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CHAPTER 6 Showing Relationships Between Ideas—Part | © PRACTICE 1—SELFSTUDY: Parallel structure. (Chart 8-4) Directions: Write the words that are parallel in each of the sentences. 1 6 10. ‘These apples are fresh and sweet “These apples and pears are fresh. Iwashed and dried the apples. . Lam washing and drying the apples . We ate the fruit happily and quickly. Tenjoy biting into a fresh apple and tasting the juicy sweetness. . like to bite into a fresh apple and taste the juicy sweetness. . Those imported apples are delicious but expensive, 1. Apples, pears, and bananas are kinds of fruit. ‘Those apples are red, ripe, and juicy. 1.___fresh___ and_sweet (adiective) + (adective) pe at (ooxn) + (oun) 7 Sea (verb) . (er) eat (ves) + et) 5 and, (adverb) + (adverb) panaaie Nests OR gerund) + (eerund) 7, and (infinitive) + Gafinitive) 8, bat — (aajesive) + Gdecuve) ee > and (oun) + (ous) += oun) and (adjective) + adjective) + (adjective) © PRACTICE 2—SELFSIUDY: Parallel structure. (Charts 8-1 and 6-2) Directions: Write “cif the parallel structure is CORRECT. Write “1” if the parallel structure is, INCORRECT, and make any necessary corrections. Underline the parallel elements of the sentences. waer 206 © cHarten’s aA T admire bim for his intel honesty snce, cheerful disposition, and be is honest: C_ Abraham Lincoln was a lawyer and a politician. ____ When Anna moved, she had to rent an apartment, make new friends, and find a jb. Barb studies each problem carefully and works out a solution. ___ Aluminus is plentiful and relatively inexpensive 6, ____ Many visitors to Los Angeles enjoy visiting Disneyland and to tour movie studios. 7. —— Children are usually interested in but a little frightened by snakes. 8, ‘9, _ So far this term, the students in the writing class have learned how to write thesis —— Fither fainting can result from a lack of oxygen or a loss of blood. statements, organize their material, and summarizing their conclusions. 10..___ The boat sailed across the lake smoothly and quiet. 11, ___ When I looked more closely, {saw that it was not coffee bat chocolate on my necktie. 12, ___ Not only universities support medical research but also many government agencies. 13, ___ Physics explains why water freezes and how the sun ptoduces heat. v 14, ___ All plants need light, a suitable climate, and an-ample supply of water and minerals from the soil 15. ___ With their keen sight, fine hearing, and refined sense of smell, wolves hunt day or night in quest of ek, deer, moose, or caribou. © PRACTICE 3—SELFSTUDY: Paired conjunctions, subject-verb agreement. (Chart 8.2) Directions: Supply the correct present tense form of the verb in parentheses. 1. (Fnot) Neither the students nor the teacher _fnows __ the answer. 2. (know) Neither the teacher nor the students fenow the answer. 3. (now) Not only the students but alsa the teacher the answer 4, (know) Not only the teacher but slso the students the answer, 5. (now) Both the teacher and the student____ the answer, 6. (ant) Neither Alan nor Carol_to go skiing this weekend. 7. (like) Both John and Ted _to go cross-country skiing. 8. (have) Bither Jack or Alice ____the information you need. 9. (agree) Neither my parents nor my brother with my decision. 10, (be) Both imtelligence and skill__essential to good teaching. 11, (ealize) Neither my classmates nor my teacher_____ that I have no idea what's going on in class. 12. (think) Not only Laura's husband but also her children she should return to school and finish her graduate degree. © PRACTICE 4—SELFSTUDY: Paired conjunctions. (Chart 8-2) Directions: Combine the following into sentences which contain parallel structure. Use the paired conjunctions in parentheses. Pay special attention to the exact place you put the paired conjunctions in the combined sentence. 1. Many people don’t drink coffee. Many people don’t drink alcohol. (neither... nor) + Many people drink neither coffee nor alcohol. 2. Barbara is fluent in Chinese. She is also fluent in Japanese. (not only . . . but also) 3. I'm somry to say that Paul has no patience. He bas no sensitivity to others. (ueither . . . nor) ‘Showing Relationships Between ideas—Part! © 207 4, She can sing. She can dance. (both . . . and) 5. If you want to change your class schedule, you should talk to your teacher, or you should talk to your academic counselor. (ether... or) 6. Diana is intelligent. She is very creative. (both... and) 7. You may begin working tomorrow or you may begin next week. (either .. . or) 8. Michael didn’t tell his mother about the trouble he had gotten into. He didn’t tell his father sbout the trouble he had gotten into. (neither... nor) 9. Success in karate requires balance and skill. Success in karate requires concentration and mental alertness. (not only... but also) © PRACTICE 5—GUIDED STUDY: Parallel structure. (Charts 8-4 and 8-2) Directions: ‘With your own words, complete the sentences using parallel structures. 1. Dennis has proven himself to be a sincere, hardworking, and__efficient_ supervisor. 2. The professor walked through the door and 3, Iwas listening tomusicand___when T heard a knock at the door. 4. I'm planning to stay here during the summer but inthe winter. 5. When I was a student, I would usually and then after dinner, —__. _______ and attending concerts in the park are two of the things my wife and I like to do on summer weekends, 7, When you visit other countries, itis important to be able to speak at least a few words of the language, to understand the local customs, and —___ 5 8, get up at seven every morning, eat a light breakfast, and 9, Our whole family enjoys camping. We especially enjoy fishing in mountain streams and. 10, My parents want me to either call or every week, but I'm so busy and by the end of cach day that all I want to do is go to bed and. 208 > CHAPIERS 11, You can pay the bill either __ or 12, I’m going to subscribe to either _or <> PRACTICE 6—GUIDED STUDY: Parallel structure. (Charis 8-4 and 8-2) : Choose the correct completion in parentheses, 1. Hamiet is one of Shakespeare's finest and most @mow) famously) plays. 2. On my vacation I lost suitcase, broke my glasses, and (missing, missed) my plane. Directior 3. Walking briskly for 30 minutes or (rum, ruteing) for 15 minutes will burn an approximately equal number of calories. z 4, Slowly and (cautious, cautiously), the firefighter ascended the charred staircase 5. The comedian made people laugh by telling jokes and (making, make) funny faces, 6, Tinais always understanding, patient, and (speaks sensitively, sensitive) when helping her friends with their problems. 7. Not only the post office but also all banks (closes, close) on most national holiday: 8, When tourists visit @ new city, they often have trouble deciding. where to go and how (they can get, 0 get) there. 9, Both the Indian cobra snake and the king cobra (uses, wse) poison from their fangs in two ways: by injecting it directly into their prey OF (pits ty pining) ic 10. What do people in your country think of bats? Are they mean and (scary, scare) creatures, or uw the eyes of die viet are they symbols of happiness and (lucky, good luck)? In western countries, many people have ‘an unreasoned fear of bats. According to scientist Dr. Sharon Horowitz, bats are beneficial and (harmless, harm) mammals. “When I was a child, I believed that a bat would attack me and (tangle, tangled) itself in my hair. Now I know better,” said Dr. Horowitz. Contrary to popular western myths, bats do not attack humans and (be, are) not blind. ‘Though a few bats may be infected, they are not major carriers of rabies or (give people other, dread diseases, other dread disease). Bats help natural plant life by pollinating plants, (spread seeds, and cat insects; spreading seeds, and eating insects). If you get rid of bats that eat overripe fruit, then fruit flies flourish and (destroying, can destroy) the fruit industry. According to Dr. Horowitz, they make loving, trainable, and (gentle, gently) pets. Not many people, however, are known to have bats as = pets, and bats themselves prefer to avoid people. ‘Showing Relationships Between Keas—Fart!| © 209 © PRACTICE 7—SELFSTUDY: Combining independent clauses: periods and commas. (Charts 8-1'and 8-3) Directions: Punctuate the following sentences by adding periods () or commas (,) as necessary. Do not add any words. Capitalize letters where necessary. Some sentences may require no changes. 1. Tike French cooking my wife prefers Italian cooking. ~+ I like French cooking. My wife prefers Ialian cooking. 2. Hike French cooking but my wife prefers Italian cooking. —+ Ilike French cooking, but my wife prefers Italian cooking. (optional comma) I've read that book it’s very good. I've read that book but I didn’t like it. T opened the door and asked my friend to come in. S L opened the door my sister answered the phone. Topened the door and my sister answered the phone. Minerals are common materials they are found in rocks and soil. 9. The most common solid materials on earth are minerals they are found in rocks soil and water. 10. You can travel to England by plane or you can goby ship if you prefer. 11, You can travel to England by plane orby ship. 12. Jason was going to study all night so he declined our invitation to dinner. 13, Jason declined our invitation to dinner he needed to stay home and study. 14, The wind was howling outside yet it was werm and comfortable indoors. 15. [hurried to answer the phone for I didn’t want the children to wake up. 16. Last weekend we went camping it rained the entire time. 17--The highway was under construction so we had to take a different route to work. 18. Noone thought we would win the championship yet our team won by a large margin. 19. We arrived at the theatre late but the play had not yet begun we were quite surprised. 20, A central heating system provides heat for an entire building from one central place most central heating systems service only one building but some systems heat a group of buildings, such as those at a military base 2 campus or an apartment complex. © PRACTICE 8—GUIDED STUDY: Using parallel structure. (Charts 8-4 —> 8-3) Directions: Write two descriptive paragraphs on one of the topics below, The first paragraph should bea draft, and the second should be a “tightened up” revision of the same description. Look for places where two or three sentences can be combined into one by effective use of parallel structure. ay special atentioa to panctuation and be sure all of your commas and periods are used correctly. ‘Topics: 1. Give a physical description of your place of residence (apartment, dorm room, ete.). 2. Describe the characteristics and activities of a successful student. 3. Give your reader directions for making a particular food dish. Example: First draft: 1 make spagheti sauce, you wll need several ingredients. First, you will need some ground beef. Probably about one pound of ground beef will be sufficient. You should also have an onion. If the onions are small, you should use too. Also, find a green pepper and put it in the sauce. Of course, you ‘will also need some tomato sauce or tomatoes. Revision: To make spaghetti sauce you will need ove pound of ground beef, one large or 00 small onions, a green pepper, and some tomato sauce or tomatoes. 210 © cuaprers