the most positive index value

and the most negative index value for the complete

gear.

6.3.2.5 Calculation of sector pitch deviation,

Fps/8

+

+fpt

0

pm

pm

--fpt

-1--2 2--3 3--4 4--5 5--6 6--7 7--8 8--9 9--10 10--11

Figure 7 -- Single pitch deviation, two probe

device

The plus and minus index values for each tooth of the

gear can be produced by successive summation of

the single pitch deviation values. See clause 5 for

specified tooth numbering, pitch numbering, and

flank naming conventions.

In all cases, the number one (first) tooth shall be the

datum tooth and its index value set to zero

accordingly.

The index value of the second tooth is equal to the

index value of the first tooth plus the number 2 single

pitch deviation value. Since the index value of the

first tooth is set to zero, the index value of the second

tooth is equal to number 2 single pitch deviation

value. The index value of the third tooth is equal to

the index value of the second tooth plus the number

3 single pitch deviation value, and so on.

At the end of this process, the index value of the first

tooth will be found by adding the number 1 single

pitch deviation value to the index value of the last

tooth. Ideally, this would produce a second index

value of zero for the first tooth. Excessive deviation

from zero, of this calculated index value, for the first

tooth indicates a problem with the measurement.

presented in Annex E of ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01.

6.4 Relationships of pitch parameters and

measuring methods

The relationships of pitch parameters using different

measuring methods is illustrated within figures 8

through 11.

6.5 Base pitch measurement

The normal base pitch measurement device is a two

probe instrument of similar construction to the

hand--held pitch comparator. However, its measuring principles are substantially different from those

described under 6.3.2:

-- Rather than measuring the relative normal

pitch at a given measurement (tolerance) diameter, it measures the normal base pitch, pbn, which

is the shortest distance between adjacent tooth

flanks (see figure 12).

-- This method cannot directly or indirectly

reference the datum axis of the gear. The tooth

flank features themselves become the reference.

Therefore, observations of index and total cumulative pitch, Fp, can not be properly made with this

device.

-- If the instrument is adjusted to the specified

normal base pitch of a gear prior to commencing

measurements, it can provide an observation of

normal base pitch deviation, fpbn.

The normal base pitch parameter provides a localized composite observation of gear tooth flank

accuracy. It is localized, in that the observation is

made only at a single point on the tooth flank. It is

composite in that it combines the effects of involute

profile, helix, and pitch into a single observation that

directly relates to the gears ability to achieve

smooth, conjugate meshing action with its mate.

AGMA 915--1--A02

Pitch number

2--probe pitch

comparator readings

True position pitch pm

(mean of readings)

Single pitch deviations fpt

(readings -- pm)

Tooth numbers for Index

values

Index deviations (calculated)

18:1

1:2

2:3

3:4

4:5

5:6

6:7

7:8

8:9

9:10

10:11

11:12

12:13

13:14

14:15

15:16

16:17

17:18

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

--1

--1

--3

--5

--4

--4

--5

--6

--4

--3

--3

--1

--2

2

--1

--3

--2

--2

--3

--4

--2

--1

--1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

--3

--7

--9

--10

--11

--10

--7

--4

--2

Figure 8 -- Sample table with hypothetical deviation values obtained by pitch comparator

(two probe) device

(In practice, integer values are seldom encountered. Maximum value of fpt and minimum and maximum

values for index deviations are shaded.)

1--probe readings,

0

right flanks

Index deviations

0

Single pitch deviations 2

fpt (calculated)

--3

--7

--9

--10

--11

--10

--7

--4

--2

3

3

4

1

7

3

8

1

7

4 2 0

--3

--1 --3 --2 --2 --3

--7

--4

--9

--2

--10

--1

--11

--1

--10

1

--7

3

--4

3

--2

2

0.001 mm

(single probe) device

(In practice, integer values are seldom encountered. Maximum value of fpt and minimum and maximum

values for index deviations are shaded.)

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

--2

--4

--6

--8

--10

--12

8

9 10

Pitch number

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

17

18

0.001 mm

Index deviations

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

--2

--4

--6

--8

--10

--12

10

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Flank number

Figure 11 -- Sample graphic representation of index deviations

16

AGMA 915--1--A02

from normal base pitch measurements

Normal base pitch measurements are inherently

composite observations, combining the influences

of pitch, profile, and helix deviations. It is not

possible to decompose normal base pitch deviations

into observations of those individual constituent

deviations such as single pitch. However, since

normal base pitch is a better indicator of gear quality

than single pitch, this document permits comparison

of normal base pitch deviations to single pitch

tolerances.

pbn

Base circle

Figure 12 -- Base pitch measurement, two

probe device

The theoretical normal base pitch can be calculated

as follows:

p bn = m n cos n

(1)

where

pbn is the theoretical normal base pitch, mm;

mn

The normal base pitch measurement device is

usually a hand--held device, which can either be set

to measure directly the deviations from the theoretical normal base pitch, with the aid of a suitable gage,

or set to reference a randomly selected initial pair of

adjacent teeth.

The two measurement probes of the device are

oriented to contact adjacent tooth flanks within a

base tangent plane. In practice, this involves rocking

the device through the possible range of contact of

the measuring probe with the tooth flank while

observing the measurement indicator. The observed minimum deviation of the indicator will occur

at the point of contact corresponding with a base

tangent plane. It is important to ensure that the

points of contact of the probes do not lie in zones with

profile or helix modifications, especially when measuring deviations from the theoretical normal base

pitch.

The normal base pitch measurement device is

applied successively to each pair of teeth with each

indicator measurement recorded. This process is

repeated until every adjacent pair of teeth has been

measured.

Before commencing to calculate single pitch deviations, the direction in which normal base pitch deviation values are reported must be converted from

normal to the tooth surface to along the arc of the

tolerance diameter, dT, circle within the transverse

plane, as required by ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01.

The first step is to convert the normal base pitch

values to the transverse plane, which requires dividing each by the cosine of the base helix angle, cos b.

Then, dividing the results by the cosine of the

transverse pressure angle at the tolerance diameter,

cos Tt, converts the values to a direction along the

arc of the tolerance diameter circle.

As is the case with any pitch comparator (two probe)

measurements, these values must be compared

with the true position pitch, pm, to derive single pitch

values. This method can be applied to measurements made by devices set relative to a randomly

selected tooth pair or relative to the theoretical

normal base pitch.

The true position pitch, pm, is equal to the average

value found by summing all the adjacent tooth pair

measurements, then dividing the result by the

number of tooth pairs (i.e., the number of teeth).

Subtraction of the true position pitch, pm, from each

adjacent tooth pair measurement produces the plus

and minus values of single pitch deviation, fpt, for

each tooth pair of the gear.

6.5.3 Additional calculations for normal base

pitch measurements

When the normal base pitch measurement device is

initially set to the theoretical normal base pitch,

resulting measurements can be used to calculate a

variety of parameters that are useful for controlling

the quality of gear involute profiles.

It is important to understand that these calculations

are based upon the assumption that the helical lead

of the gear, which also affects normal base pitch

11

AGMA 915--1--A02

-- normal base pitch deviation, fpbn;

-- mean normal base pitch deviation, fpbm;

-- mean base diameter difference, fdbm;

-- effective base diameter, db eff;

-- effective transverse pressure angle, t eff;

-- effective normal pressure angle, n eff;

-- mean transverse pressure angle deviation,

fmt;

-- mean normal pressure angle deviation, fmn.

6.5.3.1 Calculation of normal base pitch

deviation, fpbn

Determination of normal base pitch deviation, fpbn,

requires setting of the normal base pitch measurement device to the theoretical normal base pitch,

with the aid of a suitable gage, before measurements

are taken. Resulting measurement values can then

be used directly as the plus and minus values of

normal base pitch deviation, fpbn, for each adjacent

tooth pair of the gear.

6.5.3.2 Calculation of mean normal base pitch

deviation, fpbm

The mean normal base pitch deviation, fpbm, is equal

to the average value found by summing all the

adjacent tooth pair deviations of normal base pitch,

fpbn, then dividing the result by the number of tooth

pairs (i.e., the number of teeth).

calculated as follows:

f pbm z

cos b

(2)

where

fdbm is the mean base diameter difference, mm;

fpbm is the mean normal base pitch deviation,

mm;

z

db eff

Effective base diameter, db eff, can be calculated as

follows:

d b eff = D b + f dbm 10 3

12

Db

pressure angle, t eff

Effective transverse pressure angle, t eff, can be

calculated as follows:

t eff = acos

d b eff

D

(4)

where

t eff is the effective transverse pressure angle,

degrees;

D

pressure angle, n eff

Effective normal pressure angle, n eff, can be

calculated as follows:

n eff = atantan t eff cos

(5)

where

n eff is the effective normal pressure angle,

degrees;

pressure angle deviation, fmt

Mean transverse pressure angle deviation, fmt, can

be calculated as follows:

difference, fdbm

f dbm =

where

(3)

f mt = t eff t

(6)

where

fmt is the mean transverse pressure angle

deviation, degrees;

t

angle deviation, fmn

Mean normal pressure angle deviation, fmn, can be

calculated as follows:

f mn = n eff n

where

fmn is the mean normal

deviation, degrees;

n

(7)

pressure angle

degrees.

7.1 Profile

Profile is the shape of the tooth flank from its root to

its tip. The functional profile is the operating portion,

which is in actual contact during tooth mesh, and

cannot extend below the base cylinder.

Profile deviation is the difference between the

specified and the measured profile of the gear.

Unless modifications are specified, the shape of the

profile in the transverse plane is an involute curve.

ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01 specifies the direction of

tolerancing for profile deviation to be within the

transverse plane, tangent to the base circle.

7.2 Profile inspection methods

The standard methods of profile measurement are

with generative, coordinate, or portable involute

measurement instruments.

7.2.1 Generative involute measurement

instruments

Generative involute measuring instruments measure the deviation of the actual profile from a nominal

involute profile, which is generated by the

instrument. Generating the nominal involute requires a tangential movement of a measurement

probe, within the plane tangent to the base cylinder

of the given gear, together with a rotational movement of the gear mounted on the instrument spindle.

These movements must be synchronized such that

the linear movement of the probe is equal to the

distance along the circumference of the base circle

diameter associated with the rotational movement

(see figure 13).

Spindle

Base

circle

AGMA 915--1--A02

instruments may use a computer numerical control

electronic drive system to generate the nominal

involute curve.

Profile measurements must be made relative to the

datum axis of rotation of the gear. Refer to 5.1 for

more information concerning the datum axis of

rotation.

The probe tip must be accurately positioned within

the plane tangent to the base cylinder, with its zero

roll position precalibrated (see figure 14). Probe tips

may be chisel point, disk, or spherical, provided that

accurate positioning of the point of contact between

the probe tip and the gear tooth surface is maintained within the base tangent plane. Measurement

of extreme profile modifications may be adversely

affected by shifting of the probe contact vector.

Root circle

Base circle

Outside circle

Pitch circle

Probe

Axis

It is often desirable to orient the measurement probe

path of motion normal to the tooth surface.

ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01 specifies profile tolerances in the transverse plane. If measurements are

made normal to the tooth surface, all values must be

corrected by dividing by the cosine of the base helix

angle, cos b, before comparison against the

tolerances.

7.2.2 Coordinate measurement inspection

instruments

Probe

Figure 13 -- Schematic of involute inspection

device

coordinate measurement instruments. Such instruments indicate the tooth profile by a series of points,

storing the coordinates of each point. The deviation

of the actual profile from the nominal is then

determined by comparison of the stored test point

coordinates against calculated coordinates of the

theoretical nominal profile (see figure 15).

employ a master base circle or master involute cam

to generate the nominal involute curve. Such

instruments may include a ratio mechanism, which

relates the actual workpiece base circle to the

may operate in two dimensions (X and Y coordinates) or three dimensions (X, Y, and Z coordinates).

Measurement of an involute profile with two-dimensional systems requires accurate mounting of

13

AGMA 915--1--A02

plane. Three--dimensional systems require alignment of the gear datum axis parallel to one of the

three instrument axes. This may be accomplished

by accurate mounting of the part, or mathematically

adjusting the instrument axes to coincide with the

gear axis. Coordinate measurement inspection

instruments may use spherical measurement probe

tips, which require correction for shifting of the probe

contact vector.

X1

X2

X3

Y3

Y2

Y1

7.2.3 Portable involute measurement

instruments

Profile measuring instruments are generally fixed

type machines. Gears to be tested must be brought

to the instrument and accurately mounted, typically

on--axis, between centers or on a table. For very

large gears it may be necessary to employ a portable

involute measuring instrument that can be taken to

the gear. Such instruments may operate on a variety

of generative or non--generative principles. The

portable instrument must be accurately mounted at a

axis. This requires care in design and manufacture

of the gear blank.

7.3 The profile diagram

Amplified traces of the profile inspection test results

should be presented on charts that are graduated for

rolling path length or degrees of roll. They should

also be labeled for magnification and evaluation

points in conformance with the specification.

An unmodified involute profile with no deviations will

be charted as a straight line. Deviations of the curve

from a straight line represent, in magnified form,

deviations of the actual profile from an unmodified

involute. Profile modifications introduced by the

designer also appear as departures from the straight

line, but they are not considered to be deviations

from the design profile.

Excess material on the profile is considered a plus

deviation, while insufficient material is considered a

minus deviation. In addition to identifying the

location and magnitude of the highest point on the

profile or the maximum profile deviation, these

charts are valuable for determining profile characteristics such as tip break, undercut, and tip or root relief

(see figure 16).

Any point along the profile diagram can be related to

a diameter (radius), a base tangent length and an

involute roll angle.

Figure 17 shows a sample tooth profile and the

relation to the corresponding profile trace, together

with the appropriate terms. Details of terms,

definitions and concepts concerning the profile

trace, are provided in ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01.

Tip break

Undercut

True

involute profile

True

involute

Profile control

diameter

Plus profile

(minus pressure angle)

Minus profile

(plus pressure angle)

Undercut &

tip chamfer

Tip break

Undercut

14

AGMA 915--1--A02

fH

ff

A

B

1

Lc

2

3

D

E

+

F

Lc

L

tip circle

reference circle

E

F

D

E

root circle

base circle

1

2

3

Design profile

Measured profile

Mean profile line

C--Q

c

Q

A

B

D

E

F

B--D

B--E

Start of tip break (chamfer)

Start of active profile

Profile control diameter

Origin of involute

Active profile

Usable profile

Lc

L

F

ff

fH

Involute roll angle to point C

Start of roll (point of tangency of transverse

base tangent)

Profile evaluation range

Base tangent length to start of active profile

Total profile deviation

Profile form deviation

Profile slope deviation

15

AGMA 915--1--A02

be necessary to measure total profile deviation, F.

See ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01, clause 4.

It may also be necessary to determine the profile

slope deviation, fH, and the profile form deviation,

ff. For this it is necessary to superpose the mean

profile line onto the diagram as shown in figure 17,

also in figure 2 of ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01. Allowable values of fH and ff can be calculated in accordance with ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01, clause 7.

7.5 Algebraic signs of fH and f

The profile slope deviation, fH, is termed positive

and the corresponding pressure angle deviation, f,

is termed negative when the mean profile line rises

towards the tooth--tip end A of the diagram, as shown

in figure 17. In figure 18, both positive and negative

slopes, caused by eccentricity of mounting on the

gear generating machine, are shown.

If the slopes seen in the profile diagrams of mating

gears are equal and have the same sign, the

deviations are mutually compensating. This applies

to both external and internal gears.

A B

determination of mean profile slope deviation, are

illustrated in figure 18.

Calculating the mean profile slope deviation is a step

towards the correction of manufacturing processes

or other suitable action.

For all practical purposes, it is usually sufficient to

calculate the arithmetic mean of the profile slope

deviations by calculating the average of the deviations measured on three or more corresponding

flanks of equally spaced teeth around the gear

circumference according to the following equation:

f Hm = 1

n f H1 + f H2 + + f Hn

where:

(8)

fHn is the individual profile slope deviations, mm;

n

values included in the mean.

--

--

+

5.7

fe

--6.6

--11.1

by eccentricity due to inaccuracies of manufacturing

or inspection set--up. Such deviations will vary

around the gear. The use of mean profile slope

deviations cancels out the influence of eccentricity

on individual profile traces.

fH

-Lc

f Hm = 1 ( 11.1 6.6 + 5.7) = 4mm

3

M = axis of rotation of the gear on the machine tool.

I = axis of rotation of the gear on the inspection apparatus.

C = position of tool or profile measuring probe

1, 2, 3 = Positions of the profiles from which the traces were obtained (at 45, 165, 285) and

relevant profile traces

Figure 18 -- Mean profile slope deviation, fHm

16

AGMA 915--1--A02

measurements

pressure angle, t eff

to calculate a variety of parameters that are useful for

controlling the quality of gear involute profiles.

Included in these calculated parameters are:

calculated as follows:

t eff = acos

d b eff

D

(11)

--

--

--

degrees;

--

where:

fmt;

--

mean profile slope deviation, fHm. Alternatively, the

same formulas could be applied to the case of

individual tooth data. The calculation sequence

would then commence with the entry of the individual

profile slope deviation, fH.

f dbm =

Db

f

L c Hm

(9)

is the base diameter, mm;

Lc

rising towards its tooth tip end) implies that the

effective base diameter is too large, and visa versa.

when fHm > 0, then fdbm > 0

7.7.2 Calculation of effective base diameter,

db eff

Effective base diameter, db eff, can be calculated as

follows:

where:

db eff is the effective base diameter, mm.

where:

(12)

degrees;

is the helix angle, degrees.

angle deviation, fmt

Mean transverse pressure angle deviation, fmt, can

be calculated as follows:

(13)

f mt = t eff t

deviation, degrees;

t

d b eff = D b + f dbm 10 3

calculated as follows:

where:

where:

Db

angle, n eff

difference, fdbm

(10)

degrees.

f mt = 1

f Hm

L c tan t 10 3

180

(14)

rising towards its tooth tip end) implies that the

effective pressure angle is too small, and visa versa.

when fHm > 0, then fmt < 0

7.7.6 Calculation of mean normal pressure

angle deviation, fmn

Mean normal pressure angle deviation, fmn, can be

calculated as follows:

f mn = n eff n

(15)

where:

17

AGMA 915--1--A02

deviation, degrees;

pressure angle

degrees;

n

degrees.

However, readings give no indication as to which

profile may have an error, since two flanks of a

measured tooth are contacted at the same time.

This method will not reveal deviations that cancel

each other, such as those caused by a form cutter,

which has been offset from a true radial position.

rising towards its tooth tip end) implies that the

effective pressure angle is too small, and visa versa.

when fHm > 0, then fmn < 0

7.8 Other profile measuring methods

While not commonly used or recommended, the

following profile measuring methods may prove

valuable when more conventional methods are not

practical or available.

7.8.1 Projection

A shadow of the gear tooth under inspection may be

optically magnified and directly or reflex projected to

permit comparison of the profile to a large scale

layout of a specified profile (see figure 19). This

method is normally applied only to fine pitch gears.

When gears are too large to be mounted in the

projector, a thin wafer (manufactured simultaneously with the gear), or a mold of a gear tooth form may

be used for projection. This method requires two

known reference surfaces to locate the image both

radially and angularly.

Scale

layout

caliper method

-- Auxiliary gaging elements. The theoretical

position of wires, rolls, pins, or balls of several

different diameters placed in a tooth space may

be computed and compared to actual measurements (see figure 21). This method has limitations similar to those of gear tooth caliper

measurements.

Projection

Figure 19 -- Profile inspection by optical

projection

7.8.2 Indirect profile inspection methods

The following techniques may be employed for

inspection of gear profiles. These methods do not

yield actual measurements of deviation of an inspected profile from a nominal.

-- Multiple thickness measurement. The chordal tooth thickness and associated addendum

depth for several positions on a tooth may be

computed for a gear tooth caliper. Comparison of

measurements with the computed values will give

18

over pins

AGMA 915--1--A02

used to check the profile deviation of gears in place

or when gears are too large to be accommodated by

a profile measuring instrument. The axis of the gear

and master must be parallel. Refer to clause 10 for

more information concerning this method.

with generative, coordinate, or portable helix

measuring instruments.

8.1 Helix

Helix is the lengthwise shape of the tooth flank

across the face from one end to the other. The

theoretical helix of a helical gear is contained on the

surface of a cylinder, which is concentric with the

datum axis of rotation of the gear, at the intersection

of that cylinder with the tooth flank. The theoretical

helix of a spur gear is a straight line parallel to its

rotating axis. Helix is restricted to the operating

portion, which is intended to be in contact during

loaded operation, and does not include edge rounds

or chamfers.

The most common instruments used for measurement of helix are generative helix measurement

instruments. Such instruments measure the deviation of the actual helix from a nominal helix, which is

generated by the instrument. Generation of the

nominal helix requires the axial movement of a

measurement probe together with a rotational movement of the gear mounted on the instrument spindle.

These movements must be synchronized according

to the specified lead of the gear (see figure 23).

When measuring spur gears, the rotational movement is eliminated.

Total helix deviation, F

Reference

zero

advance of a helix for one complete turn of the gear.

The lead of a spur gear, therefore, is infinite. The

lead of a helical gear is commonly defined by the

angle between the helix at the standard pitch

diameter and the axis of rotation.

Helix deviation is the difference between the specified and the measured helix of the gear (see figure

22).

ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01 specifies the

direction of tolerancing for helix deviation to be within

the transverse plane, tangent to the base circle.

Probe travel

Helix angle

Measured

helix

Total helix

deviation, F

Design helix

Helical tooth

Figure 22 -- Helix deviation

employ a variety of mechanical configurations to

generate the nominal helix. For example, the gear

can be rotated by a master disk driven by a straight

edge, which in turn is driven by the axial movement

of the probe slide. The tangential movement of the

19

AGMA 915--1--A02

probe by a ratio mechanism. Combination instruments also capable of measuring involute profile

often utilize their master base circle mechanisms in

this manner.

Other configurations include master lead bar and

follower mechanisms, and master lead screw and

change gearing mechanisms. Newer generative

helix measuring instruments typically use a computer numeric control drive system to generate the

nominal helix.

Helix measurements must be made relative to the

datum axis of rotation of the gear. Refer to 5.1 for

more information concerning the datum axis of

rotation.

Probe tips most commonly used are spherical or

disk--shaped. The probe tip must be positioned to

contact the tooth surface at the specified tolerance

diameter, dT.

It is often desirable to orient the measurement probe

path of motion normal to the tooth surface.

ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01 specifies helix tolerances

in the transverse plane. If measurements are made

normal to the tooth surface, all values must be

corrected by dividing by the cosine of the base helix

angle, cos b, before comparison against the

tolerances.

8.2.2 Coordinate measurement inspection

instruments

Helix can be inspected by non--generative, coordinate measurement instruments. Such instruments

probe the tooth lengthwise at a series of points,

storing the coordinates of each point. The deviation

of the actual helix from the nominal is then determined by comparison of the stored test point

coordinates against calculated coordinates of the

theoretical nominal helix.

Coordinate measurement inspection instruments

operate in three dimensions (X, Y, and Z coordinates) to measure helix. The gear axis must be

aligned parallel with one of the three instrument

axes. This may be accomplished by accurate

mounting of the part, or mathematically adjusting

instrument axes to coincide with the gear axis.

Coordinate measurement inspection instruments

commonly use spherical measurement probe tips,

which require correction for shifting of the probe

contact vector.

20

Helix measuring instruments are generally fixed type

machines, which require that gears to be tested must

be brought to the instrument and accurately

mounted, typically on--axis between centers or on a

table. However, for very large gears it may be

preferable to employ a portable helix measuring

instrument, which can be taken to the gear. The

portable instrument must be accurately mounted at a

known distance from, and in alignment with, the gear

axis. This often requires extra care in design and

manufacture of the gear blank.

8.3 The helix diagram

Amplified traces of helix inspection test results

should be presented on charts that are calibrated for

axial probe travel as well as magnification of

measured deviation. Sometimes trace lengths are

magnified representations of small facewidths, or

reduced representation of large facewidths.

An unmodified helix with no deviations will be

charted as a straight line. Deviations of the curve

from a straight line represent, in magnified form,

deviations of the actual helix from an unmodified

helix. Helix modifications introduced by the designer

also appear as departures from the straight line, but

they are not considered to be deviations from the

design helix.

Excess material on the helix is considered a plus

deviation while insufficient material is considered a

minus deviation. In addition to identifying the

location and magnitude of the helix deviation, these

charts are valuable for determining helix characteristics such as edge rounds, crowning, and end relief.

Relevance to right hand and left hand helices can be

indicated by means of the letters r and l,

respectively, used either as symbols or as subscripts.

In figure 24, a typical example of a helix diagram

shows the helix deviations of a tooth flank of which

the design helix is an unmodified helix. Had the

design helix been crowned, end relieved or otherwise modified, traces representing it would be

appropriately formed curves.

Details of terms, definitions and concepts concerning the helix trace are provided in ANSI/AGMA

2015--1--A01.

able values of fH and ff can be calculated in accordance with ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01, clause 7.

8.5 Algebraic signs of fH and F

1

L

II

b

1

Design helix

ff

fH

Facewidth or

distance between

chamfers

Helix evaluation

range

Reference face

L

I

Total helix

deviation

Helix form

deviation

Helix slope

deviation

Axial wavelength

of undulation

fw

Undulation height

II

Non--reference

face

Helix slope deviation, fH, and the total helix deviation, F, are to be reported with an algebraic sign.

Deviations are deemed to be positive (fH > 0 and

F > 0) when helix angles are larger, and negative

when helix angles are smaller, than the design helix

angle.

The helix deviations of spur gears if other than zero

are indicated by the subscripts r and l, instead of

an algebraic sign, implying deviations in the sense of

right or left hand helices, respectively.

In figure 25, both positive and negative slopes,

caused by eccentricity or wobble of mounting on the

gear generating machine, are shown.

fH1

ff

fH

fw

x x

2

AGMA 915--1--A02

--

fH2

fH3

fH4

-- +

-- +

-- +

The helix evaluation range, L, is equal to the length

of trace, reduced at each end by the smaller of two

values: 5% of the helix length of trace, or the length

equal to one module. This reduction is made in order

to ensure that unintentional, slight end reliefs caused

by some machining conditions, are not normally

included in the assessment of the deviation magnitudes intended for comparison with stringent tolerances. For assessment of the total helix deviation,

F, and the helix form deviation, ff, excess material

within the end zones of 5%, which increases the

amount of deviation shall be taken into account.

8.4 Evaluation of helix diagrams

For purpose of gear quality classification, it may be

necessary to measure only total helix deviation, F.

See ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01, clause 4.

It may also be necessary to determine the helix

slope deviation, fH, and the helix form deviation,

ff. For this it is necessary to superpose the mean

helix line onto the diagram as shown in figure 24

(also in ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01, figure 1). Allow-

0 (360)

90

180

270

flanks

If the helix slope deviation, fH, (assuming equal

evaluation ranges) of the corresponding flanks of

two mating gears are equal in magnitude and

algebraic sign, the deviations are mutually compensating.

8.6 Mean helix slope deviation, fHm

For correction of machine tool settings or adaptation

to a mating gear, determination of the mean helix

slope deviation, fHm, of the gear is useful.

If the helix slope deviations are either random or are

fairly consistent, then the mean helix slope deviation

may be used to correct the helix setting of the

machine used to manufacture the gear. In the case

of a matched set of mating gears where one has

been manufactured and inspected, then the mean

helix slope deviation may be used to adjust the

manufacture of the other gear in the set. This will

result in improved contact between the gears without

21

AGMA 915--1--A02

finished gear.

If the helix slope deviation, fH, varies in a regular

pattern around the circumference of a helical gear,

then the datum axis of the gear was probably tilted,

offset, or mis--orientated relative to the machine axis

during either manufacture or inspection. See figure

25. Tilting affects spur gears in the same manner,

but offset (eccentricity) does not.

-- Eccentricity: The variation of helix slope

deviation caused by eccentricity (if within specified limits) is not normally detrimental to the

operation of the gear.

-- Tilting: Variation of helix slope deviation

caused by mis--orientation of the gear teeth

relative to the datum axis may affect the proper

functioning of the gear. The helix slope deviations

will cause the center of contact pressure to shift

axially back and forth with each revolution. This

may in turn cause premature gear tooth failure

and/or bearing problems. Therefore, attention

should be drawn to this condition even if the

deviations are within tolerance.

The mean helix slope deviation, fHm, is calculated

by averaging the helix slope deviation, fH, observed

on the corresponding flanks of three or more teeth

equally spaced around the circumference of the

gear.

f Hm = 1

n f H1 + f H2 + + f Hn

(16)

where:

fHm is the mean helix slope deviation, mm;

fHn are the individual helix slope deviations, mm;

n

included in the mean.

diagrams of corresponding flanks of two diametrically opposite teeth. However, if the helix slope

deviations vary around the gear, this will not always

be disclosed unless traces of at least three

equispaced flanks are obtained.

8.7 Additional calculations for helix

measurements

The mean helix slope deviation, fHm, can be used to

calculate a variety of parameters that are useful for

22

these calculated parameters are:

--

diameter, T eff;

at

the

tolerance

--

--

diameter, eff;

--

--

mean helix slope deviation, fHm. Alternatively, the

same formulas could be applied to the case of

individual tooth data. The calculation sequence

would then commence with the entry of the individual

helix slope deviation, fH.

8.7.1 Required preliminary data

The following data is required for the additional

calculations for helix measurements.

Lead, L, can be calculated as follows:

L= D

tan

(17)

where:

L

and tangent to the tolerance diameter, fHmt, can be

calculated as follows:

f Hmt =

f Hm

Db

dT

(18)

where:

fHmt is the mean helix slope deviation, in the

transverse plane and tangent to the tolerance diameter, mm;

fHm is the mean helix slope deviation, in the

transverse plane and tangent to the base

diameter (the tolerance direction specified

in ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01), mm;

Db

dT

AGMA 915--1--A02

tolerance diameter, T eff

Desired lead

of helix

Actual lead

of helix

can be calculated as follows:

Facewidth

3 L + d

f

10

Hmt

T

L

T eff = atan

(19)

Path of contact

of measuring pointer

where:

T eff is the effective helix angle at the tolerance

diameter, degrees;

L

Facewidth

Effective lead, Leff, can be calculated as follows:

L eff =

dT

tan T eff

(20)

Figure 26 -- Helix of right hand helical gear with

short lead (+ helix angle)

where:

Leff

standard pitch diameter, eff

Actual lead

of helix

eff, can be calculated as follows:

eff = atan D

L eff

(21)

Desired lead

of helix

Facewidth

Mean lead difference, fLm, can be calculated as

follows:

f Lm = L eff L

Path of contact

of measuring pointer

(22)

where:

fLm

effective lead is too long, and visa versa. See figures

26, 27, 28 and 29.

A positive mean helix slope deviation implies that the

effective lead is too short, and visa versa.

when fHm > 0, then fLm < 0

Facewidth

long lead (-- helix angle)

23

AGMA 915--1--A02

Desired lead

of helix

deviation, fm

Actual lead

of helix

Facewidth

follows:

f m = eff

(23)

where:

Path of contact

of measuring pointer

fm

effective helix angle is too large, and visa versa.

when fHm > 0, then fm > 0

8.8 Undulations

Undulations are helix form deviations having

constant wavelength and almost constant height.

Perturbations of gear production machine transmission elements are their most common cause,

especially those of:

Facewidth

b) the worm of the indexing wormgear drive.

Figure 28 -- Helix of left hand helical gear with

long lead (-- helix angle)

measured in direction of helix, is equal to the pitch of

the feed--screw divided by cos .

Of undulations due to cause b) the wavelength is:

Actual lead

of helix

Desired lead

of helix

(24)

where:

Facewidth

Path of contact

of measuring pointer

Facewidth

short lead (+ helix angle)

24

d

z M sin

zM

indexing worm wheel.

b), projected into a transverse plane, are equal to the

number of teeth, zM, of the master indexing worm

wheel. These can be sources of objectionable

pure--tone components of noise spectra, also known

as ghost harmonics, at frequencies corresponding to

the rotational speed (revolutions) of the affected

gear multiplied by zM.

The method of application of the undulation measuring attachment of a helix measuring apparatus is

shown in the diagram in figure 30. This is discussed

in the following.

When undulations due to the cause a) or b)

mentioned above are to be measured, the appropriate wavelength is calculated and the spherical

AGMA 915--1--A02

number of wavelengths distant from each other.

outlined in 8.2 are impractical, these indirect methods may prove valuable.

probe situated midway between the feet as the latter

are slid along the helix.

the probe, when a peak and next a trough are sensed

by the probe, is equal to twice the height of the

undulation as shown in figure 30. This feature

enhances the sensitivity of the apparatus, which also

plots the results in the form of a diagram.

It should be noted that the undulations would not be

indicated if the feet were spaced at a distance equal

to an even number of wavelengths as shown in figure

30 with s = 4.

8.9. Indirect helix inspection methods

The following indirect methods may be employed for

inspection of gear helix. These methods do not

provide the actual levels of helix deviation. However,

in instances where the measurement methods

+fw

inspection of axial pitch on gears with sufficient helix

angle and face width to have multiple axial overlaps.

The measurement must be made parallel to the gear

axis at increments equal to the axial pitch. The

deviation in resulting measurement values is indicative of deviation of helix. Pitch deviations of the

measured teeth can affect axial pitch measurements, and must be considered. The axial pitch

method of helix inspection is especially attractive for

large diameter, wide facewidth gears with large helix

angles.

8.9.2 Helix measuring with a master gear

Contact pattern checking with a master gear may be

used to check the helix deviation of gears in place, or

when gears are too large to be accommodated by a

helix inspection instrument. The axes of the gear

and master must be parallel. Refer to clause 10 for

more information concerning this method.

--fw

fw

fw

s =

s = 4

Figure 30 -- Principle of undulation inspection

25

AGMA 915--1--A02

deviations

9.1 Single flank composite

Tangential (single flank) composite measurement

can provide valuable information about the transmission error of a gear, a pair of gears, or an entire gear

train. Transmission error is the deviation of the

position of a driven gear from the position that the

driven gear would occupy if all the gears involved in

the measurement were geometrically perfect.

ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01 provides tolerances for

two characteristics of transmission error for individual product gears measured with a master gear, total

single flank composite deviation, Fis, and tooth--to-tooth single flank composite deviation, fis.

The following is a description of the measuring

methods and a guide to interpretation of the data

generated during single flank measurement of

individual gears measured with a master gear.

Single flank measurement of a pair of product gears

is also described.

Single flank measurement of more than a single

mated pair of gears is the assessment of the

kinematics of a gear transmission. This is not

considered to be within the scope of this document or

ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01.

9.2 Single flank composite measurement

For measurement of single flank composite deviations, two gears are mounted rotatably in mesh at

an appropriate center distance. The gears are

mounted with backlash so that contact occurs only

on one set of corresponding flanks. Rotating

synchronously with each gear is a device capable of

Double flank gear test

rotary optical encoders (gratings and reader head

assemblies). Rotary accelerometers and velocity

transducers have also been used as sensing devices. See figures 31 and 32.

During measurement one gear acts as the driver,

rotating the other gear. During rotation, the angular

positions of the driven gear relative to the driver is

calculated through ratioing of the signals from the

two sensing devices using analog or digital electronics. These relative positions are recorded either on a

strip chart or into digital storage on a computer until a

complete diagram has been generated. To compare

these angular readings to the tolerances provided in

ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01 they must first be converted to linear values at the tolerance diameter

specified.

Single flank composite measurements are performed with tooth flank contact maintained, under

very light load, and with low angular velocities. The

results generated reflect the combined elemental

deviations (profile, helix, pitch) of both gears.

Single flank composite deviations of heavily loaded

gears can also be similarly measured. Under these

conditions, recorded deviations are influenced by

load induced tooth deformations, by mesh stiffness

variation, and depending on the speed of rotation by

impact effects, as well as by imperfections of tooth

geometry. ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01 does not apply

to this kind of measurement.

9.2.1 Single flank composite deviations

Total single flank composite deviation, Fis, is the

maximum measured transmission error range when

the gear is moved through one complete revolution.

See figure 33.

Single flank gear testing

26

AGMA 915--1--A02

z1 = Driving gear

z2 = Driven gear

z1

z2

Optical gratings

Reading heads

f1 pulses/sec

f2 pulses/sec

Multiplier

z1

Phase comparator

Divider

z2

z1

z 2 f 1 = f 2 pulsessec

Figure 32 -- Schematic of a single flank measuring device

40

Amplitude, 0.001 mm

30

20

fpt

10

Fp

0

Fis

--10

--20

--30

--40

0

5

6

7

Tooth number

10

11

12

27

AGMA 915--1--A02

40

30

Amplitude, 0.001 mm

20

10

0

fis

--10

--20

--30

--40

0

5

6

Tooth number

10

11

12

is the value of the greatest measured transmission

error over any one pitch (360/z) after removal of the

long term component (sinusoidal effect of eccentricity) when the gear is moved through one complete

revolution. See figure 34.

9.3 Single flank measurement with master

gear

Recorded diagrams of single flank composite measurements generally include short period components corresponding to successive cycles of tooth

engagement, superposed on long period components associated with complete revolutions of each

of the meshing gears.

The diagram in figure 33 represents the record of

single flank composite deviations generated during

one revolution of a pinion having 12 teeth when

meshed with a master gear.

9.3.1 Master gear requirements

For single flank measurement of individual product

gears, a master gear of known accuracy (calibrated)

and specifically designed to mesh with the product

gear to be inspected should be used. Attention must

be paid to the fact that the quality of the master gear

28

the quality of the master is at least 4 accuracy grades

better than the required grade of the product gear,

inaccuracies of the master are usually ignored. If the

quality of the master is less than 4 accuracy grades

better than the required grade of the product gear,

inaccuracies of the master should be taken into

account.

9.3.2 Influence of profile deviations

When using a master gear in the measuring of single

flank composite deviations, the assumption that the

master gear is perfectly accurate implies that the

generated single flank composite deviation diagram

represents only the combined deviations of the tooth

elements of the product gear.

Figure 35 shows schematically, single flank composite recordings of three consecutive cycles of tooth

engagement of a master gear and product gear.

Each corresponds to a different tooth profile. The

first is unmodified and faultless, the second being

progressively modified from mid--depth towards

each limit of the active profile, and the third with

negative profile slope deviation.

progressively decreasing trend as contact approaches the end of the tooth engagement cycle.

tip

master

test

gear

perfect conjugate

tooth shape

angular

displacement

root

1 pitch

1 pitch

1 pitch

--

tip

master

modified tooth

shape [profile

barrelling C]

test

gear

angular

displacement

root

1 pitch

1 pitch

master

tip

test

gear

modified tooth

shape [modified

pressure angle]

root

angular

displacement

1 pitch

0

--

1 pitch

1 pitch

1 pitch

0

--

AGMA 915--1--A02

modification

Figure 35(A) shows the straight line diagram generated by a product gear and master gear that both

have fault--free unmodified teeth. In figure 35(B), the

record indicates the influence of tip and root relief in

the form of a modification over the whole profile.

From the start of the tooth engagement cycle with

first contact at the tooth tip of the driven product gear,

the deviation value increases progressively to zero

as contact nears mid--depth, then changes to a

diagram show progressive single flank composite

deviation from zero to a negative value as contact

moves from the product gear tooth tip towards the

start of active tooth profile. At this point, contact

abruptly transfers to the following tooth with the

introduction of an equally abrupt positive deviation.

It must be noted that diagrams of single flank

composite measurements do not merely reflect

influences of profile deviations revealed by measurements made on a few teeth, but may be

influenced by contact involved in any prominences

on the working surfaces of the teeth of the product

gear.

9.3.3 Influence of pitch deviations

Each single pitch deviation introduces a local

tangential component, which will show on the single

flank composite diagram as a displacement of the

corresponding profile generated component of the

diagram.

The schematic diagram in figure 33 illustrates the

influence of single pitch deviations, fpt, on the single

flank composite diagram.

Single pitch deviations have a cumulative effect on

the single flank composite displacement arc as they

pass through the mesh. Their influence is clearly

visible on the single flank composite diagram. This

enables values of cumulative pitch deviations (e.g.,

when k=2, k=3, etc.) to be determined as the

ordinates of tangents to the apices at appropriate

numbers of pitches apart. The principle is illustrated

in figure 33, in which influences of single pitch

deviation and the approximate total cumulative pitch

deviation, Fp , are indicated.

9.3.4 Influence of helix deviations

A helix slope deviation that is constant in magnitude

and sign, (i.e., is common to every tooth of a gear)

results in consistent localized bearing in the mesh.

This does not substantially influence the single flank

composite deviations of spur gears. The single flank

composite deviations of helical gears, however, may

be adversely effected by a constant helix slope

deviation. This is due to the different nature of the

path of contact of helical gears.

When helix slope deviations vary in magnitude

and/or sign around a product gear, the bearing

29

AGMA 915--1--A02

condition may adversely effect single flank composite deviations of both spur and helical gears.

recognized that the maximum length of the single-pair tooth contact path is realized when the contact

ratio, , is equal to one. As the contact ratio

increases, this length reduces and when the contact

ratio is equal to or greater than two, there is no

single--pair tooth contact at all.

the single flank results of spur gears. Single flank

composite deviations of helical gears, however, may

be adversely effected by helix form deviations.

normally the case for helical gears, the short period

components which represent profile irregularities

are smoothed to some extent because in general,

simultaneous contact takes place on two or more

tooth pairs.

A single flank composite deviation diagram generated from a master--gear and product--gear

combination is composed of successive curves

representing for the most part the profile deviations,

as shown in figure 36. Single--pair and two--pair

tooth engagements and the single flank composite

deviation diagram during a complete cycle of tooth

engagement is clearly illustrated. It can easily be

master gear

(generated from helical gears) and B (from spur

gears) illustrate the difference between the ways in

which the influence of the overlapping teeth of the

two types combine.

root

tip

product gear

direction of paper feed

root

tip

tangential composite 1

deviation

3

stylus

profile

component

3

product gear

2

master gear

pb

pb = base pitch

g = length of path of contact

pb

g

Figure 36 -- Effect of contact transfer on the profile component in a tangential composite deviation

diagram (spur gears)

30

AGMA 915--1--A02

3

2

Single flank composite results can be very different

from what is expected, especially if these expectations are derived from consideration of theoretical

contact ratio and an assumption that contact is

perfect over the tooth profiles and facewidth of

helical gears.

Single flank composite deviations can be influenced

by modification of tooth profile and helix (tip relief,

crowning, etc.) introduced to accommodate possible

deformations of shafts, housings and teeth under

load. If under full load the tooth bearing is uniformly

distributed over the working surfaces of the teeth,

such is not likely to be the case under the light load

conditions used during single flank composite measurement where the tooth bearing may be localized.

Given these circumstances, the contact ratio during

measurement is likely much less than elementary

theory would suggest.

9.3.6 Interpretation of results

This section contains information and techniques for

interpreting single flank composite results beginning

with a comparison to methods used for traditional

double flank (radial composite) testing.

Double flank composite data charts are made up

primarily of information related to radial runout, Fr

(long term component), and deviations of tooth--to--

component).

Single flank composite data charts are made up

primarily of information related to cumulative pitch,

Fp (long term component) deviations, and deviations

in tooth form of the single flank in contact, fis (short

term component).

9.3.6.1 Traditional interpretation

In ANSI/AGMA 2000--A88 and ISO 1328--2, double

flank composite measurements were toleranced for

total composite variation, and tooth--to--tooth composite variation. They were interpreted from a

recorded chart for one revolution of the product gear

as shown in figure 38. The total composite variation

was defined as the difference between the highest to

lowest point on the chart. The tooth--to--tooth

variation was defined as the greatest change in any

360 degree/z part of the chart. This may be

acceptable for evaluation of the final gear quality

relative to the application for some purposes.

However, traditional double flank testing has some

limitations. For example, it cannot detect cumulative

pitch deviation that occurs without radial runout

deviation. Double flank testing is not considered a

reliable method for determining noise potential.

Double flank testing also provides little information

for diagnoses of tooth--to--tooth deviations.

31

AGMA 915--1--A02

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

Amplitude

1.0

0.0

Unfiltered

tooth--to-tooth

--1.0

Total

composite

--2.0

--3.0

--4.0

--5.0

0

5

6

7

8

Tooth number

Figure 38 -- Single flank composite strip chart

of tooth--to--tooth composite deviation may give a

distorted indication of the tooth form that the

machine and tool is producing. This is due to the

influence of the long term component on the

tooth--to--tooth composite deviation.

This distortion is best explained by the case of a gear

that had identical tooth form on all teeth being

measured with a perfect master. In this case the

greatest tooth--to--tooth variation will be along the

part of the long term component curve that has the

greatest slope. This has the effect of distorting the

amplitude of the data relating to that particular tooth.

For the same quality of tooth form and runout, the

tooth--to--tooth composite deviation would be greater for a gear with a lower number of teeth than it will

for higher numbers of teeth. See figures 39 and 40

for a comparison.

9.3.6.2 Relationship between tolerances

Because of the relationship between the long term

component and the tooth--to--tooth deviation, tolerances have had unrealistic values in some cases. In

previously existing standards, the tooth--to--tooth

composite tolerance has been approximately 1/3 to

32

10

11

12

order to accommodate the distortion of tooth--to-tooth data, by the long term component, especially

for low numbers of teeth.

In the case of a gear with very little or no runout, there

should be a greater difference between total and

tooth--to--tooth composite deviation tolerances. In

this case the tooth--to--tooth composite tolerance

should be 0.1 to 0.2 times the total composite

tolerance. This more appropriate tolerance ratio is

feasible regardless of the amplitude of the long term

component if the tooth--to--tooth composite deviations are separated from the long term component

prior to analysis.

9.3.6.3 Separation of tooth -- to -- tooth composite

observations

The separation of eccentricity effects from observations of tooth--to--tooth composite deviations can be

done by different techniques. The preferred method

is by use of a digital computer program that is

capable of fitting and extracting a sine wave

according to the given test data. This would result in

charts as shown in figures 41a, 41b, and 41c.

AGMA 915--1--A02

5.0

4.0

3.0

Amplitude

2.0

1.0

0.0

Unfiltered

tooth--to--tooth

(12 tooth gear)

--1.0

--2.0

--3.0

--4.0

--5.0

5

6

Tooth number

10

11

12

5.0

4.0

3.0

Amplitude

2.0

1.0

0.0

--1.0

--2.0

--3.0

--4.0

--5.0

10

15

Tooth number

20

25

30

33

AGMA 915--1--A02

5.0

(Fis -- Single flank)

4.0

3.0

Amplitude

2.0

1.0

0.0

--1.0

--2.0

30 tooth gear

--3.0

--4.0

--5.0

10

15

Tooth number

20

25

30

25

30

5.0

4.0

3.0

Long term component

Amplitude

2.0

1.0

0.0

--1.0

--2.0

--3.0

30 tooth gear

--4.0

--5.0

10

15

Tooth number

20

34

AGMA 915--1--A02

(fis -- Single flank)

5.0

4.0

3.0

Amplitude

2.0

1.0

0.0

--1.0

--2.0

--3.0

Composite tooth--to--tooth

30 tooth gear

--4.0

--5.0

10

15

Tooth number

20

25

30

system, an approximation can be done manually.

This involves drawing an upper and lower envelope

of essentially sinusoidal shape enclosing the measured data. The vertical distance between these

upper and lower envelope lines is the tooth--to--tooth

composite error, fis. This is shown in figure 42.

9.3.6.4 Additional diagnostics

These techniques are focused on evaluation of the

final gear quality relative to the given application.

However, it may be desirable to carryout additional

analysis for diagnostic purposes, such as noise

potential or manufacturing process monitoring. In

such cases more comprehensive data filtering is

appropriate.

Most situations with long term component deviations

will be in the sinusoidal form, which is caused by

eccentricity, as shown in figures 41a, 41b, 41c and

42. There are cases, however, where long term

deviations will show up in higher orders, such as

shown in figures 33 and 34. This can be caused by

oval shapes, triangular shapes, etc. This is common

location of each bolt hole in the blank. Even the short

term component can have distortions from variations

in the tooth shape.

Analysis of composite test data can be enhanced by

the use of analog or digital filters that segregate long

and short term component deviations at a selected

cutoff wavelength. Still more comprehensive

analysis of higher order deviations is possible by use

of Fourier analysis techniques, such as a Fast

Fourier Transform (FFT) analyzer.

9.4 Single flank measurement of product gear

pair

The single flank tooth--to--tooth and total composite

deviations involving a mated pair of product gears

are termed transmission deviations of a gear pair.

To fully explore the complete spectrum of the

deviations, it is necessary to continue rotation until

the complete meshing period of both gears has been

explored. The number of revolutions required

corresponds to the number of teeth in the larger

member divided by the largest factor common to

both members.

35

AGMA 915--1--A02

5.0

3.0

2.0

Short term component

(fis -- Single flank)

Amplitude

1.0

0.0

(Fp -- Single flank)

(Fis -- Single flank)

4.0

--1.0

--2.0

--3.0

12 tooth gear

--4.0

--5.0

5

6

Tooth number

10

11

12

Analysis is similar to that described in 9.3.6 for a

product gear with a master gear, except that the

deviations should be calculated based on the

complete meshing period of both gears rather than

on a single revolution of the product gear.

9.4.1 Identification and location of defects

The measurement of tangential composite deviations facilitates the identification and location of

defects (nicks or burrs) which may degrade the

quality of transmission. For example, as indicated in

the diagram in figure 43, the presence of a defective

tooth can readily be seen. Furthermore, it is

sometimes possible to carry out corrective measures while still connected to the measuring appara-

adjustments can be verified without delay.

9.4.2 Selective meshing of gears

In some exceptional cases, involving mated pairs of

gears with equal numbers of teeth or other integer

ratios, special steps can be taken to ensure that

optimum performance is realized. Such gears can

be meshed to best advantage by remeshing the

gears with a phase shift of ninety degrees to find the

quadrant in which single flank composite deviations

are smallest. Following this, the process is repeated

by remeshing the gears with phase shifts less than

ninety degrees in order to find the optimum meshing

phase.

damaged tooth

Figure 43 -- Part of tangential composite deviation diagram -- Interpretation example

36

generated from a pair of gears at the different phases

of mesh indicated. It is quite evident that the single

flank composite deviation diagrams for the left flanks

and right flanks are not the same. It may be

necessary to choose an intermediate meshing

position that provides the best compromise solution

if a high degree of transmission accuracy is needed

for both directions of rotation.

AGMA 915--1--A02

The reproducibility of contact pattern checks is

dependent upon careful control of the test conditions. A small variation, 0.01 mm, in location of the

gears from test to test may have a significant effect

on the results.

Caution should be used when static contact checks

are performed on gears and shafts mounted in

dynamic bearings. The shafts should be located in a

fixture in such a way that they represent the final

operating conditions.

10.1.1 Gear axes parallel

gear sets to determine their operational compatibility

and for the inspection of gears which will not fit into

available measuring machines because of size and

weight limits. This clause explains a quasi--static

method of obtaining and analyzing contact patterns,

and a method for evaluating the observed deviations

from designed contact. Contact checking is commonly used on bevel, mill, marine, and high speed

gears.

which they may be used, or if the assembled centers

are adjustable, the gears are normally mounted with

their axes parallel. This is usually accomplished in

an adjustable testing frame with the line of centers

horizontal, so that a precision level and micrometers

can be used to establish parallel axes at the given

center distance in a common plane. The absolute

value of center distance is not as important as

maintaining the gear axes parallel.

0L

0R

90L

90R

180L

180R

270L

270R

90 + 1 tooth (L)

90 + 1 tooth (R)

37

AGMA 915--1--A02

the master gear must be of known quality, and of

sufficient accuracy to assure that errors in the master

gear will not appreciably affect the results.

Typical values for carefully applied marking compound thickness are from 0.008 mm to 0.012 mm.

10.1.3 Marking compound

Various marking compounds can be used including

Prussian blue, dye check developer, and proprietary

compounds. It is important that the compound be

controlled carefully, since its viscosity and the

method of application will affect the film thickness,

which is critical to the interpretation of results.

good profile contact, and some tooth alignment

mismatch. If the marking compound thickness is

0.01 mm, the tooth misalignment shown over the

length of the contact pattern is also 0.01 mm. An

angular correction in helix angle or mounting of 0.01

mm divided by the length of contact should produce

full contact.

Length

of contact

Usually, the test load is very light. In some gear

testing machines, the test load can be varied and

controlled.

10.1.5 Operator training

Since operator skill is an important factor in application of the marking compound and control of the test

load, it is important that uniform procedures be

established and that operators be trained in these

procedures, so that reproducible results may be

obtained.

10.2 Calibration

Calibration of the thickness of the marking compound is essential to interpretation of contact pattern

test results. Once an operator has developed a

consistent technique, it is possible to establish the

thickness of the marking compound by shifting the

axes of the gears out of parallel in a vertical direction

in the tangential plane by a known angle; i.e.,

shimming one bearing support and observing the

change in the pattern. This calibration should be

performed regularly to be sure that the marking

compound, test load, and operator technique have

not varied.

alignment mismatch and end relief

The contact pattern shown in figure 46 shows perfect

tooth helix alignment with profile mismatch. Using

the same marking compound calibration as the

example above, the profile mismatch is 0.02 mm,

since contact extends over only one--half of the

profile.

Contact patterns are usually recorded by photography, sketches, or tapes. Instant developing color film

and digital photography are particularly useful for

recording contact patterns. Tapes are made by

carefully applying transparent mending tape (such

as Scotch tape) over the contact pattern, removing

the tape, and applying the tape with the adhering

pattern to white paper.

38

mismatch and end relief

Figure 47 shows an undulating contact pattern which

might be caused by periodic error in the generating

machine.

AGMA 915--1--A02

tions of approximately 75 percent of contact, excluding extremes of tooth which are intentionally

relieved.

Figure 47 -- Waviness

10.5 Specifications

Contact pattern acceptability is specified by defining

the area in which contact may not occur, the areas in

which contact should occur, and the percentage of

contact required in the desired area. Figure 48

illustrates a contact pattern which meets a specifica-

approximately 75% contact, excluding

extremes of tooth, which are intentionally

relieved

39

PUBLISHED BY

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

1500 KING STREET, ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA 22314

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